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INTRODUCTION

Employees are assets of a company. Every company claims to follow and understand this mantra. Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arrangements for their selection and appointment. Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for the jobs, from among whom the right people can be selected. A formal definition states, It is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for the employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applicants are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. In this, the available vacancies are given wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit applications so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific selection. In recruitment, information is collected from interested candidates. For this different source such as newspaper advertisement, employment exchanges, internal promotion, etc. are used. In the recruitment, a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for selection of most suitable candidates. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees According to EDWIN FLIPPO, Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. Recruitment is the process of having the right person, in the right place, at the right time and it is crucial to organizational performance. Recruitment is the process of attracting individuals on a timely basis in sufficient number and with appropriate qualifications and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization. In practice, recruitment is often very demanding and seldom so straight forward. Recruitment is the name given to the process of attracting a sufficiently large pool of applicants who have the level of approximate skill and experience required for the vacant post, from which a selection can be made. If recruitment is done well, the business benefits from happier and more productive people, reduced staff turnover, good working relationships and ultimately a more profitable farm. Recruitment policy of any organization is derived from the personnel policy of the same organization. In other words the former is a part of the latter. However, recruitment policy by itself should take into consideration the governments reservation policy, policy regarding sons of soil, etc., personnel policies of other organizations regarding

merit, internal sources, social responsibility in absorbing minority sections, women, etc. Recruitment policy should commit itself to the organizations personnel policy like enriching the organizations human resources or servicing the community by absorbing the retrenched or laid-off employees or casual/ temporary employees or dependents of present/former employees, etc. The following factors should be taken into consideration in formulating recruitment policy. They are:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Government policies Personnel policies of other competing organizations Organizations personnel policies Recruitment sources Recruitment needs Recruitment cost Selection criteria and preference

FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT:-

1) Internal factors: Recruiting policy, Temporary and part-time employees,

Recruitment of local citizens, Engagement of the company in HRP, Companys size, Cost of recruitment, Companys growth and expansion.

2) External factors: Supply and Demand factors, Unemployment Rate, Labour-market


conditions, Political and legal considerations, Social factors, Economic factors, Technological factors. Advantages :Wider access and Geographical spread, Larger audience, Greater chance to find right candidate quicker/with greater effectiveness, 24/7 - no waiting for issue dates, Quicker and time saving/cost saving, Relatively cheap, Better match of workers vacancies, Efficiency gains, Cost saving/saving personnel costs, Access passive jobseekers, Reduction of unqualified candidates, More opportunities for smaller companies. Disadvantages :Apart from the various benefits, e-recruitment has its own share of shortcomings and disadvantages. Some of them are: Screening and checking the skill mapping and authenticity of millions of resumes is a problem and time consuming exercise for organizations, there is low Internet penetration and no access and lack of awareness of internet in many locations across India, Organizations cannot be dependant solely and totally on the online recruitment methods, In India, the employers and the employees still prefer a face-to-face interaction rather than sending e-mails.

THE IMPORTANCE OF GOOD RECRUITMENT:Recruiting people who are wrong for the organization can lead to increased labor turnover, increased costs for the organization, and lowering of morale in the existing workforce. Such people are likely to be discontented, unlikely to give of their best, and end up leaving voluntarily or involuntarily when their unsuitability becomes evident. They will not offer the flexibility and commitment that many organizations seek. Managers and supervisors will have to spend extra time on further recruitment exercises, when what is needed in the first place is a systematic process to assess the role to be filled, and the type of skills and abilities needed to fill it. Most recruitment systems will be simple, with stages that can be followed as a routine whenever there is a vacancy to be filled, and which can be monitored and adapted in the light of experience. Determine the present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel-planning and job-analysis activities. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly, under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected, will leave the organization only after a short period of time. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. Induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company. Infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization. Develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company. Search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the companys values. Devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits. Search for talent globally and not just within the company. Design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum. Anticipate and find people for positions that do not exist yet. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.

SOURCES/METHODS OF RECRUITMENT:1. INTERNAL SOURCES:Internal sources of recruitment refer to obtaining people for job from inside the company. There are different methods of internal recruitment are Promotion, Departmental examination, Transfer, Retirement, Internal advertisement, Employee recommendation, Job positioning. Advantages of Internal Recruitment Internal methods are time saving. No separate induction program is required The method increases loyalty and reduces labour turnover. This method is less expensive.

People already familiar with the business and how it operates. Provides opportunities for promotion with in the business can be motivating. Business already knows the strengths and weaknesses of candidates.

