PA., U. S. A.

second edition of A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON



out of print for sometime, and there being no recent work to take its place notwithstanding the constant demand for a book on the various important

branches of industry treated


the publication of a



was deemed advisable. Like the previous editions the volume

divided into three

Part I. is devoted to the Manufacture of Vinegar, and includes the production of wood vinegar and other by-products obtained in the destructive distillation of wood, as well as the
preparation of acetates. Part II. contains the Manufacture of Cider, Fruit Wines, etc., and Part III. the Preservation by various methods of

Fruit and Vegetables, and of Meat, Fish and Eggs. In this, the third edition, no essential changes have been

arrangement of the book, bait it has been thorand largely re-written, old and obsolete matter been eliminated and new material introduced. The having best authorities have been diligently consulted and freely drawn on, for which due credit has, whenever possible, been
in the


oughly revised

given in the
It is


hoped that



edition will

favorable reception as the previous ones,

meet with the same and that it will be of

practical utility. copious table of contents as well as a very full index will render reference to any subject in the book prompt and easy.



16, 1914.


T. B.


.. Necessity of progress in making vinegar by the' quick process.... VINEGAR. Great purity of " acetic acid as at present prepared from wood. Stael's method of strengthening vinegar. PAGE Nature of vinegar. 3 .. Method of making vinegar from wine made known by Boerhave... PART I. Count de Laragnais and Marquis ... Historical data regarding the formation of an acetic body in the destructive distillation of wood.CONTENTS... The vinegar or ferment .. 2 ..... Principal defects in the process of making vinegar by the quick process in general use 5 6 Probability of the discovery of a process for the production of acetic acid from elements .... by Schiitzenbach.... is THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF VINEGAR.. Chemical processes by which acetic acid in large quantities formed . Loewitz's method of strengthening vinegar... Difference between Pasteur's and Nageli's views.. Other early historical data about vinegar.. Early knowledge of vinegar.. ... INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL. Pasteur's theory... and that of alcohol by Saussure.... CHAPTER I.... Use of vinegar as a medicine by Hippocrates. in 1823.. (vii) acetic 8 . Glacial acetic acid.. Use of vinegar by Hannibal for The dissolving rocks.... Vinegar essence" and its uses . .. . in 1732 Schiitzenbach' s original plan of working still in use in some localities. Anecdote of Cleopatra. Nomenclature of organisms producing fermentation. 7 Liebig's theory of the formation of vinegar... Present view of the formation of vinegar.. its 4 Difference between the pure acetic acid produced from wood and vinegar prepared from various materials. CHAPTER II.... Historical data relating to the generation of acetic acid. 1 de Courtenvaux' experiments. Introduction of the quick process of manufacturing vinegar... process of increasing the strength of vinegar by distillation described by Gerber in the eighth century. Determination of the exact chemical constitution of acetic acid by Berzelius..

. The .. Reasons for the frequent occurrence of disturbances in the formation of vinegar at . . . Sensitiveness of the ferment to sudden changes in the composition of the fluid upon which . stances which oils. .. Different opinions regarding the nature of mother of vinegar. 22 CHAPTER The IV. propagation of the ferment and its vinegar-forming activities are greatest.. .. Fluid especially adapted for nutriment. Aromatic sub- reach the vinegar through the conversion of Acetic aldehyde or acetaldehyde. besides alcohol and carbonic acid.. . . regular propagation of the ferment the main point of the entire Loss of alcohol in the production. Experiment showing the conversion of wine into vinegar by the vinegar ferment .. . Experiment showing the great rapidity of propagation of the vinegar ferment. Hansen's investigations of the species of bacteria III. Reason why acetic degeneration is not known in cold wine cellars.. .. Preparation of a fluid containing all the substances essential to the nutriment of the ferment. .. .. Limits of temperature at which the .17 showing that the ferment cannot live in dilute alcohol alone . facture. Formation of acetic acid by chemical acid by the action of very finely divided processes.. . . Effect of low temperature upon the ferment. 12 THE VINEGAR FERMENT AND The vinegar ferment. . . Summary of the theoretical conditions of frhe formation of vinegar. PAGE Occurrence of acetic acid in nature.24 25 . .11 . 9 ture of the organisms causing the formation of vinegar Disease causing bacteria... Mother of vinegar. A large content of alcohol in the nutrient fluid detrimental to the vegetation of the vinegar ferment. Pasteups investigations regarding the relation of mother of vinegar to the formation of vinegar. commonly called aldehyde. . Experiment . Formation of acetic ..18 Supply of air required for the ferment. Characteristic properties imparted to alcohol by fusel oils. . Origin of the term. . formed in vinous fermentation. origin and its distribution. Formation of mother of vinegar. Requirements of the ferment for its propagation . its ITS CONDITIONS OF LIFE.. it lives. scope. . Conditions for the nutriment of the ferment. . process of nutriment of the . platinum upon alcohol Development of mother of vinegar.19 20 21 a high temperature. . Preparation of pure aldehyde.Viii CONTENTS. . . CHAPTER .. Factors required for the settlement of the 1& vinegar bacteria upon a fluid and for their vigorous propagation Composition of the nutrient fluid. .15 Results of the withdrawal of oxygen from the ferment. . . . vinegar ferment. Botanical na. . .. PRODUCTS OF ACETIC FERMENTATION. .13 Difference between the living and dead ferment as seen under the micro. . manu23 Substances.. fusel . Acetal and its preparation.

.. IX PAGE 26 27 Composition and nature of pure acetal Acetic acid and its properties. . Composition of acetic acid. 36 37 38 CHAPTER Invention of VI.. Vinegar essence and its use for the preparation of table vinegar.47 .. Schiitzenbach and analogous processes.. . ......51 . ... .CONTENTS..... ... . Manner of calculating the theoretical yield of acetic acid from alcohol... .. .. 34 Comparison of a vinegar generator to a furnace . QUICK PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Designation of the various methods employed. Yields of acetic acid obtained in practice . Theoretical yield of acetic acid.... for the... . Best form of the generator. .. . . .....35 CHAPTER V. . Cover of the generator Disadvantage of a number of obliquely bored holes below the false bottom..41 Contrivances for the discharge of vinegar collected in the lower portion of the generator ... . .. 39 40 42 43 ... Principal requisite for the correct working of the sparger .. 29 30 Quantity of alcohol which can daily be converted into vinegar by a generator ( 31 Calculation of the quantity of heat liberated by the conversion of alcohol into acetic acid. .. ... What the manufacturer can learn from theoretical explanations . Conditions on which the most advantageous working depends... . The old or slow process and modifications of it Difference in the properties of vinegar derived from various sources . . . . . . Comparison of the generator or graduator to a furnace Generators. . .. Loss of alcohol and acetic 33- . . . . .... .construction of generators Variations in the dimensions of the generators Dimensions of the most suitable generator. ... The acme of temperature and what is meant by acid by evaporation and its reduction. . 32 it.. On what the principle .. .. . ... Quantity of oxygen required to form acetic acid and water from alcohol. . involved depends.. ..... . . . .... Substances which may be used for the preparation of vinegar Alcohol the ultimate material for the manufacture of vinegar.48 49 50 The The tilting trough sparger .. . METHODS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Scheme of incorrect conduction of air in generators . . Peculiar behavior of mixtures of acetic acid and water in regard to their specific gravity.. . . Kinds of wood suitable .. 44 45 46 Arrangement of the perforated false head of the generator Arrangement for regulating the inflow of air from below Modification of the false head . ..

- 62 63 65 68 apparatus well 69 72 CHAPTER Principal work which has IX. Incorrectness of this method Principal reason advanced for the use of a current of air from above to 61 below Schulze's ventilating apparatus and generator Generators with constant ventilation and condensation. to be performed in a vinegar factory. Principal requisites to be observed in a suitable arrangement.. . ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF THE VINEGAR GENERATORS. Advantage of having all the generators of the same size. The terrace system ..... ...75 Continuously-acting apparatus. PAGE thermometer an indispensable adjunct to a generator.... and materials used for this purpose.. adapted for the purpose Proposed method of regaining the vapors.58 57 Materials for the floor. .... to be derived Arrangement of a factory according system .. Volume . ARRANGEMENT OF A VINEGAR FACTORY. represented by a shaving in a rolled state. . . ...... CHAPTER VII. . 74 Drawback of this 77 .. 52 53 54 55 for such shaving..X A CONTENTS..... Space required and substances water extractive from the by by steaming. .. Provisions for the maintenance of a uniform temperature ..... Filling the generators. to the terrace system. of the use of Advantage system maximum and minimum thermometers . . ... Disadvantages of pouring at stated intervals the alcoholic fluid into the generators.. and apparatus for this pur- pose .. Explanation of many apparently inex- 73 plicable disturbances Advantages from the use of simple automatic contrivances.... Objection to this method 4Singer* s general >r Michaelis' revolving generator .... General use of beech shavings... AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS.. An .. Heating of the workroom...... Debilitation of the vinegar ferment in consequence of repeated reduction of the temperature in the generators....... their advantages and preparation..59 60 Location of the reservoirs in factories arranged according to the automatic CHAPTER VIII. English process of sucking a current of air from above to below through every generator...... shavings Freeing Drying the steamed shavings Swelling the shavings and placing them in the generator.. ..

