Harrington, A., S.J. Naylor and R.D. Moccia Aquaculture Extension Centre University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
February 1995 485 AGDEX 01

Summary Tilapia species and their hybrids are receiving consideration for culture in Ontario. High growth and reproductive rates, hardiness in low oxygen and high-density growout conditions, low-cost plant-protein based diets and a strong market potential make tilapias a promising species for culture in heated-water recirculating systems. The following is a brief listing of research publications, popular press articles and consultants' reports which should be useful to anyone wishing to learn more about tilapia. Published research papers can be accessed through most University libraries. Any questions concerning this reference listing can be directed to the Aquaculture Centre, University of Guelph, 519824-4120 ext. 52689.

1. Anon. 1980. The biology and culture of tilapias. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Biology and Culture of Tilapias, September 2-5, 1980, Bellagio, Italy. 2. Chettleburgh, P. 1991. Simplot Savvy. Northern Aquaculture. 7:29. 3. Fishelson, L. and Z. Yaron (ed.) 1983. International symposium in tilapia in Aquaculture. Proceedings. Nazareth, Israel, May 8-13. 624 p. 4. ICLARM. 1984. Tilapia - The Aquatic Chicken. International Centre for Living Aquatic Marine Resources Newsletter. 7(1): 1-17. 5. Picchietti, M. 1991. An american tilapia survivor speaks out. Aquaculture Magazine 17(6): 55-62. 6. Pullin, R. 1985. Tilapias - Everymans fish. Biologist 32: 84-92. Pullin, R.S.V., T. Bhukaswan, K. Tonguthai, and J.L. MacLean (ed.). 1988. The Second International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 15. 623 pp. Department of Fisheries, Bangkok, Thailand, and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, Phillipines. (ISBN 971-1022-58-3) 7. Rezeau, M. 1994. Tilapia culture: January 1988 - November 1993. Quick Bibliography Series QB 94-07. National Agricultural Library. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD, USA. 9 p.

.R..F. Journal of Food Science 59: 260-264. Tilapia Update.D. 1993.G.S. D. In: Wan.M. Bardach. Volume 1 pp. W. and R. Raceways and Cages. and G. Tilapia culture in the United States: What are the prospects? Aquaculture Magazine 18(5): 75-76. S. Aquaculture Magazine 18: 32-45. 1986. pp. FL.J. Clement. Northern Aquaculture 9: 18. Stickney. Aquaculture . 1992. Nielsen. 1994.S. 9. NY. J. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Ryther. 1994. and W. D. Techniques for Modern Aquaculture.J. MD.H.L. Harvey. In: Muir. G. Culture and marketing of tilapia in Israel.E. 7.. Haller. 57-72. J. 350-384. 2. Balarin. 193-203. Harvey. Proceedings of an Aquacultural Engineering Conference. 1994. N. Lovell. "Tilapia" pp. 1992. Beltsville. U. CRC Press Inc. pp.A. and K.T.J. St.. Aquculture and . Joseph. 129 pp. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Tilapia: Interest in Tilapia Production Continues Strong.D. Young. Roberts (editors). K. U.J..) fry in the hatchery.. Stickney.E. The Intensive Culture of Tilapia in Tanks. Department of Agriculture.S.D. Dambo.8. Y. Reddy. Tilapia named fish of the year. Tilapia: Domestic Production to Continue Expanding. D. Schreiber. World Aquaculture 25(3): 14-21. Comparison of processing yield and nutrient composition of cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). U.. Effect of stocking density on growth and survival of Oreochromis niloticus (L.P. 4. 16 p. U. Seawright. 3.S. Aquaculture Situation and Outlook Report.A. 4. Anon. Recent Advances in Aquaculture.September 1990. S. 12-13. Shelf life of fresh tilapia fillets packaged in high barrier film with modified atmospheres. 1992. 1972. Aquaculture 119: 299-310. and D. 6. Husbandry and Production Systems 1.R.S. AQUA-9. 2. U. Opportunities for enhanced development of commercial aquaculture in Ontario: A technological and economic analysis of alternative fish species. Boyle. G. Marketing and Economics 1. June 21-23. W. R. 5. Skinner. 1993.S. of Agriculture. Dept. J. 8. D.. Armstrong.. Model preliminary engineering study for a tilapia aquaculture facility using geothermal water. R. A. WA. J-K (Editor).B.J.E. W. Simon. 9-10. 10. Quick Bibliography Series QB 89-12. 1993. MI. 265-355. Aquaculture Situation and Outlook Report.T.E. Spokane. 1993. Buzard.A. McLarney. Boca Raton.R. Department of Agriculture. 1991. Bledsoe. Stechey. C. and R.The Farming and Husbandry of Freshwater and Marine Organisms. Rana.O. Pigot. 3. 1982. Tilapia culture: January 1979 . Sample. J. R. pp. National Agricultural Library. 1992.A. USA. AQUA-10. 1990. Culture of nonsalmonid freshwater fishes. pp. and R. U... John Wiley & Sons.

