Taal Volcano is a complex volcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines.

Historical eruptions are concentrated on Volcano Island, an island near the middle of Lake Taal. The lake partially fills Taal [1] Caldera, which was formed by powerful prehistoric eruptions between 140,000 to 5,380 BP. Viewed from Tagaytay Ridge, Taal Volcano and Lake presents one of the most picturesque and attractive views [2] in the Philippines. It is located about 50 km (31 mi) south of the capital of the country, the city of Manila. The volcano had several violent eruptions in the past causing loss of life in the island and the populated areas surrounding the lake, with the death toll estimated at around 5,000 to 6,000. Because of its proximity to populated areas and its eruptive history, the volcano was designated a Decade Volcano, worthy of close study to prevent future natural disasters. It is one of the active volcanoes in the Philippines and part of the Pacific ring of fire.
Contents
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1 Geography 2 Recent activity

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2.1 2011 2.2 2010 2.3 2009 2.4 2008

3 Geological history 4 Eruption history

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4.1 The 1754 eruption 4.2 1911 eruption

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4.2.1 Death toll 4.2.2 Observations on the Volcano Island after the eruption 4.2.3 Changes on the crater after the eruption 4.2.4 Vulcan Point

4.3 1965 to 1977 eruption

5 Eruption precursors at Taal

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5.1 Other possible precursors

6 Images 7 See also 8 References 9 Other references 10 External links

[edit]Geography Taal Volcano and Lake are wholly located in the province of Batangas. The northern half of Volcano Island falls under the jurisdiction of the lake shore town ofTalisay, and the southern half to San Nicolas. The other towns that encircle Taal Lake include Tanauan, Talisay, Laurel, Agoncillo, Santa [3] Teresita, Alitagtag,Cuenca, Lipa, Balete and Mataas na Kahoy. Permanent settlement in the island is prohibited by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology or PHIVOLCS, declaring the whole Volcano Island as a high-risk area and a Permanent [4] Danger Zone (PDZ). Despite the warnings, poor families have settled on the island, risking their lives, [5][6][7][8] earning a living by fishing and farming crops from the rich volcanic soil. [edit]Recent

activity

Although the volcano has been quiet since 1977, it has shown signs of unrest since 1991, with strong seismic activity and ground fracturing events, as well as the formation of small mud pots and mud geysers on parts of the island. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) [9] regularly issues notices and warnings about current activity at Taal, including ongoing seismic unrest. [edit]2011   5 Jul. Alert Level was lowered from 2 to 1 after 11 weeks (April 9) of increased activity. 1 Jun. Alert Level 2. Volcanic earthquakes (24 hrs) = 22. (2) Intensity II earthquakes in the eastern sector of volcano accompanied by rumbling sounds. Bubbling activity observed in the middle of Main Crater Lake. 31 May. Alert Level 2. Volcanic earthquakes (24 hrs) = 31. (1) Intensity I and (2) Intensity II earthquakes, NE & SE sector of volcano accompanied by rumbling sounds. 30 May. Alert Level 2. Volcanic earthquakes (24 hrs) = 115. (1) Intensity I, (9) Intensity II, (1) Intensity III, and (1) Internsity IV earthquakes, NE, SW & SE sector of volcano accompanied by rumbling sounds. 29 May. Alert Level 2. Volcanic earthquakes (24 hrs) = 10. 28 May. Alert Level 2. Volcanic earthquakes (24 hrs) = 6. Magma has been intruding towards the surface, as indicated by continuing high rates of CO2 emissions in the Main Crater Lake and sustained seismic activity. Field measurements on 24 May 2011 show lake temperatures slightly increased, pH values slightly more acidic and water levels 4 cm higher. A ground deformation survey conducted around the Volcano Island 26 April - 3 May 2011 showed that the volcano edifice inflated [10] slightly relative to the 05-11 April 2011 survey. 22 May. Alert level 2. Volcanic earthquakes (25 hrs) = 5.
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10 Apr. Alert Level 2. The main crater, Daang Kastila Trail, and Mt Tabaro are strictly off-limits to the public because sudden hazardous steam-driven explosions could occur. Breathing air with high concentration of gases can be lethal to humans, animals and can even damage vegetation, the [12] agency warned

[edit]2010  8 June. PHIVOLCS raised the volcano status to Alert Level 2 (scale is 0-5, 0 referring to No Alert status), which indicates the volcano is undergoing magmatic intrusion which could eventually lead to
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an eruption. PHIVOLCS reminds the general public that the Main Crater remains off-limits because hazardous steam-driven explosions may occur, along with the possible build-up of toxic gases. Areas with hot ground and steam emission such as portions of the Daang Kastila Trail are considered [14] hazardous.  11–24 May. Crater lake temperature increased by 2-3°C. The composition of Main Crater Lake water has shown above normal values of Mg/Cl, SO4/Cl and Total Dissolved Solids. There has been ground steaming accompanied by hissing sounds on the northern and northeast sides of the main crater. 26 April. Volcanic seismicity had increased.

[edit]2009  20 July. National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) executive officer Glenn Rabonza warned that although there were no volcanic quakes detected at Taal since the detection of nine volcanic quakes from June 13 to July 19, and there had been no steaming activity monitored since last recorded on June 23, Phivolcs Alert stands at Level 1, warning that Taal’s main crater is off -limits to the public because steam explosions may suddenly occur or high concentrations of toxic gases may [citation needed] accumulate.

Taal Volcano provides a picturesque view from Tagaytay City.

[edit]2008  28 August. PHIVOLCS notified the public and concerned authorities that the Taal seismic network recorded ten (10) volcanic earthquakes from 5:30 AM to 3 PM. Two (2) of these quakes that occurred at 12:33 and 12:46 PM, were both felt at intensity II by residents at barangay Pira-piraso. These quakes were accompanied by rumbling sounds. The events were located northeast of the volcano island near Daang Kastila area with depths of approximately 0.6 km (12:33 PM) and 0.8 km (12:46 [15] PM)"

[edit]Geological

history

Taal Volcano is part of a chain of volcanoes along the western side of the edge of the island of Luzon, which were formed by the subduction of the Eurasian Plate underneath the Philippine Mobile Belt. Taal Lake lies within a 25–30 km caldera formed by four explosive eruptions between 500,000 and 100,000 years ago. Each of these eruptions created extensive ignimbrite deposits, reaching as far away as [citation needed] where Manila stands today.

