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Mao Zedong 毛泽东
Official 1960–1966 portrait of Mao Zedong 1st Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China In office June 19, 1945 – September 9, 1976 1st vice-chairman Liu Shaoqi Lin Biao Zhou Enlai Hua Guofeng Himself (as Central Politburo Chairman) Hua Guofeng
Preceded by Succeeded by
1st Chairman of the Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China In office March 20, 1943 – April 24, 1969 Preceded by Zhang Wentian (as Central Committee General Secretary) Himself (as Central Committee Chairman)
1st Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission In office August 23, 1945 – 1949 September 8, 1954 – September 9, 1976 Preceded by Succeeded by Position created Hua Guofeng
1st Chairman of the National Committee of the CPPCC
In office September 21, 1949 – December 25, 1954 Honorary Chairman December 25, 1954 – September 9, 1976 Preceded by Succeeded by Position Created Zhou Enlai 1st Chairman of the People's Republic of China In office September 27, 1954 – April 27, 1959 Premier Deputy Preceded by Succeeded by Zhou Enlai Zhu De Position Created Liu Shaoqi Member of the National People's Congress In office September 15, 1954 – April 18, 1959 December 21, 1964 – September 9, 1976 Constituency Beijing At-large Personal details Born December 26, 1893 Shaoshan, Hunan September 9, 1976 (aged 82) Beijing Chairman Mao Memorial Hall, Beijing Chinese Communist Party of China Luo Yixiu (1907–1910) Yang Kaihui (1920–1930) He Zizhen (1930–1937) Jiang Qing (1939–1976) None (atheist)
Resting place Nationality Political party Spouse(s)
Simplified Chinese Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin
Máo Zédōng [mɑ̌ʊ tsɤ̌tʊ́ŋ]
Transcriptions Hakka - Romanization Mô Chhe̍t-tûng Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Máo Zédōng [mɑ̌ʊ tsɤ̌tʊ́ŋ] - Wade–Giles Mao Tse-tung Min - Hokkien POJ Mô͘ Te̍k-tong Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping mou4 zaak6dung1
Chairman Mao Chinese
Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Máo zhǔxí Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping Mou4 zyu2zik6
Mao Zedong (simplified Chinese: 毛 泽 东; traditional Chinese: 毛 澤 東; pinyin: Máo Zédōng, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung listenWikipedia:Media helpImage:Zh-Mao_Zedong.ogg), commonly referred to as Chairman Mao (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), was a Chinese communist revolutionary, politician and socio-political theorist. The founding father of the People's Republic of China from its establishment in 1949, he governed the country as Chairman of the Communist Party of China until his death. In this position he converted China into a single-party socialist state, with industry and business being nationalized under state ownership and socialist reforms implemented in all areas of society. Politically a Marxist-Leninist, his theoretical contribution to the ideology along with his military strategies and brand of policies are collectively known as Maoism. Born the son of a wealthy farmer in Shaoshan, Hunan, Mao adopted a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist outlook in early life, particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement of 1919. Coming to adopt Marxism-Leninism while working at Peking University, he became an early member of the Communist Party of China (CPC), soon rising to a senior position. In 1922, the Communists agreed to an alliance with the larger Kuomintang (KMT), a nationalist revolutionary party, whom Mao aided in creating a revolutionary peasant army and organizing rural land reform. In 1927 the KMT's military leader Chiang Kai-shek broke the alliance and set about on an anti-communist purge; in turn, the CPC formed an army of peasant militia, and
 from around 550 to over 900 million. resulting in a CPC-KMT victory in 1945. poet. punishing his four children—the boys Zedong. but abandoned this faith in his mid-teenage years. ranking his tenure as the top incidence of democide in human history. After solidifying the reunification of China through his Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries. Mao Yichang. Mao is still officially held in high regard by many Chinese as a great political strategist. The Chinese Civil War then resumed. The family lived with Yichang's father.Mao Zedong the two sides clashed in the Chinese Civil War. he initiated the Cultural Revolution. Mao is regarded as one of the most important individuals in modern world history. 1893 in the rural village of Shaoshanchong in Shaoshan. overthrowing the feudal landlords before seizing their large estates and dividing the land into people's communes. A deeply controversial figure. Hunan Province. 4 Early life Childhood: 1893–1911 Mao was born on December 26. becoming one of the wealthiest farmers in Shaoshan. providing universal housing and raising life expectancy. . Zejian—for perceived wrongdoings. In 1949 Mao proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China. venerating a bronze statue of the Buddha. Mao was responsible for commanding a part of the CPC's Red Army. He proceeded to lead a nationwide political campaign known as the Great Leap Forward from 1958 through to 1961. statesman. and an adopted girl. Maoists furthermore promote his role as a theorist. gave offerings to the gods in thanks. sparking the Second Sino-Japanese War. sometimes by beating them. and savior of the nation. had been born a poverty-stricken peasant. Zedong became a Buddhist. buying up local grain and selling it in the city for a higher price. When the Empire of Japan invaded China in 1937. and visionary. have labeled him a dictator whose administration oversaw systematic human rights abuses. In 1966. Zedong described his father as a stern disciplinarian. Supporters praise him for modernizing China and building it into a world power. who has inspired revolutionary movements across the globe. In addition. rose to power in the party by leading the Long March. including some historians. with 20 acres of land. he became a moneylender and grain merchant. His father was largely irreligious. As a result. critics. improving education and health care. Mao enacted sweeping land reform. China's population almost doubled during the period of Mao's leadership. Mao Enpu. military mastermind. through promoting the status of women. and after several setbacks. a one-party socialist state controlled by the Communist Party. Mao agreed to a united front with the KMT. and whose rule is estimated to have caused the deaths of 40–70 million people through starvation. a program to weed out counter-revolutionary elements in Chinese society. forced labor and executions. In contrast. Wen Qimei. His wife. in which Mao led the Red Army to victory as Chiang and his supporters fled to Taiwan. designed to modernize and industrialize the country. Returning to agriculture. who died when Zedong was ten. however agrarian problems worsened by his policies led to widespread famine. and had gained two years of education before joining the army. His father. although after surviving an encounter with a tiger. was a devout Buddhist who tried to temper her husband's strict attitude. which continued until his death. Zemin and Zetan.
 Here. Mao moved to a higher primary school in nearby Dongshan. economic and political reform. modelling China on the representative democracies of the western world. aged 11 Mao ran away from home. uniting their land-owning families. in 2010. proceeding to read pamphlets by Jiang Kanghu. Reacting against his Confucian upbringing. Mao supported the protester's demands. Mao was inspired by the military prowess and nationalistic fervour of American George Washington and Frenchman Napoleon Bonaparte. Mao refused to recognise her as his wife. The famine spread to Shaoshan. At the age of 13. a booklet which lamented the deterioration of Chinese power in East Asia. later admitting it was "somewhat muddled". As a symbol of Mao in 1913. Mao later admitted that he didn't enjoy the classical Chinese texts preaching Confucian morals. arguing for technological. he was taught alongside younger students of a higher social standing. but his father found him and brought him home. instead favouring popular novels like Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Water Margin. Mao finished primary education. Mao came under the influence of Sun's newspaper. but with concessions made to the moderates by having Kang Youwei as premier and Liang Qichao as minister of foreign affairs. heading for what he believed was a nearby town. The People's Independence (Minli bao). At Changsha. Mao convinced his father to allow him to attend middle school in Changsha. Mao read voraciously in his spare time. The city was "a revolutionary hotbed". and was bullied for his scruffy appearance and peasant background. Mao remained interested yet unconvinced by the idea. Mao's childhood home in Shaoshan. The primary figurehead behind the republican movement was Sun Yat-sen. it involved the creation of a republic governed by Sun. While some advocated a reformist transition to a constitutional monarchy. where starving peasants seized his father's grain. Never living together. Luo was locally disgraced and eventually died in 1910. The Xinhai Revolution: 1911–1912 In 1911. . an American-educated Christian who led a secret society known as the Tongmenghui. one of the dominant moral ideologies in China. Mao discovered socialism from a newspaper article. sending the 8-year-old Mao to the local Shaoshan Primary School. arguing for an elected presidency. by which time it had become a tourist destination. Working on his father's farm. he and a friend cut off their queue pigtails—a sign of subservience to the emperor—before forcibly cutting off those of several classmates. which he stuck to the school wall. rebellion against the Manchu monarch. the student founder of the Chinese Socialist Party. but the armed forces suppressed the dissenters and executed their leaders.Mao Zedong 5 Mao's father recognised the financial value of a basic education. Mao nevertheless claimed sympathy for their situation. becoming a fierce critic of arranged marriage and temporarily moving away to live with an unemployed student. Aged 16. Influenced by Great Heroes of the World. Learning the value systems of Confucianism. His political views were shaped by Gelaohui-led protests which erupted following a famine in Hunanese capital Changsha. and his father had him married to the 17-year-old Luo Yigu. penning his first political essay. developing a "political consciousness" from Zheng Guanying's Sheng-shih Wei-yen (Words of Warning to an Affluent Age). disapproving of their actions as morally wrong. most revolutionaries advocated republicanism. with widespread animosity towards the absolute monarchy of Emperor Puyi.
but the lectures were in English. Mao enrolled and dropped out of a police academy. Dean of the Faculty of Letters at Peking University. with the governor proclaiming martial law to quell protest. that the end justifies the means. he soon dropped out of this too. The northern provinces remained loyal to the emperor. the Fourth Normal School of Changsha. the governor fled. both of whom argued that China had to adopt various western political philosophies in order to modernise. a soap-production school. the creation of his friend Chen Duxiu. Democracy and Mr. reading core works of classical liberalism such as Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations and Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws. J. Although a Chinese nationalist. Xiao Yu. "A Study of Physical Culture". and Herbert Spencer. Desiring to become a teacher. but was not involved in the fighting. he spent much time in the Changsha public library. together they went on a walking tour of Hunan. finding it rooted in Confucianism. Inspired by the work of Friedrich Paulsen. Sun Yat-sen—proclaimed "provisional president" by his supporters—compromised with the monarchist general Yuan Shikai. Mao enrolled at a teacher training college. he was elected to command the students' volunteer army. Supporting the revolution. Undertaking his studies independently. In spring 1917. arming these troops with makeshift . in New Youth in April 1917. a philosopher who symbolized Han resistance to Manchu invasion. which Mao didn't understand. Befriending Mao. Professor of Ethics Yang Changji urged him to read a radical newspaper. Mao befriended an older student. and in 1915 was elected secretary of the Students Society. Chen argued that China must look to the west. His father only approved of the latter. which had high standards. Sun Yat-sen (left) and Chen Duxiu (right). 6 Fourth Normal School of Changsha: 1912–1917 Returning to education. the army rose up against the emperor across southern China. In early life. a law school and an economics school. Mao's father cut off his allowance. widely seen as the best school in Hunan. In his first school year. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. the liberal emphasis on individualism led Mao to believe that strong individuals were not bound by moral codes but should strive for the greater good. adopting "Mr. instructing readers to increase their physical strength to serve the revolution. Mao resigned from the army in 1912. Seeing no use in his son's intellectual pursuits. after six months of being a soldier. sparking the Xinhai Revolution. The Xinhai Revolution over. a revolutionary group founded by Changsha literati who wished to emulate Wang Fuzhi. as well as the works of western scientists and philosophers such as Charles Darwin. Mill. Mao published his first article. Mao remained active in school politics. Changsha initially remained under monarchist control.S. Viewing himself as an intellectual. New Youth (Xin qingnian). years later he admitted that at this time he thought himself better than working people. Mao joined the rebel army as a private soldier. A popular student. Mao was influenced by the publications of two revolutionaries. yet low fees and cheap accommodation. He used his position to forge an Association for Student Self-Government. leading protests against school rules. creating the Republic of China.Mao Zedong Inspired by Sun's republicanism. When the infantry brigade guarding the city defected to the revolution. He joined The Society for the Study of Wang Fuzhi (Chuan-shan Hsüeh-she). set up to defend the school from marauding warlord soldiers. begging and writing literary couplets to obtain food. and hoping to avoid a civil war. and so Mao abandoned it for the government-run Changsha Middle School. but the monarchist Yuan would become president. forcing Mao to move into a hostel for the destitute. leaving the city in republican hands. it merged with the First Normal School of Changsha. Several months later. Science" in order to cleanse itself of superstition and autocracy. The monarchy would be abolished.