.. .. commencement of regular its ." Reason why a content of vinegar in the alcoholic liquid exerts a favorable effect upon the formation of vinegar. . .90 . . 104 Proof that the alcoholic liquid does not require any considerable quantity of Reason why 105 .. ..... .. PREPARATION OF THE ALCOHOLIC LIQUID.. i 91 93 95 CHAPTER X.. best fluid for the purpose. Manner of working in such an establishment. The three-group system. Manner of cultivating vinegar ferment. Experiment showing the destruction of acetic acid by acetic acid for it its . for calculating the space required beneath the false bottom for the reception of the vinegar to the automatic prin. Modification of the tilting trough . production. OPERATIONS IN A VINEGAR FACTORY..... ... . . ... . . Mechanical appliances for admitting at certain intervals a fixed quantity of alcoholic fluid into the generators. and 103 their prevention.. is the vinegar ferment in the absence of alcohol 106 .... XI PAGE 78 its Mode working according to the terrace system Lenze's chamber generator.. .99 . Arrangement of the generators in groups.. .86 88 89 The siphon barrel The bell-siphon Example . .CONTENTS.. . Induction of the operation with an cial culture of vinegar ferment. in preferable to gradually increase the content of alcohol the alcoholic liquid. . ... .... Acetification of the generators.. . .96 97 Example illustrating the gradual celerated acetification How Use the removal of water from the shavings and are effected of artificially dried shavings.. Plate generator. conversion into vinegar. patented by 82 Dr........ CHAPTER XI... Arrangement of a vinegar factory working according ciple... Description of a periodically-working establishment with 24 generators. . . Quantities of vinegar required for complete acetitication . . Definition of the term 'alcoholic liquid.. Bersch Periodically working apparatus... . Apparatus for heating the alcoholic liquid . 102 Abortive culture of vinegar ferment Disturbances by suddenly changing the nutrient fluid of the ferment. Pure culture of vinegar ferment and 100 101 Preparation of nourishing fluid..... and the principles upon which of construction is based 80 Mode of operating Lenze's chamber generator. Ac- substitution by vinegar 98 artifi- .

. . . . . . .. Water suitable and unsuitable for the preparation of vinegar. Reduction of alcohol with water Quantity of fluid to be worked in a generator in the course of a day. . . Operation with three groups of . Calculation for finding the number of gallons of water which have to be added to alcohol of known strength to obtain an alcoholic liquid with the desired. lleason .. Temperature ators to be maintained in the interior of the generators. . . . alcoholic liquid for the production of vinegar with a certain content of acetic acid . ing the generators .. . Table of .. vinegar Regulation of the automatic contrivances. Gradual 118 strengthening of the alcoholic liquid with alcohol .. . . . WOBK IN A VINEGAR FACTORY.122 . ... Compilation show112 ing the manner of preparing alcoholic liquid according to rational principles .107 beer to be added to the alcoholic liquid Quantity of finished vinegar to be added to the alcoholic liquid. . .308 the theoretical yield of acetic acid from alcohol why practically less vinegar with a smaller percentage of acetic anhydride is obtained Table showing the content of alcohol required in an . . . . . . liquid . . . and its preven. Determination of acetic acid and of alcohol in the fluid running off from the gener- Plan of operation as resolved from the results of tests The actual prodoction according to the old method. . Behavior of .. Examples of the composition of alcoholic liquid Use of low wine for the preparation of alcoholic . . . . . . . of the operation. .110 . Preparation of the alcoholic .. . .. Production of so-called triple vinegar . tion . Cross..117 Simplicity of the work... .124 Taking samples for determining the content of acetic acid and alcohol. .. Operation with the automatic 126 system Recognition of a disturbance in any one of the generators.. .. . . . . ... . .111 Determination of the content of alcohol in spirits of wine .127 . . . . 119 120 121 Group system. . Determination of acetic acid in vinegar.. Importance 115 of the constitution of the spirits of wine used 116 Advisability of using a mixture of rectified and crude potato alcohol CHAPTER EXECUTION or THE XII.114 mixtures of water and alcohol River water and the possible introduction of vinegar eels by it.125 liquid for 12 per cent. . .. . . Constitution of the fundamental 113 materials used in the preparation of alcoholic liquid . .. Group system with automatic contrivances. Principle generators..percentage of alcohol 109 .Xil CONTENTS. PACK Limit of acetic acid vinegar should have Conditions on which the advantageous manufacture of high-graded or weak vinegar depends Quantity of .

. . Sulphuring the generator and apparatus for that purpose Disturbances due to vinegar lice (vinegar mites) ... .. . The wash and commencement of acetification. Irregularities due to the nourish128 ing substances of the ferment.... and apparatus used.. FURTHER TREATMENT OF THE FRESHLY-PREPARED VINEGAR.. . ... 148 CHAPTER XV.... .. . Odor of freshly-prepared vinegar.. ... Utensils required. . . 133 135 137 . Favorable effect of phosphates... 149 150 151 in the barrel.. .. ... its 143 144 145 " " Excitation of lazy and storing the vinegar.. . .. Alteration which takes place in the shavings 132 Constitution of the slimy coat... . Induction of the formation of vinegar. Constituents of the . ... .. preparation Indications of the barrels Time required for acetification...CONTENTS. . Preparation of vinegar with the assistance of platinum black . ... . . How sliming can be remedied at the com. ..129 Controlling the working of the generators by frequent determinations of the acetic acid.. Filtration of vinegar and filters for this purpose ... Sweet beer wort or malt extract for strengthening weak-working generators..'. .. 138 ... .. SLOW PROCESS OF MAKING VINEGAR. ... .. .. 140 142 Vinegar flies CHAPTER XIV.. . Filling the Means of improving the odor of vinegar Drawing oft' the vinegar from the sediment vinegar brought into storage barrels Storing of vinegar. and how to remedy them . Barreling cations of the slow process. .... mencement of the evil Disturbances due to vinegar eels Remedies for the suppression of vinegar eels... Processes which take place during storing. ... vinegar. .147 . . Disturbances ascribable to the quantity of newly-formed acetic acid ... . DISTURBING INFLUENCES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. ... Filtering vinegar before bringing it into the storage barrels. Xlll CHAPTER How PAGE XIII. . Modifi. serious disturbances can be avoided.. ..... 152 153 155 Heating the .. Phenomena indicative of the generator not being able to master the alcoholic liquid introduced.. Sliming of the shavings in generators Causes of sliming... .. . Household manufacture of vinegar .. Restoration of the generator to a proper state of working 130 131 Cause of the heating of generators. . and on what barrels it depends. ..

Coloring vinegar. . Tarragon vinegar. 186 . 187 . Cider vinegar.. . . Most suitable variety of malt for making vinegar Theoretical part in mashing. 169 Vinegar from sugar beets.. .. . XVII. Mohr's volatile . Pineapple vinegar.. ... . Fermented whiskey mashes for the manufacture of vinegar.. Clove vinegar. Hygienic or preventive vine. PAGE 158 159 CHAPTER PREPARATION OF VlNEGAR FROM VARIOUS MATERIALS. and from sugar.. . . Table showing the average content of sugar and free acid in the most com171 mon varieties of fruits. Preparation of compressed yeast. Effervesc- ing vinegar 182 Herb vinegar. Filtration of malt vinegar in rffininy or rape vessels.. Vinaigre des quatre voleurs. Directions home-made cider vinegar. ..... Anise vinegar Anchovy vinegar.. . . Aromatic vinegar .. .. Manufacture of 162 malt or grain vinegar. 173 Peaches as vinegar stock. . fruits and berries. vinegar.. 184 CHAPTER XVIII. Lovage 183 vinegar... . Toilet vinegars. Theoretical and actual yield Reasons why wine-vinegar is superior to the ordinary products .. ...170 Making vinegar on a small scale for domestic use. Manufacture of malt 168 vinegar by "fielding" Utilization of sour ale and beer for vinegar. . ... .. Formation of diastase. Walter G. Raspberry vinegar Preparation of acetic ether. Setting the mash with yeast. Treatment of the completely 166 fermented "ripe" mash.. Celery vinegar. Compound tarragon vinegar. Fining vinegar.. Materials for wine-vinegar.. VINEGAR SPECIALTIES. 160 . Perfumed vinegar.. 172 Preparation of vinegar from other berries. . by Mr. . Table vinegars.181 gar. .. . . Sulphuring of vinegar. Sackett for 174 CHAPTER Groups of specialties. Cosmetic vinegar. . .. XVI. .. . Treatment of currant juice for making vinegar.161 Beer-wort not a suitable material for vinegar.CONTENTS. .. Heating the mash. ..167 Conversion of the fermented malt-wort into vinegar. . . Use of a generator for the conversion of cider into vinegar. Aromatized vinegar Manner of dissolving volatile oils in vinegar Preparation of aromatized vinegar. MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. ... . .. . . How vinegar may be made from starch.. 178 179 spirits of 180 Henry's vinegar. After-effect of the diastase 163 164 165 "Doughingin" On what the strength of the vinegar to be made depends. .. ..