From 1605 to 1611. known as Volcano Island. . While this outbreak was not as violent as the one in 1754. The eruptions of 1707 and 1715 occurred in Binitiang Malaki crater (the cinder cone visible from Tagaytay). It brought great changes in the interior of the crater. Batangas). [18] one of which was especially remarkable for its size. Then came the great 200-day eruption of 1754. within the caldera. Minor eruptions also emanated from the Binintiang Munti crater on the westernmost tip of the island in 1709 and 1729. The height of the crater walls has diminished and near the center of the new crater floor. and it was remembered for being particularly violent (VEI = 4). when the whole southeastern portion of the crater (Calauit). After the eruption. the center of activity shifted from the Main Crater to other parts of Volcano Island.Since the formation of the caldera.9 sq mi). The first eruption of which there is any record occurred in 1572. the volcano displayed such great activity that [17] Father Torna de Abreu had a huge cross of anubing wood erected on the brink of the crater. or just a pumice raft. the year the Agustinian friars founded the town of Taal on the shores of the lake (on what is now San Nicolas. Taal remained quiet for 54 years except for a minor eruption in 1790. A more violent activity happened on September 24. Forty-seven different cones and craters have been [16] identified on the island. a little hill that continually emitted smoke. but at the bottom. was blown out. The dormant Binintiang Malaki (Big Leg) Crater is the center of the 1707 & 1715 eruption. the crater had widened and the pond within it had been reduced to one-third and the rest of the crater floor was higher and dry enough to walk over it. In 1591. This island covers an area of about 23 square kilometres (8. opposite Mount Macolod. Before. the immediate vicinity were covered with ashes to a depth of 84 centimetres (33 in). the greatest eruption of Taal which is described [16][17] below. 1716. another mild eruption took place featured by great masses of smoke issuing forth from the crater. [edit]Eruption history There have been 33 recorded eruptions at Taal since 1572. The 1731 eruption [18] off Pira-Piraso or eastern tip of the island created an island. according to chroniclers of that time. a liquid mass was seen in continual ebullition. Between 1707 and 1731. Activity returned to the Main Crater in 1749. subsequent eruptions have created another volcanic island. and consists of overlapping cones and craters. On its sides were several wells. not until March 1808 did another big eruption occur. No studies had been done to determine whether Napayon or Bubuin Island was formed in the eruption. the bottom looked very deep and seemed unfathomable.

Buencuchillo. the volcano never ceased to eject fire and mud of such bad character that the best ink does not cause so black a stain. Another eruption took place in 1904 as a result of which a new outlet was formed in the southeastern wall of the principal crater. rocks. 1754. 1873. On November 15. it vomited enormous boulders which rolling down the slopes of the island. The last eruption from the Main Crater was in 1911 which obliterated the crater floor creating the present lake. 1825. 1970. 1645. ejecting fire. During the night of September 25. 1635. In 1965. created the impression of a large river of fire. there frequently formed thunderstorms. the volcano quite unexpectedly commenced to roar and emit. that within the black column of smoke issuing from the volcano ever since June 2. 1967. and it was even feared that the catastrophe might involve the shores of the lake. the fire emitted was quite extraordinary and accompanied by terrifying rumblings. 1976 and 1977. 1790. The depth of the layer of ashes and stones exceeded two "cuartas" (45 centimeters). From the said 2nd of June until September 25. 1969. Eruptions have also been recorded in 1634. 1966. ashes ejected by the volcano covered the entire island. and it happened that the huge tempest cloud would scarcely ever disappear during two months. 1878. though not sufficiently to offer any prospect of tranquility. In fact. falling back upon the island and rolling down the slopes of the mountain. and mud in greater quantities than ever before. Part of these eject had also reached the hamlet of Bayuyungan and completely destroyed it. giving to the whole region an aspect as if a devastating conflagration had swept over it. The volcano continued thus until June 2. 1641. moving activity to a new eruption center. Mount Tabaro. During the following days there appeared in the lake a large quantity of pumice stone which had been ejected by the volcano. After this the volcano calmed down considerably. The following is the narrative account of Fr. The strangest thing was. 1903. during the night of which the eruption reached such proportions that the falling ejecta made the entire island appear to be on fire. sky-high.On July 19. From November 12 to 15. at about 9 or 10 o'clock in the night. a huge explosion sliced off a huge part of the island. parish priest of Sala. 1968. and the result was that there was neither tree nor other plant which it did not ruin or crush. an eruption of gases and ashes killed all the live stock on the island. and stationed at Taal at that time: On May 15. [16][19] 1885. Taal resumed its former fury. some weaker buildings collapsed. During the night of November 1. Some of the major eruptions are described below: [edit]The 1754 eruption Taal Volcano's greatest recorded eruption occurred in 1754 which lasted from May 15 to December 1. 1874. fell into the lake and caused huge waves [note(added by . burning flames intermixed with glowing rocks which. 1842. sand. At daybreak of September 26 we found ourselves forced to abandon our dwelling for fear lest the roofs come down upon us under the weight of ashes and stones which had fallen upon them during that hapless night.

ejecting immense masses of material. at about 8 o'clock. Shortly afterward the volcano suddenly subsided almost suddenly. during which the volcano vomited forth such masses of fire and ejecta that in my opinion. but on this occasion we resolved that the entire population retire to the Sanctuary of Casaysay.Saderra Maso): The waves mentioned were most probably due to the earthquake rather than to the falling rocks]. The . We left the town. a fact which I had failed to notice during the excitement and fear of the flight. returned on the following day. Now I also observed that the earth was in continuous. if taken together. From this spot the volcano could be contemplated with a little more serenity of mind. the 29th. would not equal the quantity which issued at the time. we halted in a hut to rest a little and take some food. I came upon a woman who was so exhausted by her burden of two little children and a bundle of clothing that she could proceed no farther. shouted to all those who were still in the town to take to flight and we all ran off in a hurry. The paroxysms were accompanied by swaying motions of the ground which caused all the houses of the town to totter. therefore. stopped short when I took him into mine and never uttered a sound while I was carrying him a good piece of the way. with incessant fear lest the raging waters of the lake overtake us. otherwise we would have been engulfed on the spot. Moved by pity. to the town with the intention of surveying the havoc wrought during the preceding night. sweeping away everything they encountered. The 29th had dawned calm. as the waves of the angry lake began already to flood the houses nearest to the beach. we heard a crash and then I noticed that smoke was rising from the point of the island that looks towards east. I. I took one of the toddlers from her and carried him. It still continued in full fury. Having reached a secure place on elevated ground at a distance of about half a league (2 kilometers) from the town. We had already abandoned our habitation and were living in a tower which appeared to offer greater security. The cloud of ejecta. fleeing this living picture of Sodom. which were at the moment invading the main part of the town. carried on by the wind. and violent shocks of earthquakes underneath. and the little indio who has been wailing while in the arms of his mother. but while we were still trying to persuade ourselves that the tragedy was over and the volcano had exhausted its bowels. All this was accompanied by terrific lightning and thunder above. increasing every moment in volume. We. The columns of fire and smoke ascended higher than ever before. there being not the smallest portion of the latter which was not covered by the smoke and the glowing rocks and ashes. At 7 in the evening of November 28 occurred a new paroxysm. swaying motion. all the material ejected during so many months. therefore. On the outskirts of the town. and setting fire to the whole island. only the "Administrator" and myself to remain on the spot. extended itself toward west and south with the result that we saw already some stones fall close to our shore. its top was clear and apparently calm.