he attended lectures and seminars by the likes of Chen Duxiu.Mao Zedong bamboo spears and wooden rifles." a sobriquet taken from the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Mao came under the theoretical influence of Karl Marx (left) and Lenin (right). the Society gained between 70 and 80 members. . 7 Early revolutionary activity Peking. with her husband dying in January 1920. With other young revolutionaries they formed the Renovation of the People Study Society in April 1918 to debate Chen Duxiu's ideas. he tried to strike up conversations with senior academics. describing themselves as the "Three Heroes. but most snubbed him because of his rural Hunanese accent and lowly position. Mao moved to the capital city of Peking. but Mao turned down the opportunity. Mao undertook feats of physical endurance with Xiao Yu and Cai Hesen. Mao lived in a cramped room with seven other Hunanese students in the Third-Eyed Well district. Mao graduated in June 1919. securing him a job at the university library as assistant to the librarian Li Dazhao. Desiring personal and societal transformation. looking for ways to combine it with ancient Chinese philosophies that would be applicable to modern China. Increasingly interested in the techniques of war. but also began to develop a sense of solidarity with workers. he was influenced by anarchism through the work of Peter Kropotkin. Hu Shi." A number of his friends took advantage of the anarchist-organised Mouvement Travail-Études to study in France. anarchism. but believed that Peking's beauty offered "vivid and living compensation. He proceeded to return to Shaoshan. and Li's articles brought an understanding of Marxism to the Chinese revolutionary movement. Li authored a series of articles in New Youth on the October Revolution which had just occurred in Russia. first developed by the German sociologists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the mid-19th century. during which the communist Bolshevik Party under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin had seized power. where his mother was terminally ill. when he traveled to Shanghai with friends departing for France. Yang wrote in his journal that "it is truly difficult to imagine someone so intelligent and handsome" as Mao. he took a keen interest in the events of World War I. but various lecturers still treated him with contempt and refused to answer his questions. an early Chinese communist. Mao's time in Peking ended in the spring of 1919. By joining the university's Philosophy and Journalism Societies. Paid a low wage. perhaps because of a lack of ability to learn languages. where his mentor Yang Changji had taken a job at the liberal-dominated Peking University. in which Marxists took power. being ranked third in the year. she died in October 1919. and Qian Xuantong. Remaining at the university. Becoming "more and more radical". and Marxism: 1917–1919 Following the success of the October Revolution in the Russian Empire. many of whom would go on to join the Communist Party. Lenin was an advocate of the socio-political theory of Marxism. including some females. but turned away from this and "developed rapidly toward Marxism" under the influence of Li's Marxist Study Group during the winter 1919.
Mao found that his articles had achieved a level of fame among the revolutionary movement. Mao had gained employment teaching history at the Xiuye Primary School. Mao met an old teacher of his. organizing a student strike for June and in July 1919 began production of a weekly radical magazine. the May Fourth Movement erupted in Peking. a revolutionary and member of the Kuomintang (KMT). Mao co-founded the Hunanese Student Association with He Shuheng and Deng Zhongxia." In Shanghai. Duan's troops were sent in to crush the protests. where he worked as a laundryman and met Chen Duxiu. He began organizing protests against the pro-Duan Governor of Hunan Province. Yi Peiji. calling for the liberation of women in Chinese society. or Chinese Nationalist Party.K. which was gaining increasing support and influence. In Peking. his ideas were not Marxist. In Changsha. Tan led his troops into Changsha. Zhang ordered the Student Association and its associated weekly shut down. and Mao aided him by organizing the Changsha students. Zhang Jinghui. In May 1919. . strengthened trade unions able to wage non-violent revolution. but Mao and other student leaders felt threatened by Zhang. being influenced by his experiences with forced arranged marriage. In June 1920. and set about soliciting support in overthrowing Zhang. but Mao continued publishing after assuming editorship of liberal magazine New Hunan (Xin Hunan). and were sent as representatives to China's provincial centers. Mao returned to Peking. Now receiving a large income. Mao was appointed headmaster of the junior section of the First Normal School. but unrest spread throughout China. with Chinese patriots rallying against the Japanese and Duan's government. Going traveling. Tan was plotting to overthrow Zhang. a senior KMT member who held the loyalty of troops stationed along the Hunanese border with Kwantung. Jinan. who had conquered large areas of Chinese-controlled territory with the support of France.Mao Zedong 8 Student rebellions: 1919–1920 China had fallen victim to the expansionist policies of the Empire of Japan. at the Treaty of Versailles. Several of these articles advocated feminist views. thus. noting that Chen's adoption of Marxism "deeply impressed me at what was probably a critical period in my life.S. agreeing to their Twenty-One Demands despite popular opposition. visiting the terminally ill Yang Changji. Mao began publishing in popular local newspaper Justice (Ta Kung Po). Students in Peking rallied during the May Fourth Movement. he visited Tianjin. Under the control of the warlord Duan Qirui. he advocated the need for a "Great Union of the Popular Masses". Yi introduced Mao to General Tan Yankai. Coming across newly translated Marxist literature by Thomas Kirkup. and Marx and Engels–notably The Communist Manifesto–he came under their increasing influence. In the subsequent reorganization of the provincial administration. In late May. Using vernacular language that would be understandable to the majority of China's populace. before moving to Shanghai. Xiang River Review (Xiangjiang pinglun). securing some concessions. Mao helped organize a general strike in Hunan. When this too was shut down by Zhang. while Zhang fled. but heavily influenced by Kropotkin's concept of mutual aid. and Qunu. In December 1919. and the U. but was still eclectic in his views. the U. the Chinese Beiyang Government had accepted Japanese dominance. he married Yang Kaihui in the winter of 1920. Karl Kautsky. popularly known as "Zhang the Venomous" due to his criminal activities.
housed in the premises of the Society for the Study of Wang Fuzhi. small Marxist groups existed in Shanghai. the first congress ignored Lenin's advice to accept a temporary alliance between the Communists and the "bourgeois democrats" who also advocated national revolution. a vocal anti-imperialist. Although Soviet and Comintern delegates attended. hoping to push its politics leftward. the Second Congress of the Communist Party took place in Shanghai. former French Concession. South Lake near Chiahsing to escape detection. Helping to organize workers' strikes in the winter of 1920–1921. Mao included. Red Gang dragon heads. instead they stuck to the orthodox Marxist belief that only the urban proletariat could lead a socialist revolution. and it was decided to hold a central meeting. Now party secretary for Hunan. Wuhan. Opening a bookstore under the control of his new Cultural Book Society. and church clergy in support. merchants.Mao Zedong 9 Founding the Communist Party of China: 1921–1922 The Communist Party of China was founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in the French concession of Shanghai in 1921 as a study society and informal network. though Mao lost the address and couldn't attend. particularly following the execution of two anarchists. through which readers could gain access to revolutionary literature. also establishing a branch of the Socialist Youth Corps. he opened a Changsha branch. making his revolutionary activity easier. Canton and Tsinan. He continued organizing the labor movement to strike against the administration of Hunan Governor Zhao Hengti. authorities sent a police spy to the congress. the delegates agreed to an alliance with the "bourgeois democrats" of the KMT for the good of the "national revolution. Changsha. he was involved in the movement for Hunan autonomy. . though replaced the usual textbooks with revolutionary tracts in order to spread Marxism among the students. The first session of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China was attended by 13 delegates. in later life. from which he went on a Communist recruitment drive. he founded the Self-Study University. hoping that a Hunanese constitution would increase civil liberties in the province. which began in Shanghai on July 23. Taking part in the YMCA mass education movement to fight illiteracy. They also engaged local intellectuals. gentry. Mao was stationed in Changsha. its purpose was to propagate revolutionary literature throughout Hunan." Mao's strategy for the successful and famous Anyuan coal mines strikes (contrary to later Party historians) depended on both "proletarian" and "bourgeois" strategies. describing the latter as "the most murderous of hangmen." Communist Party members joined the KMT. military officers. Mao enthusiastically agreed with this decision. After the in Xintiandi. Peking. In August 1921. initially met in a girls' school that had been closed for the summer. In July 1922. in his writings he lambasted the governments of Japan. Great Britain and the United States. although the movement was successful. Adopting Lenin's advice. Mao set up a Changsha branch. but formed schools and cooperatives. the delegates moved to a boat on Shanghai. and Location of the first Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921. 1921. he denied any involvement. arguing for an alliance across China's socio-economic classes. By 1921. The success depended on innovative organizing by Liu Shaoqi and Li Lisan who not only mobilized the miners.
courteous. urging peasants to refuse to pay rent. held in Canton during January and February 1924.Mao Zedong 10 Collaboration with the Kuomintang: 1922–1927 At the Third Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai in June 1923. he was appointed to run the KMT's Peasant Movement Training Institute. were uniformly counter-revolutionary. who were themselves wealthy land-owners. many expressed reservations. in February 1924 putting forward four resolutions to decentralize power to urban and rural bureaus. Mao appeared at the Third Plenum of the KMT Central Executive Committee in Wuhan. militarists and all counter-revolutionary elements in the villages. As a result. Chiang Kai-shek. In April 1927. taking them through military training exercises and getting them to study various left-wing texts. he stated that anyone owning over 30 mou (four and a half acres). editing KMT newsletter.  Attending the First KMT Congress. The Communists dominated the left wing of the KMT. peasants rose up. an idea advocated by the KMT but not the Communists. who embarked on the Northern Expedition in 1926. which advocated the death penalty or life imprisonment for anyone found guilty of counter-revolutionary activity. defending a set of "Regulations for the Repression of Local Bullies and Bad Gentry". nor a painting. Mao played an active role in the discussions regarding the peasant issue. whom were in many cases killed." Proceeding to carry out a "Land Survey". When party leader Sun Yat-sen died in May 1925. which called for the confiscation of land belonging to "local bullies and bad gentry. struggling for power with the party's right wing. Discovering that the peasantry were increasingly restless due to the upheaval of the past decade. appropriating the land of the wealthy land-owners. "peaceful methods cannot suffice". nor a piece of embroidery. February 1927. Mao led another group to put together a "Draft Resolution on the Land Question". At the Third Plenum. Mao fled to Canton after his revolutionary activities attracted the attention of Zhao's regional authorities. the delegates reaffirmed their commitment to working with the KMT against the Beiyang government and imperialists. this convinced him of the revolutionary potential of the Mao the revolutionary in 1927. and that a flexible policy of land redistribution was necessary. Such peasant uprisings angered senior KMT figures and generals. some had seized land from wealthy landowners to found communes. Through the Peasant Movement Training Institute. He accepted that there was great variation in revolutionary enthusiasm across the country. emphasizing the growing class and ideological divide within the revolutionary movement." — Mao. so temperate. kind. he was succeeded by a rightist. arguing that in a revolutionary situation. Mao took an active role in organizing the revolutionary Hunanese peasants and preparing them for militant activity. so leisurely and gentle. Mao was appointed to the five-member Central Land Committee of the KMT. In the wake of the Northern Expedition. an act of violence by which one class overthrows another. who initiated moves to marginalize the position of the Communists  Mao nevertheless supported Chiang's decision to overthrow the Beiyang government and their foreign imperialist allies using the National Revolutionary Army. constituting 13% of the population. the Political Weekly (Zhengzhi zhoubao).  In March 1927. Supporting this position. peasantry. corrupt officials. some believing that it went too far. which sought to strip General Chiang of his power by appointing Wang Jingwei leader. Mao was elected to the Party Committee. also becoming Director of the Party's Propaganda Department. Mao returned to Shaoshan to recuperate from an illness. it cannot be so refined. A revolution is an insurrection. and others not far . In late 1924. Mao was elected an alternate member of the KMT Central Executive Committee. restrained and magnanimous. "Revolution is not a dinner party. In the winter of 1925. taking up residence in Shanghai. nor an essay. His enthusiastic support for the KMT earned him the suspicion of some Communists. Presenting his conclusions at the Enlarged Land Committee meeting on 22 April.
