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Cuza University, Iasi Faculty of Philosophy and Social Political Science International Development Studies
THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT
Case study: INDIA. DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES
Master: Vlăduţ Şaramet
1. Introduction 2. Development issues 3. Development policy in India 4. Millennium Development Goals: International Organizations and Institutions 5. Concluding remarks 6. Attachments 7. Bibliography
services. New York. 1 2 Richard Peet and Elaine Hartwick. 1 http://wiki. life chances. and so on. essentially. 2009.” Development understood as a better life is a powerful emotive ideal because it appeals to the best in people. “development” is conventionally measured as economic growth. It is known as the phenomenon in which people can improve the living conditions in the world. meeting basic needs: sufficient food to maintain good health. it is also known as growth and advancement of an urban area. The Guildford Press. development is also known as implementing a change. education. Development is known as a phenomenon that suggests that the people are able to control the future of their city. and being treated with dignity and respect. 1 Development is known as a dynamic process of improvement. In the present context of a highly uneven world. that determines how people live—in terms of income.answers. to affect and change us forever.com/Q/Meaning_of_development . or evolution. and more broadly a society and culture. a better life for most people means.2 Development is important because it produces an economy. As we have said.INTRODUCTION Development means making a better life for everyone. What might be called the “discourse of development” (the system of statements made about development) has the power to move people.Theorries of development. healthy place in which to live. with “level of development” seen in terms of “size of the economy. p. affordable services available to everyone. a safe.
Given these idiosyncratic policies. the government’s desire to create capital goods production capability. the usual specialization in a populous developing country 3. 3 4 5 http://www. India’s emphasis on tertiary education.imf. may have channeled the manufacturing sector into more skill-intensive industries. Solow. The post–World War II literature on economic development has been dominated by four major and sometimes competing strands of thought: • • • • the linear-stages of-growth model theories and patterns of structural change. and foreign aid were all that was necessary to enable developing nations to proceed along an economic growth path that historically had been followed by the more developed countries. Theorists of the 1950s and early 1960s viewed the process of development as a series of successive stages of economic growth through which all countries must pass.pdf http://www. . investment. that within most industries.Relative to other comparable poor countries. the international-dependence revolution. however. the average scale of enterprise was relatively small.pdf Robert M.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 70 1956. India had a far more diversified presence across manufacturing industries than the typical developing country. rigid labor laws as well as constraints on the scale of private enterprises may well have limited India’s presence in labor-intensive manufacture. an eclectic approach has emerged that draws on all of these classic theories. aggregate economic growth.aw-bc. p. Development thus became synonymous with rapid. Regulatory penalties and constraints on large private enterprise implied. the neoclassical. 5 This linearstages approach was largely replaced in the 1970s by two competing economic (and indeed ideological) schools of thought. especially through public-sector involvement.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2006/wp0622. implied that India had a greater presence in industries that required scale (and capital) than other developing countries. free-market counterrevolution. Furthermore. 65–94.4 In recent years. “A contribution to the theory of economic growth. It was primarily an economic theory of development in which the right quantity and mixture of saving.com/info/todaro_smith/Chapter4. combined with a variety of policy distortions. Finally.
is not due to exploitive external and internal forces as expounded by dependence theorists. institutional and structural economic rigidities. to provide more diversified employment opportunities.8 When interest in the poor nations of the world really began to materialize following the Second World War.econ.econ.htm .economics4development. according to this theory. Throughout much of the 1980s and early 1990s. 6 The second. which focused on theories and patterns of structural change. It viewed underdevelopment in terms of international and domestic power relationships. and the resulting proliferation of dual economies and dual societies both within and among the nations of the world. This neoclassical (sometimes called neoliberal) counterrevolution in economic thought emphasized the beneficial role of free markets. Dependence theories tended to emphasize external and internal institutional and political constraints on economic development. financial and technical assistance enabled the war-torn countries of Europe to rebuild and 6 7 8 http://www. Today’s eclectic approach draws on all of these perspectives. and the privatization of inefficient public enterprises. Failure to develop. used modern economic theory and statistical analysis in an attempt to portray the internal process of structural change that a “typical” developing country must undergo if it is to succeed in generating and sustaining a process of rapid economic growth. but economic growth per se was not given the exalted status accorded to it by the linear stages and the structural-change models.nyu. But they did have the recent experience of the Marshall Plan. These and other egalitarian objectives were to be achieved within the context of a growing economy. a fourth approach prevailed. the international dependence revolution. under which massive amounts of U.edu/user/debraj/Papers/DevReaderIntro. open economies. was more radical and political in orientation.com/economic_development_theories.nyu. and we will highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each.The first.7 Emphasis was placed on the need for major new policies to eradicate poverty.pdf http://www. They had no readily available conceptual apparatus with which to analyze the process of economic growth in largely agrarian societies characterized by the virtual absence of modern economic structures. it is primarily the result of too much government intervention and regulation of the economy. Rather.edu/user/debraj/Papers/DevReaderIntro. and to reduce income inequalities.S.pdf http://www. economists in the industrialized nations were caught off guard.
