INWARD CHANGE FOR LASTING EFFECT OFFENDING BEHAVIOUR PROGRAMMES

INTRODUCTION
This report details the development of offending behaviour programmes and the progress this intervention has made towards reducing re-offending. Inward Change for Lasting Effect will inform and stimulate debate on the current rehabilitation work with offenders. International and national research has underpinned programme design that uses cognitive behavioural techniques to target the very thought processes that can lead to criminal behaviour. The accreditation process was introduced to ensure that offending behaviour programmes are delivered to the highest standard by properly trained and motivated staff employed by the National Probation Service, HM Prison Service, and the contracted prisons. The reduction of re-offending, the protection of the public and the appropriate targeting of scarce resources to medium and high-risk offenders, are among the main aims of the National Offender Management Service (NOMS) which brings the work of the Prison and Probation Services together. The cognitive behavioural approach has been carefully planned and evaluated to halt the ‘revolving door of criminality’ that sees offenders entering the Criminal Justice System only to offend again after their sentence has been served. A key part of the approach is to ensure that only those offenders whose risk profile matches the target group for the programme attend it. The successful completion of a cognitive behavioural-based programme by properly targeted offenders gives motivated offenders the ‘thinking tools’ to look and manage life differently. Inward Change for Lasting Effect explores the complex issues and looks at the research that surrounds this area of work with offenders, many of whom live chaotic lifestyles that lead to repeat offending. Within the framework of punitive well-targeted sentencing, the correctional services are delivering a researched and evaluated approach that can reduce crime in our communities.

December 2007

CONTENTS
SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) OFFENDERS: THE PEOPLE WE WORK WITH:01,02,03,04 DEVELOPMENT AND ACCREDITATION:05,06,07,08,09,10,11,12 NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH:13,14,15,16,17,18 STAND AND DELIVER - COMMENTS FROM GROUPWORK:19,20,21,22,23,24 WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD?:25,26

NOTE: IN THIS REPORT MODELS HAVE BEEN USED TO DEPICT OFFENDERS

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SECTION ONE

OFFENDERS:
THE PEOPLE WE WORK WITH
SETTING THE RECORD STRAIGHT OFFENDERS: WHO ARE THEY?

Men and women with a criminal conviction are part of society and are therefore part of our everyday lives.

Information from 2004 data on reconviction rates reveal that after a two year period 64.7% of prisoners (a total of 16,385) and 50.5% of offenders (30,698) on community

Walk down a street. Sit on a train or bus. Go to work. Shop at the supermarket. Visit the cinema. Go out to a restaurant. The odds are that at some stage during the day you will have sat next to, queued with, spoken to or have been served by someone with a criminal conviction.

supervision had re-offended. The predicted reconviction rates were 67.8% for the Prison Service and 54.1% for the Probation Service.

To combat these high ‘return’ rates, more and more offenders are completing cognitive behavioural programmes while serving their prison or community sentences.

Recent estimates suggest that in England and Wales 28% of men aged between 21 to 45 years have a criminal conviction. The figure for women in the same age group is 7%. These programmes are designed to reduce re-offending by helping offenders to learn new skills that improve the way in which they think and solve problems, rather than acting Our Criminal Justice System seeks to provide a range of sentencing options that both punish the convicted offender, and act as a deterrent against resuming criminal activities. The number of people being sent to prison for indictable offences has gone up in both Magistrates and Crown Courts. The ultimate aim of each programme is to empower The increasing severity of sentencing sees the Prison and Probation Services dealing with greater numbers of offenders, who may have received a fine or a community sentence for their conviction in the past. The UK prison population is more than 80,000 and rising. The average number of offenders being supervised by the Probation Service at any one time is around 200,000. offenders to use their new skills to deal in an effective, lawful manner with future problems or certain situations that have played a contributory factor in their past offending. impulsively without forethought. Programme participants learn how to cope with pressure, consider the consequences of their actions – and to see things from other people’s perspectives.

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COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL BASED PROGRAMMES

Current criminal justice analyses place offenders into six main offending groups: acquisitive crimes to obtain money or possessions, motoring offences, substance abuse, violence, racially motivated and sex crimes.

Cognition - n. the mental action
or process of acquiring knowledge through thought, experience, and the senses.

The cognitive behavioural approach has been evaluated and steadily increased to offer a more targeted suite of programmes to deal with the behaviour of the identified offending groups.

“We know from our own lives that there are times of significant enlightenment that affects how we do things in the future. There are many offenders who have experienced moments like this while attending an accredited programme. The programme has helped them change for themselves and the way they live their lives.” A trainer for programme tutors

On average 70% of offenders who start a programme complete them. Recent figures show that in a 12 month period about 19,900 offenders successfully finished their programme order while being supervised by the Probation Service.

Behavioural - adj. involving,
relating to, or emphasizing behaviour.

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FACTORS THAT CAN LEAD TO OFFENDING
International and national research reveals that the majority

Criminogenic adj. causing or likely to cause criminal behaviour.

of offenders have a wide range of criminogenic needs or factors that are likely to lead to repeat offending. These needs can be divided into static and dynamic risk factors.

Static risk factors refer to an individual’s offending history, which cannot be altered. The emphasis of intervention work has to be on the dynamic risk factors which can be changed. These can include past problems

Static risk factors refer to an individual’s offending history, which cannot be altered.

with their education, substance abuse, and finding and maintaining work.