Fr. All the rest. Nor could we use artificial light as this was extinguished by the wind and copious ashes which penetrated everywhere. nothing was left of it except the walls of the church and convento. The first of December broke somewhat clear and our eyes contemplated everywhere ruins and destruction. I mounted a horse and retired permanently to the Sanctuary of Caysasay. Between 3 and 4 o'clock in the afternoon of the said 29th. During the night of the 30th we had not a moment of repose. everything was buried beneath a layer of stones. it began to rain mud and ashes at Caysasay [12 miles from the volcano] and this rain lasted three days. burying us alive beneath their weight. an explosion might follow. the roof of their kitchen gave away with a thud. mud. On the 3rd and 4th we had a formidable typhoon.the only ones who were at the time in the Convento of Caysasay. the Alcalde. we 3 Europeans . carrying the ejecta toward Balayan. the walks of the rope factory. while there were many whiffs issuing from points in the direction of another headland. and awaited there whatever God might dispose with regard to us. Prior. took refuge on the landing of the stairs. Soon afterward I resolved to visit my town of Taal. the only remnant of a . and feared that the turn of the convento and the church of Casasay would come in next. I realized that the island had opened in these places and fearing that. To all this was added incessant thunder and lightning. while new continued to fall on that day and the following.10 m] thick. The most terrifying circumstance was that the whole sky was shrouded in such darkness that we could not have seen the hand placed before the face. and ashes piled upon them. We caused the bulk of the material to be removed. Both were tile roofs. the warehouse. But fearing that even these precautions might prove unavailing. and it was almost a miracle that the roof of the church and convento sustained so great a weight. mud.smoke spread very gradually as far as the crater of the volcano. as every moment we heard the loud crush of houses collapsing under of stones. as the safest place. and it really looked as if the world was going to pieces and its axis had been displaced. on which latter the direction of the wind changed. and ashes more than 10 spans [2.20 m] thick. much more formidable than the preceding ones. All was horror those three days. had it not been for the sinister glare of incessant lightnings. the government house.viz. Shortly before daybreak of December 1 there was a tremendous crash as if the house were coming down on our heads: the roof of the apse of the church had caved in! Not long afterward. The layer of ashes and mud was more than 5 spans [1. and myself . only here and there could be seen an upright post. which appeared rather like murky nights and we did not occupy ourselves with anything but see to it that the natives swept off the roofs the large quantities of ashes and stones which kept on accumulating upon them and threatened to bring them down upon us. and thereafter the volcano quieted down. if a crater should open below the water.

and filled with foul-smelling mud that had ruined or disfigured their contents. These towns. I likewise recovered some property from among the ruins of the convento. others crushed beneath their collapsing houses. . while once it was one of the richest and most flourishing places. Thus the beautiful town of Taal remains a deserted wilderness and reduced to the utmost misery. too wide and deep to be forded. The worst of all is. The same fate as Taal has befallen the towns of Lipa. the rest by starving. all the houses have either collapsed under the load of material which had been piled upon them or have disappeared completely.some carried away by the waves of the lake. that. swept away by the waves which in these places were so violent that they dug three ditches or channels. the lake is rising and invading the towns of Lipa and Tanauan. being situated within easy reach of it. All the animals of whatever kind have perished. which were the greater and better part. After incredible efforts I finally succeeded in unearthing in what had once been the church and sacristy. Twelve persons are known to have perished . as not a green blade remained anywhere. I went down to the river and found it completely filled up. some by being buried. The bulk of the population left this neighborhood and settled in more distant places. In other parts of the lake shore have likewise opened many cracks and occurred very extensive slides. the chests which contained the sacred vestments and vessels. together with Taal. others by drowning. [18] Taal Volcano's crater before the 1911 eruption with the central cone and one of the lakes on the crater floor. In the villages to the west of the lake. and inundating their buildings. Nearly all of them were demolished by the rocks and beams which had fallen upon them. Thus out of 1200 taxpayers whom Taal contained formerly. and less than one league [4 kilometers] from the volcano. with a boat belonging to the alcalde and many of private persons buried in the mud. and thus rendered impassable the road which joins the town with Balayan. the mouth of the river Pansipit having been blocked. and so much of Sala as still existed. both being on the lowest level. which suffered little from the rain of ashes. Tanauan. hardly 150 remain in the poorest and least respectable villages.comfortable dwelling. lay around the lake. With the aid of some natives of Bauang.

fanshaped cloud of what looked like black smoke rose to a great height. and this marked the culmination of the eruption. 1911. The total recorded shocks on that day numbered 26. which were at first of insignificant importance. while 10 were quite severe. Those who investigated further. This cloud finally shot up in the air. people were awakened out of their sleep by what they at first took for loud thunder. The frequent and increasingly strong earthquakes caused much alarm at Manila. During the 28th there were recorded 217 distinct shocks. at about [17] 2:30 a. A huge. however. soon learned the truth. m. The illusion was heightened when great streaks of lightning were seen to illumine the southern sky. which the people of Manila at first took for lightning. It was crossed and crisscrossed with a brilliant electrical display. but the observatory staff was soon able to locate their epicenter in the region of Taal Volcano and assured the public that Manila was in no danger. but increased rapidly in frequency and intensity.[edit]1911 eruption One of the more devastating eruptions occurred in January. of which 135 were microseismic. the seismographs at the Manila Observatory commenced to register frequent disturbances. . In Manila in the early hours of January 30. then dissipated. spread. 1911. as Taal is distant from it some 37 miles [20] (60 km). During the night of the 27th of that month.

The fact that practically all the vegetation was bent downward. Ashes fell over an area of 2. Many trees had the bark shredded and cut away from the surface by the hot sand and mud blast that accompanied the explosion and contributed so much to the loss of life and destruction of property. Six hours after the explosion.335 lives and injured 199.000.On Volcano island. although it is known that more perished than the official records show. The detonation from the explosion was heard over an area more than 600 [20] miles (970 km) in diameter. accompanied by a shower of hot mud and sand. The seven barangays that existed on the island previous to the eruption were completely wiped out. fan-shaped cloud spread. [edit]Death toll The eruption claimed a reported 1. Very little vegetation was actually burned or even [17] scorched.000 and 80. the destruction was complete. although the area in which actual destruction took place measured only 230 square [17] kilometres (89 sq mi). away from the crater.000 square kilometres (770 sq mi).000 cubic meters (VEI = 3).000. dust from the crater was noticeable in Manila as it settled on furniture and other polished surfaces. The solid matter ejected had a volume of between 70. It seems that when the black. it created a blast downward that forced hot steam and gases down the slopes of the crater. . proved that there must have been a very strong blast down the outside slopes of the cone.

Post mortem examination of the victims seemed to show that practically all had died of scalding by hot steam or hot mud. Another peculiarity of the geologic aspects of Taal is the fact that no sulphur has been found on the volcano. Crops suffered from the deposit of ashes that fell to a depth of almost half an inch in places near the shore of the lake. or both. The devastating effects of the blast reached the west shore of the lake where a number of villages were also destroyed. nor have geologists been able to trace any visible records of a lava flow having occurred at any time on the volcano back then. according to chemical analysis. The yellow deposits and encrustations noticeable in the crater and its vicinity are iron salts. which came from the . It was also found that the southern shore of Lake Taal sank in elevation from the eruption. No evidences of lava could be discovered anywhere. Slight smell of sulfur was perceptible at the volcano. Cattle to the number of 702 were killed and 543 nipa houses destroyed. Main Crater with Vulcan Point Island in 2009 [edit]Observations on the Volcano Island after the eruption Volcano Island sank from three to ten feet as a result of the eruption.

[edit]Changes on the crater after the eruption Great changes took place in the crater after the eruption. however.gases that escape from the [17] crater. Before 1911. the vari-colored lakes had disappeared and in their place was one large lake. the crater floor was higher than Taal lake and had several separate openings in which were lakes of different colors. full of crevices. On the island. Immediately after the explosion. great stretches that were formerly barren and covered with white ashes and . a yellow lake. The vegetation had increased. Opinions after the creation of the lake that the presence of the water in the crater has a tendency to cool off the material below and thus lessen the chances of an explosion or make the volcano extinct. but the preponderance of expert opinion [17] was otherwise. a red lake and some holes filled with hot water from which steam issued. (The subsequent eruption in 1965 and succeeding activities came from a new eruptive center.) Ten years after the eruption. about ten feet below the level of the lake surrounding the island. no changes in the general outline of the island could be discerned at a distance. Mount Tabaro. many changes were noted. Many places were covered with a shaky crust of volcanic material. There was a green lake. The crater lake gradually rose until it is on a level with the water in Taal Lake. which was always hot and on which it was rather dangerous to walk.