. . . . .... . ... AND CONTROL OF THE OPERATIONS IN A VINEGAR FACTORY. Sulphurous acid Detection of metals. it. . ...... 188 189 making vinegar. Detection of acids. Lactic acid. Tin Determination of the derivation of a vinegar 228 .. . .. OF THE RAW MATERIALS. according to Petiot .. .. .. . Nitric acid.'.. .eric T. . . Bioletti. Culture of pure vinegar ferment 201 ..... . Variety of wine most suitable for making vinegar Apparatus for making wine vinegar Operation in a wine-vinegar factory Disturbances in the production of wine-vinegar.. .. test.211 CHEMICAL EXAMINATION CHAPTER XIX. 198 pear in the conversion of wine into vinegar Claudon's method of making wine-vinegar described by Frederic T.. Bioletti .. Copper.193 making wine-vinegar modern French method of preparing wine-vinegar 196 Pasteurization and apparatus used. .. Undesirable phenomena which may apPasteur's or . Determination of the strength of vinegar by the vinegar tester. or acetometry: Titration or volumetric analysis. Filtering wine-vinegar ratus for that purpose Wine-vinegar by the quick process Wine-vinegar from marc ... Orleans or old French process of . . . . . 224 CHAPTER XX. Determination of sugar Determination of alcohol... .. and apparatus for that purpose 220 . . . .. The alcoholometer Determination of the alcohol by the distilling Determination of the alcohol by the ebullioscope 218 Vidal-Malligaud's ebullioscope Determination of the content of acetic anhydride in vinegar. .. .. Pasteurizing bottled vinegar and appa- .. . . 200 Bersch's method of making wine-vinegar.... 203 204 205 208 209 Storing and bottling wine-vinegar. . ... ..190 . XV PAGE Table showing the composition of wine and of the vinegar formed from "Sick" wines Lactic acid and acetic degenerations of wine Young wine attacked by acid degeneration for of after-wine. Use of this wine for making vinegar 192 Older method of making wine vinegar..... 229 230- .. .. 227 .. EXAMINATION OF VINEGAR AS TO THE PRESENCE OF FOREIGN ACIDS AND OF METALS.. AS WELL AS TO ITS DERIVATION. ... . .. . Sulphuric acid Hydrochloric acid.. described by Fred.... 214 215 217 Calculation of the quantity of acetic acid in the vinegar examined.. Preparation ... .CONTENTS.210 .. 213 and apparatus used. Iron.. .

.. ... Liquid products of distillation. . . .. Specific gravity of different woods Average composition of air-dry wood. Tar products containing oxygen (creosote). . wood . AND TAR IN CLOSED VESSELS.. Methyl acetate. Decomposition of THE DESTRUCTIVE 233 234 235 . tar mentioned by various chemists. 256 257 259 Reichenbach's oven Swedish oven ... Acetone. ... ... Wood vinegar. . . . Combinations which are definitely known. 245 . .. . PAGE CHAPTER XXI. . CONTENTS. 263 2(54 Manner of bricking in six retorts . . 243 Variation in the quantities of the bodies of which wood-vinegar is composed. Selection of the apparatus for the installation of a plant for the utilization of wood in a thermo-chemical way. . Methyl alcohol or wood spirit 249 Tar products hydrocarbons of the series C n H 2n -6 250 251 Naphthalene and paraffin. 260 262 .. . Processes by which acetic acid on a large scale can be prepared. Properties of wood-tar creosote 252 Illuminating gases from wood. . .... Schwartz's oven . Formation of acetone. IN WOOD. . "Yield of tar obtained in the destructive distillation of wood. . .. . .VINEGAR AND OTHER BY-PRODUCTS OBTAINED DISTILLATION OF WOOD. WOOD VINEGAR. .. 253 CHAPTER PREPARATION OF CHARCOAL... . 238 239 241 of the decomposi- Quantity of gas yielded by wood by destructive distillation. Composition of wood gases. . . . 268 . . ... .. Properties of the combinations formed in wood tar. . 246 Retort tar Boiled tar 247 . - 'Character of wood tar of technical importance appearing in the destructive distillation of wood... . Utilization of the gases escaping from the condenser for heating . ... Kilns or ovens and retorts. Complete series of compounds occurring in wood . Coolers. Wrought-iron retort of suitable construction . . ..XVI . 248 .. Aldehyde or acetaldehyde. Acetic acid. . .. . Effect of acids on wood Effect of dilute aqueous solutions of alkalies on cellulose . . -Oven-retort largely used in this country. . .. Table of bodies . . XXII. . Origin of many bodies which appear . Carbo-oven Retorts Horizontal retorts. . .. Tar i>44 Composition of the larger quantity of the tar products. . Vertical retorts 266 267 -Arrangement of the retort-ovens and the lifting apparatus .. Fatty acids in wood vinegar 242 Production of methyl alcohol from marsh gas.... Constitution of wood.... 254 255 . among the products . tion of wood. . Effect of heating on wood. . . Gaseous products of distillation Table showing the order in which the gaseous combinations are formed different temperatures. . 236 237 at Products of destructive distillation.. . Charring of wood in heaps or pits. .

EXECUTION OF THE DESTKUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF WOOD. ..... Halliday's apparatus Apparatus suitable for the distillation of sawdust and waste of eral . ...... of distilling the crude wood-vinegar in multiple evaporators in vacuum. 291 .. .. Mode Use of placing a thermometer in one of the retorts 2K5 of antimony in determining the commencement of the end of distillation.. On what wood may be obtained..... Box cooler. Collection of gas ..... ...... 287 Manner in of wood-vinegar and tar from a variety of 288 experiments Results obtained by Assmus in manufacturing on a large scale..... Counter-current pipe cooler Most suitable way of connecting two pipes Prevention of obstruction in the pipes.. the tar...VINEGAR. ...... . ..... ........ 286 ........ ... . the time during which 284 Size of vats for the reception of the distillate.. which accurate data regarding the quantities Stolze's Uses of crude wood-vinegar.. ... . Properties of freshly-distilled wood-vinegar...... TREATMENT OF THE WOOD... 293 ...... . distillation has to be continued depends XXIII. Separation of acetic acid........ Collecting boxes sunk in the ground Yield of products. 290 .. ... CHAPTER XX1Y. Methods by which concentrated Separation of the wood-vinegar fr acetic acid can be obtained from crude wood-vinegar.... . working apparatus for evaporating and drying the cal- cium acetate Preparation of sodium acetate Filter for obtaining pure sodium acetate 301 Mode of obtaining sodium acetate for the preparation of perfectly pure acetic acid 302 .. Distilled wood-vinegar m ... wood in PAGE 271 gen- 273 the selection of apparatus for the destructive distillation of On what wood 274 275 depends Coolers... ..... . according to Klar .. Meyer's system 294 Various methods proposed for the purification of wood-vinegar ... 292 F.CONTENTS. Preparation of calcium acetate 296 Evaporating pans Klar's continuously....... .. 297 298 299 . .. . H... .. Yields ob289 tained with retorts. Production of pure acetic i cid from wood-vinegar. 276 277 278 279 281 Reservoirs for the product of distillation Collecting boxes Utilization of the gases . .. . 282 CHAPTER Operation with a larger number of retorts. XVU Distilling apparatus for wood waste.

Chromium acetate.. . . Hydrochloric Preparation acid process Sulphuric acid process..316 317 319 . used. .. ... AND WORKING THE WOOD TAR.. acetate... .... ....... . Plant arranged for the sulphuric acid process Preparation of glacial acetic acid.311 CHAPTER XXV. acetate.. 305 307 308 309 process for obtaining highly concentrated acetic acid Preparation of glacial acetic acid of the highest concentration Vacuum ..... Basic aluminium . Magnesium Aluminium Maganese acetate acetate.... 324 326 328 329 .. .. .... 332 333 335 337 method ... . Nickel acetate. Potassium acetate Potassium acid acetate or potassium diacetate.. Lead sesquibasic acetate. Cuprous acetate.. denaturing purposes .... Sodium acetate... .. PAGK 304 Preparation of sodium acetate from calcium acetate Processes the from acid acetic of acetates.. sesquiacetate of iron. Preparation of merce.. .. Volkel's Stein's method...... Cobalt acetate .. . black mordant Neutral ferric acetate.... Properties of acetates . .. Lead acetates. Mercuric acetate.... . Barium acetate.... crystallized verdigris Basic cupric acetates... f aluminium acetate. ..... Copper acetates. Normal or tate.. . French and English verdigris. Ferrous acetate. ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. Neutral acetate of lead (sugar of lead). . wood spirit. .... .. Silver acetate ....... ... Neutral cupric acetate. . . .. . according to Berard Brown acetate of lead . ..... neutral acetate of Calcium acetate. triplumbic tetracetate Sexbasic acetate of lead.XV111 CONTENTS..310 ........ AND OF ACETONE.. Tin acetate... CHAPTER XXVI... ... Lead vinegar or extract of lead.. 348 ... and distilling apparatus used Crystallizing pans Preparation of sugar of lead from metallic lead.. 340 341 342 Properties of acetate of lead Basic lead acetates. ... ........ Sesquibasic cupric acetate Tribasic cupric acetate. Manufacture of white lead according to the French 344 method.. Chromous Zinc acetate. Mer346 347 PREPARATION OF PURE WOOD SPIRIT OR METHYL ALCOHOL.. Constitution of the crude wood spirit of com- Wood spirit for .. . 338 . .. Basic aluminium ace- g acetate 320 323 acetate Iron acetate..... ammonia ... 345 Bismuth acetate.... curous acetate.... 313 314 Ammonium . Uranium acetate.