000 members. he accepted defeat. he marched on Shanghai.Mao Zedong enough. 11 Civil War The Nanchang and Autumn Harvest Uprisings: 1927 Fresh from the success of the Northern Expedition to overthrow the warlords. Chiang's army then marched on Wuhan. That May. massacring 5000 with the aid of the Green Gang. The question was rendered moot when the Wuhan government expelled all communists from the KMT on 15 July. but could not take it. he turned on them. A battalion led by General Zhu De was ordered to take the city of Nanchang on 1 August 1927 in what became known as the Nanchang Uprising. Mao led four regiments against Changsha in the Autumn Harvest Uprising. marching south to Swatow. Under freezing skies a million creatures contend in freedom. . with 1000 survivors marching east to the Jinggang Mountains of Jiangxi. Chiang's allies also attacked communists. in Peking. Ultimately. they were forced into retreat after five days. on this boundless land Who rules over man's destiny?" — Excerpt from Mao's poem "Changsha". attacking the Third Regiment. "'Eagles cleave the air. I ask. who by now numbered in the tens of thousands across China.000 of its 25. September 1927. a position Mao initially supported. a city controlled by communist militias. Ignoring the orders of the Wuhan-based KMT government. his suggestions were only partially implemented. initially successful. On the eve of the attack. but was prevented from taking the city by communist General Ye Ting and his Flag of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red troops. Fish glide in the limpid deep. better known as the "Red Army". Mao's army made it to Changsha. and from there being driven into the wilderness of Fujian. 19 Army leading communists were killed by Zhang Zuolin.  The CPC continued supporting the Wuhan KMT government. Mao composed a poem—the earliest of his to survive—titled "Changsha". while in Changsha. Appointed commander-in-chief of the Red Army. but the Fourth Regiment deserted to the KMT cause. but he had changed his mind by the time of the CPC's Fifth Congress. to battle Chiang. Brooding over this immensity. The CMT founded the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China. tens of thousands of communists and their sympathisers were killed by nationalists. with the CPC losing approximately 15. Chiang turned on the communists. Although the communists welcomed Chiang's arrival. Ho Chien's forces machine gunned hundreds of peasant militiamen. hoping to spark peasant uprisings across Hunan. His plan was to attack the KMT-held city from three directions on 9 September. deciding to stake all hope on the peasant militia. by 15 September.
the mountainous area was unable to grow enough crops to feed everyone. Reuniting with the decimated Zhu's army. over the next few weeks. we harass him. building a force of around 1. he . Mao united five villages as a self-governing state. Mao replied that while concurring with Li's theoretical position. he ordered Mao to disband his army into units to be sent out to spread the revolutionary message. with a further 800 provided by Peng.800 troops. he molded his men into a disciplined. Zhu complied. for his focus on rural activity. efficient fighting force. and although his troops fended them off for 25 days. Initially successful. Together having 2000 men. He Zizhen. pushing the CPC back. He ensured that no massacres took place in the region. "When the enemy advances. and the rejection of the KMT. the confiscation of all land without exemption. the deaf and the blind could all come in useful for the revolutionary struggle". remaining at his base. an area of the Jinggang Mountains. leading to food shortages throughout the winter.  In spring 1928.Mao Zedong 12 Base in Jinggangshan: 1927–1928 Hiding in Shanghai. hoping to spark peasant uprisings. leading his armies away. leaving them without a base. Mao's response was to ignore them. we advance. attempting to retake Jinggangshan. Meanwhile. the CPC Central Committee expelled Mao from their rank and from the Hunan Provincial Committee. he boosted the army's numbers. Proclaiming that "Even the lame. the KMT counter-attacked. When the enemy retreats. pursuing a more lenient approach than that advocated by the Central Committee. but complied. but he refused. they united. KMT troops had invaded Jinggangshan. this worried Li Lisan and the Central Committee. to the area around Tonggu and Xinfeng in Jiangxi. Mao and Zhu evacuated the base and took their armies south. punishment for his "military opportunism". Mao left the camp at night to find reinforcements. Li believed that only the urban proletariat could lead Mao with his third wife. When the enemy rests. He laid down rules for his soldiers: prompt obedience to orders. which they consolidated as a new base. who saw Mao's army as lumpenproletariat unable to share in proletariat class consciousness. When the enemy avoids a battle. Central Committee again ordered Mao to march to south Hunan. Mao was skeptical. they were attacked by the KMT and fled after heavy losses. and for being too lenient with "bad gentry". Jiangxi Soviet Republic of China: 1929–1934 In January 1929. and saw little need for Mao's peasant guerrillas. In doing so. Joined by a defecting KMT regiment and Peng Dehuai's Fifth Red Army. they fought an entrenched guerrilla war in the mountains. they returned to Jinggangshan and retook the base. and many troops became disobedient and began thieving. In keeping with orthodox Marxist thought. Setting up base in Jinggangshan City. the Central Committee ordered Mao's troops to southern Hunan. supporting the confiscation of land from rich landlords. who were "re-educated" and sometimes executed." Mao's advice in combating the Kuomintang. Wandering the countryside. the evacuation led to a drop in morale. Contrastingly. we retreat. all confiscations were to be turned over to the government. Mao's forces came across a CPC regiment led by General Zhu De and Lin Biao. we attack. the KMT attacked Mao's base. Reaching Hunan. and nothing was to be confiscated from poorer peasants. incorporating two groups of bandits into his army. 1928. They nevertheless adopted three policies he had long championed: the immediate formation of soviets. a successful revolution.
Viewing the Communists as a greater threat than the Japanese. believing that a CPC victory would spark the overthrow of global imperialism and capitalism. Mao was elected to a position of leadership. the Red Army expanded its area of control. the KMT armies adopted a policy of encirclement and annihilation. and the leadership decided to evacuate. which in November was proclaimed to be the Soviet Republic of China. Mao responded with guerrilla tactics influenced by the works of ancient military strategists like Sun Tzu. putting down the rebels. and soon emerged as their key rival. from where the Communists could focus on . becoming Chairman of the Politburo. Bo Gu and Zhang Wentian. In order to make the escape viable. also orchestrating education programs and implementing measures to increase female political  participation. where they took Zunyi. They replaced him with Soviet-educated Chinese communists. Mao's power was diminished. Officials in Moscow desired greater control over the CPC. He then married He Zizhen. an 18-year-old revolutionary who bore him five children over the following nine years. defended by a group of guerrilla fighters whom the KMT massacred. morale among the Red Army dropped as food and medicine became scarce. Seeing it as a secure area. Trapped inside. also facing setbacks. involving the construction of a concrete and barbed wire "wall of fire" around the state. and de facto leader of both Party and Red Army. Facing internal problems. removing Li from power by calling him to Russia for an inquest into his errors. resulting in the Futian incident. Mao proceeded with his land reform program. accompanied by aerial bombardment. here. In doing so the Red Army successfully defeated the first and second encirclements. The 100. an independent Communist-governed state. and then the Wu River.000 who escaped headed to Northern Jiangxi. the Red Army struck out at the KMT line on the Jiangxi Soviet's north-east corner. in November 1931 announcing the start of a "land Mao in 1931.Mao Zedong would not disband his army or abandon his base. initiating the fifth encirclement campaign. Angered at his armies' failure. Mao's loyalists tortured many and executed between 2000 and 3000 dissenters. he retreated to deal with the further Japanese incursions into China. Both Li and Mao saw the Chinese revolution as the key to world revolution. Attempting to defeat the Communists. took control of the Central Committee.000 soldiers and 15. to which Zhou's tactics proved ineffective. in part because his candidacy was supported by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin. In this. in November suffering emotional trauma after his wife and sister were captured and beheaded by KMT general He Jian. and hence anti-revolutionary. eventually encompassing a population of 3 million. Insisting that they operate as a guerrilla force. believing they grasped little of the Chinese situation. Northern China. In December. outnumbered. Although proclaimed Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars. they disagreed with the official line of the Soviet government and Comintern. Temporarily resting in the city. he laid out a destination: the Shenshi Soviet in Shaanxi. the CPC Central Committee moved to Jiangxi. they tried to overthrow Mao. they held a conference. verification project" which was expanded in June 1933. two of whom. Chiang returned to Jiangxi. Chiang Kaishek personally arrived to lead the operation. first crossing the Xiang River after heavy fighting. members of the Kiangsi Soviet accused him of being too moderate. 13 The Long March: 1934–1935 On 14 October 1934. with control of the Red Army being allocated to Zhou Enlai. Victorious. were left behind. Mao created the Southwest Jiangxi Provincial Soviet Government in the region under his control. Mao meanwhile recovered from tuberculosis. many of the wounded and the ill. known as the "28 Bolsheviks". Guizhou in January 1935. but Zhou and the new leadership replaced this approach with a policy of open confrontation and conventional warfare. 85. Mao disagreed with the new leadership.000 party cadres broke through the encirclement at Hsinfeng and set out on the "Long March". In February 1930. as well as women and children.
 while in May 1937. and so traveled to Moscow for medical treatment. with Zhu De joining Zhang. Western reporters also arrived in the "Border Region" (as the Soviet had been renamed). and Agnes Smedley.Mao Zedong fighting the Japanese. Mao believed that in focusing on the anti-imperialist struggle. tending his garden and theorizing. they began the "anti-Japanese expedition". most notable were Edgar Snow. It was agreed that they would go their separate ways. through hundreds of miles of Grasslands. Mao's forces proceeded north. boosted by the arrival of He Long's men from Hunan and the armies of Zhu Den and Zhang Guotao. they developed links with local communities. Western Szechuan they encountered the 50. who used his experiences as a basis for Red Star Over China. In January 1937 In an effort to defeat the Japanese. Mao's troops settled in Pao An. sending groups of guerrilla fighters into Japanese-controlled territory to undertake sporadic attacks. Faced with the more difficult task of crossing the Tatu River. in Moukung. Finally reaching Shaanxi. he was arrested by one of his own generals. whose accounts brought international attention to Mao's cause. On the Long March. and that a Communist-led "government of national defense" should be formed with the KMT and other "bourgeois nationalist" elements to achieve this goal. the latter wished to proceed to Shaanxi. the Communists would earn the trust of the Chinese people. Mao (left) agreed to collaborate with Chiang (right). Chiang flew into the area to lead his armies against Mao. offered medical treatment and began literacy programs. an area of quagmire where they were attacked by Manchu tribesman and where many soldiers succumbed to famine and disease. resulting in the formation of a United Front with concessions on both sides on December 25. Although despising Chiang Kaishek as a "traitor to the nation". Mao now commanded 15. Mao moved into a cave-house and spent much of his time reading. far from the KMT threat. they fought off both the KMT and an Islamic cavalry militia before crossing over the Min Mountains and Mount Liupan and reaching the Shenshi Soviet. only 7-8000 had survived. Jiang Qing. Although Chiang intended to ignore Mao's message and continue the civil war. Marching through the mountain ranges around Ma'anshan. Zhang and Mao disagreed over what to do. .000 soldiers. However. leading to the Xi'an Incident. a Communist Conference was held in Yan'an to discuss the situation. they managed it by fighting a battle over the Luding Bridge in May. while Zhang wanted to flee east to Tibet or Sikkim. Zhang forced Chiang to discuss the issue with the Communists. Mao led his troops to Loushan Pass. Zhang Xueliang. redistributed and farmed the land. who in turn would renounce the KMT. but the Communists outmanoeuvred him and crossed the Jinsha River. 14 Alliance with the Kuomintang: 1935–1940 Arriving at the Yan'an Soviet during October 1935. where they faced armed opposition but successfully crossed the river. returning from Tibet. He came to believe that the Red Army alone was unable to defeating the Japanese. Remaining there till spring 1936.000-strong CPC Fourth Front Army of Zhang Guotao. Mao's wife He Zizen had been injured from a shrapnel wound to the head. a course of action advocated by Stalin. Mao proceeded to divorce her and marry an actress. through which they trained increasing numbers of new recruits. 1937. taking Luding. in Xi'an. In February 1936 they established the North West Anti-Japanese Red Army University in Yan'an. From Zunyi. together proceeding to Maoerhkai and then Gansu. on May 5 he telegrammed the Military Council of the Nanking National Government proposing a military alliance.