Criminal justice agencies use a range of assessment procedures to ascertain risk levels and to inform their work with each individual offender. The National Probation Service and the Prison Service use a computerised assessment system, called OASys. The assessment procedure includes an individual’s offending history, a comprehensive review of

Dynamic risk factors refer to aspects of an individual’s offending history, which can be altered in the future.

their background and a classification on their potential risk of harm to others.

OASys reports found that, generally, offenders had on average four criminogenic needs likely to cause offending behaviour and that, overall, offenders in custody had a greater number. A 1998 research study of male offenders found the strongest predictors of re-offending following release were - in order of importance - unemployment, substance abuse, criminal associates, marital and family status and personal/emotional problems.

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ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS
Unemployment is viewed as an indirect cause of crime for some offenders because their jobless status interacts with a variety of social and economic factors in their lives. Regular reviews of offenders on community orders reveal up to half are unemployed. Further data suggests that nearly a quarter (24%) of 18 to 20 year old offenders being supervised in the community have basic skill deficits.

“I feel that you have to embrace ETS (Enhanced Thinking Skills), you have to see the programme as a positive thing. To get something out of it, you have got to put something in.” An offender on ETS

However, attitudes and behaviour underpin all these needs. It is the way the offender thinks and behaves towards others, which enable them to gain employment and qualifications; to resist peer group pressure to take drugs; or to become involved in further offences.

An international report that looked at a range of evaluations in four countries concerning a cognitive behavioural programme, found that poor cognitive skills influenced the onset and maintenance of offending behaviour. However, the cognitive deficits were likely to have been the result of ineffective parenting or poor engagement at school, and not lower intelligence or neurological deficits.

The cognitive behavioural approach proposes that acquiring better ‘thinking skills’ will enable motivated offenders to make choices that will enable them to move away from an offending lifestyle - a lifestyle that has been the result of poor judgement or negative influences.

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SECTION TWO

DEVELOPMENT & ACCREDITATION
OF PROGRAMMES
‘WHAT WORKS’
The development of cognitive behavioural programmes is a measured and evaluated intervention that has evolved from the National Probation Service’s ‘What Works’ agenda. As well as programmes, the strategy also promoted the development of basic skills education, drug treatment and the custody to work agenda. - programmes are based on a clear and precise model that As the What Works title suggests the main aims of the strategy are to develop the supervision of offenders, serving community or custodial sentences, so that: - interventions are based on evidence that shows the work is having an impact on re-offending rates, - agencies delivering the range of interventions to offenders ensure that their partnership work remains coherent and planned to maintain quality standards, - each agency supports the ongoing assessment of interventions to ensure that the quality of delivery and content is monitored and upheld throughout England and Wales, - interventions are designed to be of use with all groups of offenders including ethnic minorities, women and those with disabilities. specifically targets the causes of crime, and are drawn from collated ‘grass roots’ observations and experiences, - the range of programmes are developed to deal with the different risk levels of offenders i.e. more intensive programmes should be targeted at high and medium risk offenders, - programme design ensures that each module is delivered in such a way that the group members can see it is meaningful to them and their lives, and ways of learning, - tutors adapt cognitive behavioural techniques to teach how the development of new problem solving skills can be used in all aspects of their lives, - tutors create opportunities for group members to practise their newly acquired skills, - tutors maintain motivation of the participants and The principles are:

BASIC PRINCIPLES
Eventually the What Works principles that now underpin the intervention work of cognitive behavioural programmes were identified and consolidated.

THE NATIONAL ROLL OUT
By August 2000, 48 out of the former 54 individual Probation Services were involved in developing 22 programmes. As the nationwide roll-out gathered pace, experience gained through practice informed the national agenda. Time and time again, evaluations and assessments were carried out – and the findings implemented. Results, and the expertise of qualified staff delivering the programmes, directed the What Works policy and practice.

challenge negative attitudes and responses to the programme, - tutors ensure that continuous assessment maintains quality of delivery and integrity and poor standards can affect programme outcomes, - interventions target other factors that may increase the risk of re-offending such as poor basic skills.

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The Correctional Services Accreditation Panel was set up in 1999 to build on the experience of the General Accreditation Panel and the Sex Offenders Treatment Accreditation Panel (SOTAP) in the Prison Service.

The What Works strategy became the responsibility of the new National Director of the National Probation Service. By March 2002, a challenging annual target had been set, for 12,000 offenders to have completed a range of programmes.

A joint Prison and Probation Accreditation Panel was established and the first Probation Programme, ‘Think First’ by James McGuire, was provisionally accredited.

There are currently four fully accredited programmes that are used by both the Probation and Prison Services in their work with offenders. These are: Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS); Controlling Anger and Learning to Manage (CALM); a domestic violence programme and the Cognitive Skills Booster programme which was jointly developed.

By April 2004, accredited programmes were being delivered in every probation area and in 112 out of 137 prisons in England and Wales. Fifty-four prison establishments deliver two programmes that usually includes a general offending programme, a sex offender treatment programme and sometimes there is a third option such as CALM.

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In line with the evidence that many offenders have multiple criminogenic needs, there is an emerging consensus that presenting a multi-model approach to interventions is going to be the most effective way of treating this identified group.