. . XIX PAGE Constitution of pure wood spirit.. Working the wood tar. Definition of the term wine. and of the content of five acid 309 portions between water....... 302 363 304 Formation of metapectic acid. CHAPTER XXVII. .. ..... Fermentation .... tion of acetone.. Ingred ents which are added to artificial wines. Meyer's system... FRUITS AND THEIR COMPOSITION... CIDERS... FRUIT WINES.. .. .. Acids Albuminous substances. Fruits used for the preparation of fruit wines. and of the pro- Tables of the composition of the juice according tine. Rectification of crude and still for the purpose 351 Preparation of wood spirit suitable for denaturing purposes Preparation of acetone.. Pathological and physiological tannins Inorganic constituents... of chemical researches into the changes fruits undergo during their devel- opment and perfection .. 3-19 and apparatus Rectification of the crude distillate. Properties of acetone... Results . . etc. . Tables of the average percentage of free acid expressed in malic acid.. soluble and insoluble substances to the content of sugar. Distillation of wood tar 355 Yield from tar of hard woods by distillat on 350 . Results of experiments regarding birch-tar oil . .. pec. Definition of the term isomeric Development and ripening of a fruit viewed as a chemical process.. 3(51 ... 358 PART MANUFACTURE OF II. 360 Ripening of fruits . pectine.. . Constitution and action of pectose Pectous fermentation. Formation and properties of pectine Properties of metapectine...... . Working of obtaining creosote from the distillate the heavy oils. Urape sugar or glucose. Occurrence and behavior of pectose.. . .. Decomposition of the calcium acetate.. gum etc.... Preparation of creosote and tar oils.. . . INTRODUCTION. Table of the average percen308 tage of sugar in different varieties of fruit ...... .. 365 307 Stages a fruit passes through during development and ripening . . ETC.CONTENTS. 370 371 372 373 374 . Formation and properties of pectic acid . CHAPTER XXVIII. Tannin. sugar.... .. wood Arrangement of a plant to F.. spirit solutions. . Rectification of the oils...... Pectous substances. Gum and vegetable mucilage ... . 357 .. Manner for this purpose 352 for the produc- 353 Manufacture of pure acetone according H. and of the proportion between acid.

. ... ..... .. . 401 405 106 ... H....XX CONTENTS. First or tumultuous fermentation. . ..... Methods of obtaining the juice or must from the . Gore's experiments to develop a 399 method for sterilizing apple juice Conclusions arrived at regarding the carbonating of fresh apple juice..... Primitive method of laying the cheese. Denis Dumont's directions for bottling cider 408 .. 407 Preparation of cider in the same manner as other fruit wines. C. Improved racks Plain racks Apple elevator Arrangement of a plant for making cider on a large scale Testing the must as to the content of acid and sugar. ... ... 385 36 389 390 acid... . .. Addition of benzoate of soda to apple juice sold in bulk. .... . Gore's investigations of the cold storage of cider 402 Testing apple juice to be fermented.. ... 375 376 377 CHAPTER XXIX. .. . ....... Reduction of the apples to an impalpable pulp... .... .. .. Davis's star apple grinder Presses fruit.. Analyses of ciders by the United States Agricultural Department Choice of varieties of apples for making cider Composition of the apple paration of cider . .. .. Clarification of cider Additions to cider intended for export. . .. . ... . ............ re- 397 Pressing. Red apple wine or red wine from cider Dr.. O.. Gathering and sweating apples for the pre..... ... . 387 393 394 395 396 Juice constituents of the apple... Determination of Determination of sugar Glucose 391 Determination of the content of pure sugar in glucose Anthon's table for finding the content of anhydrous sugar in saturated solu392 tions of glucose. .. ... . . H. . Diversity of opinion as gards the crushing of the seeds ..... . Chief products of vinous fermentation Succinic acid.. 403 404 Fermentation funnel or ventilating funnel ...... Substitution of hair cloth 398 and cotton press-cloth for straw in laying the cheese. Extraction of the juice by diffusion.. ... Cider from apples Type of composition for pure ciders.. .. portable cider mill ....... 378 379 Farmer's cider press Extra-power cider press Revolving platform of the extra-power cider press..... C. MANUFACTURE OF CIDER... Glycerin Carbonic acid.... . ... and pure cultures of yeast for this purpose... 880 381 382 383 384 . .. Alkaloid in wine ......... ... ... Objections urged against pasteurizing or sterilizing fresh apple juice. Filling the fermentation casks Fermentation of the apple juice... Hickock's .... W.... .. Crushing mill.. .

. Rules applying to all methods of preserving fruit French method known as Baine-Marie. . Means of improving the flavor 420 421 422 424 425 427 429 Blackberry wine 430 . Pear cider.... for the composition of pure cider . artificial wines . .... .. Plum wine Sloe or wild plum wine 431 .. off into bottles Selection of the fruit.. . . .... From small fruits.. PREPARATION OF FRUIT WINES.... . . Juniperberry wine Rhubarb wine.. juices. . Burgundy. . . Preservation of the without boiling.. Elderberry wine... ..... ... Sherry wine.. .. . . . 436 . . ... of preventing the wine from turning 419 ... CHAPTER XXXI.. Diseases of cider .... . Currant wine Strawberry wine. PICKLES AND MUSTARDS. .. ..413 . .. .. . 418 419 CHAPTER XXX. Viscosity or greasy appearance of cider Turbidity or lack of clarification of cider. .. . .... From stone fruits. . ...... Gooseberry champagne Raspberry wine .... . 414 415 416 417 etc. . MANUFACTURE OF CATSUPS. Expression of the juice.. .. Mulberry wine. Parsnip wine. FISH AND EGGS. . ... .CONTENTS. . Brandy from plums. 435 flesh of the fruit .. . Wine from various materials.. Acidity in cider. 432 433 434 PART III. Minimum .. Means Advantage of using a mixture of various and keeping qualities of the wine and drawing......... .. . . .. . FRUIT BUTTERS. Preparation of " port wine " from cider Quince wine ..... . ...... Manufacture of brandy from cider Distillation Preparation of the juice for distillation. .. . . .. Morello wine. Cherry wine...412 .... MARMALADES... . . .. XXI PAGE 409 411 Manufacture of cider Devonshire cider. Malaga wine. CANNING AND EVAPORATING OF FRUIT. PRESERVATION OF FRUIT.410 .. Adulteration of cider. . . Fermentation.. .. JELLIES. PRESERVATION OF MEAT.. Cider as a basis for in the island of Jersey. ... Clarification Gooseberry wine.. damsons. .

.. Preparation of jelly from stone-fruit. Preservation of fine table pears.... .. Yield of jelly from a bushel of fruit Saving of the apple seeds . Apparatus for the expulsion of the air by heating the cans..... 438 servation in air-tight cans. Catchup 450 451 Horseradish catchup ... Pre- United States canneries 441 442 Division of labor in the canneries. .. 465 Theory of evaporating 466 . .. Preparation of the syrup.. rhubarb..... EVAPORATION OF FRUIT...... . Storage of fruit pulp 457 Tutti-frutti. .... English marmalade........... marmalades and 453 454 455 Quantity of sugar to be used.. .. quinces.... Skinning the tomatoes... 446 447 the cans.. Derivation of the wood marmalade. 465 CHAPTER XXXII... .. etc jelly French perfumed 460 Manufacture of apple jelly in one of the largest plants for that purpose. Scalding the tomatoes filling . a canning establishment 445 Arrangement of a canning .. PAGE Preparation of the fruit for preserving.. Jellies from pears. factory. . mulberries and 459 ... The defecator and its object The evaporator 463 464 Proper consistency for perfect jelly...... Apple jelly without sugar .... .. ... Manufacture of tin cans in the .. and its preparation. . Jelly.... . . .. . .. Ar461 rangement of the factory 462 Grating the apples and expressing the juice....... Manufacture of marmalade on a large . ...XX11 CONTENTS.... quantity of sugar required in making jelly... Cleansing and 443 testing the cans... The Alden Patent for evaporating fruit. ....... Fruits suit439 able and unsuitable for canning 440 Various styles of cans and jars Manner of coating and lining the inside of tin cans.... site for ..... . ... Fruit butter.... fruit . ... Groups of canned articles embraced in the American trade lists. Erroneous opinion regarding the .. Fruit butter.. Secret of the great reputation the products of the principal American factories enjoy.. Gooseberry catchup. Cappers and their . Machines for work Trials Labeling the cans. Selection of a How contracts for a supply of tomatoes are made.. and vexations of a canner's Tomato catchup Walnut catchup jellies.. Marmalade scale. Manufacture of apple butter Preparation of raisine ..... 448 449 life.. Canning of tomatoes.. Selection of fruit for marmalade 456 Apple pulp as a foundation for marmalade. 458 Use of the saccharometer other small fruit in jelly boiling....

