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• 8(1) • 2010 • 120125
DOI: 10.2478/s115340090085x
Central European Journal of Physics
Fractional Newtonian mechanics
Research Article
Dumitru Baleanu
12∗
, Alireza K. Golmankhaneh
34†
, Raoul Nigmatullin
5‡
, Ali K. Golmankhaneh
4§
1 Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Çankaya University, 06530 Ankara, Turkey
2 Institute of Space Sciences, P.O.BOX, MG23, R 76900, MagureleBucharest, Romania
3 Department of Physics University of Pune, Pune, 411007, India
4 Department of Physics, Islamic Azad UinversityOromiyeh Branch, Oromiyeh, PO Box 969, Iran
5 Theoretical Physics Department, Kazan State University, Kremlevskaya str., 18 Kazan, 420008, Tatarstan, Russian Federation
Received 1 February 2009; accepted 23 March 2009
Abstract: In the present paper, we have introduced the generalized Newtonian law and fractional Langevin equation.
We have derived potentials corresponding to diﬀerent kinds of forces involving both the right and the left
fractional derivatives. Illustrative examples have worked out to explain the formalism.
PACS (2008): 45.20.d, 45.10.Hj, 45.20.Jj, 45.20.D, 02.30.Xx
Keywords: fractional Newtonian mechanics • fractional derivatives • fractional Langevin equation • fractional potential
• Brownian motion
© Versita Warsaw and SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg.
1. Introduction
Fractional calculus deals with the generalization of dif
ferentiation and integration from integer to noninteger
orders. Fractional calculus has found many application in
several areas of science and engineering [1–10]. The frac
tional operators are nonlocal, therefore they are suitable
for constructing models possessing memory eﬀect. Us
ing models involving local scaling properties the fractional
derivatives were renormalized to construct local fractional
diﬀerential operators [11, 12]. The physical interpretation
∗
Email: dumitru@cankaya.edu.tr (Corresponding Author)
†
Email: alireza@physics.unipune.ernet.in
‡
Email: nigmat@knet.ru
§
Email: ali_khalili_astronomy@yahoo.com
of the initial conditions for fractional diﬀerential equa
tions with RiemannLiouville fractional derivatives was
discusses in [13].
The ﬁrst evidence for ´ av¸ ﬂights and superdiﬀusion in
ﬂuid ﬂows was reported in [14]. In [15] the ´ av¸ ﬂights
and superdiﬀusion in a 3D, timeindependent ﬂow were
discussed. The physical meaning of the fractional integral
was explained in [16], which also considers many exam
ples which justify the physical and geometrical meaning of
this operation. In [17] both the physical and geometrical
meaning of the fractional integral and derivative (which
contains both real and complexconjugated powerlaw ex
ponents) were considered. In [18] the fractional kinetics
equations were derived. These equations describe the
kinetic processes which take place in the mesoscale re
gion. The ﬁrst experimental observation of these kinetic
processes in dielectric spectroscopy was also described.
120
Dumitru Baleanu, Alireza K. Golmankhaneh, Raoul Nigmatullin, Ali K.
Golmankhaneh
The ﬁrst experimental conﬁrmation of the fractional ki
netics which contain complex powerlaw exponents, and
dielectric measurements of polymerisation reactions, was
represented [19]. Since Riewe [20, 21] initiated the for
mulation of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics to in
clude derivatives of fractional order. It has been shown
that Lagrangians involving fractional time derivatives lead
to equations of motion with nonconservative classical
forces. Recently, several researchers have explored this
area and given new insight into this problem [22–39]. A
fractional calculus with variations which deal with prob
lems containing both the left and right derivatives has
been developed [40]. The fractional Lagrangian involving
RiemannLiouville (RL) derivatives is nonlocal. As is
known, the RL derivative of a constant is nonzero, there
fore results in many applications involve fractional initial
conditions which are nonphysical. As a result, the Caputo
derivative has been widely used in recent works [41, 42]. It
was observed that both RL and Caputo fractional deriva
tives arise in the formulation, even when the fractional
variational problem is initially deﬁned only in terms of
one type of derivative. Thus, fractional boundary condi
tions may be necessary even when the problem is deﬁned
in terms of Caputo derivative. A fractional Hamiltonian
formulation has been developed in terms of Caputo deriva
tives in [43–46].
The main aim of this study is to introduce the fractional
Langevin equation involving both Caputo and RL deriva
tives, by making use of the generalized Newtonian law.
The potential corresponding to diﬀerent kinds of force in
volving fractional right and left derivatives is analyzed.
The plan of this paper is as follows:
In Sec. 2 some basic formulae of fractional calculus are
brieﬂy reviewed. In Sec. 3 fractional Newtonian me
chanics is introduced. In Sec. 4 we derive the Frac
tional Langevin equation involving Caputo and RL deriva
tives. Sec. 5 is dedicated to ﬁnding the potential for non
conservative forces. In Sec. 6 some examples are inves
tigated in detail. The last section is dedicated to our
conclusions.
2. Fractional calculus
Fractional calculus deals with generalizations of integer
order derivatives and integrals to arbitrary order. In this
section we brieﬂy present some basic deﬁnitions and prop
erties which will be used in the subsequent sections [1–10].
If (x) ∈ C[u, I] and α · 0 then
u

