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A single-effect thermal vapor-compression system is

designed at the following operating conditions:

- Boiling temperature, Tb, of 750 C.

- Compression ratio, Cr, of 2.5.

- Motive steam pressure, Pm, of 750 kPa.

- Brine reject concentration, Xb = 70,000 ppm

- Intake seawater salinity, Xf = 42,000 ppm

- Intake seawater temperature, Tcw – 250 C

- System capacity, Md = 1 kg/s

- Feed seawater temperature, Tf = (Tb - 5) = 700C

- Condenser efficiency, η| = 0.9

Determine the specific heat transfer area, the flow rate of

the cooling water, and the performance ratio.

Solution

Substituting for xf = 42,000 ppm, xb = 70,000 ppm, and Mf

= 1 kg/s in Eq.4 results in

Mf = xb /(xb - xf) = 70,000/(70,000 – 42,000) =2.5 kg/s

Equation 4 is then used to calculate Mb ,

Mb =Mf –Md =2.5-1 = 1.5kg/s

8.00000003 (75)2) (7)3 = 0.15))5 +0.15-338.1kPa . The values of B and C are evaluated from BPE = (0.097+273.0001522-0.097+273. BPE.15))^-0.00439993 ((0.15 .0. Tv = Tb .9030 C The resulting value of Tv is calculated from Eq.01) (74.15- ((0.0.000003 (75) .097+273.097+273.0.15))4 -0.0001883 (75) +0.0825431+0.15-338.0.29721)((0.The boiling point elevation.BPE = 75 .15-338.002520658 ((0.9030 C The resulting value of Tv is calculated from Eq.338.0005218684((0.15))3 + 0.15))-0. T+(0.286/(74.903 = 74.419242+ 338.01) (74.15-338.01+273. 8.097+273.15-338.01)(74. is obtained from the correlation given in Appendix A.008685635 (0.0000902 (75) .00000052 (75)2) (7)2 +(0.15))2 (74.01) (73.097+273.000003 (75) .01) ((0.01) (74.01) (74.001094098 ((0.0001522-0.00000402 (75)2) (7) +(.0970 C The corresponding saturation vapor pressure. Pv.00000003 (75)2) (7)3 = 0.1155286 +0.15))'^) ((647. Pv = exp((-7. is calculated from the correlation given in Appendix B.0007625+0.15))-l))(22089000/1000) = 37.097+273.0.

which is Ps = (Cr) (Pev) = (2. 1. Another assumption applied here is the equality of the vapor condensation temperature.56114147 = 390 Pa/m Which gives a total pressure drop of 0.6776.061 kPa Therefore.039 = 37.∆Pp = 37.5) (37. and δw are set equal to 300 kg/m3 . Pg. T^. is assumed equal to the saturation temperature. 0. Cr. Ty. the vapor saturation temperature past the demister. is calculated from the correlation for the saturation temperature given Appendix A. L. Tg. and the entrained pressure value.75 kPa The corresponding saturation temperature. This results in ∆P = 3.88178 (ρp)0.6776. are used to calculated pressure of the compressed vapor.28 mm. T = 42. The specified value for the compression ratio.1) = 92.7 (ln(Ps/1000)-9.3892. Ty.7 .48654) 3892.0. and 0. T^y. Pgy.039 kPa through the demister.8 m/s.375798 (V)0.1 .1 m. V. The vapor pressure past the demister is then calculated Pev = Pv .42.81317 (δw)-1.The pressure drop in the demister is evaluated from the correlation given in Appendix B. In this equation ρ p . in the condenser and the vapor temperature in the evaporator.

Ra.3 Uc = xlO' xlO" 1719.2063 (TC)+1.96kW/m2 ""C The entrainment ratio.15 = 97.-273.5971xl0"^ (74.25651x10"^ (75)^ 2.097)^^ -1.057 (75)-0.9918x10"^ (74.5971X10"^(TC)^1 -1.85989x10"^ (75)^ ^ + 0. is obtained from Eq.057 (Tb).6 ^C The overall heat transfer coefficients in the evaporator and condenser are calculated from the correlations given in Appendix C Ue = 1969.85989x10"^ (Tb f 1^+0.25651x10"^ (Tb)^ 1969.62 kw/m^ ''C xlO" xlO .62 kw/m^ ''C 2.4+3.15 (ln(92. This requires calculations of .0.75/1000).4+3.2063 (74.5 +12.097)^ = 1.9.9918x10"^ (TJ^ J 1719.097)+1.5 +12. 14.48654) -273.