[edit]1965 to 1977 eruption The most recent period of activity lasted from 1965 to 1977 with the area of activity concentrated in the vicinity of Mount Tabaro.2 mi) wide lake. Vulcan Point within Crater Lake.cinders became covered with [17] vegetation.e. The 1965 eruption was classified [16] as phreatomagmatic. [edit]Vulcan Point One large rock. now referred to as the Main Crater Lake. The eruption generated "cold" base [22] surges which traveled several kilometers across Lake Taal. i. generated by the interaction of magma with the lake water that produced the violent explosion that cut an embayment on Volcano Island.. now called Vulcan Point that projects from the surface of the crater lake was the remnant of the old crater floor that is now surrounded by the 2 kilometres (1. on Taal Island within Lake Taal. Vulcan Point is cited as the world's largest island within a lake on an island [21] within a lake on an island. Cinder cone and embayment created by the 1965 eruption. devastating villages on the lake shore and. on the island of Luzon. killing about a hundred .

[edit]Eruption precursors at Taal  Increase in frequency of volcanic quakes with occasional felt events accompanied by rumbling sounds On the Main Crater Lake. in particular. which are now called pyroclastic surges when [24] relating to volcanoes. changes in the water temperature. on some eruptions there is no reported increase in the lake's temperature. The population of the island was evacuated only after the onset of the eruption. led to the recognition of base [23] surge (one of the American geologists who witnessed an atomic bomb explosion as a soldier and visited the volcano shortly after the 1965 eruption. and bubbling or boiling activity on the lake. However. On some eruptions. The strombolian eruptions of 1968 and 1969 produced massive lava flow that eventually covered the bay created by the 1965 eruption. The last major activities on the volcano were the phreatic eruptions of 1976 and 1977. level. Precursory signs were not interpreted correctly until after the eruption. . compared it to an atomic base surge) as a process in volcanic eruption. reaching the shore of Lake Taal.people. That eruption.  Before the 1965 eruption began. the lake's temperature rose to several degrees above normal.

Increase in temperature of ground probe holes on monitoring stations. Strong sulfuric odor or irritating fumes similar to rotten eggs.  Development of new or reactivation of old thermal areas like fumaroles. Fish kills and drying up of [1] vegetation     [edit]Other possible precursors Volcanologists measuring the concentration of radon gas in the soil on Volcano island measured an anomalous increase of the radon concentration by a factor of six in October 1994. crossed Luzon on almost the same track a year later. centered about 50 km south of Taal. off the coast of Luzon. A typhoon had passed through the area a few days before the radon spike was measured. typhoons were ruled out as the cause.the dissolution of acidic volcanic gases into the lake has resulted in the death of large numbers of fish and animals. geysers or mud pots Ground inflation or ground fissuring. one of the most powerful to strike the area in ten years. This increase was followed 22 days later by a magnitude 7. no radon spike was measured.1 earthquake on November 15. and there is strong evidence that the radon originated . Therefore. but when Typhoon Angela.

Andesite Tectonic Setting: Macolod Corridor Age of Deposits: 5380+_ 170 ybp (Radiocarbon age.25 km across and formed between 140. NAME OF VOLCANO: LOCATION: TAAL Batangas (14°00.inside the caldera. 4 m above sea level. blue-green in color.1' N. 3 Eruption Type: . deepest point: 76 m Taal Volcano Island has 47 craters and 4 maars TAAL CALDERA . 1994) VOLCANIC ACTIVITY Number of Historical Eruptions: 33 Latest Eruption/Activity: 1977 Oct.311 km Type of Volcano: Tuff cone Crater Lakes/Caldera/Maars: MAIN CRATER LAKE . km and 2 m above sea level Adjacent Volcanic Edifice: Makiling (NE) Malepunyo (E).in the stress accumulation [25] preceding the earthquake.1. 267 sq.380 BP TAAL LAKE .000 to 5. 120°59. Listanco. Batulao (W) and Macolod (SE) GEOLOGICAL FEATURES Rock Type: Olivine basalt.1' E) PHYSICAL FEATURES Elevation: 0.9 km in diameter.

g. Ground swells or inflation and ground fissuring 5.g. 1911. Lava flows 4. 1749. San Nicolas and Laurel Areas To be Evacuated: In case of an eruption similar in nature and magnitude to: . Increase in frequency of quakes with occasional felt events accompanied by rumbling sounds 2. 1965. Ashfalls and ballistic projectiles 3.1. Increase in temperature and level of Main Crater Lake 3. 1969) 4. Development of new thermal areas and/or reactivation of old ones 4. Seiches/Tsunamis and flooding 5. 1966) 3.g. Strombolian (e. Phreatomagmatic (e. Base surges 2. Increase in temperature of ground probe holes at Mt. Tabaro 6. 1970) 2. 1968. 1878. Fish kills and drying up of vegetation VOLCANIC HAZARDS Type of Hazards: 1. Plinian (e.g. Phreatic (e. Fissuring and ground subsidence Permanent Danger Zone: Entire Volcano Island Other Buffer Zones: Lakeshore barangays of Talisay. Sulfuric odor and acrid fumes 7. Agoncillo. Lakeshore landslide 6. 1754) Precursors to Eruptions: 1.

06’E. Buco. Main Crater and Pira-piraso Repeater stations: Tagbakin. Balete.entire Volcano Island and lakeshore barangays of Talisay. MONITORING ACTIVITY Volcano Observatory: Taal Volcano Observatory. 14°05. .1965 ACTIVITY .7 km N of Main Crater (120°59. Buco (instrument site) to Pira-piraso (2 lines). Alas-as . Visual observations 3. Tanauan. Buco. Calauit.entire Volcano Island and four lakeshore barangays of Agoncillo and Laurel 1911 ACTIVITY . temperature and level Monitoring Stations A – Seismic Network    Central Receiving & Processing Station: Taal Volcano Observatory. Talisay Seismic stations: Binintiang Munti. San Nicolas and Laurel Additional areas to be evacuated shall be determined based on the development in eruptive style and location of the monitored parameters. Bilibinwang (instrument site) to Saluyan. tilt) 4. Napayung and Daang Kastila B – Ground Deformation Network  EDM lines: Tagbakin (instrument site) to Calauit (2 lines).9. precise leveling. Agoncillo. Seismic monitoring (number of volcanic quakes and tremors) 2.10’N) Monitoring Methods: 1. Main Crater Lake chemistry. Talisay . Eruption Site (Tabaro). Ground deformation (EDM.

other text is slightly abridged and my insertations are identified by []). Most more accessible sources on early eruptions of Taal. notably the paper of Dean Worcester (1912). is made available on this internet page (Maso`s translations of Spanish texts appear in green courier font face and are repeated in fill length. Calauit History of Taal's activity to 1911 as described by Fr. The translations form the core of chapter II of Maso's book: "Eruptions within historical times". For this reason. January 30. Kaygabok Alas-as.e. Pira-piraso Electronic tilt: Daang Kastila. S. Maso`s translations of early eyewitness accounts. a portions of that book. i. published in the National Geographic magazine. which was published by the Weather Bureau in Manila. 1999 One of the main sources of information regarding early eruptions of Taal volcano is the slender book (26 pages) by the reverent Miguel Saderra Maso (1991) "The eruption of Taal Volcano. Saderra Maso Last modification: march 18th. . largely quote Saderra Maso`s paper for Taal`s eruptions prior to 1904.  Precise leveling lines: Calauit. This paper is difficult to get access to (even in Manila) and the present writer obtained a copy from Chris Newhall (thanks Chris!). 1911".