. 1987. 1989. 1985. Optimum harvest time in aquaculture: an application of economic principles to a Nile tilapia. growth model. L. 1992. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 23: 639-647. and R. McGinty. McGinty. Aquaculture 106: 201-226. T. B. A computerized environmental monitoring and control system for use in Aquaculture. 13.E. M. Aquacultural Engineering 6: 27-38. Aquacultural Engineering 11: 1-22. Suresh.Fisheries Management 23: 71-80. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 8: 193-202.). 282.B. Sarig. and F. Plaia. Bulls. 1984. 1989. 15. 10. R. J. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No. 16.R.L. G. 1989. J.P. Adell. Lin. 281. and C. and C. Maximizing tilapia production in recirculating systems by sequential rearing. A. A. 1990.. and J. Tilapia culture in saline waters . Paessun. Zohar. Bamidgeh 37: 103-111.S. Subasinghe. Chang and C. 8. 1992.A. A. Effects of broodstock density on production of bait. and S. Effects of temperature on hatchability. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No.A. R. Intensive culture of tilapia in concrete tanks. Allison. Green.W. 4 pp.S. Rappaport. 2. Al-Ahmad. Winfield. 17. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 23: 31-39. Aquaculture 73:323-332. Sommerville. L. H.E. 1992. Tank Culture of Tilapia. 5. Provenzano. and A. Rakocy. 12. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No. 4 pp.J. Lin. 7. 14. 1992. Tilapia yield improvement through maintenance of minimal oxygen concentrations in experimental grow-out ponds in Honduras. Engle. and B. Al-Ahmed.E. Aquacultural Engineering 6: 1526.Y. M. Pierce. Kingsley and M. J. Kallafalah. Reproduction and Genetics 1. Ridha and A. and C. Sadek. Hiott. Behrends. 18.. Torrans. D. development and growth of eggs and yolksac fry of Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) under artificial incubation. 1990.. A. U. Suresh.or forage-sized blue tilapias. Progressive Fish-Culturist 52: 9-14. Effect of stocking density on water-quality and production of red tilapia in a recirculated water-system. 4 pp. Teichert-Coddington.B. Oreochromis niloticus (L. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) biomass yield in a commercial farm using circular tanks. W.C. Springborn.L. Performance of a recirculating fish production system stocked with tilapia hybrids. and A. 1980. and J.. 1993. Pond Culture of Tilapia. 280. Aquaculture 42: 185-189. Reproductive performance of the tilapia Oreochromis spirulis in seawater and brackish groundwater. Production of hybrid tilapia in indoor aquaria. Rakocy. Aquaculture 118: 63-71. A. Cage Culture of Tilapia. 6. Jensen. 11. 1988. Progressive FishCulturist 42: 233-234. 1987. Rakocy. S. 1992. W. Cold tolerance in maternal . 19..A review. 9.