.... AND EGGS.. ... . and of potatoes Sun-drying apparatus French method of drying . 490 Pickled gherkins Gherkins in mustard. . The improved Alden evaporator The Williams evaporator Manner of operating the Alden evaporator . les XXXIII.. Mustard.... .. lieason why drying fruit in the oven must yield unsatisfactory results 468 Chemical analysis of a parcel of Baldwin apples. 481 Manner of placing the fruit in the trays when drying in the tower evaporator.. 487 488 "Greening" of pickles pickles....... English method of preparing mustard... Wine mustard.. ... Mode of obtaining Malaga grapes.. * . Moutarde aux Apices. . .. CHAPTER XXXIV. . . Moutarde aromatisee.. . Cans used. . . .. 491 and tomatoes Mixed pickles. Manner of packing pickles... 4('9 470 472 ... English mustard.... . 474 Table of intervals of time at which the trays must be placed in the evapora475 tor.. Moutarde de maille. Pickled walnuts... . peaches... . Pickled onions... 483 484 485 fruit in the oven . for the preparation . 489 . ... composition of the fruit by drying in the oven.. . .... Diissel494 dorf mustard. 493 Ordinary mustard Frankfort mustard... Heating the cans and steam-chamber for the purpose .. Fruits and vegetables chiefly used .. . Gould. .. . XX111 467 Absorption of moisture by the air.. Appert's method of canning meats. Types of bleachers Temperature to be maintained in the kiln ..... and by evaporation Tower evaporators..CONTENTS.. Aromatic or hygienic mustard. Handling and packing the evaporated fruit Kiln evaporators. General rule for the preparation of pick- Preparation of spiced vinegar . . . showing the changes in the . Placing the prepared meats in 496 the cans.. described by H. Evaporation of tomatoes Evaporation of various vegetables. Treatment of plums after evaporating. .... .. Construction of a kiln 476 477 Heating the kiln and appliances for that purpose 479 Arrangement of an evaporator having four or five kilns . French mustard....... Moutarde des Jesuites. Substan492 ces used for seasoning mustard Gumpoldskircher must-mustard. ....... CHAPTER Pickles..... ... .... .. Paring and bleaching ap480 ples.. .. Picalilli... .. 495 PRESERVATION OF MEAT. Pickled mushrooms. Conversion of grapes into rais482 ins... ... FISH. T.. peas... Selection of the varieties of fruit to be evaporated. PREPARATION OF PICKLES AND MUSTARD. Sour Diisseldorf mustard Sweet and sour Kremser must-mustards......

.. Determination of the true strengths of 59 F temperature of 5ia spirit for Table VI.. Determination of the true volume of alcoholic from the . PAGE . cording to Gallamond . of sugar with per cent of extract 522 Table IX. Oudemans) Table XIV. Preparation of whiskey of various strengths from spirits of wine... Determination of the true strengths of temperature of 59 F. 497 Object to be attained in operating according to Appert's method Preparation of corned beef according to Appert's method. (15 C.. which indicates the specific gravity of mixtures of alcohol and * 509 water between the per cent. Index . 520 apparent volume at different temperatures. Quick process of smoking meat ^ ... For determining tained in a vinegar of specific gravity (according to Mohr) . The actual content of alcohol and water in mixtures of both fluids Table I. ...)... 529 530 Table XVI. Table XIII. Comparative synopsis of the aerometers for must generally used 527 Table XL Table to Oechsle's aerometer for must . Quick salting of meat by liquid pressure.. Table to Massonfour's aerometer for must 527 For comparing per and 527 specific gravity Table the content of per cent of acetic acid contained in a vinegar of 528 .... II. C... fish 498- Soup tablets 499 Beef extract. Table V.. Table XII.. of acetic acid con.... 531 ... ....XXIV CONTENTS. heit's Comparison of the thermometers scales of Keaumur's. Proportion 510 alcoholic fluids at 59 F Table IV. For the reduction of specific gravities to saccharometer per cent. 502 503 Table 506 Hehner's alcohol table.. Explanation of Table VII.. Preservation of Preservation of eggs . Meat biscuit ac. the standard 514 519 fluids Explanation of Table VI Table VII. . specific gravity (according to A.. . Celsius's and Fahren. by weight and by volume of Table III. t . APPENDIX. 500 Preparation of powdered meat.. cent. 511 and the contraction which takes place in mixing For'comparing the different aerometers with Tralles's alcoholo512 meter spirit for the standard . Table VIII. For determining the content of per cent... XIV. 523 526 Table X.

To gain a wager that she could consume at a single meal the value of a million sesterces. of which there are many varieties. and used for impregnating the alcoholic liquors to be fermented. Ordinary vinegar consists of a weak solution of acetic acid in aqueous fluids prepared by the oxidation of alcoholic liquors by means of acetic acid bacteria. and Hippocrates made use of it as a medicine. and it must have been used contemporaneously with wine. the best races being propagated by pure culture methods. Bacterium aceti. is shown by the well-known anecdote of Cleopatra. Vinegar is mentioned in the Old Testament. but exaggerated account by'Livy and Plutarch. the equally well known. where the first . related by Pliny. fermentation must have set in rapidly and the wine been quickly transformed into an acid compound. she dissolved This is also shown by pearls in vinegar which she drank. to a cerand taste are influenced by the ma- from which known from it is prepared. That the solvent effects of vinegar were understood by the ancients. CHAPTER I. VINEGAR. tain extent. that Hannibal overcame the difficulties offered by . In this form it has been the earliest times. also its odor terials The color of vinegar and. because it is evident that at the temperature of the Eastern countries.experiments with the juice of the grape were made. INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL.PART I.

etc. Stael. Venus' s vinegar. spiritus Veneris. and distilling the acetate thus formed with oil of vitriol.) In fact. the rocks to the passage of his army over the Alps. viz. and Albucases. about 1100.: that Hannibal used the vinegar by way of strategem. the result of the further rectification of the product being termed radical vinegar. there was no definite knowledge as to the cause of its production and the mode of its formation. and he was probably also acquainted with the process of obtaining strong acetic acid by distilling cupric acetate (verdigris. he taught the method of obtaining strong by neutralizing vinegar by an alkali. first a is knew that by the slow disand then a stronger product weak. and we are indebted to the much-abused alchemists for the first knowledge of its purification and concentration by distillation. upon certain substances was well known at that Vitruvius also states that rocks which cannot be attacked by either vinegar. Basilius Valentinus. to incite his men to greater exertion by the belief that the difficulties of the path were diminished. by dissolving them with vinegar. or the explanation which some give. the case nevertheless shows that the solvent action of vinegar period. strengthened vinegar its by freezing out some of water. gives us the earliest description of the process of increasing the strength of wine-vinegar by distillation. Admitting the exaggeration. The Count de acetic acid Laragnais (1759). in 1697. for a long time this was the only way of preparing acetic acid.2 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. fire or iron. spiritus aeruginis. showed that the most concentrated acetic acid obtained from . In 1702. Gerber. tillation of vinegar. who flourished in the eighth century. and the Marquis de Courtenvaux (1768). will yield when heated and wet with Although there can be no doubt that vinegar was in very general use at an early period. obtained. a monk and celebrated alchemist of the fifteenth century. stated the fact that vinegar to be colorless has to be distilled over a moderate fire.

was capable of pure. and that no carbonic acid was formed. verdigris 3 taught how Loewitz (1789) might be strengthened it over charcoal powder. it may be mentioned that as early as 1732. were the first to recognize this acid as acetic acid. It may thus by passing repeatedly be deprived of so much of its water that it crystallizes by cold. Dobereiner further studied the nature of the acid. thus pointing out the fallacy of the was one opinion held by the chemists of his time that carbonic acid of the products of acetic fermentation. Boerhave. one year after the establishment by Dobereiner of the now generally accepted theory of the formation of acetic acid from alcohol. Davy and proved that the alcohol was oxidized at the expense of the atmospheric air. introduced the quick process of manufacturing vinegar. nearly a century before. in 1823. in 1814. of early as the seventeenth century. in contact with vapor of alcohol. of glacial acetic acid. Fourcroy and The formation of an wood was known as body in the destructive distillation Vauquelin. but a considered special acid (pyroligneous acid).INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL. in 1802. long time not recognized as acetic acid. became incandescent and generated acetic acid. Dr. Schiitzenbach. which contained the principles of the quick process. made known a method for making vinegar from wine. Howit for a was ever. and Saussure. in the same year. producing acetic acid and water. Without detracting from the credit due to Schiitzenbach for the introduction of his method and the improvement in the process of manufacturing vinegar. it still Durande acid the strongest which it is pos(1777). observed that spongy platinum. the celebrated Dutch chemist and physician. Berzelius. but weak acetic acid This crystallizable acetic acid sible to obtain. and Thenard. J. in 1800. determined the exact chemical constitution of acetic acid. gave to it the name which is bears. crystallization. that of alcohol. . demonstrated the presence of acetic acid among the products formed in the destructive distillation of animal substances.