politicians.com/node/1591985 10 11 .org/pubs/journal/cj29n2/cj29n2-2.g. 9 Moreover. Unfortunately.cato. fueled by the cold war politics of the 1950s and 1960s and the resulting competition for the allegiance of newly independent nations. was it not true that all modern industrial nations were once undeveloped agrarian societies? Surely their historical experience in transforming their economies from poor agricultural subsistence societies to modern industrial giants had important lessons for the “backward” countries of Asia.economist. institutional.N. as are complementary factors such as managerial competence. an efficient government bureaucracy) to convert new capital effectively into higher levels of output. the stages theory failed to take into account the crucial fact that contemporary developing nations are part of a highly integrated and complex international 9 http://www. Rostow. and Latin America. this approach is often dubbed “capital fundamentalism. came the stages-of-growth model of development. and administrators in rich countries to whom people and ways of life in the developing world were often no more real than U. The Rostow model implicitly assume the existence of these same attitudes and arrangements in underdeveloped nations. Its most influential and outspoken advocate was the American economic historian Walt W. The logic and simplicity of these two strands of thought—the utility of massive injections of capital and the historical pattern of the now developed countries—was too irresistible to be refuted by scholars.” Out of this somewhat sterile intellectual environment. a well-trained and educated workforce. the transition from underdevelopment to development can be described in terms of a series of steps or stages through which all countries must proceed. the mechanisms of development embodied in the theory of stages of growth did not always work. the motivation to succeed. According to the Rostow doctrine.com/node/1591985 http://www. Yet in many cases they are lacking. and the ability to plan and administer a wide assortment of development projects. statistics or scattered chapters in anthropology books. And the basic reason they didn’t work was not because more saving and investment isn’t a necessary condition for accelerated rates of economic growth—it is—but rather because it is not a sufficient condition.modernize their economies in a matter of a few years.. But at an even more fundamental level. Africa. 11 The Marshall Plan worked for Europe because the European countries receiving aid possessed the necessary structural. highly developed transport facilities. and attitudinal conditions (e.economist.pdf http://www.10 Because of its emphasis on the central role of accelerated capital accumulation. skilled labor. well-integrated commodity and money markets.
capability. economic reforms combined with growing decentralization of policymaking appear to have allowed states to use the capabilities built up over the period of heavy policy intervention—in other words. more cost effective. 12 13 http://siteresources. On the other. it has led to a considerable divergence between states in growth and incomes and in the pattern of specialization.icpd. freed them to grow at a pace consistent with their built-up skill base and institutional. The fast-growing peninsular states are starting to resemble industrial countries in their specialization.org/development_strategies/Knowledge%20for%20Development. and dualism models reject the exclusive emphasis on traditional neoclassical economic theories designed to accelerate the growth of GNP as the principal index of development.org/DEC/Resources/hoff-stiglitz-frontiersofdevec.system in which even the best and most intelligent development strategies can be nullified by external forces beyond the countries’ control.12 Whatever their ideological differences.htm .and infrastructure-poor states of the hinterland. coupled with the rapid pace of global knowledge generation. But the areas where India has built capabilities serve least well the populous. Given the rapid pace of population growth within the country.pdf http://www. DEVELOPMENT ISSUES Instead. India is presented with a double challenge over the next two decades13: first. second. On the one hand. moving towards skill-intensive services and manufacturing. false-paradigm. as well as infrastructural. Whether these states can develop appropriate growth strategies and whether these strategies will be impeded or helped by the growth of the more advanced states is a central question for India’s economic future.worldbank. to accelerate the rate of knowledge dissemination both through the formal education system and through non-formal channels. to accelerate the rate of knowledge generation and acquisition within the country by greater. more productive and more commercially applicable investments in R&D and technology transfer. this freedom has increased India’s overall growth rate. institution. The remainder of this paper will focus on strategies to accelerate knowledge dissemination in India through formal and non-formal channels. the advocates of the neocolonial-dependence.