PLA lieutenant colonel Zhang Zhenglu. The Japanese's brutality led increasing numbers of Chinese joining the fight.S. it resulted in the death of 20. the Soviet Union gave quasi-covert support to Mao by their occupation of north east China. and Chiang Kai-shek evacuated from the mainland to Taiwan. 1949." On January 21. At least 160. under direct orders from Mao. In August 1938. the Red Army initiated the Hundred Regiments Campaign. which lasted from June until October. the contacts with the USA developed with the CPC led to very little. Red Blood. . Mao authored several texts for his troops. From his base in Yan'an. in Modern China: A History 2nd Edition: Most of the Americans were favourably impressed. In the end. a military success. Hiroshima took nine seconds..000 troops attacked the Japanese simultaneously in five Mao in 1938.. called the Dixie Mission.000 Japanese. the Red Army formed the New Fourth Army and the Eighth Route Army. more unified.000. compared it to Hiroshima: "The casualties were about the same. In August 1940. the last KMT-held city in mainland China. which laid forward ideas for China's future. the disruption of railways and the loss of a coal mine. After the end of World War II. Resuming civil war: 1940–1949 In 1944.Mao Zedong 15 The Japanese had taken both Shanghai and Nanking—resulting in the Nanking Massacre—pushing the Kuomintang government inland to Chongqing. which were nominally under the command of Chiang's National Revolutionary Army. and more vigorous in its resistance to Japan than the KMT. In the early morning of December 10. who documented the siege in his book White Snow. which allowed the PLA to move in en masse and took large supplies of arms left by the Japanese's Kwantung Army. with the Red Army growing from 50. to the Communist Party of China. the Americans sent a special diplomatic envoy. According to Edwin Moise. the People's Liberation Army starved out the Kuomintang forces occupying the city of Changchun. United States fliers shot down over North China . provinces. which offered an introduction to the Marxist theory of knowledge. Likewise. which dealt with guerrilla and mobile military tactics. 1949.000 to 500. PLA troops laid siege to Chengdu. including Philosophy of Revolution. confirmed to their superiors that the CPC was both strong and popular over a broad area. continued their military assistance to Chiang Kai-shek and his KMT government forces against the People's Liberation Army (PLA) led by Mao Zedong in the civil war for control of China. The CPC seemed less corrupt. Kuomintang forces suffered great losses in battles against Mao's forces.000 civilians are believed to have perished during the siege. in which 400. writing On Protracted War. Changchun took five months. In 1948. the U. Protracted Warfare. and New Democracy.
Máo Zhǔxí) or the Great Leader Chairman Mao (伟 大 领 袖 毛 主 席. He defended these killings as necessary for the securing of power. is regarded as controversial.000 killed in the counterrevolutionary campaign. The Private Life of Chairman Mao. Mao himself claimed that a total of 700. During this period. Li's book. and usually several. Mao was the Chairman of the Communist Party of China. the number of deaths range Mao. State department in 1976 estimated that there may have been a million killed in the land reform.S. especially by those sympathetic to Mao. which involved public executions targeting mainly former Kuomintang officials. In October 1950. and there he ordered the construction of an indoor swimming pool and other buildings.000 people were killed in attacks on "counter-revolutionaries" during the years 1950–52. because there was a policy to select "at least one landlord. there was also the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries. Historical records showed that Mao directed the PVA campaigns in the Korean War to the minute details. It was the culmination of over two decades of civil and international wars. a compound next to the Forbidden City in Beijing. Along with land reform. October 1.S.5 million people.Mao Zedong 16 Leadership of China The People's Republic of China was established on October 1. 1949. were sent to "reform through labour" camps where many perished. Mao was called Chairman Mao (毛 主 席. However. businessmen accused of "disturbing" the market. in virtually every Mao with his fourth wife." Mao took up residence in Zhongnanhai. which were often exceeded. during which significant numbers of landlords and well-to-do peasants were beaten to death at mass meetings organized by the Communist Party as land was taken from them and given to poorer peasants. and 800. Mao played a personal role in organizing the mass repressions and established a system of execution quotas. preferring not to wear formal clothes unless absolutely necessary. Mao Zedong declares the founding of the modern People's Republic of China. Wěidà Lǐngxiù Máo Zhǔxí). perhaps as many as 4 to 6 million." 1946   between 2 million and 5 million. From 1943 to 1976. at least 1. The U. Mao made the decision to send the People's Volunteer Army into Korea and fight against the United Nations forces led by the U. Jiang Qing. called "Madame village for public execution". former employees of Western companies and intellectuals whose loyalty was suspect. Mao famously announced: "The Chinese people have stood up. 1949 Mao's physician Li Zhisui described him as conducting business either in bed or by the side of the pool. In addition. .
" but in practice allowed security chief Kang Sheng to drive opponents to suicide and that "this pattern was repeated throughout his leadership of the People's Republic. Large-scale industrialization projects were also undertaken. and death of many citizens. the victims often were humiliated at struggle sessions. suggested that Mao had initially seen the policy as a way of weakening those within his party who opposed him and was surprised by the extent of criticism and the fact that it began to be directed at his own leadership. Mao gave explicit instructions that "no cadre is to be killed. and children informed on their parents. Some biographers have pointed out that driving those perceived as enemies to suicide was a common tactic during the Mao-era. totalling perhaps 500." Following the consolidation of power. This was initially tolerated and encouraged. known as the three-anti/five-anti campaigns. 17 . the party in what is called the Anti-Rightist Movement. It was only then that he used it as a method of identifying and subsequently persecuting those critical of his government. Li Zhisui. industrial and party officials. spouses turned on their spouses. who criticized. in Mao at Joseph Stalin's 70th birthday celebration in Moscow. A climate of raw terror developed as workers denounced their bosses. The Hundred Flowers movement led to the condemnation.000. Given the freedom to express themselves. Mao initiated two successive movements in an effort to rid urban areas of corruption by targeting wealthy capitalists and political opponents. December 1949 1958. targeting capitalist elements in general. in his biography of Mao. The success of the First-Five Year Plan was to encourage Mao to instigate the Second Five-Year Plan. After a few months." These campaigns took several hundred thousand additional lives. While the three-anti campaign was a focused purge of government. In Shanghai. Mao also launched a phase of rapid collectivization. Mao insisted that minor offenders be criticized and reformed or sent to labor camps. The CPC introduced price controls as well as a Chinese character simplification aimed at increasing literacy. silencing. with death tolls possibly in the millions. "while the worst among them should be shot.Mao Zedong Starting in 1951. Philip Short notes that in the Yan'an Rectification Movement. liberal and intellectual Chinese began opposing the Communist Party and questioning its leadership. With the Soviet Union's assistance. in which Mao indicated his supposed willingness to consider different opinions about how China should be governed. the five-anti campaign set its sights slightly broader. as well as those who were merely alleged to have criticized. Mao's physician. the Great Leap Forward. a method designed to intimidate and terrify people to the maximum. also linked to Mao's Anti-Rightist Movement. For example. Mao launched the First Five-Year Plan (1953–58). new industrial plants were built and agricultural production eventually fell to a point where industry was beginning to produce enough capital that China no longer needed the USSR's support. The plan aimed to end Chinese dependence upon agriculture in order to become a world power. Mao's government reversed its policy and persecuted those. Programs pursued during this time include the Hundred Flowers Campaign. the vast majority via suicide. Authors such as Jung Chang have alleged that the Hundred Flowers Campaign was merely a ruse to root out "dangerous" thinking. suicide by jumping from tall buildings became so commonplace that residents avoided walking on the pavement near skyscrapers for fear that suicides might land on them.
which was compounded in some areas by drought and in others by floods. This famine was a direct cause of the death of some 30 million Chinese peasants between 1959 and 1962 and about the same number of births were lost or postponed. Combined with the diversion of labor to steel production and infrastructure projects. partly due to a reluctance to criticize his policies and decisions and the willingness of his staff to exaggerate or outright fake reports regarding food production. Hong Kong-based historian Frank Dikötter. Under the Great Leap Forward. This changed when food production slowed to a halt. Under this economic program. left rural peasants with little food for themselves and many millions starved to death in the largest famine known as the Great Chinese Famine. who conducted extensive archival research on the Great Leap Forward in local and regional Chinese government archives. much more than had ever been the case. an action followed by his staff. The net result. the relatively small agricultural collectives which had been formed to date were rapidly merged into far larger people's communes. The extent of Mao's knowledge of the severity of the situation has been disputed. livestock and farm implements were brought under collective ownership. Some private food production was banned. Mao vowed to stop eating meat. party cadres were ordered to requisition a disproportionately high amount of the true harvest for state use. these projects combined with cyclical natural disasters led to an approximately 15% drop in grain production in 1959 followed by a further 10% decline in 1960 and no recovery in 1961. known as the Great Leap Forward. At a secret meeting in the Jinjiang Hotel in Shanghai dated March 25. and many of the peasants were ordered to work on massive infrastructure projects and on the production of iron and steel.Mao Zedong 18 Great Leap Forward In January 1958. At the meeting he announced that "When there is In the beginning. Based upon the fabricated success. commune members were able to eat for free at the commune canteens. primarily in the cities and urban areas but also for export. each layer in the party hierarchy exaggerated the amount of grain produced under them. Mao Zedong launched the second Five-Year Plan. Upon finding out the extent of the starvation. . In most cases the party knew very well that it was starving its own people to death. In an effort to win favor with their superiors and avoid being purged. a plan intended as an alternative model for economic growth to the Soviet model focusing on heavy industry that was advocated by others in the party. Further. many children who became emaciated and malnourished during years of hardship and struggle for survival died shortly after the Great Leap Forward came to an end in 1962. Mao's physician believed he may have been unaware about the extent of the famine. challenged the notion that Mao did not know about the famine until it was too late: The idea that the state mistakenly took too much grain from the countryside because it assumed that the harvest was much larger than it was is largely a myth—at most partially true for the autumn of 1958 only. Mao and other party leaders ordered the implementation of a variety of unproven and unscientific new agricultural techniques by the new communes. 1959. Mao specifically ordered the party to procure up to one third of all the grain.
 In contrast. as the handful of Western observers allowed access during this time had been restricted to model villages where they were deceived into believing that the Great Leap Forward had been a great . Mao. claimed that he was only partly to blame. journals such as the Monthly Review have disputed the reliability of the figures commonly cited. and Mao's complicity in those deaths which occurred. as Mao issued quotas for pigs. Until the mid-1980s. several leaders expressed concern that the Great Leap Forward had not proved as successful as planned. stifling criticism of the Great Leap policies. were those whom Mao called 'enemies of the people'. almost all of the supposed steel made in the countryside was iron. when official census figures were finally published by the Chinese Government. and all our neighbors did likewise. counter-revolutionaries and the families of such individuals died in the greatest numbers. Jasper Becker notes that Mao was dismissive of reports he received of food shortages in the countryside and refused to change course. He refused to open state granaries. with the Presidency transferred to Liu Shaoqi. pots.Mao Zedong not enough to eat. believing that peasants were lying and that rightists and kulaks were hoarding grain. 1972. It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill. and pans we had in our house. Years later the CPC would conclude that 6 million people were wrongly punished in the campaign." 19 Consequences At the Lushan Conference in July/August 1959. the Great Leap Forward caused Mao to lose esteem among many of the top party cadres and was eventually forced to abandon the policy in 1962. The number of deaths by starvation during the Great Leap Forward is deeply controversial. chickens. Senior officials who reported the truth of the famine to Mao were branded as "right opportunists."  In Hungry Ghosts. and not only grain. while losing some political power to moderate leaders. Landlords." A campaign against right opportunism was launched and resulted in party members and ordinary peasants being sent to camps where many would subsequently die in the famine. Anyone who had in previous campaigns of repression been labeled a 'black element' was given the lowest priority in the allocation of food. Although the steel quotas were officially reached." The worst of the famine was steered towards enemies of the state. As a result. as it had been made from assorted scrap metal in home-made furnaces with no reliable source of fuel such as coal. he was able to remain Chairman of the Communist Party. According to Zhang Rongmei. This meant that proper smelting conditions could not be achieved. Mao with Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai. rich peasants. around five per cent. The most direct of these was Minister of Defence and Korean War General Peng Dehuai. ducks and eggs. Many peasants accused of hiding food were tortured and beaten to death. rightists. the qualitative evidence of a "massive death toll". little was known about the scale of the disaster in the Chinese countryside. orchestrated a purge of Peng and his supporters. people starve to death. a geometry teacher in rural Shanghai during the Great Leap Forward: "We took all the furniture. As Jasper Becker explains: "The most vulnerable section of China's population. supported by national propaganda. Whatever the case. The Great Leap Forward was a tragedy for the vast majority of the Chinese. perhaps most notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping in the process. We put everything in a big fire and melted down all the metal. Beijing. fearing loss of his position. religious leaders. Other violent campaigns followed in which party leaders went from village to village in search of hidden food reserves. Mao. However. former members of the nationalist regime. and instead launched a series of "anti-grain concealment" drives that resulted in numerous purges and suicides.