FULLY ACCREDITED PROGRAMMES
All 42 Probation Areas of the National Probation Service deliver a general offending behaviour programme, at least one of the sex offender treatment programmes; an anger management programme, such as Aggression Replacement Training (ART) or CALM; an accredited Domestic Violence Programme; and the Drink Impaired Drivers’ Programme. Most Probation Areas have a programme to address substance-related offending, and some deliver the One-to-One programme, the women’s programme and the cognitive skills booster to specific groups.

EFFECTIVE ENGAGEMENT
Accredited programmes can be tough and demanding, particularly for some offenders, who have to confront their beliefs, as they learn new skills and acquire knowledge to stop further offending. Programme tutors report that dropout rates increase when an offender’s attention and motivation are compromised by other issues in their lives such as worries concerning accommodation, unemployment, or reducing drug or alcohol misuse.

There will inevitably be programme participants who struggle with some of the written material because of poor

In 2006/2007, a total of 19,875 offenders on community supervision completed a specified offending behaviour programme. During the past six years the figures on offenders completing community-based programmes show:

literacy levels. Programme teams make detailed assessments, and an offender with these deficits will be supported and work will commence to boost their literacy skills.

The research typically shows that people, who successfully

Year 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07

Target 6,267 12,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 17,500

Completions 3,431 7,716 13,136 15,595 17,127 19,869

Achieved % 55% 64% 88% 104% 114% 114%

complete the offending behaviour programmes, do better in terms of lower reconviction levels than offenders who drop out or have never taken part.

Analysis of the 2007 data on Interim Accredited Programmes reveals that actual re-offending rates were significantly lower and therefore better than the predicted rates for offenders who had completed their programme.

The number of programme completions has also expanded in the Prison Service. In 1995-1996 a total of 746 prisoners completed the Enhanced Thinking Skills and Reasoning and Rehabilitation programmes. More than ten years later in 2006-2007, that figure had climbed to 5793 completions of the preferred Enhanced Thinking Skills programme. When compared to their predicted rate, there was a 25.8% drop in the re-offending rate for completers. The change in re-offending rates for people who started, but did not complete, was a reduction of 4.3% and there was a 5.7% reduction for non-starters.

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During 2005-2006, a total 44,972 offenders began basic skill courses. During the same period 14,930 basic skills awards were achieved a 58% increase on the number of awards granted in the previous year.

OFFENDER FEEDBACK
Five Probation Areas took part in a survey to canvass the views of 337 offenders who had finished or only partially completed their programme order. The group divided into 263 programme completers and 74 non-completers.

DIVERSITY
One of the key criteria for programme accreditation is that the needs of women and offenders from minority ethnic groups are provided for.

The Probation Service has developed programmes The programmes involved included a general offending behaviour programme, Controlling Anger and Learning Manage (CALM), the Drink Impaired Drivers (DIDs), Integrated Domestic Abuse Programme (IDAP) and the Offender Substance Abuse Programme (OSAP). specifically for minority ethnic offenders in the form of additional modules for general offending behaviour programmes, and has adapted the Drink Impaired Drivers’ Programme (DIDs). Special groups are run exclusively for minority ethnic offenders.

The findings reveal that 72% of the offenders who failed to complete said that their non-attendance was due to issues such as relationship difficulties, childcare issues and illness. Nearly 40% said that they had experienced transport problems and other offenders had experienced difficulties with the literacy elements of the course. One offender wrote that he ‘didn’t like writing in front of the group, as he was unable to read it back.’

The Probation Service has created a special programme for female offenders convicted of acquisitive offences, which was accredited in October 2003 by the Correctional Services Accreditation Panel.

There is now research evidence to show that women have certain additional criminogenic needs to those of male offenders, and that these must be addressed as part of intervention work. The most notable is often the issue of

An important fact from the group who completed was that almost a quarter (24%) reported that they also felt like dropping out at some point during the programme due to personal difficulties. These were similar to those highlighted by the offenders who failed to complete.

current abusive relationships.

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Correctional Services Accreditation Panel
The Correctional Services Accreditation Panel was set up in 1999 to build on the experience of the General Accreditation Panel and the Sex Offenders Treatment Accreditation Panel (SOTAP) in the Prison Service.

The panel’s key function is to get programmes accredited. The accreditation process divides into two parts, the first deals with programme design and the second with the quality of programme delivery.

Members have drawn up a single set of criteria for programme design for the Prison and Probation Services. The standards required are very demanding. To be accredited, a programme must demonstrate that it meets the following criteria:

A clear model of change backed by research evidence - the programme must show which areas of risk will be reduced by attending the programme - and why this approach will work with the specified type of offending. The theory manual has to detail what will be achieved at each stage - and describe why this combination of targets and methods is likely to work with the selected offenders. The joint accreditation panel will expect to see evidence from existing research to back up the proposed programme proposal.

Selection of offenders - the programme identifies the measures used to assess the characteristics of the selected offenders including the nature of the offence, risk, motivation, learning style, gender and race.

Targeting dynamic risk - the programme targets the factors that can be changed such as attitudes and behaviours. The manual must explain why these factors have been chosen. “I don’t feel I could deliver the programme if I did not fully believe in its approach.” Enhanced Thinking Skills Tutor

Range of targets - the accreditation process requires that a programme selects a range of risk areas to focus upon. The risk of re-offending is usually a combination of these, and the programme must show the way these interlink and how it will bring about change.