Disadvantages of Internal Recruitment There is no opportunity to get new talent in this method. The method involves selecting people from those available in the company so there is limited scope for selection. There are chances of biased and partiality. Chances of employee discontent are very high.

2. EXTERNAL SOURCES:External sources of recruitment refer to methods of recruitment to obtain people from outside the company. These methods are:- Campus Recruitment, Management consultant, Advertisements, Private Employment Search Firms, Employment Exchanges, Contract staffing, Gate Hiring and Contractors, Head hunting, Employee referral, Unsolicited Applicants / Walk-ins. Advantages of External Recruitment There is influx of new talent in the method. The method encourages more and more competition. There is lesser chance of partiality through this method. Larger pool of workers from which to find the best candidate If options like campus recruitment have been exercised we get a chance to employ fresh graduates, thus increasing employment.

Disadvantages of External Recruitment The method is costly because it involves recruitment cost, selection, training cost. The method is time consuming. The method reduces loyalty to the company.

PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT:1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Determine your ideal recruiting target Understanding your targets decision criteria Knowing where your target hangs out Employment branding Learning your targets job search process Posting jobs for active candidates Directly sourcing non-active prospects Providing prospects with additional information The job application process Sorting applications by job The initial screening of applications and resumes

12 The initial phone screen 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Interviewing and selling qualified applicants The final interview The reference checking process The offer process The post-offer acceptance process The on boarding process Feedback and new hire monitoring

Online recruitment also known as e-recruitment, provides employers with an alternative to using traditional recruitment agencies. Online recruiters use the internet to source and recruit candidates by advertising job vacancies via a range of resources. Instead of paying 1000s to recruit using a traditional agency, recruitment using the web, provides employers with a platform to hire top quality candidates for a relatively low cost. Online recruitment can be more effective. More people than ever are using the internet to search for jobs, so by using online job boards, websites dedicated to advertising vacancies, online recruitment agencies can reach more candidates than traditional agencies. Online recruitment, e-recruitment, or web-based recruitment is the use of online technology to attract and source candidates and aid the recruitment process. What this usually means is the use of a companys own website, a third-party job site or job board, a CV database, search engine marketing or social media platforms to fill vacancies. E-recruitment the activity of using the internet to find new employees for companies and organizations, for example by employers advertising online and employees making job applications online. E-recruitment has been an issue of interest over the past ten years. Internet is considered as the latest tool in hiring. It is a real revolution spreading over the world of job hunting and hiring. The term online recruitment, e-recruitment, cyber recruiting , or internet recruiting, imply the formal sourcing of job information online. The first references to e-recruitment appear in articles of the mid-1980s. While systematic reference to e-recruitment in the HR journals begins almost two decades later, in the mid-1990s, when IT companies and universities began to use the internet extensively. The closing of twentieth century has given rise to a vast debate concerning the response of HRM to the changing external and internal environment of the firm. Online job search and recruitment activity have vastly expanded since the year 2000. This was the period during which a truly distinct online recruitment paradigm emerged and first attained a level of critical mass. However, despite of its popularity, the research in the area has not as yet become as dominant as was predicted by many researchers and practitioners. Erecruitment can be divided into two types of uses: corporate web site for recruitment and commercial jobs boards (such as monster.com) for posting job advertisements. Corporate websites are a companys own website with a link for job posting/career options where candidates can log into for current openings. If the company advertises its vacant positions on other website that specialize in recruitment such as - naukri.com, timesjob.com, monster.com, etc., the companies would be adopting commercial job boards for recruitment. Firms generally adopt a recruitment method that suits their size and budget for recruitment. Further, the size and nature of the fraction that applies for an organizations vacancies will be affected by how (and to whom) the organization communicates its vacancies. In times of fierce competition, being able to attract highquality human resources is considered a true competitive advantage for organizations. This attraction of potential employees and to get them to accept offers of employment has given recent recognition to the important role that recruitment plays in assuring organizational success. It presumes that the approach an organization takes to

recruitment makes a difference and assumes that recruitment outcomes depend on something more than the existing dynamics of labor supply and demand. With the advent of current organizational need for resourceful recruitment structure, companies are beginning to understand that recruiting is fundamentally an inventory problem. The transformation phase with the supply chain perspective, encompasses the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing, procurement, conversion, and logistics management activities (American professional association) and provides a source to integrate the discipline with human resource recruitment. Importantly, supply chain management also includes coordination and collaboration with channel partners, which can be suppliers, intermediaries, third-party service providers, and customers (various layers). Akin to this, human resource supply chain management (HRSCM) process also involves sourcing, procurement, conversion, and logistics activities with the help of coordination and collaboration with channel partners (head hunters, placement consultants, web sourcing etc.). In the supplier-customer business arrangement, the effective way for suppliers (placement agencies, web sources) to service customers (company), is to become more responsive. An important factor contributing to responsiveness is time compression in the supply chain . Not only can the company (customers) be serviced more rapidly but also the degree of flexibility offered can be more and, furthermore, the cost should be less because the pipeline is shorter. EXAMPLE OF E-RECRUITMENT PROCESS:-