The split was triggered by arguments over the control and direction of world communism and other disputes pertaining to foreign policy. The first attempt to analyse this data in order to estimate the number of famine deaths was carried out by American demographer Dr. which began an alliance between the two countries which would last until the Sino-Albanian split after Mao's death in 1976. Upon the death of Stalin. Frank Dikötter estimates that there were at least 45 million premature deaths attributable to the Great Leap Forward from 1958 to 1962. Japan. Given the lengthy gaps between the censuses and doubts over the reliability of the data. The overwhelming majority of delegates expressed agreement. Censuses were carried out in China in 1953. exports increased by 50%. In China. and fellow Communist regimes in North Korea. and Taiwan). must be localized or exaggerated as China was continuing to claim record harvests and was a net exporter of grain through the period. There was also an assumption that the flow of individual reports of starvation that had been reaching the West. as given by Hu Yaobang. The Sino-Soviet split resulted in Nikita Khrushchev's withdrawal of all Soviet technical experts and aid from the country. a former Xinhua News Agency reporter who had privileged access and connections available to no other scholars. an accurate figure is difficult to ascertain. the formerly favorable Soviets were now denounced as "revisionists" and listed alongside "American imperialism" as movements to oppose. primarily through Hong Kong and Taiwan. Only Albania under the leadership of Enver Hoxha openly sided with China against the Soviets. Because Mao wanted to pay back early to the Soviets debts totaling 1. Nevertheless. A brief period of liberalization followed while Mao and Lin plotted a comeback. Both the internal crisis and the external threat called for extraordinary statesmanship from Mao. Partly surrounded by hostile American military bases (in South Korea. North Vietnam and Albania were provided grain free of charge. 20 . Judith Banister and published in 1984. and Mao (believing he had a superior understanding of Marxist ideology) eroded the previous patron-client relationship between the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the CPC. At a large Communist Party conference in Beijing in January 1962. and that based on her modelling of Chinese demographics during the period and taking account of assumed under-reporting during the famine years. Banister concluded that the official data implied that around 15 million excess deaths incurred in China during 1958–61. On the international front.973 billion yuan from 1960 to 1962. Stalin had established himself as the successor of "correct" Marxist thought well before Mao controlled the Communist Party of China. 1964 and 1982. the period was dominated by the further isolation of China. Most of the problems regarding communist unity resulted from the death of Joseph Stalin in March 1953 and his replacement by Khrushchev. but Defense Minister Lin Biao staunchly defended Mao. but as China entered the new decade the statesmen of the People's Republic were in hostile confrontation with each other. called the "Conference of the Seven Thousand. The official statistic is 20 million deaths. Yang Jisheng." State Chairman Liu Shaoqi denounced the Great Leap Forward as responsible for widespread famine. China was now confronted with a new Soviet threat from the north and west. estimates a death toll of 36 million. introducing elements of private control of peasant smallholdings and importing grain from Canada and Australia to mitigate the worst effects of famine. and therefore Mao never challenged the suitability of any Stalinist doctrine (at least while Stalin was alive). The resulting tension between Khrushchev (at the head of a politically and militarily superior government). Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping rescued the economy by disbanding the people's communes. Mao believed (perhaps because of seniority) that the leadership of the "correct" Marxist doctrine would fall to him. the figure was around 30 million.Mao Zedong success. Various other sources have put the figure at between 20 and 46 million.
as well as creating general economic and social chaos in the country. as the Cultural Revolution pierced into every part of Chinese life. and millions were persecuted. The Revolution led to the destruction of much of China's traditional cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese citizens. perished in the violence of the Cultural Revolution. had favored the idea that Mao should be removed from actual power but maintain his ceremonial and symbolic role. and posthumously expelled Lin from the party. claim the case for this is perhaps overstated. including a famous philosopher. Official history in China states that Lin was planning a military coup or an assassination attempt on Mao. When Mao was informed of such losses. in August and September 1966. Believing that certain liberal bourgeois elements of society continued to threaten the socialist framework.772 people murdered in Beijing alone. perhaps millions. with the party upholding all of his positive contributions to the revolution. It was during this period that Mao chose Lin Biao. hold that Mao launched the Cultural Revolution to wreak revenge on those who had dared to challenge him over the Great Leap Forward. In 1969. however. By 1971. Many claim that Mao responded to Liu and Deng's movements by launching the Cultural Revolution in 1966. Gen. although the official history of the People's Republic of China marks the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976 with Mao's death. not a tiny elite." As a result. a divide between the two men became apparent. . Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. Some scholars. Millions of lives were ruined during this period. Mao declared the Cultural Revolution to be over. At this time.Mao Zedong 21 Cultural Revolution Mao was concerned with the nature of post-1959 China. Mao lost trust in many of the top CPC figures. The CPC declared that Lin was planning to depose Mao. Chen Yuen. Mao believed that a revolution of culture would unseat and unsettle the "ruling class" and keep China in a state of "perpetual revolution" that. respectively. They attempted to marginalize Mao by taking control of economic policy and asserting themselves politically as well. he is alleged to have commented: "People who try to commit suicide — don't attempt to save them! . Lin was later officially named as Mao's successor. would serve the interests of the majority. who seemed to echo all of Mao's ideas. In the last years of his life. It is estimated that hundreds of thousands. groups of young people known as the Red Guards struggled against authorities at all levels of society and even set up their own tribunals. presumably on his way to flee China. probably anticipating his arrest." The authorities allowed the Red Guards to abuse and kill opponents of the regime. Others. Said Xie Fuzhi. particularly that people had been driven to suicide. theoretically. the schools in China were closed and the young intellectuals living in cities were ordered to the countryside to be "re-educated" by the peasants. national police chief: "Don't say it is wrong of them to beat up bad persons: if in anger they beat someone to death. there were 1. . it is not as if we cannot do without a few people. Mao was faced . China is such a populous nation. Lt. such as Frank Dikötter. Ion Mihai Pacepa described his conversation with Nicolae Ceauşescu who told him about a plot to kill Mao Zedong with the help of Lin Biao Mao greets United States President Richard Nixon during his visit to China in 1972 organized by the KGB. The Blue Kite and Farewell My Concubine. The highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector. to become his successor. then the State Chairman and General Secretary. then so be it. During the Cultural Revolution. where they performed hard manual labor and other work. Chaos reigned in much of the nation. depicted by such Chinese films as To Live. He saw that the revolution had replaced the old elite with a new one. He was concerned that those in power were becoming estranged from the people they were supposed to serve. Lin Biao died in a plane crash over the air space of Mongolia. such as Mobo Gao.
1976. claim there were many great advances. On one side was the left wing led by the Gang of Four. back from her trip. led by Deng Xiaoping. He was taken off life support and was pronounced dead at 12:10 am on September 9. commissioned its first nuclear submarines and made various advances in science and technology. on September 5. wanted to overhaul the Chinese economy based on market-oriented policies and to de-emphasize the role of Maoist ideology in determining economic and political policy. While many—an estimated 100 million—did suffer. 22 Death Mao had been in poorer health for several years and had declined visibly for at least six months prior to his death. His body lay in state at the Great Hall of the People. there was a power struggle for control of China. This period is often looked at in official circles in China and in the West as a great stagnation or even of reversal for China. according to his physician. Mao remained passive as various factions within the Communist Party mobilized for the power struggle anticipated after his death. Three days later. After Mao's death. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. launched the Dong Fang Hong satellite (January 30. some scholars. led by Chairman Hua Guofeng. China exploded its first H-Bomb (1967). and Hua Guofeng called his wife. On the other side was the right wing opposing these policies. who wanted to continue the policy of revolutionary mass mobilization. advocated a return to central planning along the Soviet model. During the Cultural Revolution. There are unconfirmed reports that he possibly had ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease. Eventually. Healthcare was free. the right wing restorationists. Some also attributed Mao's decline in health to the betrayal of Lin Biao. being the ninth day of the ninth month of the calendar. where he met the visiting Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto during the latter's one-day visit to Beijing. Mao's last public appearance was on May 27. His body was later placed into the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong. Mao suffered a heart attack. A memorial service was held in Tiananmen Square on September 18.Mao Zedong with declining health due to either Parkinson's disease or. 1976. and living standards in the countryside continued to improve. Deng Xiaoping. At around 5:00 pm on September 2. 1976. They hold that the Cultural Revolution period laid the foundation for the spectacular growth that continues in China. though he had expressed a wish to be cremated and had been one of the first high-ranking officials to sign the "Proposal that all Central Leaders be Cremated after Death" in November 1956. such as Lee Feigon and Mobo Gao. September 9 was chosen as the day to let Mao die because it was seen as an easy day to remember. There was a three-minute silence observed during this service. Mao's condition was critical. far more severe than his previous two and affecting a much larger area of his heart. 1970). Jiang Qing. defeated Hua in a bloodless power struggle a few years laterWikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers#Chronological items. with clear seniority over Hua Guofeng.Wikipedia:Avoid weasel words She visited him before returning to her own residence in the Spring Lotus Chamber. X-rays indicated that his current lung infection had worsened. 1976. as well as lung ailments due to smoking and heart trouble. and in some sectors the Chinese economy continued to outperform the west. whereas the right wing reformers. Among the latter group. the reformers won control of the government. .
He is generally credited and praised with having unified China and ending the previous decades of civil war. where he is often reviled as a brutish ideologue. but is especially strong elsewhere. Mao's revolutionary tactics continue to be used by insurgents. His supporters claim that he rapidly industrialized China however. Gao also lauds Mao for carrying out massive land reform. In mainland China." — "Biography" 2005 Mao remains a controversial figure and there is little agreement over his legacy both in China and abroad. Opposition to Mao is subject to restriction and censorship in mainland China.. while others claim that his policies delayed economic development and that China's economy only underwent its rapid growth after Mao's policies had been widely abandoned. particularly the controversially named 'Great Leap Forward' and the Cultural Revolution. bringing "unity and stability to a country that had been plagued by civil wars and foreign invasions". credited for giving "the Chinese people dignity and self-respect. key pillars of his economic theory have been largely dismantled by market reformers like Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang. Mao has many Chinese critics. promoting the status of women. The Chinese system he overthrew was backward and corrupt. . however A large portrait of Mao by Zhang Zhenshi at supporters point out that in spite of this. He is also credited with having improved the status of women in China and improving literacy and education. His policies caused the deaths of tens of millions of people during his 27-year reign. more than any other Twentieth Century leader. Mao is still revered by many supporters of the Communist Party and respected by the majority of the general population as the "Founding Father of modern China". few would argue the fact that he dragged China into the 20th century. and his political ideology continues to be embraced by many communist organizations around the world. were impediments to industrialization and modernization. improving popular literacy. Even in China. others have claimed that his policies. In the West. credits Mao for raising the average life expectancy from 35 in 1949 to 63 by 1975. His supporters claim that his policies laid the groundwork for China's later rise to become an economic superpower. his name is generally associated with tyranny and his economic theories widely discredited—though to some political activists he remains a symbol against capitalism.Mao Zedong 23 Legacy "[Mao] turned China from a feudal backwater into one of the most powerful countries in the World . and laying the foundation for China to "become the equal of the great global powers"." However. But at a cost in human lives that is staggering. and positively "transform(ing) Chinese society beyond recognition. both those who live inside and outside China.." Mobo Gao in his 2008 book The Battle for China's Past: Mao and the Cultural Revolution. life expectancy improved Tiananmen during his reign. imperialism and western influence. who succeeded him as leaders of the Communist Party.