1716. no damage was done in the town situated on the shores of Lake Bonbon. is made on the occasion of the establishment of the town Taal by the Augustinians in 1572. The naturalist Semper states that in several chronicles are found vague statements concerning eruptions of the volcano which took place during these years [1634. the volcano showed only solfataric activity.II: Eruptions within historical times (Saderra Maso) 1572 The first mention of Taal Volcano which we find in Philippine history. relating the foundation of the town tells us. 1645].A. since several chroniclers tell us that there were heard frequent rumblings which tzerrified the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages. In similarly doubtful and vague notices consists the whole history of Taal volcano from the arrival of Legazpi on the island of Luzon until the beginning of the eighteenth century. which intervened between the discovery of the volcano in 1572 and the first well-established eruption in 1707. Fr.. 1707 The cone called Binintiag Malaqui burst forth with a tremendous display of thunder and lightning. which are glowing and destroy the crops of the natives. Gaspar de San Agustin. for the reason that the volcano had begun to belch forth extraordinary masses of smoke. during the long period of one hundred and thirty-five years.S. Something similar we know to have been the case during one hundred and three years from 1808 to 1911." 1591-1645 In 1591. "there is a volcano of fire which is wont to spit forth many and very large rocks. that in Lake Bombon [Taal Lake]. or at most very unimportant outbreaks.. had a huge cross of anubing (a wood which admirably resists inclemencies of the climate) erected on the brink of the principal crater. [a kind of exorcism] . at about 6 o'clock in the evening. This makes it probable that.. de Alcantara. and shortly after it became plain that the volcano in Lake Bombon had . but aside from fear and trembling. B. Thomas de Avreu who. We believe that this action was caused by sinister sugns of unusual activity on the part of the volcano. a great number of detonations were heard in the air. Fr. [no reference is given] 1716 On September 24. During this period [1605-1611] we find as a as rector of Taal Fr.. O.. repeated . on whose southern shore the town was located. not content wth saying mass on Pilo Volcan.

. Fr Torrubia ("Aparato" folio 110). Later on the eruption seemed to spread into the lake. the whole point called Calauit appeared to be on fire. At nightfall we were informed that out of the depths of Lake Bonbon. No damage was.. however. and the church was endangered. The fire burst forth again. so that the whole point called Calauit appeared to be on fire. Their fury was such that in front of the convento of Taal. a strip of more than 10 brazas (16. high up into the air. On the following days. in the direction of Mount Macolod. Sunday morning the sun broke through. not with the former frequency. there appeared . however..7 meters) in width was engulfed by the water. large and small. who copied them from the "Actas de Taal". after which we heard only isolated detonations. at a short distance from the point (of Volcano Island) which looks toward east. but later torrential rains fell with thunder and lightning. since the water had been heated to a degree that it appeared to have been taken from a boiling caldron. and in other places of the beach. which faces Lipa.. which is at a distance . Their persistency caused us to pass the following day in considerable enxiety and fear. this time from the lake. gives us the following details concerning the event: With terror we heard during one of the nights a continuous fire of heavy artillery. but by Sunday all the combustible material appears to have been consumed. The foregoing paragraphs are taken from the narrative of Fr. but very much sharper. who at the time of this eruption was at Los Baños. things continued the same way. some of the latter striking and the whole causing greatest terror. and ashes rushed out of the lake. 1729 1731 In 1729 took place a new outburst of the volcano which is attested by a report which as late as 1849 existed in the parochial archives of Tanauan. Vast and towering obelisks of earth and sand arose out of the water. water.. forming immense waves which lashed the shores as though a violent typhoon were raging. which within a few days formed a new islet of about one quarter of a league (1. Manuel de Acre. There was an all-pervading. burst on its southeastern side.8 kilometers. done to the neighbouring towns. Great masses of smoke. Friday and Saturday. the waves casting them ashore in a state as if they had been cooked. Simulaneously there was a great commotion in the earth which stirred up the water in the lake. which rises opposite the volcano on the southeastern shore of the lake. or about one mile) in circumference. pestilential stench of sulfur which greatly molested the inhabitants of the towns surrounding the lake. looking like towers. This eruption killed all the fishes. as if two mighty armies were engaged in abttle. Finally. the weather cleared and of the whole tragedy there remained no other signs than the stench of sulfur and of the great quantity of dead fish cast upon the beach by the waves. This was followed by a terrible earthquake of long duration. Thursday.

but my doubts were quickly dispelled.S. Some of the pyramids surged toward north... there enormous boulders. and we saw the immense column of smake which rose from the summit of the island. O.A. since he was at the time parish-priest of Sala. but entirely unaware of what it might portent. the sight lasting until 9 o`clock of the morning. During the night of that day the top of the mountain burst with tremendous force from the same crater which since ancient times used to emit fire and rocks. especially when i noticed that also from the water there rose enormous columns of sand and ashes. subject to the action of fire ever since mile. according to ancient custom. I confess enormous columns that the spectacle. which appeared in the air. The rocks.. surrounded by sulphurous flames and smake. At the latter hour there was felt a furious earthquake which left nothing moveable in its place within the convento. clearly reveal the hand which placed them there. their formation. I thought it strange. It has been described by Fr. I myself saw this island from a place near said island having Tanauan. taking it for granted that they came from the ship which was expected to arrive from New Spain (Mexico) and which. let us leave this place! The volcano has burst out and all this noise and racket comes from it!" . cooked the fishes. This caused me to rise with some anxienty as to what could be the matter.. said island having a from the bottom diameter of one mile. an eye-witness. had become extinct. This forced . and left the impress of its fierceness on the very rocks. 1749 On august 11. more or less. heights .. Around 3 o`clock in the morning of the 12th. which ascended which ascended . however. 1749. a frightful and all-devouring conflagration that the whole surrounded by region was panic-stricken. This all-consuming fire made the water boil. in the shape of pyramids to marvelous heights and then fell to marvelous back into the lake like illuminated fountains. when I found that the number of detonations already exceeded one hundred and still they did not cease.. or 21 miles) there rose such in the air. began one of the most violent outbursts of Taal on record. while there rose several smaller whiffs issued from other openings. Curiosity led me to go and examine sulphurous the terrible phenomenon which lasted during many days. I heard something like heavy artillery fire and began to count the reports. flames .. without any earth whatever. far from freightening me. After the conflagration of the deep lake. enormous boulders. Buencuchillo. accompanied by subterranean rumblings which caused the entire region to tremble. my eyes . as at this moment there appeared four excited natives who shouted: "Father. The course of the events was this: At about 11 o`clock of the night I had noticed a rather extensive glare over the top of the island. on entering Balayan Bay saluted Our Lady of Cayaysay. others toward east. from the water By this time it began to dawn. rather delighted of sand and ashes. It is composed entirely of rocks with an admixture of a diameter of one other materials ejected during the eruption. The moment when a report was heard.of eight leagues (34 kilometers. which built up an built up an island pestilential island from the bottom of the deep lake. I paid no special attention to it and retired to rest...