E- RECRUITMENT METHODS:-

Methods of e-recruitment are many, among those the important ones are:1. Job boards: These are the places where the employers post jobs and search for candidates. Candidates become aware of the vacancies. One of the disadvantages is, it is generic in nature. Special skill candidates to be searched by certain job boards. 2. Employer web sites: These sites can be of the company owned sites, or a site developed by various employers. For an example, Directemployers.com is the first cooperative, employer-owned e-recruiting consortium formed by Direct Employers Association. It is a non profit organization formed by the executives from leading U.S corporations. Press release by Recruiters Network (February 20, 2003) showed the site has 98 members approximately 45 percent of which are Fortune 500 companies. 3. Professional websites: These are for specific professions, skills and not general in nature. For an example, for HR jobs Human Resource Management sites to be visited like www.shrm.org. The professional associations will have their own site or society. BENEFITS OF RECRUITING ONLINE: Cost efficient: Advertisements in internet when compared to newspaper, magazines, and employment agencies is considerably cheap. As in the other sources continuously one has to revise the advertisement, for example a company wanted their ad to appear on every Sunday for a month thus was suppose to pay for four advertisements. But for internet it is not applicable. Time saving device: Time to deliver; to communicate is minimized by this. Response is direct and immediate without any delay. Beforehand the postal services, fax was one way communication and was time consuming. Phones provided two way communications but resume management, communicating worldwide were not possible. Widens the search: In the era of globalization the reach cannot be restricted at one place. It provides global reach that also within a fraction of second. Truly the process supports the definition of recruitment by creating a vast pool of potential candidates. Provides clarity: Advertisements in employment news, other newspapers, magazines will have word limit, thus sometimes is misinterpreted. For an example a company advertisement announced vacancy for computer skilled person which was interpreted as MIS job which was rather a job for computer skilled receptionist. The advertisement was not clear enough to explain the full profile. In internet the word limitation is not there, the idea, opinion, profile can be expressed as anyone like. Scope for better match: Information in detail is provided with clarity therefore suitable candidate match is possible. The search is widened link with other

websites are possible, these attracts the candidates and after the job profile matches, the candidates apply. Standardization: The information of the candidates are collected in a standard format. Beside collecting the data it also consolidates information received from various sources Reservoir: It acts as the reservoir of information. From the job profile to candidate profile is available along with past applicant data. Green solution: The gathering and compilation of data, filing of records and all related administrative work is done electronically, and therefore paperwork is considerably lessened. Significantly less physical space is taken up for file storage, and overall, the ecological footprint is smaller than more traditional recruiting methods. Clear communications: Press insertions have word and space limits that can lead to unclear messages. On the Internet, there is no word limitation and all relevant details can be expressed unambiguously. In addition, the automated application process can immediately provide feedback to candidates who are under-qualified or not suitable for the position. Faster time-to-appointment: Automating recruitment administration, like posting a job opening complete with all the specifications on the Internet, takes only a few minutes. Delivery time and response time are immediate. The prospective candidates can visit the company site, post their CVs and expect responses through e-mails. As mentioned above, e-recruitment can also cut out all non-appropriate candidates automatically, producing a shortlist within minutes, rather than days of reading through 200 CVs Adoption is growing especially among younger candidates: In a January 2012 survey by UK market intelligence company Key Note, 43.9% of respondents said they had used the Internet (via mobile or traditional Internet connections) to search for jobs. In Key Note's survey, 16.9% of those who applied for a job online received a resulting interview. Considering that 18.5% of respondents used the Internet to apply for a job online, this is a very high success rate. Furthermore, 12.7% of respondents who said they had applied for a role over the Internet had gained employment.