α
x
(x) ≡
1
Γ(α)
_
x
u
(ì)
(x −ì)
1−α
Jì, x · u,
and
x

α
I
(x) ≡
1
Γ(α)
_
I
x
(ì)
(x −ì)
1−α
Jì, x < I,
are called the leftsided and rightsided Riemann
Liouville fractional integral of order α, respectively.
Let n −1 ≤ α < n, then
u
D
α
x
(x) ≡
1
Γ(n −α)
_
J
Jx
_
n
_
x
u
(ì)
(x −ì)
−n+α+1
Jì,
x
D
α
I
(x) ≡
1
Γ(n −α)
_
−
J
Jx
_
n
_
I
x
(ì)
(ì −x)
−n+α+1
Jì,
are called the leftsided and rightsided Riemann
Liouville fractional derivative of order α respectively
whenever the RHS exists.
Let (x) ∈ C
n
[u, I] and n−1 ≤ α < n, then the leftsided
and rightsided Caputo fractional derivatives of order α
(whenever the RHS exists) are respectively:
C
u
D
α
x
(x) =
u

n−α
x
D
n
(x)
=
1
Γ(n −α)
_
x
u
(x −ì)
n−α−1
_
J
Jì
_
n
(ì)Jì,
u < x < I,
C
x
D
α
I
(x) =
x

n−α
I
(−D)
n
(x)
=
1
Γ(n −α)
_
I
x
(ì −x)
n−α−1
_
−
J
Jì
_
n
(ì)Jì,
u < x < I.
In the following we brieﬂy present some properties of frac
tional derivatives and integrals [1–10]:
C
u
D
α
ì
((ì) + p(ì)) =
C
u
D
α
ì
(ì) +
C
u
D
α
ì
p(ì), (1)
C
u
D
α
ì
t = 0, t is constant, (2)
_
I
u
(ì)[
u
D
α
ì
p(ì)]Jì =
_
I
u
p(ì)[
ì
D
α
I
(ì)]Jì. (3)
Formula (3) is valid under the assumption that
(ì) ∈
ì

α
I
(
p
), p(ì) ∈
u

α
ì
(
p
),
1
p
+
1
q
≤ 1 + α [3, 7].
u
D
α
ì
(ì −u)
β
=
Γ(β + 1)
Γ(β + 1 −α)
(ì −u)
β−α
, (β · α), (4)
121
Fractional Newtonian mechanics
u

α
ì
(ì −u)
β
=
Γ(β + 1)
Γ(β + 1 + α)
(ì −u)
β+α
, (5)
u

α
ì u
D
α
ì
x(ì) = x(ì) −
n
¡=1
(
u
D
α−¡
ì
x)(u)
Γ(α + 1 −¡)
(ì −u)
α−¡
, (6)
ì

α
I ì
D
α
I
x(ì) = x(ì) −
n
¡=1
(
ì
D
α−¡
I
x)(I)
Γ(α + 1 −¡)
(I −ì)
α−¡
, (7)
u

α
ì
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) = x(ì) −
n−1
¡=0
(D
¡
x)(u)
Γ(¡ + 1)
(ì −u)
¡
, (8)
ì