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PROGRAMMES: Content and Delivery

COGNITIVE SKILLS BOOSTER

The booster programme is provided for male and female offenders who have already successfully completed Enhanced Thinking Skills, Reasoning and Rehabilitation, Think First or One to One.

AGGRESSION REPLACEMENT TRAINING

ART is targeted at offenders whose current offence includes aggressive behaviour or who have an established pattern of aggression and who are at a medium to high risk of reconviction and/or medium or above risk of causing harm.

ENHANCED THINKING SKILLS

ETS is a group-based programme for medium to high risk male and female offenders. It is based on the idea that teaching thinking skills will enhance a person’s ability to achieve worthwhile goals.

ONE TO ONE

The programme is delivered individually to medium to medium/high risk offenders and is designed to work as a problem-solving intervention that addresses a person’s offending behaviour.

WOMEN’S ACQUISITIVE CRIME ALSO KNOWN AS THE WOMEN’S PROGRAMME

This programme is for female offenders who have a current conviction of an acquisitive nature or show a pattern of previous acquisitive offending.

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Correctional Services Accreditation Panel

Effective methods - offending behaviour programmes normally feature approved methods of working including the cognitive behavioural approach. If a different method is selected, existing research or a testable theory must be put forward in evidence. Skills orientated - the programme must teach skills, which will help participants to live and work without re-offending. There must be a clear description on how skills are selected and taught, and how participants’ learning is evaluated. Sentencing, intensity and duration - the length of the programme matches the risk. The frequency and number of programme sessions match the learning styles and abilities of the participants. Offenders who have a high fixed risk, e.g. they have a history of anti-social behaviour, need programmes long enough to change established attitudes and habits. Engagement and motivation - the content and the teaching methods should match the way participants learn best and motivate them to want to change. Tutors should be positive and committed to the programme. Continuity of programmes and services - there is continuity between prison and community-based programmes so that offenders can make a smooth transition from one to the other and build on their progress. Continuous monitoring - checking procedures are in place to ensure that staff are properly selected, trained and supervised and that the programme is run as intended. Ongoing evaluation - regular monitoring is carried out to ensure there are improvements in the risk areas targeted and reconviction is reduced. “The CALM programme works best with participants who are ready to change their lives.” Programme Tutor

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PROGRAMMES: Content and Delivery

CONTROLLING ANGER AND LEARNING TO MANAGE

CALM is a group programme for male offenders who are at a medium to high risk of reconviction and/or medium or above risk of causing harm. Participants learn how to reduce their levels of emotional arousal, resolve conflict and manage other negative emotions related to offending.

DRINK IMPAIRED DRIVERS’ PROGRAMME

The DIDs programme is targeted at male and female offenders who have committed a drink-drive related offence and have no more than four previous convictions. The programme combines a cognitive behavioural approach with an educational element concerning alcohol consumption.

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PROGRAMMES

The Community Domestic Violence Programme (CDVP) and the Integrated Domestic Abuse Programme (IDAP) are two cognitive behavioural programmes. These are aimed at heterosexual male domestic violence offenders where there is a medium to high risk of harm. Both programmes consist of groupwork sessions lasting two hours and individual sessions, which can be delivered over the course of 13 to 26 weeks.

SEX OFFENDER GROUPWORK PROGRAMMES

There are four accredited sex offender treatment programmes that aim to reduce offending by adult male sex offenders; three are generic and one is specific to internet sex offending. All adult participants are within the normal IQ range. Additionally, there is a programme being piloted for learning disabled sex offenders.

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SECTION THREE

NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH
ON OFFENDING BEHAVIOUR PROGRAMMES
EFFECTIVE AT REDUCING RE-OFFENDING
International research and, more recently, UK-based research studies are giving indications that cognitive behavioural-based programmes are effective at reducing re-offending. The majority of the findings are from research that has been carried out in North America and Europe during the last 30 years, although there are now more offenders in the UK attending and completing these programmes.

The standard assessment is to look at reconviction rates during a specified follow-up period, usually two years. The reconviction time line is usually calculated from the start of the community sentence or release from custody.

RESEARCH SUMMARY - More detailed results featured on pages 14 -18
International evidence

PROGRAMMES FOR ADULT SEX OFFENDERS
A meta-analysis approach uses an amalgam of results that have been obtained from a series of separate studies. The individual findings are statistically evaluated, correlated and quantified into an overall measure of the results. - A recent international review found that cognitive behavioural treatments for sex offenders in both prison and the community were – on average – effective at reducing offending.

- Participants in the Sex Offender Treatment Programme (SOTP) in prison and Probation revealed a statistically

UK evidence

significant reduction in sexual and/or violent reconviction

PROGRAMMES FOR VIOLENT OFFENDERS & ANGER MANAGEMENT
- A number of international evaluations of anger management programmes, or programmes designed specifically for violent offenders, have shown mainly positive effects. However, the results are inconclusive and more robust research is required to increase confidence in the findings.

within two years of release, when compared to offenders who had not attended the programme. However, the small sample size in the probation-based study means that the findings should be viewed with caution.