. it being erected on a foundation clearly indicated by a knowledge of natural laws. beer. especially where only a " essence. Progress is essential in every business. to obtain entirely pure acetic acid from wood when possible difficult is manufacturing on a large scale.4 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. will undoubtedly gradually supersede vinegar pre- pared from alcohol. the use of so-called vinegar. only water. from alcohol becomes constantly more production of vinegar found in the great competition arising from the continued improvements in the manufacture of pure acetic Not many years ago it was considered imacid from wood. acetic acid. And not- . Many work according to Schiitzenbach's original use an ^immense amount of labor for a pere. no change can be made as regards the theoretical part of the process. an acid e. but for several reasons manufacturers i. it containing. this being especially the case where it is uninterruptedly carried on with the use of suitable apparatus. formance which can be attained in a much simpler manner. still especially necessary for the manufacturer engaged in making vinegar by the quick process. besides acetic acid. and which. and it is the constantly increasing taxation of this fundamental material for the manufacture of vinegar. when properly diluted. which render unpurified wood vinegar unfit for use. obtained from wood. wine is everywhere subjected to a high tax. furnishes ordinary i. For consumption on a large body of scale. they plan. of course increases the price Another reason why the the manufacturer has to pay for it. it being considerably cheaper. the manufacWhile ture of vinegar from alcohol remains nearly the same. but the article produced at " the present time may be almost designated as chemically " pure in the true sense of the word. many important improvements may surely be introduced in the manufacture of vinegar on a large scale. and the most accurate analysis cannot detect a trace of the products of tar. Although it is now more than ninety years since the introduction of Schiitzenbach's process into practice. Alcohol in every form whiskey." vinegar pure 80 to 90 per cent. taste is required..

on account of their being analogous to those occurring in wine. These properties are so characteristic that any one gifted with a sensitive and practiced sense of smell can at once distinguish pure acetic acid vinegar from that prepared from wine. Vinegar obtained from alcohol. in regions where wood is plentiful and cheap its facture is a remunerative industry on account of the manu- many valuable by-products besides acetic acid. as already indicated. cider.INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL. and still more so that from fermented fruit juices. wood spirit. as regards taste and smell. be imparted to vinegar obtained by diluting pure wood acetic acid with water. besides acetic acid and water. By the addition of volatile oils or compound ethers an agree- able odor may. or from malt. principal defects of the manner of manufacturing vinegar by the quick process in general use are not in the method itself. But the manufacture of vinegar from alcohol and alcoholic liquids will nevertheless continue to flourish. as for instance in the manufacture of tar colors." and which give to the vinegar an agreeable smell and taste entirely wanting in acetic acid prepared from wood. for that. cider. a similar relation existing The latter may here as between genuine and artificial wine. conof bodies tains. etc. it nearly approaches genuine wine. and At the present the quantities consumed in the production of vinegar for domestic purposes becomes larger every year. because the pro- duct obtained from them possesses different properties from the pure acetic acid prepared from wood. such as wine. for all industrial purwhere acetic acid is poses required. charcoal obtained time. may be designated as " bouquet bodies. skins of pressed grapes. corresponds entirely to the theoretical conditions. tar. beer. be made so that. but a connoisseur will at once detect the difference. withstanding that the price of wood vinegar is 5 declining every year. but it is impossible to produce the harmonious bouquet peculiar to vinegar prepared from alcohol or fruit juices. The and yields as good a product as can be . of course. small quantities which. that obtained from wood is used.

CHAPTER II.6 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. process material is found being in practical execution of point of the the losses of much more : considerable and is greater than absolutely necessary the consumption of labor large. and it is minimum. as every manufacturer knows from experience. Acetic acid. The weak it. in this but the method employed is not manner. THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF VINEGAR. All these disadvantages can be reduced to a absolutely overcome. As will be explained later on acetic acid contains the same elements found in carbonic acid and water. obtained from the raw material used. . a method will no doubt be found by which acetic acid can on a large scale be produced from its elements. of the formation of acetic acid by destructive the chemical processes by which acetic acid in larger quantities is formed are at present quite well understood. and to judge from the results already attained by chemistry in building up com- pounds from their elements. INDEPENDENT distillation. prepared adapted for operations the discovery of of all other methods on a large scale. interruptions in the regular process of working are of too frequent occurrence. Dobereiner. lowing formula : C2H6 Alcohol. if not hoped sufficient hints how this can be done will be found in the following chapters. established the theory of the formation of acetic acid from alcohol. It is difficult to predict the effect such a process would have upon the life In fact. and may be briefly explained as follows : in 1822. Water. + 2 =C H 2 4 2 +H 2 Oxygen. acetic acid has already been of vinegar manufacture. and. and the processes taking place thereby may be expressed by the fol- As previously mentioned.

the formation of vinegar from alcohol being. in its nascent state Dobereiner obtained a body which he called " light oxygenated ether " (leichter Sauerstoffather). i. however. Liebig established a theory of the formation of vinegar which was for many it is shown that years considered correct. and found that. a partial process of combustion. immediately combines further with oxygen. readily detected by the sense of smell. however. acetic acid and water are formed by the action of oxygen upon alcohol. Essentially Liebig's theory is as follows : By the exposure. Liebig later on studied this combination more accurately. and its formation is represented by the formula C2H6 Alcohol. and aldehyde is formed. one-third of the entire quantity of hydrogen contained in it is withdrawn. and hence the formation of acetic acid takes place by a partial combustion or oxidation of the latter. The latter. and that besides them other bodies are formed from the alcohol. 7 According to the above formula. + 2 =C H 2 4 2 +H 2 Oxygen.THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF VINEGAR. By treating alcohol with pyrolusite and sulphuric acid hence by the action of oxygen at the moment of its liberation from a combination. and is converted into acetic acid .. can in a vinegar manufactory be. based upon these facts. Water. the correctness of this theory is about parallel with that according to which alcohol and carbonic acid are formed by the alcoholic fermentation of ." Aldehyde is composed of C 2 H 4 0. under suitable conditions. e. From the present standpoint of our knowledge regarding the formation of acetic acid from alcohol. therefore. Aldehyde. In the examination of the properties of aldehyde it was readily converted into acetic acid by the abof sorption oxygen and. as regards its composition. of alcohol to the action of the atmos- pheric oxygen. He applied to it the term ''alde- hyde. Alcohol and acetic acid are. only two members of the process. it differed from that of alcohol only by containing two atoms less of hydrogen.

Alcohol and oxygen alone do not suffice for this purpose.. the formation of vinegar is due to a chemico-physiological process with the co-operation of a by Liebig. and separates acetic acid. of the opinion that the role of the organism is to bring the in this case alcohol particles of the substance to be fermented lying next to into it. The scientific dispute over these two different views is not yet settled. etc. takes place. aldehyde. the processes of acetic acid from alcohol must. the organisms forming alcohol from sugar being. the fact that the process of the formation of vinegar is connected with the living process of an organism being alone of importance to him. besides that of an organism. i. into such vibrations as to in decompose them acetic acid. was the first to establish the formation of vinegar as a peculiar process of fermentation. according to the process. for inIn this sense we stance. a simple oxidation.. though the majority of chemists are inclined to For the practical man it is of no accept Pasteur's theory. Pasteur. briefly termed "alcoholic ferment. as products of the change of matter taking place in the living On the other hand. formation in the taking place far more as be considered however. a chemical But. consequence which of these views will be finally accepted as the correct one. The French chemist. tion in 'as simple a manner as the conversion of alcohol into At the present time.8 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. living organism. this case. aldehyde. e. the " vinegar ferment" or " vinegar yeast. the German chemist Niigeli is organism. nitrogenous substances and salts. The latter process can also be illustrated by an equasugar. since a definite . simple now universally accepted view. complicated than supposed acetic acid by aldehyde." may also speak of a vinegar or acetic ferment. the presence of nitrogenous bodies and salts. more simple combinations etc. and he maintains that a certain organism." consumes the alcohol.. organisms producing fermentation are named after certain products which they form in larger quantities. According to the latter. being absolutely necessary. As is well known.