α
I
C
ì
D
α
I
x(ì) = x(ì) −
n−1
¡=0
((−D)
¡
x)(I)
Γ(¡ + 1)
(I −ì)
¡
. (9)
3. Fractional mechanics
In the following we introduce the fractional Newtonian
equation. We assume that x(ì) is the position function of
a particle. We can then deﬁne the fractional velocity as
given below
v(ì) =
1
2
(ρ
1
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) + ρ
2
C
ì
D
β
I
x(ì)), u ≤ ì ≤ I, (10)
where 0 < α, β ≤ 1, and dimensions of the constant
[ρ
1
], [ρ
2
] are T
α−1
, T
β−1
respectively. In addition,s x(ì)
has continuous left Caputo fractional derivative of order
α, and right Caputo fractional derivative of order β in
[u, I]. If we deﬁne the momentum as follows
p = ρ
1
m
2
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) + ρ
2
m
2
C
ì
D
β
I
x(ì) = p
α
+ p
β
, (11)
then we can write Newton’s second law as
_
κ
1
2
ì
D
α
I
p
α
+
κ
2
2
u
D
β
ì
p
β
_
= , ì ∈ [u, I], (12)
where [κ
1
] = T
α−1
[κ
2
] = T
β−1
are constant. The transver
sality conditions become
_
ì
D
α−1
I
p
α
−
u
D
β−1
ì
p
β
_
I
u
= 0, (13)
where
ì
D
α−1
I
,
u
D
β−1
ì
denote the fractional integral of
order 1−α and 1−β, respectively. For α = 1, β = 1, we
have
u
D
α
ì
=
C
u
D
α
ì
=
ì
D
α
I
=
C
ì
D
α
I
=
J
Jì
, Eq. (12) and
Eq. (13) reduce to the standard Newtonian equation.
Remark 3.1.
If the generalized force in Eq. (12) is zero, then we can
generalize Newton’s ﬁrst law as κ
1 ì
D
α
I
p
α
+κ
2 u
D
β
ì
p
β
= 0.
4. Fractional Langevin equation in
volving fractional derivative
The theory of Brownian motion is the simplest way to treat
the dynamics of nonequilibrium system. The fundamen
tal equation is called the Langevin equation, it contains
both frictional forces and random forces. The ﬂuctuation
dissipation theorem relates these forces to each other.
While the motion of a dust particle performing Brownian
motion appears to be quite random, it must nevertheless
be describable by the same equation of motion as is any
other dynamical system. The equations of motion for the
Brownian particle are Langevinian equations. We will in
troduce the generalized fractional Langevinian equations
in two cases as follows. Case 1. Generalized fractional
Langevinian equation of a Brownian particle of mass m,
with the surrounding medium represented by a general
ized fractional force −tv(ì) and random density ﬂuctua
tions in the ﬂuid is
m
2
_
ρ
1 ì
D
α
I
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) + ρ
2 u
D
β
ì
C
ì
D
β
I
x(ì)
_
= −tv(ì) + ζ ξ(ì)
and
_
ì
D
α−1
I
p
α
−
u
D
β−1
ì
p
β
_
I
u
= 0, (14)
where [t] = AT
α−2
, ζ are constants and ξ(ì) is random
force.
Case 2. Consider a Brownian particle of mass m which
is constrained to move in a onedimensional ﬂuid, and
within a harmonic potential. The generalized fractional
Langevinian equation is
m
2
_
ρ
1 ì
D
α
I
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) + ρ
2 u
D
β
ì
C
ì
D
β
I
x(ì)
_
= −tv(ì) −ω
2
0
x + ζ ξ(ì)
and
_
ì
D
α−1
I
p
α
−
u
D
β−1
ì
p
β
_
I
u
= 0, (15)
where ω
2
0
= I}m, t, ζ are constants and ξ(ì) is random
force.
5. Fractional potential for forces in
volving fractional derivative
The generalized forces are obtained from a function
U(q
¡
, ˙ q
¡
) if
O(q
¡
, ˙ q
¡
) = −
∂U
∂q
¡
+
J
Jì
_
∂U
∂˙ q
¡
_
. (16)
122
Dumitru Baleanu, Alireza K. Golmankhaneh, Raoul Nigmatullin, Ali K.
Golmankhaneh
We will consider a generalized fractional form for the right
side of Eq. (16) in 3 cases. In Case 1 we consider the
fractional ﬁrst term of Eq. (16) in the right side. We then
obtain the generalized formula for the corresponding po
tential. We will consider the second term of the righthand
side of Eq. (16). We can then derive the generalized form
of the second term in Case 2 and Case 3 as follows:
Case 1: We consider the generalized force that depends
to the potential as follows
(x) = −λ
C
u
D
ν
x
U(x), n −1 ≤ ν < n, (17)
where λ is a real constant having dimensions [λ] = 
ν−1
.
Solving Eq. (17) by applying
u