"Mao's tragedy and his grandeur were that he remained to the end in thrall to his own revolutionary dreams . There continue to be disagreements on Mao's legacy. If not half. we have buried forty-six thousand scholars alive . he was also "a great criminal because.. The deaths of others meant nothing to him. Chang claims Mao said to his inner circle in November 1958: "Working like this. but in fact. which Mao led to power. it retains for itself many of the powers established under Mao's reign: it controls the Chinese army. noting that whereas the deaths caused by Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia were largely systematic and deliberate. notorious for burying alive hundreds of scholars. Mao's personal secretary. You are wrong.Mao Zedong 24 Though the Chinese Communist Party." As a result of such tactics. Others. the violence he erected into a whole system far exceeds any national tradition of violence that we might find in China. Former Party official Su Shachi. While discussing labor-intensive projects such as waterworks and making steel. but he was also a great force for good. Mao's English interpreter Sidney Rittenberg wrote in his memoir The Man Who Stayed Behind that whilst Mao "was a great leader in history". journalist Liu Bin Yan has described Mao as "both monster and a genius. Short argues. During a speech to party cadre in 1958. He freed China from the straitjacket of its Confucian past. except in Hong Kong. He put no value on human life. but the bright Red future he promised turned out to be a sterile purgatory. In 2008. with all these projects. Each of these regimes witnessed deliberately ordered mass 'cleansing' and extermination. not that he intended to. goes further and claims he was dismissive of the suffering and death caused by his policies: "Mao's way of thinking and governing was terrifying." Li Rui. We have surpassed Qin Shi Huang a hundredfold." Biographer Jung Chang goes further still and argues that Mao was well aware that his policies would be responsible for the deaths of millions. Thus it is difficult to gauge the true extent of support for the Chinese Communist Party and Mao's legacy within mainland China.. critics have pointed out that: The People's Republic of China under Mao exhibited the oppressive tendencies that were discernible in all the major absolutist regimes of the twentieth century. the overwhelming majority of the deaths under Mao were unintended consequences of famine. Jean Louis Margolin writes that "Mao Zedong was so powerful that he was often known as the Red Emperor ." Mao was frequently likened to China's First Emperor Qin Shi Huang. courts and media and does not permit multi-party elections at the national or local level. and a dictator comparable to Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin. Short noted that landlord class were not exterminated as a people due to Mao's belief in redemption through thought reform.. the Chinese government continues to officially regard Mao as a national hero. and personally enjoyed the comparison. reject such comparisons in Mao: A Life." Some Statue of young Mao in Changsha. the capital of historians claim that Mao Zedong was "one of the great tyrants of the Hunan twentieth century". China opened the Mao Zedong Square to visitors in his hometown of central Hunan Province to mark the 115th anniversary of his birth. There are obvious parallels between Mao's China. not that he wanted to.. You [intellectuals] revile us for being Qin Shi Huangs. his wild fantasies led to the deaths of tens of millions of people.. Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia. Mao said he had far outdone Qin Shi Huang in his policy against intellectuals: "He buried 460 scholars alive. has rejected in practice the economic fundamentals of much of Mao's ideology. In The Black Book of Communism." Thomas Bernstein of Columbia . such as Philip Short. He instead compared Mao with 19th-century Chinese reformers who challenged China's traditional beliefs in the era of China's clashes with Western colonial powers.. police. with a death toll surpassing both." In a similar vein. or one-tenth—50 million—die. For their part. has opined that "he was a great historical criminal. half of China may well have to die. one-third.
for whatever reason. he said. but you must be spiritually prepared. Anhui wants to do so much. and between 1958 to 1962. it'll be a third or ten percent. In 1958. provocative. in spite of Mao being in a good position to see the human cost. Beijing . But as fresh and abundant archival evidence shows. confirms that far from being ignorant or misled about the famine. and if it's not half. In 1962. are all undertaken simultaneously "half of China's population unquestionably will die. some 6 to 8 per cent of those who died were tortured to death or summarily killed—amounting to at least 3 million victims. And he exposes the extent of the violence used against the peasants": Mass killings are not usually associated with Mao and the Great Leap Forward.. we have kept the backbone. there could be no renewal. half of China's population would perish but the rest would survive and rebuild. "When people die there ought to be celebrations. because they dragged their feet. we are stronger. If the projects. he asked. terror and systematic violence were the foundation of the Great Leap. but make it a principle to have no deaths. Dikötter argues that CPC leaders "glorified violence and were inured to massive loss of life. adding: "If with a death toll of 50 million you didn't lose your jobs. they continued unabated for several years.'" Regarding the large-scale irrigation projects. exemplified by his famous remark that in a nuclear war. People were killed selectively because they had the wrong class background. Many more vanished because they were too old." Mao then pointed to the example of Guangxi provincial Party secretary. what a disaster it would be if Confucius were still alive. which is quite all right.. And all of them shared an ideology in which the end justified the means. because they spoke out or simply because they were not liked." The authors note that these kinds of remarks could well have justified the indifference of lower-level cadres to peasants deaths. having lost millions of people in his province. and China continues to benefit from a more favourable comparison with Cambodia or the Soviet Union. Becker notes that "archive material gathered by Dikötter . however. Countless others were deliberately deprived of food and consequently starved to death. he thought that deaths were beneficial. Mao talks about massive earthmoving irrigation projects and numerous big industrial ones. the Chinese leadership were kept informed about it all the time. all requiring huge numbers of people. for without them." Chang and Halliday take literally Mao's penchant for talking about mass death in highly irresponsible." In December 1958 he remarked that "destruction (mièwáng 灭 亡. Li Jingquan compared the Great Leap Forward to the Long March in which only one in ten had made it to the end: 'We are not weak. by a rough approximation. is not quite as shocking. In the speech. also extinction) [of people] has advantages. Chén Mànyuǎn (陈 漫 远) who had been dismissed in 1957 for failing to prevent famine in the previous year. and ultimately claimed the lives of hundreds of 25 Sculptures in front of Mausoleum of Mao Zedong. Jasper Becker and Frank Dikötter reach a similar conclusion. You say you can't. claiming: The Chinese original. Imagine. whether I should lose my head would also be in question. I at least should lose mine. weak or sick to work—and hence unable to earn their keep. coercion. One can make fertilizer. callous and reckless ways. by the man who wielded the ladle in the canteen. Dikötter stresses that. but actually you can. when ruminating about the dialectics of life and death. a death toll of 50 million people.Mao Zedong University argues that this quotation is taken out of context.
This accompanied a decline in state recognition Statue of Mao in Lijiang 26 . not Khrushchev.Mao Zedong thousands of exhausted villagers. in line with Mao's view of "Capitalist roaders" within the Communist Party. it could be half . There are 2. especially in manners of guerrilla warfare. and a third could be lost.7 billion people again" But historians dispute the sincerity of Mao's words. China itself has moved sharply away from Maoism since Mao's death. and most people outside of China who describe themselves as Maoist regard the Deng Xiaoping reforms to be a betrayal of Maoism. was the more determined revolutionary." The United States placed a trade embargo on the People's Republic as a result of its involvement in the Korean War. He also notes that "In a chilling precursor of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge. mainly in the Third World. artists and intellectuals and emptied its cities. As the Chinese government instituted free market economic reforms starting in the late 1970s and as later Chinese leaders took power. and least damaging socialist revolution carried out in any communist state. I say that if the worst came to the worst and one-half dies. with not only guerrilla warfare but more importantly. villagers in Qingshui and Gansu called these projects the 'killing fields'. USA also claims Marxism-Leninism-Maoism as its ideology. Mao also gave the impression that he might even welcome a nuclear war. as do other Communist Parties around the world which are part of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement. Cambodia's Pol Pot conceived of his disastrous Year Zero policies which purged the nation of its teachers. After a few years there would be 2. The Revolutionary Communist Party. most extensive. lasting until Richard Nixon decided that developing relations with the PRC would be useful in dealing with the Soviet Union. less recognition was given to the status of Mao. resulting in the Cambodian Genocide. the sabre-rattling was to show that he. If it is a little higher. Soviet historians have written that Mao believed his country could survive a nuclear war. Mao's major contribution to the military science is his theory of People's War.. and the Nepalese revolutionary movement.." while Frank Dikötter claims that "He was bluffing . even if it lost 300 million people.'" The ideology of Maoism has influenced many communists. Roderick MacFarquhar has stated: "What Mao accomplished between 1949 and 1956 was in fact the fastest. Mao had successfully applied Mobile Warfare in the Korean War.." Mao's poems and writings are frequently cited by both Chinese and non-Chinese. Under the influence of Mao's agrarian socialism and Cultural Revolution. push back and then halt the UN forces in Korea. "Let us imagine how many people would die if war breaks out. As an example. at which Mao is popularly regarded as a genius. saying "Remember the words of Chairman Mao: 'It's always darkest before it's totally black. John McCain misattributed a campaign quote to Mao several times during his 2008 presidential election bid. and was able to encircle.7 billion people in the world. despite the clear superiority of UN firepower. Peru's Shining Path." Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount of influence both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek to crush one.. but imperialism would be razed to the ground and the whole world would become socialist. including revolutionary movements such as Cambodia's Khmer Rouge. Mobile Warfare methodologies. there will still be one-half left. The official Chinese translation of President Barack Obama's inauguration speech used a famous line from one of Mao's poems. the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) followed Mao's examples of guerrilla warfare to considerable political and military success even in the 21st century. Robert Service says that Mao "was deadly serious.
has to a certain extent rejected Mao's legacy. Just like Che Guevara's image. Mao's granddaughter. the Chinese government has never officially repudiated the tactics of Mao. as a response to the Khrushchev Report that criticized Joseph Stalin. with the exception of a single mention in a section on etiquette. In 1962." Since 1950. his has become a symbol of revolutionary culture. Music from the period emphasized Mao's stature. Over the years. Mao also has a presence in China and around the world in popular culture. that he exists in people's consciousness and has influenced several generations of Chinese people's way of life. A line to enter Mao Zedong Mausoleum. In October 1966. badges and musical compositions referenced Mao in the phrase "Chairman Mao is the red sun in our hearts" (毛 主 席 是 我 们 心 中 的 红 太 阳. Numerous posters. a story in the People's Daily reported that a proposal had been made to print the portraits of Sun Yat-sen and Deng Xiaoping. who was opposed to the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. Kong Dongmei. 27 Public image Mao gave contradicting statements on the subject of personality cults. Mao stated that personality cults are "poisonous ideological survivals of the old society".Mao Zedong of Mao in later years in contrast to previous years when the state organized numerous events and seminars commemorating Mao's 100th birthday. Mao Zedong's picture began to appear on all new renminbi (人 民 幣) currency from the People's Republic of China. Mao's image became displayed almost everywhere. offices and shops. over 40 million people have visited Mao's birthplace in Shaoshan. Party members were encouraged to carry a copy with them and possession was almost mandatory as a criterion for membership. Mao's Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung. In 2006. Mao expressed support for the personality cults of people whom he labelled as genuinely worthy figures. This was officially instituted as an anti-counterfeiting measure as Mao's face is widely recognized in contrast to the generic figures that appear in older currency. stating that "it shows his influence. Rénmín De Dà Jiùxīng). as did children's rhymes. where his face adorns everything from t-shirts to coffee cups. and reaffirmed China's commitment to collective leadership. In the mid-1990s. present in homes. famously saying that Mao was "70% right and 30% wrong". defended the phenomenon. Deng Xiaoping. Large quantities of politicized art were produced and circulated — with Mao at the center. His quotations were typographically emphasized by putting them in boldface or red type in even the most obscure writings. 2006. Nevertheless. But at the 1958 Party congress in Chengdu. On March 13. the government in Shanghai issued a new set of high school history textbooks which omit Mao. Students in Shanghai now only learn about Mao in junior high school. not those that expressed "blind worship". Mao proposed the Socialist Education Movement (SEM) in an attempt to educate the peasants to resist the "temptations" of feudalism and the sprouts of capitalism that he saw re-emerging in the countryside from Liu's economic reforms. The phrase "Long Live Chairman Mao for ten thousand years" was commonly heard during the era. In 1955. which was known as the Little Red Book was published. Hunan. Máo Zhǔxí Shì Wǒmen Xīnzhōng De Hóng Tàiyáng) and a "Savior of the people" (人 民 的 大 救 星. .
younger brother. She was illiterate and a devout Buddhist. leaving the three brothers Mao Zedong. 1889 – 1910) of Shaoshan: married 1907 to 1910 2. Zemin's son. died Shaoshan January 23.Mao Zedong 28 Genealogy Ancestors His ancestors were: • Máo Yíchāng (毛 贻 昌. married 1939 to Mao's death. He became Mao Zedong's liaison with the Politburo in 1975. From the next generation. 1905–1929). Mao Zemin and Mao Zetan were communists. 1940s 4. paternal grandmother • Máo Zǔrén (毛 祖 人). 1919). 1905–1935). born Xiangxiang 1867. October 20. and four other children Mao with Jiang Qing and daughter Li Na. Li Min. adopted sister. paternal grandfather • Luó Shì (罗 氏). Like all three of Mao Zedong's wives. • Máo Ēnpǔ (毛 恩 普. These were: 1. paternal great-grandfather Wives Mao Zedong had four wives who provided a total of 10 children. father. 1901–1930) of Changsha: married 1921 to 1927. executed by the KMT Mao Zedong's parents altogether had five sons and two daughters. mother to Li Na Siblings He had several siblings: • Mao Zemin (毛 泽 民. Mao Anqing. She was a descendant of Wen Tianxiang. was raised by Mao Zedong's family. died November 23. 1846. executed by a warlord • Mao Zetan (毛 泽 覃. He Zizhen (贺 子 珍. courtesy name Máo Shùnshēng (毛 顺 生) or also known as Mao Jen-sheng • Wén Qīmèi(文 七 妹. born May 22. Mao Yuanxin played a role in the final power-struggles. Note that the character zé (泽) appears in all of the siblings' given names. younger brother. mother to Mao Anying. Mao Zemin. In Li Zhisui's The Private Life of Chairman Mao. 1904). executed by the KMT in 1930. 1914–1991). died October 5. 1870. 1920). Luo Yixiu (罗 一 秀. and Mao Anlong 3. executed by the KMT • Mao Zejian (毛 泽 建. Jiang Qing: (江 青. Like Yang Kaihui. Yang Kaihui (杨 开 慧. mother to Mao Anhong. Mao Yuanxin. . born Xiangtan October 15. both Zemin and Zetan were killed in warfare during Mao Zedong's lifetime. mother. Two of the sons and both daughters died young. 1895–1943). 1910–1984) of Jiangxi: married May 1928 to 1939. This is a common Chinese naming convention. and Mao Zetan.