in meat in its juices. milk. e. compounds woody general. acetic acid is always found.. upon alcohol. without the co-operation of organisms. It also occurs in the fresh fruit of the tamarind. Numerous observations have established the fact that the properties of forming large quantities of acetic acid are inherSmall quantities of acetic acid are. the so-called platinum black. at least in that It of wine and bread dough. ent only in this ferment. sodium carbonate and until the precipitate formed after a little time becomes perfectly black. i. and generally appears in the putrefaction of substances rich in nitrogen. the most interesting is that by which its formation is effected by the action of very finely and also Among divided platinum. glue. among them. also. There is quite a large series of X'hemical processes in which certain quantities of acetic acid are formed. and the cultivation of this ferment is one of the principal tasks of the manufacturer of vinegar. by themselves when subjected to the processes by which acetic acid is produced in a purely chemical manner. in In the alcoholic fermentation. constantly formed by other ferments. fermentation. yield certain quan- tities of acetic acid. Sugar. for instance. so that examining products due to the process of decomposition induced by organisms. etc. to which an excess of a quantity of sugar have been added. the lactic acid formed by the specific ferment of this species of fermentation being by farther processes of fermentation decomposed into butyric and acetic acids. when fused with caustic alkalies. though it is very likely directly formed from certain varieties. of sugar. destructive distillation. hydrates. sweat and urine. starch. processes which take place formation in these cases are not known. as carboknown in all fibre and. acetic acid will generally be found however. such It appears also in the so-called lactic as albumen. Acetic acid is found in many animal The juices. originates in the germination of many seeds.THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF VINEGAR. and the . organism causing the formation of larger quantities of acetic acid from alcohol is known. Platinum black is readily prepared by boiling a solution of platinic chloride.

without losing any of its inherent properties. for the success of the experiment. washed and dried by gentle heat. On account of the minute state of its division. this substance condenses within it several hundred times its volume of oxygen. By the alcohol. the alcohol undergoing slow combustion and being converted into acetic acid. is perceived at the mouth of the bell. It to is of advantage. and the platinum. the passes. where they collect in the vessel in the dish. A time after the alcohol has been poured into the funnel an odor of acetic acid. The vessel is placed upon supports within a dish in which is a saucer or small shallow basin containing the platinum black. The interspace between the bottom of the dish and the glass bell serves for the circulation of air in the latter. effects chemical combination. washing and igniting the platinum used for the oxidation of it can be again employed for the same purpose. arising from the acetic acid vapors which are generated. These vapors condense on the walls of the bell and trickle the bottom. to have the alcohol heated to about 90 F. In order that the reaction may continue it is. and consequently when the vapor of alcohol comes in contact with it. short. . This can be illustrated by an apparatus similar It consists of FIG. mouth The lower end a glass bell through of which a long funnel of this funnel terminates in a fine point so that the alcohol may percolate very slowly. to Fig. supernatant liquid colorless. before pouring it in. The two actions then go on side by side. 1. The black powder is collected on a filter. necessary to present fresh oxygen to the platinum to replace that which has been withdrawn.10 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. a supply of oxygen in a concentrated state is presented to it. 1. of course.

11 Independent of the purely chemical methods which. Among the first kind may be classed those which effect the formation of acetic. while other very little . and then a separa- tion or splitting of both. of being converted into vinegar. of vinegar has been applied. lactic. to which the term bacteria or schizomycetes has been applied. butyric acids. and hence it is customary to name the better The exceedingly minute known species in accordance with the chemical products they form or in accordance with the phenomena they produce.THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF VINEGAR. are of no practical importance. consists of a single. other substances. generally globular or filiform cells. the formation of vinegar. To Pasteur. by reason of Pasteur found that upon the surface of every fluid capable. and this mother of vinegar has also been used for making vinegar on a large scale. The Bacterium aceti. develop upon liquids certain besides alcohol. with the exception of that by which acetic acid is produced by the destructive distillation of wood. which were later on superseded by his researches on the formation of wine vinegar. for Instance. which is effected by the division of the cell into two. its composition. organisms develop immediately after the commencement of the formation of vinegar. term mother containing. belongs the incontestable merit of having more accurately examined the relations of these organisms to the formation of vinegar. no matter what method may be adopted. the name applied to this organism. upon weak wine or beer. can only be effected in the presence of certain organIt has long been known that organisms to which the isms. He recognized these organisms as fungoid plants of a low order and called them Mycoderma aceti. however. its special characteristic being its mode of propagation. More recent researches on the botanical nature of these plants show them to belong to the group of lowest fungoid organisms. size of the schizomycetes and their resemblance other make their accurate determinato each great tion very difficult. These examinations gave rise to his experiments on the diseased alteration of wine.

Searching investigations into the chemical activity of the different species of acetic acid bacteria would be not only opportune in the interests of science. others tuberculosis and various other maladies. recent by investigations. that he may be able to remove bacteria them. that in the spontaneous souring of beer at least two difcome into action. to be due to certain bacteria.12 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the activity of which is distinctly different. bacteria known must be considered as the cause of the soand again others appear in A fermentation. showed in consisting of a single species. some causing rinderpest. Pasteur regarded the bacterial growth mentioned above as Hansen. Zopf. As long as the latter are main- tained the process of the formation of vinegar will go on without disturbance. and should they happen. but also highly important in the practice of the vinegar industry. bacteria causing disease are of course very interesting to the physician. however. . and among these acetic acid bacteria there are several. and the employment of a pure culture of systematical!^ selected species would be desirable in the manufacture of vinegar. and the origination of new generations of vinegar ferment be connected with the conversion of certain quantities of alcohol into vinegar. special group of bacteria reaches deputrid velopment in animal organisms and gives rise to terrible diseases. aceti and the other Mycoderma PasteurAt the suggestion of W. It may therefore be said that the entire art of the man- ufacture of vinegar consists in an accurate knowledge of the conditions of life of the vinegar bacteria and in the induction of these conditions of life. he afterwards changed these names to Bacterium aceti and Bacterium Pasteurianum reThe number of species has been further increased spectively. one of which he named Mycpderma ianum. Cholera and other epidemics have been found called nitric acid fermentation. ferent species of bacteria can 1878. but to the manufacturer of vinegar a thorough The knowledge of the conditions of life governing the vinegar is of the utmost importance in order to conduct the manufacture in such a manner that disturbances shall rarely occur.

best in a dish covered by a glass plate resting upon small wooden blocks to prevent the access of dust. The Vinegar Ferment While but little is known about the origin of the vinegar ferment. its exposure in a shallow vessel throughly at the ordinary temperature of a room being sufficient to induce the propagation of the vinegar bacteria reaching it from A fluid especially the air. The experiment is. of malt extract to water. however. by which is meant wine which shows but little turbidity when vigorously shaken in contact with air and exposed in a half-filled bottle to the air. It develops upon the surface of such wine as a thick white skin. The wine soon exhibits the characteristic odor and taste of acetic acid.VINEGAR FERMENT AND ITS CONDITIONS OF LIFE.is especially adapted for the nutriment of an organism. adapted for this purpose is. the sac- charomyces mesembryanthemum belonging to the saccharomycetes. A. of alcohol and about J per cent. and in a few days assumes a somewhat darker color. the formation of a thin veil-like coating upon the surface will in a few days be observed. Young wine contains a large quantity of albuminous substances in solution. which later on becomes wrinkled and prevents the growth of the vinegar ferment. certain of success only when made with ripe wine. ITS CONDITIONS OF LIFE. fermented ripe wine. for instance. A fluid well adapted for the nutriment of the vinegar ferment and which may be substituted for wine for its culture is obtained by adding 5 to 6 per cent. and deposits a slight brownish sediment consisting of decayed vinegar ferment. experiments have shown these organisms to be everywhere distributed throughout the air and to multiply at an enormous rate when fluids of a com- position suitable for their nutriment are presented to them. 13 CHAPTER THE VINEGAR FERMENT AND III. and. In 14 to 21 days . or ripe wine at the ordinary temperature of a room. By exposing this fluid.

may also happen upon the surface. 2 and conversion into vinegar by a veil-like coating of vinegar ferment occurs most frequently. the soits called mother of vinegar. The process above described of the destruction of the wine FIG. the vinegar. On examining under the microscope a drop taken from the surface of the wine when the veil of vinegar ferment com- mences itself.. but in place of it the corresponding quantity of more acetic acid. By exposing the air. though a thick spume. the mold which is able to convert the alcohol into water and carbonic acid possessing surface. finally the development of the ferment is in full . 2 presents In a somewhat more advanced stage. i. it contains no alcohol. a picture like that shown in Fig.14 the fluid is MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. also the power of forming the same products from acetic acid. it will be found that the content of acetic acid steadily decreases. to form. e. entirely converted into vinegar. formations re- and when sembling chains and strings of beads appear more frequently. thus obtained for a longer time to skin of mold may happen to form on the white thick a and on testing the fluid. This phenomenon will be referred to later on.