ν
x
, on both sides we ﬁnd
u

ν
x
(x) = −λ
u

ν
x
C
u
D
ν
x
U(x). (18)
By virtue of Eq. (9) we obtain
U(x) = −λ
−1
_
_
_
u

ν
x
(x) +
n−1
¡=0
(D
¡
U)(u)
Γ(¡ + 1)
(x −u)
¡
_
_
_
. (19)
Note: We can obtain the standard result if we choose
ν = 1.
Case 2: Suppose the generalized fractional force is
(
C
u
D
γ
ì
q(ì)) =
u
D
α
ì
_
∂U
∂
C
u
D
α
ì
q(ì)
_
,
0 < α ≤ 1, γ = 2α. (20)
Solving Eq. (20) by applying
u

α
ì
on both sides we have
u

α
ì
_
(
C
u
D
γ
ì
q)
_
=
u

α
ì
_
u
D
α
ì
_
∂U
∂
C
u
D
α
ì
q
__
. (21)
Using Eq. (6) we get
u

α
ì
_
(
C
u
D
γ
ì
q)
_
=
__
∂U
∂
C
u
D
α
ì
q
_
−
(
u
D
α−1
ì
U)(u)
Γ(α)
(ì −u)
α−1
_
. (22)
It follows easily that
∂U
∂
C
u
D
α
ì
q
=
_
u

α
ì
_
(
C
u
D
γ
ì
q)
_
+
(
u
D
α−1
ì
U)(u)
Γ(α)
(ì −u)
α−1
_
. (23)
By integrating both side we get the following
U =
_
_
u

α
ì
_
(
C
u
D
γ
ì
q)
_
+
(
u
D
α−1
ì
U)(u)
Γ(α)
(ì −u)
α−1
_
J (
C
u
D
α
ì
q). (24)
Case 3: For the general case we consider the following
force
(
C
ì
D
γ
I
q) =
C
ì
D
β
I
_
∂U
∂
C
ì
D
β
I
q
_
, 0 < β ≤ 1, γ = 2β.
(25)
Again, we solve Eq. (25) by applying
ì

β
I
on both sides and
we arrive at the following result
ì

β
I
_
(
C
ì
D
γ
I
q)
_
=
ì

β
I
_
C
ì
D
β
I
_
∂U
∂
C
ì
D
β
I
q
__
. (26)
By making use of Eq. (9) we get
ì

β
I
_
(
C
ì
D
γ
I
q)
_
=
__
∂U
∂
C
ì
D
β
I
q
_
−U(I)
_
. (27)
It is easy to observe that
∂U
∂
C
ì
D
β
I
q
=
_
ì

β
I
_
(
C
ì
D
γ
I
q)
_
+ U(I)
_
. (28)
By integrating both sides of Eq. (28) we obtain
U =
_
_
ì

β
I
_
(
C
ì
D
γ
I
q)
_
+ U(I)
_
J (
C
ì
D
β
I
q). (29)
Remark 5.1.
We observed that by choosing β = 1 we can get the
standard result.
6. Examples
Example 1. For a fractional force given by  =
−η
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì), 0 < α ≤ 1, substitution of the the second
Newtonian equation allows us to obtain
κ
u
D
α
ì
p
α
= −η
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) 0 < α ≤ 1, (30)
_
u
D
α−1
ì
p
α
_
u
= 0, (31)
where the dimension of [η] = AT
α−2
is constant. For
the sake of simplicity we consider only the left derivative.
Applying
u