International evidence
UK evidence

GENERAL OFFENDING BEHAVIOUR PROGRAMMES
- A recent international review found that, on average, cognitive behavioural programmes for general offenders reduced re-offending by four percent. - A recent meta-analysis has suggested that positive effects of programmes are associated with treatment of higher risk offenders, high quality treatment with an emphasis on anger

International evidence

- A small-scale study of Aggression Replacement Training established a reduction in the reconviction rates of the treatment group versus a matched comparison group. However, limitations of the study mean that these results need to be interpreted cautiously.

UK evidence

control and problem solving.

- Initial research evidence is mixed, but the findings may have been adversely affected by the way some of the early programmes were set up and delivered.

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RESEARCH REVIEWED: national
A Home Office Research Study published in 2005 reviewed a series of research reports undertaken by or on behalf of the Home Office to update knowledge of ‘What Works’ in corrections. Analysis of outcomes for completers and non-completers in programmes (and other interventions) revealed that people who completed the programme did better than those who failed to complete or did not take part.

WHAT THE EVIDENCE SUGGESTS
The research from cognitive behavioural-based programmes suggests that certain key factors must be addressed or programme delivery can be compromised and is less effective. The essential four are:

accurate risk assessments - to ensure offenders are assigned to the most appropriate programme that will target their
offending behaviour. The Controlling Anger and Learning to Manage Programme (CALM) is suitable for violent offenders who act impulsively, not for offenders who commit their crimes with prior thought and purpose.

motivation - feeling positive about what they may learn from the programme is a crucial factor in successfully engaging
with the schedule of work - and finishing it.

support in dealing with other criminogenic needs - the range can include substance abuse, basic skill deficits and homelessness.

excellent standards - successful completions of the programme and their long term effect appears, to some extent,
to be dependent on the expertise and commitment of the tutors and the maintained quality of programme delivery.

PRE-ACCREDITED ENHANCED THINKING SKILLS & REASONING AND REHABILITATION IN PRISON
A research study carried out in 30 prisons on the pre-accredited Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS) and Reasoning and Rehabilitation (R&R) looked at reconviction rates after two years. The study found a significant reduction in the reconviction rate of 14 percentage points for medium to low risk offenders and 11 percentage points for medium to high risk offenders. A small study was undertaken that looked at Enhanced Thinking Skills as part of an intensive regime for the Youth The treatment group consisted of adult male offenders serving a custodial sentence of two or more years, and the comparison group was made up of offenders who had not taken part in such treatment. Offending Service and the Prison Service. After one year there were significantly lower reconviction rates of 10 percentage points for the experimental group when compared to the non-participating control group. The team concluded that the second study indicated that the participants’ motivation had been poor and the study ran at a time of rapid programme expansion in prisons. This speedy expansion may have affected the way the groupwork was handled.

A second study was carried out after the two prison-based cognitive skills programmes had been accredited. The researchers found no difference in the two year reconviction rates for prisoners who had participated in accredited cognitive skills programmes between 1996 and 1998 – and a matched comparison group. The comparison group consisted of 1,947 offenders who did not take in treatment.

After a two year period, the significant difference had disappeared, but the experimental group had taken longer to re-offend and had committed significantly fewer crimes after two years.

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NATIONAL RESEARCH ON OFFENDING PROGRAMMES
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PROGRAMMES
A 1996 research study in Scotland on two programmes for domestic violence used feedback from the men’s partners. The treatment group numbered 51 and the control group figure was 71. At the 12 month follow-up there were significantly lower rates in frequency of violence and further violence from the programme participants. The study examined 647 adult male sex offenders serving a This was a small study and although information from partners was encouraging, further research is required to assess the long term impact of the programme. custodial sentence of four years or more for a sex offence who had voluntarily participated in an SOTP, and had been discharged from prison for two or more years.

SEX OFFENDER PROGRAMME TREATMENT IN PRISON
A 2003 study assessed the impact of the national Sex Offender Treatment Programme (SOTP) over a two-year period in 23 prisons in England and Wales. The programme had been accredited at this stage.

There was a significant reduction in reconviction when sex offence and violent reconviction rates were combined. Overall, this resulted in a 3.5 percentage point reduction in reconviction for sex offences or violence.

TREATMENT IN THE COMMUNITY
Significant reductions in reconviction rates of 7.4 to 24 percentage points for treated child sex abusers were recorded from an 18 month study of the West Midlands Sex Offender Treatment Programme.

“Basically, CALM brings to the forefront of your mind what you know but don’t always think about. You learn to identify your triggers, and learn to recognise the signs when you are going to lose your temper.” Offender on the CALM programme

The study compared 155 adult male sex offenders (including child sex abusers, rapists and exhibitionists) who had been on the programme with 74 offenders with similar groupings. Between Jan 1995 and June 1996 the study’s findings showed significant reductions in reconviction ranging from 7.4 to 24 percentage points for the treated child sex abusers.

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DRINK IMPAIRED DRIVERS’ PROGRAMME
Information was obtained from seven Probation Areas concerning the effectiveness of the Drink Impaired Drivers’ (DIDs) Programme. DIDs is for offenders convicted of drink-drive related offences who have no more than four previous convictions. However, the non-completers had a higher reconviction To evaluate the programme’s effectiveness the reconviction rates of participants, who had completed all the sessions, or only part of the programme, were compared to a comparison group of drink-drive offenders who had not attended DIDs. rate than both completers and those who had not attended the programme. The reconviction rate for the drop-out group was 36.8% with 19.4% being reconvicted of a drink drive offence. The results were: 18.1% of the programme completers were reconvicted, with only 7.3% reconvicted with a drink-drive offence, compared to 30.6% of the non-programme group, with 15.8% reconvicted of a drink-drive offence.