B.L. Gjedrem. Johnstone. 343-406. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 81: 6-12. D. Schroeder. Gjerde. 13. S. Eknath.. and T. and M. Feminization of Oreochromis mossambicus by the administration of diethylstilbestrol. 1989. 1990. 19. 4. (Editors).S. and R. Tave. S. M. Trombka. Bamidgeh 45: 26-37... N.H. Aquaculture 111: 147-158. Kavessa. Wohlfarth.. Kronert. Tave. Rana. M. Portland.. Paladadevera. Aquaculture 122: 237-248. In: Muir. 1993. J. Circa. Pandian.. Chang. Aquaculture 80: 337-341. 1990. Cohen. Aquaculture Magazine 16: 86. R. Journal of Fish Biology 30: 107-118.G. Vol. Palada-de Vera. Pullin. and R. and B. 9. K. A. Mair. Huang. Oreochromis niloticus L. K.E. aureus hybrid progeny of different geographical isolates reared under varying management regimes. S.. S. Sex determination in tilapia . A. Wohlfarth. 1994. 1993.A. T.C. 5.C. G. G. Progressive Fish-Culturist 56: 81-90. and Roberts.. Supermale Tilapia. Pandian.a review. Halevy. Aquaculture 85: 271-280. Eknath.B. 1989.J. J.. Rothbard. Bolivar. and T. Evaluation of Oreochromis niloticus x O. 10. Chao.S. A. K. . Genetics and breeding: Cold tolerance in tilapia. Szweigman. 1994. G. M.W. Aquaculture Magazine 16(2): 69-72.A. Aquaculture 111: 171-188.C.B. 16. K. Rana. D. 12. G.J. Horstgen-Schwark and H.L. 3. Aquaculture 76: 335-345. E. Liao. Reyes.A. 1989. McAndrew. 7. K. I. Kumari. Aquaculture 84: 117-123. W. Mires.C. Varandaraj. A. Conditions for effective androgen sex reversal in Oreochromis niloticus (L). 1991. Rothbard. G. Inheritance of red body coloration in Taiwanese Tilapias and in Oreochromis massambicus. 17.F. Avtalion. H. Aquaculture 115: 253-271. S.S. Langholz. Bamidgeh 37: 51-53. Aquaculture 74: 227-232. G.. Tayamen. Predictability of individual growth-rates in tilapia. Liao. Danting. Hulata and D. Hulata.C. 1985. 1993.mouthbreeding tilapias: phenotypic variation among species and hybrids.E. 18. Varandaraj. Genetic problems concerning the production of tilapia in Israel. The properties of tilapia sperm and its cryopreservation. Prospects of selecting for late maturity in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) I.M. 1993. Abella. Vera Cruz.J.. 20. Capili. 14. 3. Comparison of conditions for hormonal sex-reversal of Mozambique tilapias. 1988. McAndrew and R. U. 8. 1987. Single gene inheritance of red body colouration in Taiwanese red tilapia. 1990.V. Production of all-female sterile-triploid Oreochromis mossambicus. T. B. Chao.V. R. Reproductive biology and the hatchery rearing of tilapia eggs and fry.C.. K. H. and A.M. Recent Advances in Aquaculture. 15. Dionisio.S. M. Aquaculture 77: 113 . H. OR.M. 1988. Hussain. H. E. Bentsen. Isreal. 6. C. Chatterji. Harpez. 1990.. Genetic improvement of farmed tilapias: the growth performance of eight strains of Oreochromis niloticus tested in different farm environments. D. Cheng and I.W. Karplus. Triploidy induction in Nile tilapia.L. Timber Press. and G. J. Varandaraj. U.J. 11. S. Liu and I. Family studies under laboratory conditions. using pressure.121. heat and cold shocks. The viability of cryopreserved tilapia spermatozoa. D.J. pp.J.

H.. 14. and D. Food utilization by red tilapia .I. Nutrition and Feeding 1.R. Ogbemudia. 1992. El-Sayed. USA. Clark. V.H. Effect of substituting fish-meal with palm kernel meal on growth and food utilization of the Nile tilapia.. and C. 12. E. Takeuchi and T. El-Sayed.. J. Unprasert. 1984. feeding level and temperature on utilization efficiencies for maintenance and growth. Oreochromis niloticus. Satoh. Watanabe. and R. 1987. A. Effects of dietary lipid source on reproductive performance and tissue lipid levels of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues) broodstock. Carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios in diets for Tilapia zilli fingerlings. Aquaculture 103: 55-63. Vitamin requirements of blue tilapias in a recirculating water system. Beltsville.. Ernst. S. Takeuchi and T. 1993. Stickney and C... B.C.M.M.B.1992). Satoh. A. 1983. D. and S. 13.L. Edwards. 1990. M. Watanabe. 1993. S. 6. Omoregie. Effects of starvation and environmental-temperature on proximate and fatty-acid compositions of Tilapia nilotica. Effects of pigments from different sources on colour changes and growth of red Oreochromis niloticus. Studies on nutritive-value of dietary lipids in fish.H. Santiago. 1990.S.Q..Y. Bull. Bulletin of the Japanese Society for Science and Fisheries 53(1): 119124... Aquaculture 79:375 . Garling. Progressive Fish-Culturist 52: 15-18. Aquaculture 32: 255-275. and O. 2. Oreochromis niloticus. S. No dietary vitamin B12 required for juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x O. T. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 9: 33-40. aureus..Aquaculture 84: 219-234. Polprasert. E.. Kohler. Pacharaprakiti. 5.S. 8. 28.L.380. Olla. Suthirawut. 1988. M. Hepher. Journal of Nutrition 118: 1540-1546. Wicklund and B. 10. 7. 1982.C. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 21(1): 16-24. 1983. Lung. MD. C. 9. P. Reyes. Liao. Jackson. Aquaculture 32: 409-413.O. 3 p. 11. Matty. 1992. Boonyaratpalin. B. Effect of Feeding Rate on Growth and Feed Conversion of Florida Red Tilapia Reared in Floating Marine Cages.. Teshima. Feeds and Feeding of Tilapia (bibliography 1990 . S. 3. Evaluation of some plant-proteins in complete diets for the tilapia Sarotherodon mossambicus. Hsieh. Watanabe. 4. Cheng and C. 1993. Rajput and S.J. Requirement of tilapia for alphatocopherol. Compost as fish feed. Aquaculture Information Center. Capper and A. 1989. and F. W. McVey. 1988. fry. Aquaculture 27: 97-109. National Agricultural Library.Effects of diet composition. C. . and N. Lovell. Protein and energy requirements of Nile tilapia.. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 105A(1): 147-150. Shiau. a practical application of ditritivory for the cultivation of tilapia.. A. R. Amino-acid requirements for growth of Nile tilapia. Roem. C. Aquaculture 73: 143-156. R. Santiago. I. C. Bamidgeh 45: 113-119. of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 50(1): 79-84. T. 15.