DRAWBACKS OF E-RECRUITMENT: Require being computer savvy: The process is restricted within computer savvy candidates. As the search is based on various websites, their screening, keywords application demands for a computer savvy person and company. Legal consequences: Alike other recruitment sources this source also should be aware of the words used in the advertisements otherwise it may lead to the

charge of discrimination. For example, Disney World was sued for screening the resumes preferring the key words used by whites. Vast pool of applicants: This benefits the Organizations as well as it is disadvantage to them also. Because the huge database cannot be scanned in depth. Either first few candidates are called for interview or the resumes are screened based on some key words. On the other hand applicants also face global competition. Non-serious applicants: Lot of applicants forward their resumes just to know their market value. As personally the candidates are not checked thus whether they are serious is not known. At the time of interview the recruiter might realize that the candidate is not serious in leaving the current job. But by that time some serious candidates might have been rejected. Disclosure of information: Candidates profile and company details are available to public. The applicants do not want their employer to know that they are looking for a change. Phone number, address information has lead to many security problems. Again the companies do not want their competitors always to know the current scenario. High Volume of Responses: Because anybody in the world with Internet access could potentially see your job posting, you may be inundated with responses, many of them from unqualified candidates. You'll have to take time that you may not really have to wade through each application. To avoid unwanted applications, you'll need to be careful as to how you word your job posting and be as specific as possible about the job duties and the qualifications you're seeking. Logistical Problems: What if the best-qualified candidates for your opening live halfway around the world? If that's the case, you'll have to consider conducting screening interviews by telephone or email, which limits the expense of an inperson meeting. If the process moves forward, it poses the dilemma of whether it is really worth bringing the person in for an interview. If it turns out the candidate wasn't serious about relocating, you've wasted valuable time and possibly money. Technology Issues: If your hiring process involves filling out an application, you may miss out on qualified candidates who would rather send a resume. Some candidates may not want to take the time or may not be confident enough with the security of an online application. There's always the possibility that your application system may operate slowly or lose information during the submission process.

Poor Website: In many cases, candidates who see your job posting will be relying on you website to gain additional information about your company, its mission and method of operation. If your website is poorly designed or out of date, the candidate may not even bother to respond. There's also the possibility that the site won't have relevant information regarding the candidate's area of interest. Too Impersonal: Because much of the online recruiting process may involve emails and possibly telephone interviews, it can be viewed as somewhat impersonal. Without the opportunity for the employer to hold multiple in-person interviews, it can be difficult to determine if the candidate will be a good fit for the company and its culture. The candidate may also have a hard time gauging whether the company is the right place for her.

MODERN TRENDS OF E-RECRUITMENT: Speedy communication: Company and the prospective employee can communicate with each other via the blogs. Thus blogs, podcasts, vodcasts are being considered a tool of e-recruitmant. No more the process can be blamed for being one way communication like mails, faxes only being speedy as done electronically. Podcasts are the services of digital media files. Vodcasts are the video podcasts. Candidates preference: History states that employers had the privilege to be selective in hiring process, especially in screening resumes but were not always fair. Because of the time constraint it was not possible to go through all the applications. Today the candidates can choose their employers as not only the financial state is known to them but also the culture is known. Applying for the Organization will no more be influenced only by the image. Search engine advertisement: Print ad is phasing out due the popularity of search engine ads. Pay-per-click is not only convenient but also more attractive. RSS feed: Job boards are embracing RSS feed. Hotjobs, Google deserves special mention. Google offers one to upload the jobs on Google Base even when one doesnt have their own site. RSS can be read using software RSS reader. It is a family of web feed formats use to publish frequently updated works. Such as blog entries, news headlines in a standard format.

CRITERIA FOR EFFECTIVE E-RECRUITMENT: The requirement for it is to benefit the selection procedure. Thus to make the process effective, the Organizations should be concerned about various factors. Among them most important are- Return on investment (ROI) should be calculated to compare the costs and risks. It facilitates to evaluate benefits and to calculate the estimated return.

Recruitment policy should be flexible and proactive, to adapt market changes. The companies will have their own mix and match sources according their objective. The guidelines to be provided in the policy. Unemployment rate, labor turnover rate are considered. As the whole process depends on the availability of candidates in the market. For every post, position it is not viable to spend too much of time. These rates will determine whether to be stringent or lenient. Impact of supplying compensation details to be considered. That is the wage, salary, benefits, when disclosed on line then it should follow the legal norms. Chance for negotiation will not be there. Compensation rate of the company not only reaches to the candidates but will be known to all. Precautions to be taken for resume screening. Words that discriminates gender, age, religion etc to be avoided. For an example, recent college graduates only in an ad are not preferable. Review the results periodically and also update regularly to achieve a better result. Otherwise pool of candidates will remain static and will not serve the purpose. Organizations need to selective while choosing the sites. It refers to whether it is required to be giving to the job search sites like www.monster.com or in their own site. When special skill candidates are searched then generic job search sites to be avoided.