at . Murillo states in his "Geographica Historica. had their floors raied several yards above the ground. During my flight I saw a great many tall trees. Sala and its surroundings to the northeast of the lake. When we reached that part of the lake`s shore which was known as "tierra destruida" (waste land?). the whole shore of Lake Bonbon has been disturbed. There were likewise fierce thunderstorms during many days. 1754 Of the eruption in 1754. though they find themselves buried alive. the whole country is traveres by fissures. we have likewise a description from the pen of worthy Fr. Fr. The entire territory of Sala and part of that of Tanauan have been rendered practically uninhabitable . was now used to descent to them. in accordance with Philippine custom. the branches of the trees buried beneath the water can be seen from the distance.the water courses have been altered. depopulated that within the same year. not less fierce than the one shortly predeeding. it sank into the lake. either miserably fallen. said fissures extensing from the northern and northeastern beach of the lake as far as the neighbourhood of the town of Calamba. and the earth trembled frequently during more than a year. 1749. the greatest recorded in the history of Taal Volcano. consequently. Of less intense shocks there were more than one hundred. During these terrible convulsions of the earth fissures opened in the ground amid horrifying roars. and extensive subsidences have occurred in may places. especially as i noticed that some of the horrid pyramids shooting forth from the water were coming towards the town and place where we were. During the eruption he felt three or four earthquakes so such violence that the roof tiles of the tower were thrown to a distance of more than 10 meters (33 feet). It rained ashes in considerable quantity and that part of them that remained suspended in the air. To this very day. such as coconut and betel-nut palms. Here as well as elsewhere. I likewise saw several houses which formerly. or so deeply buried that their tops were within reach of my hands. Buencochillo. The most remarkable thing about this is that the natives tranquilly continue occupying them. they ruined that tract entirely. the former was united with the latter town. were so thoroughly ruined and. as well as a portion of the territorry of Tanauan.me to flee to higher ground. etc" that he was at the time at the Santuary of Antipolo which lies 21 kilometers (13 miles ) almost due east from Manila. but had sunk to such a dregree that the same ladder which once served to ascent into them. and with a second earthquake. which is north of it. former springs have ceased to flow and new ones made their appearance. formed a vast cloud which grew so dense as to cause real darkness during hours of broad daylight.

the falling ejecta made the entire island appear to be on fire . From the said 2d of June until September 25.... On November 15. The paroxysms were accompanied by swaying motions of the ground which caused all the houses of the town to totter. the volcano never ceased to eject fire and mud of such bad character that the best ink does not cause so black a stain. during the night of which the eruption reached such proportions that the falling ejecta made the entire island appear to be on fire.... there frequently formed thunderstorms. at about 9 or 10 o'clock in the night.. some weaker buildings collapsed. of which narrative the following is an abridgement: On May 15. we found ourselves forced to abandon our dwelling. falling back upon the island and rolling down the slopes of the mountain. and the result was that there was neither tree nor other plant which it did not ruin or crush. At daybreak of September 26 we found ourselves forced to abandon our dwelling for fear lest the roofs come down upon us under the weigth of ashes and stones which had fallen upon them during that hapless night. During the following days there appeared in the lake a large quantity of pumice stone which had been ejected by the volcano. The volcano continued thus until June 2. During the night of September 25. during which the volcano vomited forth such masses of fire and . After this the volcano calmed down considerably. Part of these ejecta had also reached the hamlet of Bayuyungan and completely destroyed it. created the impression of a large river of fire. During the night of November 1. At 7 in the evening of November 28 occurred a new paroxism. and it happened that the huge tempest cloud would scarely ever disappear during two months. the fire emitted was quite extraordinary and accompanied by terrifying rumbings.the time stationed at Taal. rocks.. sand. The depth of the layer of ashes and stones exceeded two "cuartas" (45 centimeters). giving to the whole region an aspect as if a devastating conflagration had swept over it. formidable flames intermixed with glowing rocks which. ejecting fire. it vomited enormous boulders which rolling down the slopes of the island. 1754. . the volcano quite unexpectedly commenced to roar and emit. but on this occasion we resolved that the entire population retire to the Sanctuary of Casaysay. At daybreak . skyhigh. only the "Administrator" and myself to remain on the spot. Taal resumed its former fury. We had already abandoned our habitation and were living in a tower which appeared to offer greater security. and mud in greater quantities than ever before. The strangest thing was. In fact. that within the black column of smake issuing from the volcano ever sinceJune 2.. though not sufficiently to offer any prospect of tranquility. fell into the lake and caused huge waves [note(added by Saderra Maso): The waves mentioned were most probably due to the earthquake rather than to the falling rocks]. and it was even feared that the catastrophe might involve the shoresof the lake.

would not equal the quantity which issued at the time. if taken together. and violent shocks of earthquakes underneath. On the outskirts of the town.. with incessant fear lest the raging waters of the lake overtake us. We left the town.. We left the town.. It still continued in full fury. Shortly afterwards the volcano suddenly subsided almost suddenly. increasing every moment in volume.. I came upon a woman who was so exhausted by her burden of two little children and a bundle of clothing that she could proceed no farther. exented itself toward west and south with the result that we saw already some stones fall close to our shore. The 29th had dawned calm. the 29th. therefore. All was horror during those three days. swaying motion. stopped short when I took him into mine and never uttered a sound while I was carrying him a good piece of the way. which were at the moment invading the main part of the town. carried on by the wind. From this spot the volcano could be contemplated with a little more serenity of mind. otherwise we would have been engulfed on the spot. if a crater should open below the water.. therefore. I mounted a horse and retired permanently to the Sanctuary of Caysasay. a fact which I had failed to notice during the excitement and fear of the flight. to the town with the intention of surveying the havoc wrought during the preceeding night. The columns of fire and smoke ascended higher than ever before. fleeing this living picture of Sodom. ejecting immense masses of material. The smoke spread very gradually as far as the crater of the volcano. I took one of the taddlers from her and carried him. at about 8 o'clock.ejecta that in my opinion. but while we were still trying to persuade ourselves that the tragedy was overand the volcano had exhausted its bowls. The cloud of ejecta. shouted to all those who were still in the town to take to flight and we all ran off in a hurry. we heard a crash and then I noticed that smoke was rising from the point of the island that looks towards east. all the material ejected during so many months. while there were many whiffs issuing from points in the direction of another headland.. and the little indio who has been wailing while in the arms of his mother. its top was clear and apparently calm. Having reached a secure place on elevated ground at a distance of about half a league (2 kilometers) from the town. as the waves of the angry lake began already to flood the houses nearest to the beach. We. sweeping away everything they encountered. there being not the smallest portion of the latter which was not covered by the smoke and the glowing rocks and ashes. I. we halted in a hut to rest a little and take some food. All this was accompanied by terrific lightning and thunder above. fleeing this living picture of Sodom. Now I also observed that the earth was in continuous. and setting fire to the whole island. much more formidable than the preceeding ones. an explosion might follow. I realized that the island had opend in these places and fearing that. Moved by pity. returned on the following day. .