In a world where progress depends on a complex set of national and international economic ties. social policies. and death benefits are covered by a provident fund with deposit linked insurance for industrial workers in 177 categories.preservearticles. Thus a policy towards sustainable development cannot be framed in isolation to politics and state regulations. The main purpose of this programme would be to establish better management practices for both the human and the natural resources through innovations in technology. political and cultural paradigms. immunization and health programs.nationsencyclopedia. any step towards sustainable patterns of growth involves as yet unresolved problems and challenges. Success of sustainable development is dependent upon the capacity development of the developing countries and environmental management 15. and training for adolescents. DEVELOPEMENT POLICY IN INDIA India's governments have established an extensive social welfare system. The program for old age. disability. It would also need a firm action towards debt servicing so that the poor countries may come out of the debt trap and participate in the world economic recovery programmes.html Idem http://www.com/Asia-and-Oceania/India-SOCIAL-DEVELOPMENT. Programs for children include supplementary nutrition for expectant mothers and for children under seven years of age.html#b . There is a social insurance system covering sickness and maternity as well as work injury. The world community is confronted by a chicken and egg controversy.14 Thus the primary requirement of sustainable economic prosperity in the world is to make the international economic system more equitable and just so that the developing countries can access it more vibrantly. with a small pension scheme subsidized by the government16. The law requires employers to pay a severance indemnity of 15 days pay for each year of employment. The system is partially funded by insured persons and employers. vacation camps for low-income families. 14 15 16 http://www. economic problems aggravate resources crisis and environmental despoliation and this leads to constrained economic revival due to which nations find it more difficult to solve problems of unsustainable use of environment.Problems of sustainable development are rooted in issues of resource use and their pattern of distribution and ownership.com/201103314827/problems-of-sustainable-development-in-india.
On the other hand. Idem. however. 17 Jorgen. others were enterprises established by the state in those economic sectors that were deemed strategic and in many instances reserved exclusively for state owned enterprises. Dige. and the country’s international standing was significantly lower than could have been expected from the second most populous country on earth. India was in an advantageous position to borrow funds from those investors abroad who had stopped giving loans to debt-ridden countries and were looking for safer destinations. its core being the industrial licensing system. In terms of total production. Some of these were former private companies that were nationalized. a policy of import-substitution and a largely restrictive policy towards foreign investments with the aid of promoting national control over the country’s economic assets. p. Idem. 20 The positive side of this was. 2008. 83. p.17 The economic strategy pursued by policymakers had emphasized strong state intervention. Pedersen. Part of the explanation for the low growth could be found in the relatively conservative policy of successive governments towards taking foreign loans. Globalization. on the one hand. Palgrave Macmillan. 18 19 20 . primarily because it had relied on domestic financing and on whatever concessional aid official donors would provide for. The low economic growth had resulted in a steady decline since the 1950s in the global position of Indian economy as measured by conventional standards. industrial production. The Performance of India and Brazil since Ibidem. India’s share of both the world economy and that of developing countries had declined. 80. put in place an impressive system of controls over private industrial investments. in higher education.The 1970s saw the culmination of India’s quest for economic selfreliance. 1990. including Brazil. the state had directly engaged itself in industrial development through public enterprises. that after the economic crisis that started in 1979 and ended in the early 1980s. India did not accumulate large international debts during the 1970s. 19 Only in one area had India progressed significantly. The long-term ambition of the Indian planners and politicians from the early 1950s onwards had been to develop an indigenous and independent industrial sector as the foundation for sustained economic growth. The Indian state had. exports and imports. Development and the State. Unlike most developing countries. 18 This system implied that practically all industrial investments required government approval in the form of an investment license.