α
ì
to both sides of Eq. (30) we obtain
κ
u

α
ì u
D
α
ì
p
α
= −η
u

α
ì
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì), (32)
123
Fractional Newtonian mechanics
in view of Eq. (6)
κp
α
−
[
u
D
α−1
ì
p
α
]
u
Γ(α)
(ì −u)
α−1
= −η(x(ì) −x(u)). (33)
By making use of Eq. (31) we arrive at the following result
κ
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) = −η(x(ì) −x(u)). (34)
Once more by applying
u

α
ì
to both sides of Eq. (34) we
have
x(ì) = −
η
κ
u

α
ì
(x(ì) −x(u)) + x(u). (35)
Remark 6.1.
The classical solution is obtained if α = 1.
Example 2. Let us consider the equation of a Brownian
particle of mass m with the surrounding medium repere
sented by a generalized fractional force −tv(ì), and ran
dom density ﬂuctuations in the ﬂuid as given below
m ρ
1 ì
D
α
I
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) = −t ρ
1
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) + ζ ξ(ì). (36)
To simplify, we can ignore the fractional right derivatives.
Applying
ì

α
I
to both side of Eq. (36) we get
m ρ
1 ì

α
I ì
D
α
I
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì)
= −t ρ
1 ì

α
I
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) + ζ
ì

α
I
ξ(ì), (37)
hence
m ρ
1
_
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) −
(
ì
D
α−1
I
x)(I)
Γ(α)
(I −ì)
α−1
_
= −t ρ
1 ì

α
I
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì) + ζ
ì

α
I
ξ(ì). (38)
We have supposed that (
ì
D
α−1
I
x)(I) = 0.
Again applying
u

α
ì
to both sides of Eq. (38) we obtain
mρ
1
(x(ì) −x(u))
= −t ρ
1 ì

α
I
(x(ì) −x(u)) + ζ
u

α
ì ì

α
I
ξ(ì). (39)
It is easy to prove that
x(ì) = −
t
m
ì

α
I
(x(ì)−x(u))+
ζ
mρ
1
u

α
ì ì

α
I
ξ(ì)+x(u). (40)
Example 3. Consider the generalized fractional force as
follows
 = −τ
C
u
D
γ
ì
x(ì), (41)
where τ is constant. Potentials corresponding to this force
with conditions (
u
D
α−1
ì
U)(u) = 0, will be obtained by sub
stituting Eq. (41) into Eq. (24) as
U =
_
u

α
ì
(−τ
C
u
D
2α
ì
x(ì)) J
C
u
D
α
ì
x. (42)
Since
u

α
ì
C
u
D
2α
ì
x(ì) =
u

α
ì u

2−2α
ì
D
(2)
x(ì)
=
u

2−α
ì
D
(2)
x(ì) =
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì). (43)
Finally, we have
U = −τ
[
C
u
D
α
ì
x(ì)]
2
2
. (44)
Remark 6.2.
We arrive at the Riewe result by choosing α =
1
2
.
Example 4. Consider the generalized fractional force as
follows
 = −σ
C
ì
D
γ
I
x(ì). (45)
We derive the potential corresponding to this force with
condition U(I) = 0,. By substituting Eq. (45) into Eq. (29)
U =
_
ì

β
I
_
−σ
C
ì
D
2β
I
x(ì)
_
J
C
ì
D
β
I
x, (46)
using Eq. (43) we get
U = −σ
_
C
ì
D
β
I
x(ì)
_
2
2
. (47)
Remark 6.3.
This Caputo derivative allows utilization of initial values
of classical integerorder derivatives with known physical
interpretations. The case of the RiemannLiouville frac
tional derivatives allows us to use the initial conditions
lim
ì→I
ì
D
β−1
I
= I.
7. Conclusion
In this work we have generalized Newtonian mechanics
and the Fractional Langevin equation as nonlocal mod
els. One possible application of the above derived equa
tion can be found in investigation of polymer layers. Fur
thermore we have derived potentials for nonconservative
forces which can be used in Lagrangian mechanics for dis
sipative systems.
124
Dumitru Baleanu, Alireza K. Golmankhaneh, Raoul Nigmatullin, Ali K.
Golmankhaneh
References
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