who "tried his best to bring about prosperity and gain international respect" for China. Levine claimed that Mao was a "man of complex moods". 1923–2007): son to Yang. Two English researchers who retraced the entire Long March route in 2002–2003 located a woman whom they believe might well be one of the missing children abandoned by Mao to peasants in 1935. married to Shao Hua (邵 华). Alexander Pantsov and Steven I. This description was echoed by Sinologist Stuart Schram. Pinyin: Lĭ Nà. such as chain-smoking cigarettes." They noted that in early life. . 1922–1950): son to Yang. addiction to sleeping pills and large number of sexual partners. rural and unsophisticated" in origins.. married to Liú Sīqí (刘 思 齐). and purposeful hero. Ross Terrill noted Mao was a "son of the soil . 1932): son to He. Ed Jocelyn and Andrew McEwen hope a member of the Mao family will respond to requests for a DNA test. being "neither a saint nor a demon. Personal life Mao's private life was very secretive at the time of his rule. his personal physician Li Zhisui published The Private Life of Chairman Mao. 1940): daughter to Jiang (whose birth given name was Li. laziness. grandson Mao Xinyu (毛 新 宇). Mao spoke Mandarin with a heavy Xiang Chinese accent that is very pronounced on recordings of his speeches. married to Wáng Jǐngqīng (王 景 清). and that he "passionately desired fame and power". not bound by any moral chains". but opined that he was not the "kind of villain that his mentor Stalin was". but noted that he could also be ruthless. Lee Feigon noted that Mao's "earthiness" meant that he remained connected to "everyday Chinese life. rare bathing or dental habits. but who also noted that he showed no sign of taking pleasure in torture or killing in the revolutionary cause. b. and that as such he gathered around him "an extraordinarily wide range of friends" in his early years. after Mao's death. while Clare Hollingworth asserted he was proud of his "peasant ways and manners".Mao Zedong 29 Children Mao Zedong had a total of ten children. having a strong Hunanese accent and providing "earthy" comments on sexual matters." Biographer Peter Carter described Mao as having "an attractive personality" who could for much of the time be a "moderate and balanced man". who was born Liú Sōnglín (刘 松 林). killed in action during the Korean War • Mao Anqing (毛 岸 青. However. b. left to Mao's younger brother Zetan and then to one of Zetan's guards when he went off to war. Lee Feigon considered Mao "draconian and authoritarian" when threatened. 1936): daughter to He. died during the Chinese Civil War • Mao Anhong (b. was never heard of again • Li Min (李 敏. including: • Mao Anying (毛 岸 英. daughter Kǒng Dōngméi (孔 冬 梅) • Li Na (李 讷. and showed no mercy to his opponents. who emphasized Mao's ruthlessness. son Kǒng Jìníng (孔 继 宁). Their youngest daughter (born in early 1938 in Moscow after Mao separated) and one other child (born 1933) died in infancy. he strived to be "a strong. great-grandson Mao Dongdong • Mao Anlong (1927–1931): son to Yang. Carter noted that throughout his life. married to Kǒng Lìnghuá (孔 令 华). wilful. a memoir which mentions some aspects of Mao's private life. son Wáng Xiàozhī (王 效 芝) Mao's first and second daughters were left to local villagers because it was too dangerous to raise them while fighting the Kuomintang and later the Japanese. Having grown up in Hunan.. a name also used by Mao while evading the KMT). Mao had the ability to gain people's trust.
among . These include: • On Guerrilla Warfare (《 游 击 战 》). There currently exist various competitions specializing in Mao-style calligraphy. Some of his most well-known poems are: Changsha (1925). Mao received rigorous education in Chinese classical literature. Tang Guoqiang. The PLA Captures Nanjing (1949). 1937 • On Practice (《 实 践 论 》). in the films The Long March (1996) and The Founding of a Republic (2009). and Ode to the Plum Blossom (1961.11). Gu Yue. In China. known in the West as the "Little Red Book" and in Cultural Revolution China as the "Red Treasure Book" (红 宝 书): this is a collection of short extracts from his speeches and articles. who had portrayed Mao 84 times on screen throughout his 27-year career and had won the Best Actor title at the Hundred Flowers Awards in 1990 and 1993. 1939 • On New Democracy (《 新 民 主 主 义 论 》). which has gained increasing popularity since his death.Mao Zedong 30 Writings and calligraphy Mao was a prolific writer of political and philosophical literature. Mao's calligraphy: A bronze plaque of a poem by Li Bai. (Chinese: 白 帝 城 毛 泽 东 手 书 李白诗铜匾 Literary works As did most Chinese intellectuals of his generation. and the television series Huang Yanpei (2010). in a 1978 drama Dielianhua and later again in a 1980 film Cross the Dadu River. Mao's calligraphy of his poem "Qingyuanchun Changsha" Portrayal in film and television Mao has been portrayed in film and television numerous times. 1940 • Talks at the Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art (《 在 延 安 文 艺 座 谈 会 上 的 讲 话 》). His calligraphy can be seen today throughout mainland China.10). He is considered to be a romantic poet.05.12). 1937 • On Contradiction (《 矛 盾 论 》). Some notable actors include: Han Shi. Snow (1936). The Long March (1935). Mao wrote several other philosophical treatises. His work gave rise to a new form of Chinese calligraphy called "Mao-style" or Maoti. 1938 • In Memory of Norman Bethune (《 纪 念 白 求 恩 》). both before and after he assumed power. He is the attributed author of Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung. Loushan Pass (1935). 1942 • Serve the People (《 为 人 民 服 务 》).Wikipedia:Avoid weasel words Many of Mao's poems are still popular in China and a few are taught as a mandatory part of the elementary school curriculum. 1957 Mao was also a skilled Chinese calligrapher with a highly personal style. 1944 • The Foolish Old Man Who Removed the Mountains (《 愚 公 移 山 》). who played a young Mao in The Founding of a Party (2011). 1945 • On the Correct Handling of the Contradictions Among the People (《 正 确 处 理 人 民 内 部 矛 盾 问 题 》). Liu Ye. His style was deeply influenced by the great Tang Dynasty poets Li Bai and Li He. edited by Lin Biao and ordered topically. Reply to Li Shuyi (1957. The Double Ninth (1929. Mao was considered a master calligrapher during his lifetime. who has frequently portrayed Mao in more recent times. in contrast to the realist poets represented by Du Fu. 1937 • On Protracted War (《 论 持 久 战 》). the first actor ever to have portrayed Mao.
” which stated Tibet as part of China and in return. . . .  . wordpress. The PLA treated Ngapo and his men well with respect. . 2002. China.Mao Zedong others. political and military strategist of cunning intellect. 1991. the Chinese communists' murdering of a mind-boggling number of people. .."  Rummel. fourwinds10.  . . With discouragingly lack of support from the rest of the world. . References Footnotes  The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. J. statesman.  . Ngapo wrote to Lhasa suggesting a peaceful surrender or “liberation” instead of war. his goal became to unite the “five races” under the big family. . . Tibet would be granted autonomy.  .  . ."  http:/ / www.  . com/ books?id=ffZy5tDjaUkC& pg=PA254& dq=China's+ population+ almost+ doubled+ during+ the+ period+ of+ Mao's+ leadership& hl=en& sa=X& ei=Clu5UMG6H4j28wTk2oDQDQ& ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=China's population almost doubled during the period of Mao's leadership& f=false)  "Mao had an extraordinary mix of talents: he was visionary. ISBN 1-58648-769-8 p.  . ISBN 0-521-12433-6. edu/ powerkills/ NOTE2. . hawaii.  . . pp. With new orders. Ngapo had orders to hold the position while reinforcements was coming from the Lhasa and fight off the Chinese. . “It is up to you to choose whether Tibet would be liberated peacefully or by force. com/ 2008/ 11/ 24/ getting-my-reestimate-of-maos-democide-out/ ). the Tibetan government in Lhasa (Tibet) sent a representative. It is only matter of sending a telegram to PLA group to recommence their march to Lhasa. On October 16. google. .2 million Tibetans. and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity. by Patricia Buckley Ebrey. . the Dalai Lama on August 1951. link (http:/ / books. 1950. . which can block the route to Lhasa. Oxford University Press US.  . Ngapo and his men retreated to a monastery where the PLA finally surrounded them.  . by Patrick Karl O'Brien. Worse Than War: Genocide.  . and an additional 1. China's Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900 (http:/ / www.  .  .. . Eliminationism. 327  Atlas of World History. Riwoche.  . a strategically high valued town near the border. HTM) Transaction Publishers. . 31 Mao and Tibet After Mao Zedong won the Chinese civil war in 1949. . . 2009. php?q=1357575447  . Cambridge University Press. pp 254. perhaps between 50 million and 70 million Chinese.  . net/ siterun_data/ health/ intentional_death/ news.  . Rummel has increased Mao's democide toll to 77 million (http:/ / democraticpeace. Aware of Mao’s vision. 2010.” Ngapo accepted Mao’s “Seventeen-Point Agreement. PublicAffairs. 53: ". news came that the PLA is advancing towards Chamdo and has also taken another strategic town named.. R.  . Ngapo Ngawang Jigme to Chamdo. 205: In light of recent evidence. sent a telegram to Mao accepting the Seventeen-Point Agreement. Daniel Jonah Goldhagen. ISBN 0-88738-417-X p. During the negotiation.  . the Chinese negotiator laid the cards straight on the table. ISBN 0-19-521921-X. Kham. a philosopher and poet.
. reprinting Ch 2 of Elizabeth J. japanfocus.  .. .. Mao Tse-Tung and I Were Beggars. . ISBN 978-0-520-27189-0. N.. Perry.  . . 2012. .  ... .  .. .  .  .  }.. org/ -Elizabeth-Perry/ 3882).  . (Berkeley: University of California Press. .  . Anyuan: Mining China's Revolutionary Tradition.  .  .: Syracuse University Press.. . .  . .  .  ... .  .  ..  .1 (January 14. ... ..  .  ..  . . . ([Syracuse. .  Elizabeth J. . .  . . .. .. .  ..  .. see also Hsiao Yu (Xiao Yu). 1959).. .  .  . .  . .Mao Zedong                       ..  .  .  .  . . .  . 2013).  . Perry..Y. 32  .  .." The Asia-Pacific Journal 11. . . . . . "Anyuan: Mining China's Revolutionary Tradition (http:/ / www.