Also. independent India always allowed private sector activity. controls on credit allocation. But to be consistent with the planning strategy.htm . to financial globalization and to the challenges arising from the negotiations over a new international framework for economic exchange. the threat always remained that the government would enter even those industries which were not explicitly reserved for the public sector (the threat was realized in 1969 when Indira Gandhi nationalized a number of private banks). but before this conclusion can be confirmed. the 1990s became a decade of economic reforms in which the Indian economy. 22 Unlike many developing countries. we need to look closer at how the reactions in India have been to the emerging new paradigm for industrial production. In addition to maintaining coherence with the planning framework. there had to be ways to control the private sector and this was done through investment licensing. Trade restrictions were the inevitable side effect of these policies. the pattern of industrialization focused on reducing dependence on foreign exchange through import substitution. and hence excessive external influence on domestic affairs. import licensing.org/education/LookatEducation. and given that India was capital poor.pdf http://www. a separate reason to control the private sector was to avoid undue concentration of economic power.com/uploads/47e2d55b15183. controls on the use of foreign exchange. especially the creation of domestic heavy industries—that is. This view was understandable in a country emerging from colonialism.Overall. Indian planners devised a combination of heavy public sector involvement (with some industries—the “commanding heights”—being reserved only for the public sector) and controlled private sector involvement. To ensure that investible resources were channeled to the “right” industries. How should India’s development strategy since Independence in 1947 and until the early 1980s is characterized? A focus on self-sufficiency to avoid dependence on imports. It translated into an emphasis on rapid industrialization. Additional mechanisms to enforce this objective included the Monopoly and 21 22 https://www.rienner. managed to grow at a pace similar to that achieved during the 1980s. despite the initial crisis. and which saw itself as an exemplar for other developing countries. These points to a relatively successful management of the challenges of economic globalization. and controls on prices. industries producing capital goods.icpd.21 In addition.
https://www. India spent 86 percent of per capita GDP on each student in tertiary education in 2000 while it spent 14 percent of per capita GDP per student in primary education. some goods were exclusively reserved for production by the small-scale sector. Raghuram Rajan.Restrictive Trade Practices act (MRTP)—which imposed severe constraints on expansion by large firms and groups. significant protections for labor.23 In order to encourage labor-intensive manufacture in the private sector. especially in large firms. India spent substantially planning viewed. and the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA). In addition. and petroleum refineries.24 In 1982.9. Utsav Kumar.html http://www. For example.26 The real impact of the discriminatory policy regime against private sector scale (industrial licensing. and still spends.htm Development: What Happened. of per capita GDP per student in tertiary and primary education.icpd. for a variety of reasons . and the MRTP Act) may then have been felt within industry rather than between industries. By contrast. respectively. tobacco. significant benefits were given to small-scale firms (these included tax concessions and holidays. for a poor country India spent. an amendment to the Industrial Disputes Act (1947) in 1976 made it compulsory for firms with 300 or more workers to seek the permission of the relevant government to dismiss workers.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in. 2006. 24 25 26 . Also. reservation and other incentives for small-scale sectors. With the caveats about cross-country comparisons of establishment and some attempt at correcting for 23 Kalpana Kochhar. relatively far more resources on higher education than on primary education.7 percent and 12.25 What did the policies do in terms of industry specialization? The first industry characteristic we examine is labor intensity. Arvind Subramanian. China spent 10.1 percent. subsidized interest rates. Ioannis Tokatlidis India’s Pattern of Idem. What Follows?. For example. At the same time. where the proxy for labor intensity is the share of wages in value added for the industry in a country averaged across a broad group of developing countries—examples of industries that score highest on labor intensity are clothing. Put another way. p.org/education/LookatEducation. the ceiling for seeking permission to dismiss workers was lowered to 100 workers. preferential access to credit. and preferential treatment in procurement by the government). however. printing and publishing.cia. were enacted. and non-electrical machinery while those that score lowest are beverages.