04 The amount of motive steam is obtained by solution of the evaporator balance.097 Xy = 2501. 6. These results are PCF = 3x10-7 (p^)2 _ 0.0009 (Pm) + 1.015 (1. This gives Mf Cp (Tb – Tf) + Md λV = (MS + Mev) λS In the above equation.19 Ra = 0.75)1.6101 = 1.407064037 Ty + 1.1)1.0009 (750) + 1.192217x10-3 T^ 2 . Eq.0.296 ───── (Pm/Pev)0.0006 (74.2.04 (92. are calculated from the correlation given in Appendix A.96 (PS)1.19 Ra = 0.897149 .104 TCF = 2x10-8 (Tc)2 .0047 = 2x10-8 (74. PCF and TCF.0.6101 = 3xlO-'7 (750)2 .0.097)2 .097) + 1. TS = 96. from Eqs.46 and TV = 74.1)0.296 ───── (750/37.0006 (Tc) + 1.the correction factors.104/0.82 (37.015 (PCF/TCF) (Pev)1. 15 and 16. λV and λS.96) = 1.0047 = 0.

Eq.70) + (1)(2326.86 kJ/kg 0C.6) +1. 6 gives (2.1. M^y^ which results in (2.192217x10-3 (74.897149-2.5863x10-5 (74. Mev. The amount of entrained vapor. CP .37 kg/s The cooling water flow rate is obtained from the condenser balance. is then calculated from the entrainment ratio value.407064037 Tg + 1.76) Mj^/Ra replaces the amount of entrained vapor.6 kJ/kg The heat capacity is calculated at T b and xf from the correlation given Appendix A and its value is equal to 3.6)2 _ 1.5863x10-5 (97.67 kg/s.897149-2.097) 3 = 2323.67/1.192217x10-3 Tg 2 . .407064037(74.2.37) = (Mm + Mev)(2266.6) = (Mm +Mm/1.407064037(97.86) (75 . Mev = Mm/Ra = 0.5)(3.6 kJ/kg ^^s = 2501. 7.5863x10-5 Tv 3 = 2501.70)+ (1)(2323..6) Solving the above equation gives Mm = 0.097)2 .82) (2263. Tf .897149 .192217x10-3 (97. Mf .097) +1.6) 3 = 2263. Substitution of the values for Tb.99)(75 .5)(3.5863x10-5 Tg 3 = 2501.82 = 0.1.1. λV and λS in Eq. Md .

25 LMTD = ───────────── = ──────────── ln (Tc – Tcw)/(Tc – Tf) ln (73 -25)/(73-70) = 16.5 Ac = ────────── = ───────── = 41. The evaporator and condenser areas are then calculated from Eqs.62) (97. 12 (Tf – Tcw) 70 . 10 and 11. This is because of neglecting various forms of thermodynamic losses caused by pressure drop and during condensation.9) (1 .1 kW Qc = η (Mc λc) = (0.6) Solution of the above equation gives Mw = 4.(Mf + Mcw) (Cp) (Tf – Tcw) = η (Md – Mev) (λc) (2.37)(2263.67 +0.83 kg/s.6) = 1317.63)(2323. value in the condenser is calculated from Eq.6) = 2354. respectively. The evaporator and condenser loads are obtained from Eqs.18 m3 (Uc) (LMTDc) (1.9)(0.5 + Mcw) (3.37) (2323.97) (70 .96) (16. 6 and 7.25) = (0.1 Ae = ────────── = ───────── = 39.0.8 m3 (Ue) (LMTDe) (2.250C .6-75) Qc 1317. The resulting values are: Qe = (Mm +Mev)(λS) = (0. Qe 2354.5 kW In the condenser load the value of λc is identical to λv.25) The (LMTD)(.

M cw and the specific heat transfer area.Since the distillate flow rate is set at 1 kg/s. s MCW = Mcw/Md = 4.and Ae are the specific values.675 = 1. which gives PR = Md/Mm =1/0. Ac . 2 and 3. given by Eqs.47 + 41.18 = 85. sA. .83.65 m2/(kg/s).48 and the resulting specific cooling water flow rate. The performance ratio is calculated from Eq. the above values for Mcw . 1. and sA = (Ae + Ac)/Md = 44.

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