There are three main points of entry into the market:1. Media Buying This is where you simply seek someone to place your adverts on the right job sites and negotiate the media rates. Sounds easy but in fact it can be a hit and miss affair if your adviser doesn't know the market particularly well. Beware: there is a right and wrong way to buy online media advertising. There's a world of difference between posting your ads to the sites you think are right (because you've heard of them or their name sounds OK) and posting to sites you know are right (because hard quantitative data has proven they yield the best candidates for given jobs). HR Portal has been gathering this hard data for years and updates it daily. It is based on how many candidates respond to each vacancy from each job site. They are now also measuring candidate quality by job site. After all, it's better to target a smaller site that will yield a handful of suitable candidates than a bigger player that throws you hundreds of unsuitable people. As a major player in media buying in its own right, HR Portal enjoys economies of scale with the job sites. These cost savings are handed on to its clients, enabling them to buy online media at a far reduced rate than they could achieve alone.

2. Media Buying with Pre-Selection/Sorting It is advisable to supplement your intelligent media buying with a quick, effective candidate handling process. This way, the true benefits of online recruitment will be realised. A good Application Service Provider will develop and tailor such a programme to your business: don't just accept the cheapest programme - it is unlikely to be flexible. Make sure it meets your needs. Insist it is tailored to your business and check there will be strong support to get it up and running and maintained. HR Portal is very service and support orientated: experience has shown that partnerships with its clients are far more fruitful than just selling and leaving. Furthermore, HR Portal finds that over time its clients' needs change: it is far easier to accommodate any updates and upgrades within an on-going relationship. 3. The Full Monty Well not literally as in the film, but an impressive display of skills and expertise nevertheless. HR Portal can take a job on from scratch: build the website, develop the candidate assessment and management software, identify the best job sites and post ads to them. It's all part of its HR Extranet service (www.hrportal.co.uk/r63a11). HR Extranet blends seamlessly into a corporate website, adding a new dimension to the company's public face. As far as candidates are concerned, they are dealing with the company, not a consultant or an IT specialist. And indeed they are: you, as the recruiter, have control of the system, can see applications coming in and their progress. You can pick up the better candidates and fast track them to interview. You can see which sites and, if you're using them, which recruitment consultants are bringing in the best quality people. Ultimately you can improve your service to your functional colleagues and fill their vacancies more quickly at lower cost. Behind the scenes, HR Portal works alongside you, tracks the site activity and offers necessary support. Why are we introducing an e-Recruitment System? Improve the Universitys capability to attract & retain talent. Characteristics of the labour market are changing, typified by: Candidate management Communication expectations of candidates Shortening turn-around times/decision-making Candidate driven market Highly competitive market for quality talent/tightening demographics Employer brand is important Candidate expectations-different EVPs, know their market value Recruitment technologies enable faster, more direct Reduce dead time in administration/process Less administrivia, more advice/consultancy available Make it easier for those staff involved in the recruitment process