nsf/ab82a6805797760f80256b4f005da1ab/7ee221555523155dc12 http://www. not just in terms of the distribution of value-added across industries. we find that the average size of firms in India is substantially below that in other countries —this is true in the aggregate and in almost every industry. which raises the question of why this did not.28 One seemingly anomalous finding captures the strange pattern of India’s development.nsf/ab82a6805797760f80256b4f005da1ab/7ee221555523155dc12 56c77003cfaed/$file/ghoslong. the stringent labor laws that make it hard to lay off labor and the consequent hesitancy to hire (and to drive down marginal labor productivity to the value maximizing level) could also explain why productivity is moderately higher in labor-intensive industries.unrisd.ro/books?hl=ro&lr=&id=7guY1ut- 0lwC&oi=fnd&pg=PA5&dq=theory+of+development+in+india&ots=AKXi1qVLBt&sig=axzlD-Y40FvlCJg-kjEP_CKc8A&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=theory%20of%20development%20in%20india&f=false 28 http://www. When we examine the concentration of Indian industry compared to the average country pattern. the high relative labor productivity could simply be the converse of the low labor productivity in the large-scale capital-intensive industries. and hence it should exhibit a more diverse pattern of production. the process of economic liberalization along with the pattern of government spending has been associated with a multiplication of the real incomes of richer groups.unrisd. Second. This relates to the high relative labor productivity observed in the labor-intensive sectors in India.google.pdf .org/unrisd/website/document. the discrimination against size that we have noted above may well have limited the Labor-intensive sector’s incentive and ability to exploit economies of scale and generate large volumes of exports. we find that India is significantly less concentrated (or more diversified). for example. the presumption would be that it has specialized in more areas than the typical developing country.pdf 29 56c77003cfaed/$file/ghoslong. Third. translate into exports of labor intensive goods. Financial liberalization has involved an explosion in financial sector activities and incomes in 27 http://www. 27 Given that India has a more skill-based and scale-based (typically more capital-intensive) pattern of production.29 Thus. First. the latter itself a result of the fact that these were dominated by state-owned firms where over-staffing was a common phenomenon and even an objective.org/unrisd/website/document.them. but also when concentration is measured in terms of employment.
this sector. These include programs to provide elementary education.2 billion. Increasingly. poverty remains a major challenge though it is declining steadily but slowly. rural roads and rural connectivity. have also increased dramatically. However. and made progress towards achieving most of the Millennium Development Goals. and related incomes from activities such as construction. And this Cultural Revolution has been associated with a much more open display of conspicuous consumption than was traditionally prevalent in Indian society. which is also fed by the emergence of satellite television and huge increases in advertising budgets of companies operating in the Indian market. even while real wages in the rest of the economy stagnate and general employment becomes more precarious. This has greatly increased the role of the demonstration effect in the consumption patterns of Indian upper and middle income groups. emerged as a global player with the world’s fourth largest economy in purchasing power parity terms. 42% of people in rural areas and 26% of people in urban areas lived below the poverty line in 2004-05. there has come a cultural revolution of the sort described above. In the past decade. Official poverty estimates for 2009-10 are not yet available but preliminary estimates suggest that in 2009-10 the combined all India poverty rate was 32% compared to 37% in 2004-05. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS With a population of just over 1. India is the world’s largest democracy. basic health care. Trade liberalization has brought growing access to a much wider range of consumption goods and international brand names to the Indian upper and middle classes. Along with this. advertising and so on which feed on the boom in consumption of higher income groups. Based on the new official poverty lines. The apparently insatiable hunger for imported goods is evident from the fact that non-oil imports have continued to increase hugely despite the ongoing recession in domestic manufacturing industry. and other services to the poor. These programs are achieving partial . the country has witnessed accelerated economic growth. professional incomes in finance approach the levels in developed countries. trade. Resources generated from recent growth are now being invested into a set of very ambitious programs to deliver services to the poor. Other white-collar services. health insurance.