Zander Soon afterward I resolved to visit my town of Taal. I went downb to the river and found it completely filled up.v. and thereafter the volcano quieted down. took refuge on the landing of the stairs. the roof of ther kitchen gave away with a thud. On the 3rd and 4th we had a formidable typhoon. and ashes piled upon them.Between 3 and 4 o'clock in the afternoon of the said 29th. the only remnant of a comfortable dwelling. it began to rain mud and ashes at Caysasay [12 miles from the volcano] and this rain lasted three days. had it not been for the sinister glare of incessant lightnings. the Alcalde. burying us alive beneath their weight.d. To all this was added incessant thunder and lightning. the walks of the rope factory. as every moment we heard the loud crush of houses collapsing under of stones. and awaited there whatever God might dispose with regard to us. Both were tile roofs. mud.20 m] thick. the warehouse. we 3 Europeans . During the night of the 30th we had not a moment of repose. After incredible efforts I finally succeeded in unearthing in what had once been the church and sacristy. The layer of ashes and mud was more than 5 spans [1. and it was almost a miracle that the roof of the church and convento sustained so great a weight. Nearly all of them were . All the rest. the chests which contained the sacred vestments and vessels. But fearing that even these precautions might prove unavailing. everything was burried beneath a layer of stones. the government house. and myself . mud. as the safest place. Foto: I. We caused the bulk of the material to be removed. Black airfall tephra of the 1754 eruption. Shortly before daybreak of december 1 there was a tremendous crash as if the house were coming down on our heads: the roof of the apsis of the chruch had caved in! Not long afterward. and feared that the turn of the convento and the church of Casasay would come in next.10 m] thick. and it really looked as if the world was going to pieces and its axis had been displaced.viz. Nor could we use aritifical light as this was extinguished by the wind and copius ashes which penetrated everywhere. All was horror those three days. Prior. nothing was left of it except the walls of the church and convento.the only ones who were at the time in the Convento of Caysasay. carrying the ejecta toward Balayan. while new continued to fall on that day and the following. on whichlatter the direction of the wind changed. which appeared rather like murky nights and we did not occupy ourselves with anything but see to it that the natives swept off the roofs the large quantities of ashes and stones which kept on accumulating upon them and threatened to bring them down upon us. with a boat belonging to the alcalde and many of private persons burried in the mud. only here and there could be seen an upright post. The first of December broke somewhat clear and our eyes contemplated everywhere ruins and destruction. The most terrifying circumstance was that the whole sky was shrouded in such darkness that we could not have seen the hand placed before the face. Fr. and ashes more than 10 spans [2.

Tanauan. The same fate as Taal has befallen the towns of Lipa. Lipa. hardly 150 remain in the poorest and least respectable villages. all the houses have either collapsed under the load of material which had been piled upon them or have diappeared completely.demoloished by the rocks and beams which had fallenupon them. Thus out of 1200 taxpayers whom Taal contained formerly. The bulk of the population left this neighbourhood and settled in more distant places. being situated within easy reach of it. Thus the beautiful town of Taal remains a deserted wilderness and reduced to the utmost misery. The relocation of Tauan. and so much of Sala as still existed. All the animals of whatever kind have perished. a measure . and less than one league [4 kilometers] from the volcano. Buencuchillo. lay around the lake. the lake is rising and invading the towns of Lipa and Tanauan. Lipa and Sala is obvious from a comparison of the 1734 Murillo Velarde map (left) and the 1911 map of Saderra Maso (right). both being on the lowest level. some by being burried. swept away by the waves which in these places were so violent that they dug three ditches or channels. With the aid of some natives of Bauang I likewise recovered some property from among the ruins of the convento. others crushed beneath their collapsing houses. which suffered little from the rain of ashes. . Thus far good Fr. the rest by starving. The towns of Taal. others by drowning. and Tanauan were on this occasion definitively transferred to their present sites. and inundating their buildings. These towns. the mounth of the river Pansipit having been blocked. Twelve persons are known to have perished . that. The worst of all is. and thus rendered impassable the road which joins the town with Balayan. together with Taal.some carried away by the waves of the lake.[note by the author of this site: the story of the towns that were relocated as a consequence of Taal's activities has been traced by Thomas Hargrove in this book The Mysteries of Taal. which were the greater and better part. as not a green blade remained anywhere. In other parts of the lake shore have likewise opened manycracks and occurred very extensive slides. In the villages to the west of the lake. the great prudence of which has been shown by subsequent eruptions. Taal. and filled with foul-smelling mud that had ruined or disfigued their contents. too wide and deep to be forded. while once it was one of the richest and most flourishing places.

He says: Formerly the depth seemed immense and unfathomable. Although this outburst failed to reach either the magnitude or the duration of the preceding. visited the volcano for the first time as late as 1849. proved disastrous to the neighbouring towns owing to the quantity of ashes and pumice stone ejected on the occasion. 1808. nevertheless. According to an author who. this eruption profoundly modified the principal crater. After the eruption the whole aspect was changed. and at the bottom was seen a liquid mass in continual ebullition. the crater had . In the more immediate vicinity of the volcano there were places where the ground was covered with ashes to a depth exceeding 84 centimeters. however.1808 After 1754 the volcano had no notable eruption untill the middle of march. it. and in more distant localities the fall was proportionally heavy.

nearly all the ejecta fell either within the principal crater or on its southeastern and southern slopes. intermittently. which had completely disappeared in 1907. descending well-nigh perpendicularly to the water which was of a deep-green color. In December. Zuniga. noises were frequently heard proceeding from the volcano which finally. leaving only an oval depression at the muddy bottom of which were a few outlets for gases. During several months this new opening continued to emit great masses of vapors and. owing to the rains which disintegrate them. The height of the crater walls has diminished and will continue to decrease from day to day. from November 12 to 15.widened. 1904. . 1904. Besides. also mud and rocks. Speaking of the impression received when he had reached the brink of the crater. During April. Taal Volcano Taal Volcano. 1874. while at the side of this elevation there are seen several wells. Above sea level. a new crater or outlet was found to have formed near the southeastern inner wall of the principal crater. Its highest point. In fact. when in reality we saw a vast opening of more than one league in circumference. it was reported that Taal was in eruption. up to a height of 150 meters. From the end of October until November 12. and at the bottom of it a lake only a little smaller. It would seem that the eruptions issue from this hole. 311m . The fire causes the latter to rise to a certain height at regular intervals while a monotonous sound is heard. 1874 1878 1904 On July 19. is on the eastern rim of the main crater. may be inferred likewise from the description given in his work "El Estadismo Filipino" by Fr. is an island located near the center of Taal Lake in Batangas Province. ejected a quantity of ashes sufficient to cover the entire island. there has formed on the enlarged floor a little hill whose top continually emits smoke. an Augustinian. one of the world's lowest volcanoes. the pond within it had been reduced to one-third and the rest of the crater floor is dry enough to walk over it. took place an eruption of gases and ashes which killed all the live stock which was being raised on Volcano Island and withered or burned the entire vegetation on the western slopes of the crater. he says: We expected to find a deep abyss into which penetrated so little light that it would hardly permit us to distinguish what was in the interior. As there usually prevailed atmospheric calm during these eruptions. one of which is especially remarkable for its size and the material which it contains. who had visited the volcano in 1800. 1878. the floor of the new crater was occupied by a pond of boiling water. as all its borders looked as if cut with a knife. The great change which the crater underwent on the occasion of the eruption of 1808.