LITERATURE REVIEW
A research conducted by Bonoma [1985] argues that case studies prove valuable in situations where existing knowledge is limited, often providing in-depth contextual information, which may result in a superior level of understanding. As per Holt [1993] a well-motivated and skilled workforce is crucial for an organization to compete effectively both in national and global markets. A study conducted by Berger and Ghei [1995] in his study on a facet of hospitality hiring concluded that the success of the hotel industry depends on the quality of its employees and their effective management in order to assist the organization to achieve its objectives Becker and Gerhart [1996] according to his research found growing empirical evidence linking HRM activities and organizational performance, as human resources are the most valuable resource for the successful functioning of an organization. Hacker [1997] according to his studies a poor recruitment decision can cost an employer an amount equal to 30 per cent of the employees first-year earnings. Therefore, organization will need to ensure the effectiveness of their recruitment and selection procedures, since they might be critical in decision-making processes for organizations (Bratton and Gold 2003). A study conducted by Martinez and Martineau [1998] on rethinking human resources stated that when health reforms aims at efficiency savings or overall cost reduction, they go by changing the way in which staff are employed. As per Mencken & Winfield [1998] explored the advantages and disadvantages of informal and formal recruiting practices in external labour markets. The authors found that quality was a strong motivator than cost for informal recruiting. The findings from the regression analysis also demonstrated that the quality of applicants was more salient for hiring managers in the private sector. According to Smith [1999] had worked upon e-recruitment where he had tried to conceptualize that internet helps employers better target prospective employees. The author mentioned that the career web, which small companies may consider expensive, could still be less costly than multiple newspaper ads. According to the research of Mitchell [1999], the basic problem in the use of case material is theoretical analysis. Case studies can do a whole variety of things. Bartram[2000] suggests a sequence of three events involved in internet recruitment and selection processes: attraction, recruitment and selection. Initially, only attraction and recruitment was suggested to play a major role in e-Recruiting, but selection duties are increasingly influenced by e-Recruiting processes. As per the study conducted by Mau and Kopischke [2001] on job search methods, job search outcomes and job satisfaction of college graduates, found that there was significant correlation between the number of job search methods used and the number of interviews and suggested that the students used a variety of job search methods rather than relying on a single method. According to Dineen, Ash, and Noe [2002] examined another aspect of webbased recruitment, namely the possibility of providing tailored online feedback to candidates. In this experimental study, students were asked to visit the career web page of a fictitious company that provided them with information about the values of the organization and with an interactive fit check tool. In particular, participants were told whether they were a high or a low fit with the company upon completion of a webbased person organization fit questionnaire. Participants receiving feedback that indicated high P-O fit were significantly more attracted to the company than participants receiving no feedback. Similarly, participants receiving low fit feedback were significantly less attracted than those receiving no feedback . As per Koong [2002] identified important attributes of commercial recruiting websites. He concluded

that not all commercial recruiting websites have equal capabilities. Especially the difference in the number of attributes and the types of resources differed greatly. Most research to date suggests that commercial recruiting websites do not have the same capabilities and types of attributes than corporate career websites. Galanaki [2002] had conducted a descriptive study on the decision to recruit online, involving 99 UK IT companies whose shares were traded in London stock exchange. A survey was carried out, in the form of a postal questionnaire, followed by an interview to which 34 companies replied. The author found that of the factors that influenced a companies decision making, cost-effectiveness and high response rate came first, followed by access to passive job seekers and the marketing purpose of online recruiting. A study conducted by Connerley, Carlson, & Mecham [2003] on the evidence of differences in applicant pool quality addressed the research need by examining the attraction outcome of firms competing head-to-head for recruits for similar positions. Results of an analysis suggest that applicant quality can vary substantially within and across job families. According to his research Braddy and Cober[2003] both state that navigational usability can affect organizational attraction, In the same year Williamson tested a model in which he proposed that the orientation of a website and individual differences of applicants may have an indirect influence on organizational attraction by affecting the perception of a websites usability. Chapman and Webster [2003] in their survey research on the use of technologies in recruiting, screening, and selection processes for job candidates conducted in USA found that most organizations implemented technology based recruitment and selection tools to improve efficiency, enable new assessment tools, reduce costs, standardize systems and expand the applicant pool. As per the study conducted by Boswell, Roehling, LePine, & Moynihan, [2003] focused on opportunities to meet people and site visit arrangements. In terms of the timeliness of actions taken by an employer during the recruitment process, Boswell and other authors documented the importance of timely recruitment actions. Their results showed that receiving prompt responses from HR Managers resulted in job candidates having a more positive view of the employer. As per the research by Cooper et al [2003], psychometric is defined as the measurement of psychological attributes, including mental testing in all its facets, such as intelligence, personality, aptitudes, abilities. Based on this perspective, recruitment is then vi ewed as a process of attracting individuals who might meet this specification and, selection is the process of measuring differences between these candidates to find the person who has the profile which best matches the person specification as indicated by the job profile or description. A research on Internet job search and unemployment durations by Kuhn and Skuterud [2004] had tried to find out which types of unemployed workers looked for work online and whether internet searchers became reemployed more quickly. The authors concluded that internet job search is more common among workers with observed characteristics that are usually associated with faster reemployment and internet job search does speed reemployment. The authors pointed out that, internet job search might significantly improve search outcomes on dimensions such as job quality that they had not measured in their research. Hadass [2004] in his research on the effect of internet recruiting on the matching of workers and HR Managers developed a model of recruitment in which job seekers have private information about their qualification for different jobs and firms possess imperfect screening technologies. The implications of the model were empirically examined using personnel data from US-based multinational manufacturing firm with more than 15000 employees. The adoption of e-recruitment was modeled as reducing application costs to