org.in/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/INDIAEXTN/0.in/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/INDIAEXTN/0. Scheduled Castes.00.contentM DK:20195738~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:295584..worldbank.31 India’s integration into the global economy has been accompanied by impressive economic growth that has brought significant economic and social benefits to the country.html . Inclusive growth and development is a top priority for the government of India and 30 http://www. and TB are almost under control and the spread of AIDS has been kept in check. disparities in income and human development are on the rise. Although the Government was quite successful in cushioning the impact of the global financial crisis on India. A large section of the population .org. Other Backward Classes. minorities and women . although the government recently reduced its annual GDP growth projection from 9% to 8% for the current fiscal year ending March 2012.contentM http://www.especially the poor. Massive new initiatives are being pioneered that are revolutionizing the way services are being delivered to low-income groups. polio.00.lack access to the resources and opportunities needed to reap the benefits of economic growth.. Leprosy.worldbank. the number of out-of-school children declined from 25 million to 8 million (less than 5% of the 6-14 age groups). 32 To assist the government in achieving rapid inclusive growth. Scheduled Tribes. Large numbers of women have been mobilized into self-help groups to generate new livelihood opportunities.html 32 DK:20195738~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:295584. Between 2003 and 2009.contentM http://www.results on the ground. The World Bank is increasing support to kick-start development in these low-income states by helping them to develop into attractive investment destinations.org. The slowdown is marked by a sharp drop in investment growth resulting from political uncertainties. a tightening of macroeconomic policies aimed at addressing a high fiscal deficit and high inflation (going well beyond food and fuel prices). Poverty reduction in these states remains critical to global success in meeting the Millennium Development Goals.in/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/INDIAEXTN/0.00. Nevertheless.html 31 DK:20195738~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:295584.worldbank. it is now clear that a number of MDG targets will only be met under the Twelfth Five Year Plan .30 India continues to grow at a rapid pace.. and raise the standards of living of their people by improving the delivery of public services. the World Bank is supporting activities which address both cyclical and structural impediments to growth. as well as the constraints to making growth inclusive. and from renewed concerns about the European and US economies.
reinforcing the deep. poverty reduces and India becomes more prominent in world affairs. children by choice and reducing violence against women. In the Indian context.uk/where-we-work/asia-south/india/ http://www. access to finance. climate change. and sanitation • Expand the private sector's potential to combat poverty: to support growth in the low income states the UK is developing programmes of pro-poor private investment to deliver jobs. children's health and nutrition.33 Top priorities • Focus on the poorest people in India's low income states: UK assistance is benefiting the poorest people in three poor states . and to ensure that it represents good value for money for the British taxpayer. productive partnerships we have built over the last decade • Put women and girls at the heart of our work: the UK is investing in girls' education.Madhya Pradesh. skills and low carbon energy. products. Over the next four years our top priorities are as follows. our development partnership with India will become about sharing expertise. safe birth.we are working in partnership to build on their own poverty reduction schemes .34 The 2009 India Country Report brought out by the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation in the form of a mid-term statistical appraisal of the progress towards the MDGs in India. the new sets of statistics for the MDG indicators are showing up changes happening on the ground in respect of different aspects of human development. the rates of changes in statistical terms are quite reflective of the reality on ground. infrastructure and basic services • Deepen our engagement with India on global issues where there may be benefits for poor people elsewhere: such as growth and trade. In view of this the Ministry has combined the latest data on the MDG indicator with the analysis of the programmes which the government has introduced to deal with 33 34 http://www.As a result. We have overhauled the programme to reflect India's rising resources. and the 2010 States of India Report on MDGs by the Ministry have similarly demonstrated that India is on track for some of the MDGs while the progress is not so encouraging for the other MDGs.uk/where-we-work/asia-south/india/ .gov.dfid. As India's economy grows.dfid. supporting innovation and building skills. Bihar and Orissa . resource scarcity and health and disease control.gov.