Kuo and M. Acclimation of commerically cultured Oreochromis species to sea water . Aquaculture 110: 321-330. C. Studies on nutritive-value of dietary lipids in fish. Sources of Tilapia 1. 23. Sun. Bamidgeh 35: 9-17. Journal of Thermal Biology 17(3): 149-153. and R. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 51: 133-140. Aquaculture 65: 333-342. and R. niloticus. Physiology 1. 6. Studies on nutritive-value of dietary lipids in fish. Dietary lipids suitable for the practical feed of Tilapia nilotica.Y. Observations on the reproductive performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in laboratory aquaria at various salinities. The physiological-responses of tilapia exposed to low-temperatures. 1988. Replacement of fish meal by soybean meal in feeds for intensive tilapia culture. 1991.167. and Y. 19. Satoh and T. 1993. Copies of the Annual Buyers Guide are available in the Aquaculture Reading Centre or contact Aquaculture Magazine. S. Watanabe. R. S. 27..M. PO Box 2329. and C. W. Viola. R. and C. Aquaculture 47: 353-367. 17..F.Y. 1983. Chen and C.16. The Annual Buyers Guide published by Aquaculture Magazine has a comprehensive listing of North American sources of the different species of tilapias and their hybrids. Nutrition studies with tilapia (sarotherodon). N. Requirement of Tilapia nilotica for essential fatty-acids. Watanabe. The influence of water temperature on the growth of tilapias. Stickney. Zhang. 3.Y. 4. 26. Arieli. Aquaculture 49: 315-323. The ontogeny of salinity tolerance in the tilapias Oreochromis aureus.S. Feed-intake and growth of red tilapia at different stocking densities in ponds in Indonesia. Sun.. 2. Al-Amoudi. Shiau.M.. 5. Kuo. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 49(7): 1127-1134. 1. Effects of dietary-protein and energy on growth. J.R.C. of Nutrition 111: 1001-1012. 1987. Arieli and G. Huang. Zohar. Effect of dietary-protein levels on growth of Tilapia nilotica. K. L. mossambicus x O.R. niloticus hybrid. T. Tilapia tolerance of saline water: A review. Watanabe. 1985. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 49(9): 1361-1365. Satoh and T. M. 22.M. 1985. Y.. T. Zonneveld... 1986. Aquaculture 99: 83-94. Aquaculture 75: 115-125. 1992. 1985. Progressive FishCulturist 48(3): 161. Winfree.. Watanabe and T. spawned and reared in freshwater. 1983. Chang. R. O.. 1983. S. Takeuchi.O. . and an O. Takeuchi. feed conversion efficiency and body-composition of Tilapia aurea. Peng. 1981. Watanabe. Fadholi. and Y.. T.an experimental study. Viola. aureus) in intensive culture. aureus. S. Bulletin of Marine Science 33(3): 782. 18. Stickney. Oreochromis niloticus x O.O. W. 20. Takeuchi. S..T. Protein-sparing effect by carbohydrates in diets for tilapia. Wang. 21. 1983. Animal-protein-free feeds for hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis nilloticus x O. G.

MD. USA. Beltsville. 20705-2351 ph. North Carolina. 52247 ph. (301) 504-5558 fax (301) 504-6409 ICLARM (International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management) MC P. Box 2631 0718 Makati. SW Kalona. USA.Asheville. IA. USA.O. 28802 or call 704-254-7334. Sources of Other Information American Tilapia Association Midwest Aquaculture Learning Centre 4943 Cosgrove Road. Metro Manila Phillipines . (319) 683-2495 fax (319) 683-2995 Aquaculture Information Centre National Agricultural Library 10301 Baltimore Blvd.

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