The specified time period was from December 1999 to January 2004 which produced a small sample of 382 programme completers, 144 non-completers and 291 offenders who had not been assigned to the programme.

The data showed that programme completers were significantly less likely to be reconvicted than both the non-programme offenders and the participants who did not fully complete all the sessions. No significant difference was found between the non-programme and noncompleter groups.

“The programme works best with participants who are ready to change their lives. They are tired of getting into trouble with the law and hurting the people around them.” Tutor on the CALM programme

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RESEARCH REVIEWED: international
A 2006 survey published by the Washington State Institute looked at evidence-based offending behaviour programmes. The survey conducted a comprehensive statistical review involving 291 programme evaluations produced during the last 40 years in the USA and other English-speaking countries. The research team found a number of programmes for adult offenders that demonstrated an ability to achieve reductions in re-offending.

WHAT THE EVIDENCE SUGGESTS
When considering the findings of the report, it is important to consider that at least a six month follow-up was included, but a more robust approach to re-offending assessments requires a longer period considering the slow nature of the Criminal Justice System.

Key Findings:
Cognitive behavioural treatment programmes for general offenders The 2006 survey analysed 25 rigorous evaluations of programmes for the general offender population that employed cognitive behavioural treatment. On average, these programmes significantly reduced recidivism by four percentage points.

Programmes for domestic violence offenders The review assessed nine rigorous evaluations of programmes for domestic violence offenders based on educational and cognitive behavioural components. On average, domestic violence treatment programmes failed to demonstrate reductions in recidivism.

There are also differences in the way that the study results are described. The review reports ‘relative’ reductions in reconvictions rather than ‘absolute’ i.e. no further crimes committed. This means that when the report quotes a 33% reduction, the figure might be referring to reconviction data that started at a baseline of 30% and reduced to 20%. In the UK this reduction would be referred to as a 10% point drop in re-offending.

Programmes for sex offenders Eighteen evaluations of sex offender treatment programmes were analysed in a prison setting and in the community. Cognitive behavioural treatments for sex offenders were, on average, effective at reducing offending in both settings. As a group these programmes demonstrated the largest effects in this study. Other approaches (psychotherapy, counselling and behavioural treatment of sex offenders) failed to show

As there are only baseline figures for the general offending behaviour programmes, it is not possible to know what the ‘absolute’ reconviction reductions are.

reductions in re-offending.

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Example
Redondo, Sanchez-Meca and Garrido 1999 carried out a meta-analysis of all treatment interventions for offenders undertaken in Europe. Thirty-two published and unpublished studies from 1980 to 1991 were included in their study. They found that, on average, treatment caused a significant decrease in re-offending. Programmes applied to violent offenders were the most successful.

Conclusions
The main findings from the four country evaluations were: - the meta-analysis suggests that the R&R programme is effective in both institutional and community settings,
- the programme benefited both low and high risk offenders,

- the impact was greater with low-risk offenders, possibly because of the greater likelihood of high risk offenders dropping out of the programme and faring worse than those who had never participated in the programme.

Example
Canadian Correctional Service: pilot study - offenders were selected on the basis of their high risk and high need levels. There were 50 high-risk offenders in the experimental R&R group and 26 offenders in the waiting list control. The two groups were comparable in age, IQ and sentence length. Recidivism was defined as re-admission to prison with or without a new conviction.
To find out more, please read (i)The Impact of Corrections on Re-offending: a review

RESEARCH STUDY
A 2002 meta-analysis of 69 research studies found that the cognitive behavioural programmes were more effective in reducing recidivism than the behavioural ones.

The first follow-up was carried out on 33 offenders who had been conditionally released. The follow-up period was at least three months, with an average period of 6.2 months. Fewer programme participants were re-admitted for new offences or technical violations (26.3%) compared to controls (35.7%).

of ‘what works’ Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. February 2005. (ii)Evidence-based Adult Corrections Programmes: what works and what does not. Washington State Institute for Public Policy. January 2006 (iii)A Quantitative Review of Structured, Group-oriented, Cognitive-Behavioural programmes for offenders. Criminal Justice

The second follow-up was carried out on 63 offenders who had been conditionally released. The follow-up period was at least six months, with an average period of 19.7 months. The reconviction rate for the experimental group was 20% while the control group had a higher figure of 30.4%

and Behaviour. April 2005. (iv)The Positive Effects of Cognitive-Behavioural Programmes for Offenders: A meta-analysis of factors associated with effective
treatment. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2005.

(v)How effective is the ‘Reasoning and Rehabilitation’ programme in reducing reoffending? A meta-analysis of evaluations in four
countries, Psychology, Crime and Law, January 2006.