urban congestion. ecological.org/content/india/en/home/library/mdg/mdg_report_2011. harmonious and equitable.org/content/india/en/home/library/mdg/mdg_report_2011. population.35 This report has been compiled within a short time after the States of India Report on MDGs brought out as a special edition in October. climate. technological development.in. A compartmentalized piecemeal approach to the subject. At the same time. However these analyses. education. 35 36 http://www. such as one focusing on technological solutions or public policy issues. and employment. haphazard. including energy. our knowledge of this process remains partial and fragmented among the different social sciences.undp. public policy. but this report has succeeded to capture for a few important goals. health. technological and social issues.some of the social and economic problems standing in the way of achieving the MDG goals. do not aim to provide crosscutting features as would be necessary for policy makers to get a better view of the outcomes.in. In order that relationship between the interventions and outcomes could be explained meaningfully. pollution. In spite of vast experience. disaggregated statistics at sub-state levels are most essential. under the existing limitations of data. the analysis presented here may help identifying the shortcomings of the government programmes for specific target issues. inequitable. but the complex interactions between various dimensions preclude such an exclusive concentration. industrialization.36 CONCLUDING REMARKS Humanity has made phenomenal progress during the past two centuries. political. The subject of sustainable development encompasses a broad spectrum of economic.html http://www. The process of social development has thus far been subconscious. may shed light on specific aspects. imbalanced and fought with turmoil and unanticipated side effects.html . water. the latest changes in data which are going to affect the level of achievement in the year 2015 at the national level. Problems are compounded when any of these subsystems and elements is regarded as if it were separate and independent from the choices and actions of human beings. most especially during the past 50 years. Development of a comprehensive theory of social development should enable us to convert this process into a conscious movement which is more rapid. mineral resources. 2011.undp.
psychological gratification and cultural enrichment. but rather limitations imposed by the quality of our choices and our actions. humanity has recorded remarkable achievements. they will realize that conscious efforts to promote individuation are important means for the sustainable development of human capital. which can only be partially mitigated by technological solutions. Thus. The problem today is not physical limitations. a paradox. The challenge now facing humanity is to find ways to harness all available forms of capital in a manner that promotes human welfare. while placing increasing demands on our environment. well-being and sustainable development for all. the progressive development of human capital made possible by the continuous evolution of human consciousness is the ultimate determinant of sustainability. When human beings and society more fully comprehend the process of their own development. Then fostering individuation will become a principal objective of both the individual and the collective. which can be fully resolved only by the evolution to a higher level of human consciousness. rather than ever increasing material consumption. Today economic development is generating pressure for evolution to the mental stage in which human beings increasingly seek greater fulfillment in harmonious relationships. . Sustainable development appears to be a contradiction in terms. Rapid economic development and rising levels of consumption are taking a severe toll on the natural environment.In recent decades.
the under-five mortality rate Reduce by three quarters. will be able to complete a full course of primary education Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education.in. between 1990 and 2015. 1. 12. especially information and communication Progress Signs Δ Θ ΔΔ Δ ΘΔ ΘΔ Δ ΘΔ ΔΔ 10. India’sprogressontheMDGsfor2015 Target No. a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers In cooperation with the private sector. 4. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation By 2020. 9. preferably by 2005. ΔΘ φ ΔΔ Δ : Moderately/almost nearly on track considering all indicators Θ : Slow/almost off-track considering all indicators ΔΔ : On-track or fast considering all indicators Source: http://www. boys and girls alike. make available the benefits of new technologies. 7. 8. Target Description Halve.org/content/india/en/home/mdgoverview/ . the maternal mortality ratio Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources Halve. 6. between 1990 and 2015. 11. 2.ATTACHMENTS 1. to have achieved. and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Reduce by two-thirds. between 1990 and 2015. proportion of people who suffer from hunger Ensure that by 2015 children everywhere. between 1990 and 2015.undp. 5. proportion of population below national poverty line Halve. 3. by 2015.
html .poverties.2. World: Extreme Poverty Level India: GDP: $4 trillion (4th) GDP per capita(PPP): $3800 (122th) Extreme Poverty level: 23% Income Inequality Gini Index: 0.32 (moderate) Source: http://www.org/poverty-statistics.
3.bymap. World: Literacy rates 2001 Average: World ave: 80% India: 66% Source: http://world.html .org/LiteracyRates.
4.611 (medium). World: Human Development Index India: HDI 0. Kerala HDI~0.undp.org/en/statistics/ .85 Source: http://hdr. 128th Heterogeneous.
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