workers and improving screening technology for firms. He concluded that firms may adopt e-recruitment strategies because of the direct reduction in recruiting costs and because of competition among HR Managers for qualified hires. Cober[2004] showed that individuals perceptions of a websites usability impacts applicants positive or negative evaluation of employers. He showed that recruiting websites with a logical navigational flow positively affect applicants perception of employers. Allen [2004] suggested that mere familiarity with an organization may not be sufficient to enhance applicants attraction to an organization. Following up on Allens findings, Braddy found that the effect recruitment websites had on applicants perception of an organization was not a function of the familiarity the applicant had with the organization. Braddy notes that Allens research did not take into account the possibility that applicants might be more likely to visit websites of organizations that they are familiar with. As per Smith and Rupp [2004], examined the application of technology to recruiting and retaining knowledge workers in an e-commerce, information intensive environment. The authors reported that e-recruitment as a general process is job specific and offers computer-assisted screening interviews and statistical prediction to aid in reducing recruiting costs, time-to-hire and employee turnover. According to Terzis[2005] classified e-Recruiting papers into four categories. The first category consists of papers stating the advantages and disadvantages of e-Recruiting for business, economy and society. The second category reflects papers that provide information and tips for applicants. The third category concentrates on information and help for recruiters. The fourth category of papers analyzes and compares job sites. The meta-analysis of the research conducted by Chapman, Uggerslev, Carroll, Piasentin, & Jones [2005] concluded that timely responses from HR Managers were linked to greater applicant attraction to a job with an organization. Jansen, Jansen and Spink [2005], gave implications for online job seeking and recruiting in their paper on using the web to look for work. The authors focused upon three specific research questions: how do people search for job-related information on the web? How effective are these searches? And how likely are job seekers to find an appropriate job posting or application? The data used to examine these questions come from job seekers submitting job-related queries to a major web search engine at three points in time over a five-year period. Results of their study indicated that individuals seeking job information generally submitted only one query with several terms and over 45 percent of job-seeking queries contained a specific location reference. Of the documents retrieved, findings suggested that only 52 per cent were relevant and only 40 per cent of job-specific searches retrieved job postings. According to the research by Dickie and Dickie [2005], there are four major types of employment candidates in China, which are local Chinese, overseas Chinese, Chinese returnees, and repatriates. Since these people might come from different cultural background and due to different education level they are at, it is suggested that it is important to understand the pros and cons of hiring candidates from each of these group, for instance, Chinese returnees are more familiar with western business practices. However, it is argued by several researchers that the understanding of the cultural environment is very important for successfully managing people in the global environment (Chatterjee and Nankervis 2003; Bjorkman and Lu 1999). A research by Matthews [2006] on the recruitment of law students by the United States Internal Revenue Service described how by moving up the start data of its campus recruitment efforts it was able to fill jobs more easily and with better quality individuals . According to the Pew Internet Research reported by NAS insights [2006], about 72 per cent of American adults were online. That translated to over 145

million people. This was a wide audience, and the Internet proved to be an integral part of employee recruitment because there was no faster, simpler, or more cost effective way to reach thousands of qualified candidates. In fact, 44 per cent of online Americans were looking for information about a job. The Internet allowed HR Managers to reach these candidates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Ng and Burke [2006] in their study on the next generation at work explored the views, career expectations, and job search behaviors among a sample of business students. The authors conducted a field survey involving 20,771 students across Canada to understand the views of university students on jobs, organizations, careers and perception of their organizations. The study using multiple regression analysis found that cooperative students appear to have more realistic expectation, have better insights into their own abilities and desires, and report higher self-confidence. It also reported that the respondents had low expectations that their campus career offices would get them a job, and expected to use the internet more frequently in their job searches. This suggested a shift away from traditional recruitment mediums to more contemporary approaches such as internet. As per Agreementsn Braddy[2008] that organizations with easy navigational websites received more favorable organizational evaluations. Putting these findings together, a positive influence on applicants organizational attraction seems to exist if organizations have easy to navigate (recruiting) websites. Organization familiarity is not related to organizational attraction. A research conducted by Verhoeven and Williams [2008] reports on a study into internet recruitment and selection in the United Kingdom. The study discussed the advantages and disadvantages as identified in literature and considered those against the views of HR Managers in UK. It obtained its data from a survey through postal questionnaire followed by an administered questionnaire to 83 organizations. The author reported that a quarter of UK HR Managers found internet recruitment to be effective in delivering suitable candidates. Furthermore, one out of every five UK HR Managers perceived the tool to be efficient, and only a slightly higher percentage of HR Managers indicating cost-saving and acknowledging that internet recruitment tools as relatively cheap in comparison with more traditional tools.As reported by Aqayo Research on efficient talent acquisition through e-recruitment[2008], a survey was conducted among several hiring managers at NRG Engineering Pte Ltd.; a consulting company specialized in the Oil and Gas industry, to identify how the E-Recruitment software they used enhanced efficiency of their recruitment activities. All unanimously agreed that using Applicant Tracking Systems significantly reduced the time spent on each recruitment activity, and additionally smoothened the recruitment process. As per the study conducted by Khan[2008], recruitment means informing the market that new people are going to be appointed, which can be done through publicity and advertisement. The primary purpose of recruiting is identifying and attracting potential employees. According to Breaugh [2008] had discussed employee recruitment and its important areas for future research, where he had reviewed research on recruitment topics that had received considerable attention (e.g., recruitment methods, realistic job previews). He had also addressed topics (e.g., targeted recruitment, the site visit) that had received relatively little attention but that had the potential to be quite important. The author had found that many job applicants: (a) had an incomplete and/or inaccurate understanding of what a job opening involved, (b) were not sure what they wanted from a position, (c) did not have a self insight with regard to their knowledge, skills, and abilities, and (d) couldnt accurately predict how they would react to the demands of the new position. As per the studies conducted by Williams [2009] on E-recruitment