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SECTION FOUR

S TA N D A N D D E L I V E R
COMMENTS FROM GROUPWORK
Describing the programme : The Enhanced Thinking Skills Programme (ETS) Tutors in conversation…
“The strength of ETS is that it can be applied to any area of life, not just with offenders. The crux of the ETS programme is to show how thought affects what you do. “The exercise shows that if they just react like that - with no thought - they will probably lose the job that they really enjoyed, and get arrested as a consequence. We showed that this action is just not worth it. “There is one session on perspective taking. We demonstrate this with a role-play exercise involving three characters. There’s a football ‘hooligan-type’, a shop owner and a grandfather who wants to take his grandchild to a football match. Each offender takes a turn in the different roles and tries to see things from the three different perspectives. “Our work is not plain sailing: we deal with offenders who “One offender had never previously considered how someone’s drunken behaviour on a bus would upset fellow travellers. They had not thought that other people might feel intimidated. ETS gives very practical examples. In the past they may have been told that they were stupid, so how are they going to cope with ETS? It’s our job to “Another scenario is that they have just started a new job and they like it, and want to stay. But someone is making them feel uncomfortable.The typical response is ‘I would just fill him in.’ show them they can.” come to us with a lot of resistance and negativity. I see this as their defence. They are masking insecurities. “I don’t feel I could deliver the programme if I did not believe in its approach. There are the self-talk sequences that we teach, which is about relieving stress in certain situations. I know they are effective because I use them myself.

A programme participant says…
“The different role plays in ETS helped me understand things. I did one with another guy who pretended to be a drug pusher. You have to think of it like a real situation. ETS teaches you how to stop and think. The tutors try and get into your mind. I have learnt that other people have a right to their own opinion. You may disagree with it, but they have a right to say it. In the past I didn’t respect that. I feel that you have to embrace ETS, you have to see the programme as a positive thing. To get something out of it, you have got to put something in. You have to stay focussed.”

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Describing the programme : Controlling Anger and Learning to Manage (CALM) Tutors in conversation…

“The CALM programme works best with participants who are ready to change their lives. They are tired of getting into trouble with the law and hurting the people around them. Our skill as tutors is to turn the theory into practice and make it real for each member of the group so they can use it in their own lives. We get them to understand that no-one is born with a bad temper, we learn our responses. In other words they have learnt how they react from people around them.”

A programme participant says…
“Getting this supervision order and going on the CALM programme has helped me so much.

“You start the programme and some of the other lads thought it was going to be a waste of time. But going through it teaches you so much. Basically, CALM brings to the forefront of your mind what you know but don’t always think about. You learn to identify your triggers, and learn to recognise the signs when you are going to lose your temper. These are arousal triggers such as sweaty palms and increased heart beats. Then you learn how to control it.

“You take time out when dealing with a confrontational situation. Sit down, now think about the short term and long term consequences. When you have cooled off, then you are better able to handle the problem. You have to go back and deal with the issue otherwise things don’t get resolved.

“The tutors also teach you about assertive thinking. I have learnt how to say no without being violent. One of the ways is called ‘the broken record technique.’ For example, a mate comes to the door and wants you to go to the pub, but you don’t want to. Don’t say, ‘No. I can’t go because I have no money.’ The mate might offer to lend you some cash. Instead, just say ‘No’, and keep repeating it… because you mean it.

“I know there are always going to be temptations, and there are always going to be issues. But I’ve changed and the longer I stay out of trouble, the more that people will believe me. It’s no good just saying it, I’ve got to prove it by living it.”

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COMMENTS FROM GROUPWORK

Describing the programme : The Integrated Domestic Violence Programme (IDAP)

Tutors in conversation…

“Men who abuse women come from all walks of life and racial groups. The majority of men attending will have a pattern of emotional and violent behaviour.

“The research and statistics suggest that for the incident that finally ended in a prosecution, there may have been as many as 35 previous occasions of abuse.

“The integrated refers to the fact that our team comprises of a Probation case manager, a Police Officer, a women’s safety worker, and representatives from Social Services and Health.

“Each of the nine modules in IDAP runs for three sessions, and is a rolling programme to enable participants to be filtered in at any stage.

“We challenge their beliefs and sometimes new entrants will also be challenged by group members, who have changed their views about themselves and their relationships.”

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A programme participant and his wife talk about their relationship pre and post attendance on the Integrated Domestic Violence Programme The programme participant said... His wife said...

“We have been married for 16 years, and I suppose in the early days - when I said something at home …. then it wasn’t challenged. In more recent times we have had rows, and sometimes we would not speak to each other for two weeks.

“The children had never seen him like this or been involved in our rows. They were not hurt. Neighbours called the Police and he was taken away that night. We were apart for three months before he came home.

“When you behave like that, nothing gets resolved. The night I got arrested I had been drinking. I had been in a bad mood, and my wife locked me out. I kicked in the door and started throwing things around in the kitchen. The children heard me and my wife got hurt when she came into the room.

“The programme helped me to open up about myself and what I was thinking. The tutors put up a list that described how some people behave. I could tick nearly all the boxes. “I guess I had a fear of arguments developing, “One of the things was coming home and not talking about what had upset you at work. I would return to the family in the evening and say nothing to them. That was a bad way to treat my wife. but we talk much more now. I have the confidence to say what I feel. I have got the husband I always wanted.”

“I was the provider for the family and I guess I thought I didn’t have to do anything else. I didn’t have a relationship with my children – and I didn’t realise it. I do now.”