Taal Lake is known to have originated from the collapse of pre-historic volcanic centers. Lake Taal is known for several varieties of milkfish. Taal has about 47 craters or depressions formed either by direct explosive eruptions or by collapse or ground subsience. Ground water and mobile magma may have either separately or jointly played the pricipal role in determining the nature of Taal eruptions.034 lives. Taal Volcano is a tuff cone. The 1968 and 1969 activities were. km. Calauit and Mt. Binintiang Munti. In 1754. airfalls and effusion of lava. Lipa. . maliputo and tawilis. km. the Volcano Island is surrounded by a fresh body of water. characterized as Strombolian with lava fountaining from several active vents and the effussion of molten rocks at the base of crater. the towns of Sala. namely: Binintiang Malaki. in area. To date. Despite the hazards posed by the volcano. Its most catastrophic eruptions occured in 1754 and 1911. Based on Taal Volcano's morphological features.000 sq. about two meters above sea level and 127 sq. The island had a population of more than 5.Covering an area of 23 sq. The Main Crater occupies the central portion of the Volcano Island. carps. and Taal. The underwater topography suggests the presence of about 35 different submerged volcanic landforms. Tanauan. Twelve of Taal Volcano's eruptions occured at this crater from 1749 to 1911. Ashes spewed out by the volcano reached as far as Manila and covered an area of 2. Composed of at least 35 cones coalesced by several eruptions. it can be deduced that most of its eruptions were either Phreatic or Phreatomagmatic.. Twenty-six of these cones are tuff cones. km. Pira-0piraso. has had 33 recorded eruption since its first known outburst in 1572. The 35 identified cones were formed by different type of volcanic processes: base surges (rapidly moving mixtures of volcanic debris and steam). There are five other major eruption centers. were destroyed and were subsequently relocated to their present sites. Tabaro Eruption Site. however. The rock formation consists of moderately consolidated ash beds with varying amounts of coarser fragments. The 1911 eruption completely devastated the whole Volcano Island and claimed a toll of 1. Taal Volcano. five are cinder cones and four are maars (shallow to deep circular depressions of volcanic origin). then on the borders of Lake Taal.000 in 1990. Taal Volcano Island has been attracting migrants because of its fertile soil and rich fishing grounds.

the free encyclopedia Taal Lake Satellite image showing Taal Lake with Volcano island within it Location Batangas Coordinates 13°59′13″N 121°00′44″ECoordinates: 13°59′13″N 121°00′44″E Lake type Caldera lake Primary outflows Pansipit River Basincountries Philippines Max. width 18 km (11 mi) .Taal Lake From Wikipedia. length 25 km (16 mi) Max.

000 and 100.2 Fish kill 4 Tourism 5 Gallery 6 See also . on the island of Luzon in the Philippines.Surface area 234. which is located on Luzon Island. Balete.1 Introduction of a non-native fish 3. The lake fills Taal Caldera. Taal Lake is a freshwater lake in the province of Batangas. a large volcanic calderaformed by very large eruptions between 500. and it in turn contains its own small island. Santa Teresita. Contents [hide]    1 Protected area and management 2 History 3 Ecology o o    3.2 km2 (90. San Nicolas. That crater lake is the world's largest lake on an island in a lake on an island. Vulcan Point. and Agoncillo 1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure. Alitagtag.Laurel. There is a crater lake on Volcano Island. the location of Taal Volcano's historical eruptions and responsible for the lake's sulfuric content. lies near the center of the lake. which is in Lake Taal. Not to be confused with Lake Taal in Inner Mongolia in China.Cuenca. Lipa City. Volcano Island. Tanauan City.4 sq mi) Shore length1 115 km (71 mi) Surface elevation 5 m (16 ft) Islands Volcano Island Settlements Talisay. It is the country's third largest lake after Laguna de Bay and Lake Lanao. Mataas na Kahoy.000 years ago.

Bauan and Tanauan were formerly located along Taal Lake. by Proclamation no. the Taal Volcano National Park. However.930 acres). otherwise known as the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Act of 1992. only three towns are on the . [edit]History Philippines and Taal Lake Taal Lake was once just an arm of Balayan Bay. after a series of major eruptions in the 18th century. the area was reestablished as theTaal Volcano Protected Landscape by Proc. Taal Lake's sole connection to the sea narrowed down into its sole draining river. Lipa.[2] The protected area is managed by a Protected Area Management Board (PAMB) and has a Chief Operating Officer called a Protected Area Superintendent. Several centuries of precipitation have diluted the lake's once saline waters into freshwater. Sala.292 hectares (153. A Management Plan was crafted and approved by the PAMB in 2009 and now serves as the blueprint for lake conservation. 906 on October 16. 1967 covering 62.[1] Under Republic Act 7586. 1996. Presently. Eruptions has also buried numerous lakeside towns by volcanic ash and submerged by rising lake waters.  7 References 8 External links [edit]Protected area and management The Taal Lake basin was first declared as a national park. Taal. the Pansipit River. 235 on July 22.

which lowered the oxygen levels on the lake. also found in the Pansipit River. After crossing the lake. the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources announced a fish kill of 750 metric tons. Caranx ignobilis. visitors travel to the top of Volcano Island on horseback. visitors are treated to a stunning view of the lake and its surroundings.[7][8] . Taal Lake is also home to one of the world's rarest sea snakes.[3] [edit]Ecology Because the lake was until recently connected to the sea. the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources announced that a fish kill at Taal Lake (January 2 to 4) caused the 50 metric tons or ₱ 3. The lake has a freshwater-adapted population of trevally. Remnants of the old lakeside towns like buildings and walls are reported to be seen under the lake's waters. Toxic sulfur and high level ofhydrogen sulfide in Ambulong while low dissolved oxygen caused the deaths. several government officials expressed their disapproval of the construction project. According to the scientists. but they were exterminated by the locals in the 1930s. The alien fish could proliferate in all areas of lake because of the abundant aquatic vegetation which they use for spawning and feeding. [edit]Introduction of a non-native fish Jaguar guapote (Parachromis managuensis). was found illegally introduced into the lake. controversy ensued when the Korean firm Jung Ang Interventure was given clearance to build a health spa on Volcano Island itself along the lake's edge. and favorable warm environment. These fishes. used to be part of the lake's once-diverse ecosystem. the onset of the rainy season brought a sudden drop on the water temperature. it is home to many endemic species that have evolved and adapted to the desalination of the lake's waters. Its presence could seriously affect the native fish population. Carcharhinus leucas. In mid-2007. During their trip up and down the mountain. are locally called maliputo.[6] [edit]Tourism Regular tours of the lake are available to tourists. a carnivorous fish that primarily eats other fishes. plenty of natural food. Bull sharks. [4] [edit]Fish kill On January 5. Hydrophis semperi. a predatory piscivore. This particular species is only one of two "true" sea snake species that are known to live entirely in freshwater. a freshwater sardine. 6.000 maliputo fishes (₱ 230.[5] On May 30. 2008. 2011. Over the course of the next few weeks.lake's shore.000) also died at Quiling. Its most popular endemic species is the overharvested tawilis.25-million (US$1=₱41) loss of culturedtilapia in the villages of Leviste and Balakilong in Laurel and in Barangay Aya and Barangay Quiling in Talisay.

On June 28. [9] Because of the unpopular public reaction to the project. the DENR suspended the Korean firm's environmental clearance certificate.[10] . the Korean company's permit was permanently revoked by the DENR in early July 2007. rendering them incapable of pursuing further construction on the island until they secure other necessary permits.

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