showed dwindling recruitment spends focused on web-based recruitment at the expense of traditional methods. The author also reported that online methods proved far more popular, as two-thirds (66 per cent) of the HR professionals surveyed said that the jobs section of their own companys website was used as a recruitment tool for most jobs. CONCLUSION With the internet, all types of jobs and employees could be easily found and acquired to fill specific need. Internet recruitment improves corporate image, reduces recruitment cost, reduces administrative burden and employs better tools for the recruitment team. Internet can assist employees in finding employment opportunities faster and easier than ever before. Web sites are viewed as a very effective recruitment method and are perceived as generating a large number of job applicants at relatively low cost .With the introduction of the internet, the recruitment process has become easier. Complexity and the dynamic nature of recruitment practices require continuous updation of knowledge, skills and abilities. Recruitment practices differ in different organizations classified based on organization type, size etc. Better recruitment practices have impact on image of the organization and ability to fill the vacancies more promptly. In service sector- recruitment and retention have been acknowledged to be problematic and increasingly a response has been to cast the net more widely. Most customers who defect from a service business blame indifferent or unhelpful employees.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
OBJECTIVES 1. To assess the impact of e-recruitment in terms of quality of the applicants. 2. To study the impact of e-recruitment on cost and time taken for employee acquisition. 3. To analyze the impact of e-recruitment in providing a wider choice of talent. 4. To analyze the impact of e-recruitment on employee job search behavior. 5. To develop a model on HRSCM with a decision-support capability in an Internet environment. RESEARCH Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue". It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is the process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making business decisions.The methodology may include publication research, interv iews, surveys and other research techniques, and could include both present and historical information. DATA COLLECTION METHOD The collection of data is the first step in statistics. The data collection process includes the formulation of research design and sample plan. The data can be Primary Data and Secondary Data. Sources of data:-

1. Primary Data - Primary Data are those data which are collected at first time
through observation, direct communication or personal interview. The Primary Data required for this project work was collected through Questionnaires. This method consisted of preparing detailed questions covering the Employee satisfaction standards in the Company. Thereafter it was distributed amongst a number of personnel of the Company (respondents) who were randomly selected. Further, no names were sought from those filling in this Questionnaire so as to obtain their free and frank opinion as also to protect their privacy. The format of the Questionnaire is attached to this report.

2. Secondary Data - Secondary data is the data that have been already collected by
and readily available from other sources. Such data are cheaper and more quickly

obtainable than the primary data and also may be available when primary data can not be obtained at all.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ADOPTED


Research Design A research design encompasses the methodology and procedures employed to conduct scientific research. The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlational, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and subtype research question, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan. Sample Design:Type of universe Sampling unit Source list Size of sample Parameters of interest : Budgetary constraints Research Instrument Sampling method Sample test Source of data : : : : : : : : : : Primary Data Structured Questionnaire Simple Random Sampling 100 Infinite Employees

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Aim and Objectives of the Research The aim of this research is to investigate the process of E-Recruitment as strategic driving factor in cutting costs and saving time in the Indian IT sector. The objective's of the study are as follows: To investigate the various factors and trends in Recruitment in India. To Explore E-Recruitment as Human resource process and evaluate various implications in hiring To critically examine the effectiveness of e-recruitment in Software industries To identify merits and demerits in E-Recruitment process

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