* All photographs related to domestic violence are enacted

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COMMENTS FROM GROUPWORK

Describing the programme : The Community Sex Offender Groupwork Programme (C-SOGP)

Tutors in conversation…
“This is a fairly new programme but 20 to 30 years of work with sex offenders has been fed into C-SOGP. “The classic comment is ‘nothing much happened’. Each offender must take responsibility for their actions. They have made it happen. They made those choices and “A group usually consists of about eight people with two facilitators. That’s the ideal size. The attrition rates are low. Most people come and stay. We work with groups that include both paedophiles and sex offenders who have offended against adults. “Our skill as programme facilitators is to constantly assess the participants. We need to fill in the blanks on: - the men’s grooming techniques - extent of offending “Sex offenders are from all walks of life. Some people may not believe that. Sex offenders often look like very ordinary people. They can be articulate and persuasive. “Our approach is containment. We can create motivation. We have the skills to achieve this. There are those who attend the group who are ‘workable’ and are ready and prepared to engage. We can give them that insight concerning themselves and their past behaviour. - how much empathy they have for the victims, and - what is their risk going to be in the future? decisions. Committing an offence is a matter of choice.

“The course taught me an awful lot about me and what led up to my offending. Before, I could not understand why I did what I did.” Offender on the Sex Offender Groupwork Programme

“The programme gives them a range of mental tools that will help them to determine how, when and why to use them.”

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“There was the old me and now there is the new me. I live at a hostel in the community and I am on the Sex Offender Register.“

A programme participant says …
“I completed the adapted Sex Offender Treatment Programme while I was in prison. I also finished the Better Life booster module. I went on the adapted programme because I am dyslexic and I thought I would struggle with a lot of writing.

“The course taught me an awful lot about me and what lead up to my offending. Before, I could not understand why I did what I did.

“I have never talked about issues from my childhood and how they impacted on the way I was living. To get something out of this programme, you have got to want to change your life. I wanted to do that and change my outlook. I didn’t want to make any more victims.

“The staff in the prison were brilliant. I think about all the stuff they have to listen to day after day. The programme runs in blocks. Everybody dreads block seven. We call it the hot seat session. You sit there and talk about what you have done. That’s difficult but each member of the group has got to do it.

“I’ve completed about 360 hours of work on the programme. I had never spoken about what happened to me as a child. My Dad battered me ‘black and blue’.

“My brother was sexually abusing me. I never told anyone about what happened at home. If you had a problem, you dealt with it yourself. I just left home as soon as I could.

“What I went through is no excuse for what I did to my family.

“Looking back I hid behind a mask. I never settled in one place, or managed to hold onto a job or a relationship.

“I know that things just don’t happen. I understand better what I did. I have no contact with my family and I have moved away so they don’t bump into me when they go out.”

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SECTION FIVE

WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD?
The development of offending behaviour programmes is a continual process that is directed by international and national research - and the findings of pilot projects. Changes are made in response to advances in psychological theory and methods and changes in criminal activity. Established offender behaviour programmes are also reviewed to assess if there is a need to introduce changes. Work is underway to establish a new general offending behaviour programme that will eventually replace Enhanced Thinking Skills and Think First.

Pilot modules and programmes are tried and tested for effectiveness in real life settings. Individual Probation Areas run the pilots as part of the accreditation process.

ETS teaches how to improve an individual’s thinking skills to achieve worthwhile goals, while Think First focuses more on the offence – and the thinking and assumptions that lead to the crime.

Two new initiatives have seen the development of the Low Intensity Alcohol Module (LIAM) and the internet Sex Offender Treatment Programme (i-SOTP). In the future there will be changes to the training regime for tutors that will build on existing experience. The current system operates separate training for each accredited The issue of young people and the effects of ‘binge drinking’ have raised national public concern on how excessive alcohol consumption is increasingly acting as a catalyst to criminal activity and subsequent arrest. programme – and assumes no prior knowledge of programme theory. This process is now regarded as too repetitive and over long for tutors with experience of programme delivery.

LIAM runs for 12 sessions and is aimed at offenders who have a problem with their level of drinking that is affecting their lives and leading to offending behaviour. Participants also keep drink diaries to help them consider how alcohol is influencing their decision-making and problem solving skills.

The new approach is expected to include an initial coretraining module, followed by individual modules for each accredited programme when required by the tutor.

The integrity of the offending behaviour programmes has now been firmly established, and the planned modifications

The internet sex offender programme has evolved as a response to this growing trend. i-SOTP aims to reduce the risks of future internet sexual offending and of the offender progressing to sexual offending that involves physical contact with victims.

that are being introduced will see role-play scenarios updated to reflect changing aspects of our lives.

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The international development of offending behaviour programmes has been underpinned by evaluations of research projects and practice-based experience. The results and feedback are encouraging and will strengthen the argument that this type of intervention has a growing part to play in reducing crime and enabling offenders to reintegrate back into their communities.

Additional training packages will also be introduced as part of the strategy to encourage tutors to be more responsive to the different learning needs of a group’s members. The ability to meet a range of learning styles will improve completion rates.

The UK’s accredited range of programmes has attracted the interest of other European countries. Netherlands, Ireland and Norway has adopted ETS and Sweden is running two versions of the Domestic Violence programme.

Bulgaria, Estonia, Romania and the Czech Republic have sought UK expertise to help develop their own offending behaviour programmes that will be based on the same cognitive behavioural principles.