 ..  .": see .  . 1976 33 . jonathanwatts)" The Guardian.  . literaryreview.  Granddaughter Keeps Mao's Memory Alive in Bookshop (http:/ / in.  . W. China Misperceived: American Illusions and Chinese Reality. says Mao confidant (http:/ / www. The New York Times. 1."  Steven W. Press. June 2. September 25. 1992. " China must confront dark past.  . . the estimate of many relatively impartial observers that there were 2. 2008. uk/ world/ 2005/ jun/ 02/ china. 2006  Mark O'Neill. org/ newsinfo. Mosher.000 people executed during the first three years of the People's Republic is probably as accurate a guess as one can make on the basis of scanty information. thtml). ISBN 0-674-07608-7 p.. com/ dikotter/ Dikotter/ Famine_2.  Steven W. Monthly Review.  : "Together with Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler."  : "By 1952 they had extended land reform throughout the countryside. Mao got this number from a report submitted by Xu Zirong. September 21. 1992. co. google. 349.. pp.290.. China: A New History. Terror.  . p. Jean-Louis Margolin.  .  .000.  . Mosher.725): *Mao CCRM.  " Mao Tse-Tung: Father of Chinese Revolution (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-393-92492-0 p. 203–4 (E: MacFarquhar et al.  For a full treatment of this idea. nytimes. (http:/ / www. ca/ books?id=mCKPmUzKeZUC& pg=PA428). 72: ". vol. A hunger for the truth: A new book. Livelihood Issues. Center for Asian Studies Arizona State University.  . ISBN 0-465-09813-4 pp 72. 494–5)]. 2003.000 were imprisoned.  . spectator. co.  Mao Zedong sixiang wan sui! (1969). see  Jonathan Mirsky. 230  Stéphane Courtois. Deputy Public Security Minister. 2004. . but in the process somewhere between two and five million landlords had been killed. Norton & Co. com/ article/ entertainmentNews/ idINIndia-42756920090928?sp=true) by Maxim Duncan. Key Arguments (http:/ / web. 2006.Mao Zedong  . Systematic genocide (http:/ / www.W. Harvard University Press. 195.  Jasper Becker. com/ learning/ general/ onthisday/ bday/ 1226.  . Deaths in China Due to Communism. Basic Books. 1999. China Misperceived: American Illusions and Chinese Reality. html) Literary Review  .  . September 10. 2010. (Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.  . ISBN 0-939252-11-2 pg 24  .. Basic Books. ISBN 0-684-85635-2 p.  .  Frank Dikötter.  . 428 (http:/ / books. org/ commentary/ did-mao-really-kill-millions-in-the-great-leap-forward) by Joseph Ball.200. Referenced in Governing China: From Revolution to Reform (Second Edition) by Kenneth Lieberthal. 465–466  MacFarquhar & Schoenhals. . 2002).000 were "subjected to control. is becoming the definitive account of the Great Famine. September 28. 2005  [Chang's source (p.  See for example. Mao's Great Famine. ."  John Fairbank and Merle Goldman. 71.  Maurice Meisner. Mao's China and After: A History of the People's Republic. chinaelections. uk/ mirsky_09_10. html)  Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward? (http:/ / monthlyreview. July 6. et al. Reuters. ISBN 0-465-09813-4 pg 74: ". (http:/ / en. uk/ books/ 6296363/ part_2/ systematic-genocide-. mac. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes. banned on the mainland. p. The Spectator. Mao appears destined to go down in history as one of the great tyrants of the twentieth century"  Michael Lynch. which stated 712. co. Repression. a figure that Fairbank has cited as the upper range of "sober" estimates. Mao (Routledge Historical Biographies). asp?newsid=18328#) South China Morning Post. pp. 13. Routledge. Free. . and another 1.. p. 1984. 2009  Jonathan Watts.  . html)". Third Edition. 73  Stephen Rosskamm Shalom. reuters.  . 1999. guardian.000 counterrevolutionaries were executed.
sogou. by Ed Jocelyn and Andrew McEwen.com/ books?id=iC4g0gXBmIkC). ISBN 978-0-670-88669-2. February 23. • Gao. Princeton University Press.  In "The East is Red" (). Yang (March 2008). London: Jonathan Cape. 34 Bibliography • Carter. asp?ArticleID=14617)  The Long March. Peter (1976).nytimes. Levine. "Reconsidering the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries" (http:// journals. Ross (1980). org/ pdf/ 2 .Part 2 . Daniel (1996). The China Quarterly (193): 102–121.. britishmuseum. ISBN 978-0224017608 Check |isbn= value (help). Roderick. Praeger. • Chang. The Battle for China's Past: Mao and the Cultural Revolution. Mao: A Biography. London: Pluto Press.S. CA: Stanford University Press. • Terrill. The Private Life of Chairman Mao: The Memoirs of Mao's Personal Physician.google. Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe. Comrades!: A History of World Communism. 1988. google. ISBN 0-8050-5668-8. Mao's Last Revolution. p. alk. Zhisui (1994). ISBN 978-0-224-07126-0. Mao and the Men Against Him. Cornell University Press. Clare (1985). (2012). Constable 2006  Li. New York: Viking Press.  Chapter 5: "Mao Badges – Visual Imagery and Inscriptions" (http:/ / www. 2007. which is superseded by Ross Terrill.Mao Zedong  " Mao Reportedly Sought to A-Bomb U. (2004). com/ f?s=Î¡Î¡À¥ÂØ& t=TP$TmyfqIOaxV6GBAAAA& page=1#flB8). ISBN 978-0-14-020840-5. chinapoet. ISBN 978-0674027480 0-6 74-02332-3 Check |isbn= value (help). gov. Lay summary (http://www. 1994. net/ bbs/ thread-61611-1-1.com/books?id=4y6mACbLWGsC). Troops (http:/ / articles. p 200. See lyrics and English translation at ChinaPoet.net (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-1-4516-5447-9. ISBN 978-1-56663-458-8. • Feigon. (http:/ / books.google.06burnst. ISBN 0-691-02777-3. International Maoism in the developing world. latimes. 2000). Jung.. Lee (2002). com/ 1988-02-23/ news/ mn-44747_1_nuclear-weapons)". • Becker. pdf) in: Helen Wang: Chairman Mao badges: symbols and Slogans of the Cultural Revolution (British Museum Research Publication 169). Jasper (1998). 321. . Mao: A Reinterpretation. Frank (2010). Penguin Lives. London: Random House. • Pantsov. Jonathan (1999). Retrieved August 24. Jon (2005). • Chirot. Mao. Mobo (2008). Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. • Schram.html) (February 6. Owl Books. Schoenhals. • Dikötter. • Hollingworth. Halliday. • Valentino. OCLC 41641238 (http://www. • Kuisong. Holt Paperbacks.google. London: Walker & Company. cn/ Article/ ShowArticle. Mao: A Biography. ISBN 978-0-8050-6638-8.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=1809180) (PDF). A&E Network.cambridge. Mao: A Life (http://books. Modern tyrants: the power and prevalence of evil in our age (http://books. com/ books?id=Frgm5QodnFoC& lpg=PP1& dq=editions:Frgm5QodnFoC& pg=PA321#v=onepage& q& f=false) Harvard University Press. The Trustees of the British Museum. 2008. Mao Tse-Tung.worldcat. 1958–62. paper).  Biography (TV series): Pol Pot. ISBN 0-674-02530-X  Robert Jackson Alexander. ISBN 0-8027-7768-6.com/books?id=LQfeXVU_EvgC). Michael (2006).  (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0-86159-169-5. Benjamin A. ISBN 0-8047-2921-2 (pbk.google. London: Simon & Schuster.net (http:/ / bbs. Steven I. ISBN 978-0701140186 Check |isbn= value (help). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century (http:// books. Philip (2001).org/oclc/41641238). Cambridge. • Short.Mao badges with low res image of poster.. Mao: The Unknown Story. • Spence.  Robert Service. an anthem that was popular during the Cultural Revolution. Mao: The Real Story. Simon and Schuster. • MacFarquhar. ISBN 978-0192731408 Check |isbn= value (help).com/ books/00/02/06/reviews/000206. ISBN 978-0-7453-2780-8. Alexander V. New York and London: Simon & Schuster.com/ books?id=e-kVgozyE8gC). Chicago: Ivan R. 1999. Stuart (1966). Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine (http://books. • Li. 1999. (Stanford. London: Oxford University Press. Mao Zedong. Dee. shaoshan. 2009. London: Jonathan Cape. 2003. ISBN 0-8014-3965-5. html) or Sogou. Los Angeles Times.
people.com/eric-margolis/ remembering-chinas-great_b_303107.htm) • Propaganda paintings showing Mao as the great leader of China (http://artchina.de/international/world/0.marxists. jonathanwatts) • Mao was cruel – but also laid the ground for today's China (http://www.biography.uk/world/2005/jun/02/china.nybooks. 35 External links General • • • • • • • • Asia Source biography (http://www.cfm) ChineseMao.org/society/mao. php?params=Mao Zedong_CATEGORY_0) • Remembering Mao's Victims (http://www.imdb.fr/items/creasite. A&E Network. says Mao confidant (http://www.monthlyreview.org/commentary/ did-mao-really-kill-millions-in-the-great-leap-forward) .oxfordreference.amazon.com. Killer.cpc.cnn.00.org (http://www.org/reference/archive/mao/index. Icon (http://www.cn/66095/ 4468893.1518.50/inside.uk/COLDmao.com/dp/ B000AABKXG). Keith.com/video/hulu/ vi3081083673/) (Television production).uk/commentisfree/2007/ jan/18/comment.co.spiegel.asiasource.org) • What Maoism Has Contributed (http://www.html) Mao Zedong Reference Archive at marxists.htm) Oxford Companion to World Politics: Mao Zedong (http://www.chinesemao.do?name=politicalfigures& bcpid=1740037438&bclid=1774292646&bctid=1731352871) • Mao's Great Leap to Famine (http://www.com/pages/samplep02) Spartacus Educational biography (http://www.htm) • Bio of Mao at the official Communist Party of China web site (http://english.html) • Mao Tse Tung: Leader. Mao Tse Tung: China's Peasant Emperor (http://www.com/blogs/nyrblog/2010/dec/20/ finding-facts-about-maos-victims/) • Remembering China's Great Helmsman (http://www.org/Politics/MIM/ classics/mao/index.html) • Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward? (http://monthlyreview.co.etext. ASIN B000AABKXG (http://www.huffingtonpost.monthlyreview.com/) CNN profile (http://www. Twentieth Century China: A History in Documents.com/2010/12/16/opinion/16iht-eddikotter16.nytimes.china/profiles/mao.schoolnet.org/0906amin.com: Extensive resources about Mao Zedong (http://www.483023.html) • Finding the Facts About Mao's Victims (http://www.guardian.Mao Zedong • "Biography" (2005).guardian. R. (http://chairmanmaozedong.spartacus. military influence and writings of Chairman Mao ZeDong. Oxford: Oxford UP.org/0904hinton.tsetung/) Collected Works of Mao at the Maoist Internationalist Movement (http://www.com/art/omaotoc.com/SPECIALS/1999/china.html) Mao quotations (http://art-bin. 2004.co.free. • Schoppa.com/video.html) Commentary • Discusses the life.htm) • China must confront dark past. Retrieved 18 January 2013.china) • On the Role of Mao Zedong (http://www.
Mao Zedong 36 Party political offices Communist Party of China Preceded by Zhu De Preceded by Zhang Wentian as General Secretary Post established Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission 1936–1949 Leader of the Communist Party of China 1943–1976 Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China 1945–1976 Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission 1954–1976 Political offices People's Republic of China New title Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Chinese Soviet Republic 1931–1937 Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Chinese Soviet Republic 1931–1934 Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference 1949–1954 Chairman of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China 1949–1954 Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Military Council of the Central People's Government 1949–1954 Head of the People's Republic of China 1949–1959 Preceded by Himself as Chairman of the Central People's Government Chairman of the People's Republic of China 1954–1959 Chinese Soviet Republic disbanded Succeeded by Zhang Wentian Succeeded by Zhou Enlai Succeeded by Himself as Chairman of the People's Republic of China Succeeded by Himself as Chairman of the National Defence Commission Succeeded by Liu Shaoqi Succeeded by Hua Guofeng Succeeded by Himself as Post re-established Succeeded by Hua Guofeng Preceded by Himself as Post re-established Academic offices Preceded by Deng Fa President of the CPC Central Party School 1943–1947 Succeeded by Liu Shaoqi .
Brian0324.. Autocratique. Glaurung. GorillaWarfare. Donieve123. Asav. Plastikspork. Hydrargyrum. From the Sidelines. Moink. Arakunem. BrJon. Lenerd. John of Reading. DocWatson42. Dothiwhoareyou. Pete. Clownsarescary.Article Sources and Contributors 37 Article Sources and Contributors Mao Zedong Source: http://en. HistoryOne. Onyx65. Eugene-elgato. Christopher Parham. Jemappelleungarcon. A455bcd9. Alex. 16cheungk1. Bornsommer. Jsayre64. Neier. Meananteater12. Llamabob89080989. Plange. Captain Wikify. Emmancipator. Griffin. Grstain. Dreadstar. Kinamand. Fallout boy. Kozlovesred. Jrdioko. Anclation. Fennessy. Brighterorange.Beaz. Doulos Christos. Andrewrp. Entenman. Only. Facial. Calvin Marquess. Laurinavicius. Lhimec. Josh829. DaisukeVulgar. Damicatz. Colonel Bask. FeanorStar7. Dave souza. John. Populus. AYOBABYGURL. Goatasaur. Calvados. Kalmia. AdultSwim. Korath. Mentifisto. Aecis. Janko. No substitute for you. ASDFGH. Khazar2. Icarusgeek. MarquisCostello. OlEnglish. Bizcallers. CTSCo. 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