and after dying sinks below the fluid and forms upon the bottom of the vessel The latter appears the above-mentioned sediment. The pletely filled separately-occurring formations oval forms. under the microscope in "the same form as the living ferment. closing the mouth and submerging the neck of the One micromillimeter = j^ millimeter. it being possible to distinguish cells of from 1. which are present either singly or in combinations of two. are observed. and it will be found in a few hours after the commencement of its development in all stages of life upon the surface of the fluid. this concontracted erally slightly traction indicating the place where the splitting of one cell into two In many of the new cells takes place. but more frequently the contracted ones. and of a brownish color.5 micromillimeters.5 to 3. grows exuberantly only upon the surface of the nutrient fluids. but differs from it in being less transparent. The propagation of the vinegar ferment takes place very rapidly. it viewing above mentioned bead-like formations will be found. propagation of cells by splitting. it ITS CONDITIONS OF LIFE. formations resembling chains or strings of beads being of rare occurrence. . very few of the here together up to a certain stage. Like every other organism the vinegar ferment only lives for a certain time. the globules strung together will be noticed to fall Hence it may be supposed that in the apart when at rest. By observing for hours a drop of the fluid containing the ferment in an advanced state of development.VINEGAR FERMENT AND progress. * allowing the vinegar ferment to develop. By filling a bottle about four fifths full with wine. and after The vinegar ferment of the bottle with the hand. the newly formed cells adfluid fluid before By vigorously shaking the under the microscope. and later on separate in the when in a quiescent state. 15 appears as an aggregation of numerous single cells mixed with double cells and many other cells strung together like beads. genin the centre. field of vision of the microscope is then comwith a large number of colorless globules.* requiring free oxygen for its propagation.

bacteria practice. It may here be remarked that without. The great rapidity of propagation of the vinegar shown by an experiment of some importance to the vat. In a few hours the entire surface of the fluid in the vat will be covered with vinegar bacteria. and it must cease its. provided all conditions for its propagation be observed. be briefly enumerated. the vinegar ferment. upon which the frequently mentioned veil has been formed. because the ferment has consumed the free oxygen present in the bottle. shows but a slight increase in acetic acid. Under unfavorable conditions it passes into a kind of quiescent state. a fluid suitable for the nutriment of the bacteria. activity. propagation is normal manner recommences. possesses an extraordinary vitality. and divide upon the surface by means of a thin glass rod small drops of wine. the following factors are required . the essential condition for its further development is wanting. have been determined by many observations and conditions will first These long experience in the practice. A determination of the content of acetic acid immediately before the commencement of this experiment. Conditions for the Nutriment of the Vinegar Ferment. some time in bottle in water. The conditions most favorable for the development of the vinegar ferment. and it may remain in this state for conditions for in a a long time without suffering destruction. and for converting in the shortest time the largest quantity of alcohol into acetic acid. however. From this it will be seen that the culture of the ferment for the purpose of manufacturing vinegar offers no difficulties. 7?.16 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Pour into a shallow about three feet in diameter. spreading concentrically froni the points where the drops of wine have been distributed. and a few days after. perishing. but as soon as the its nutriment are again presented. and then remain stationary. For the vinegar bacteria to settle upon a fluid. the fluid will be seen to rise for the bottle. and then the sep- arate points more fully discussed. during which no perceptible increase of cells takes place. like the majority of bacteria. and for their : vigorous propagation.

of alcohol. it must be within certain limits. but the ferment perishes in a short time it starves to death. medium ferment. or similar combinations occuring in wine. being generally employed as carbohydrates. of acetic per cent. a very small quantity of acetic acid is formed to be sure. As regards the composition of the nutrient must contain all it the substances required for the nutriment of a plant of a low order. By impregnating a fluid consisting only of water and alcohol. in immediate contact with oxygen (atmospheric 3. fluid which. however. Alcohol must be named as a specific nutriment of the vinegar ferment. dextrine. therefore. and beer. 17 A and water. A fluid suitable for its nourishment must. The fluid must be air).VINEGAR FERMENT AND 1. a content of 15 per cent. and considerable time is required to convert this small quantity of alcohol into acetic acid. is correct. contain the above-mentioned nutrient substances. The quantities of genous these bodies must. intended for making vinegar must. the ferment vegetates only in a sluggish manner. and every manufacturer knows the difficulty of preparing vinegar from But even a content of 12 to 13 per cent. sugar. contains nitrobodies and alkaline salts. provided the supposition that the latter consumes the alcohol and separates in its place The quantity of alcohol in the fluid acetic acid. small quantity of acetic acid in the nutrient exerts also an injurious influence upon the vinegar A acid a fluid containing 12 to 13 per cent. Upon and 1 to 2 That the vinegar ferment cannot live in dilute alcohol alone may be shown by a simple experiment. besides alcohol 2. of alcohol such a fluid. ITS CONDITIONS OF LIFE. malt extract. appearing to be the maximum at which acetic fermentation can be induced. The temperature of the fluid and the air surrounding fluid itself. however. is not very favorable for the vegetation of the vinegar ferment. not exceed a certain limit. These fluids further contain nitro- genous combinations which may serve as nutrient 2 for the fer- . not exceed a certain limit. albuminates and salts. such substances being carbohydrates.

albuminates and salts. and the composition of the latter compared with that of the original wine. without having to fear that the ferment will be stinted. also considerable quantities of phosphates. If. for inconverted into vinegar. vinegar ferment which had normally vegetated upon a fluid containing only 4 to 5 per cent. been formed which are better accustomed to the changed conBy bringing. The process of nutriment of the vinegar ferment. since the quantity by weight of vinegar ferment required for the conversion of a very The amount of alcohol into vinegar is only a few fractions of one per cent. for instance. Hence the manufacturer may be very sparing with the addition of nutrient large substances to the fluid to be converted into vinegar. by wine (apple a mixture of alcohol and water. a ferment from a fluid rich in alcohol upon one containing a smaller percentage. transferring.. as well as its fermenting energy. an addition of wine. a fluid can inent. By of alcohol. Hence. the disturbances in the conditions of the ferment can also be observed. or any fruit or pear cider) to be prepared that contains all the substances essential to the nutriment of the ferment. on the other hand. necessary quantity of these nutrient substances. to one with a content of 10 to 11 per cent. beer. decreases rapidly and remains sluggish. must not be understood to consist simply in the consumption of sugar. as compared with that of alcohol. is very small. wine is . and suf- injury by such changes which are recognized by diminished propagation and a decrease in the conversion of alcohol into acetic acid. and is so complicated as to require very for its explanation. it will be thorough study stance. its propagation. The vinegar ferment fers is very sensitive to sudden changes in the composition of the fluids upon which it lives. but they exert a less injurious influence upon the process of the formation of vinegar than in the former instance.18 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. It differs according to the composition of the nutrient medium. of the weight of alcohol used. however. until a few new generations of cells have ditions. malt extract.

There is finally the fact of great importance for the practice. factors. . ing 104 103 F. than upon a fluid entirely destitute of it. regaining is after several generations. but which has not yet been sufficiently explained. vinegar decreases rapidly.. are necessary for its vigorous propagation and fermenting activity. malic and succinic acids has also decreased. ent. or that the fermenting activity acts upon them as well as upon the alcohol. ferment and its vinegar-forming activity are greatest. heated to F. again reduced to 86 F. the ferment perishes. and at first propagates its very slowly. and ceases entirely at 104 The limits at which the propagation of the However. contains a certain quantity of acetic acid. to be less affected The ferment appears by low temperatures. in fact. At a temperature exceed. when the temperature the ferment reassumes is its activity. which might be set down to the account of the ferment. Hence it and of the latter even nothing may be presmust be supposed that the vinegar ferment derives nutriment also from these substances. and.VINEGAR FERMENT AND ITS CONDITIONS OF LIFE. besides the req-uisite nutrient substances. it may be said that. for Regarding the supply of air. that the vinegar ferment develops more rapidly upon a fluid which. lie between 68 and 95 F. but that the quantity of tarnutriment of the taric. In the practice it is aimed to accomplish this by exposing the fluid in which the ferment lives in thin layers to the action of the air. the ferment suffers perceptible injury it becomes sensibly weaker. 19 acid found that not only the alcohol has been converted into acetic and the fluid has suffered a small diminution of extractive substances and salts. upon this the entire process of the quick method of manufacture is based. as well as that of glycerine. while mere existence the vinegar ferment requires comparatively large quantities of it little air. original vigorous development only When the temperature of the fluid raised to 122 F. Besides the above-mentioned the temperature to which the ferment its is exposed is of great importance as regards development. Above this limit the formation of F.

maximum and the ferment Thus it may happen that in a generator which has satisfactorily worked for some time. and on examining the thermometer placed on the apparatus the cause will be generally found to be due to too high a temperature. may easily occur at a high temperaa chemical (oxidizing) process in which a certain ture. the ferment recommences to grow and to form acetic acid.. be remarked that while vinegar ferment in a state of F. the formation of vinegar Special expericontinues.. the activity of the strained to the utmost. tation of ferment If the temperature of a fluid which shows an exuberant vegeis reduced to 50 F. ments have shown that when wine with a vegetation of ferment is converted into ice by being exposed to a temperature of 14 and then melted and heated to 59 F. however. is always liberated. ature disturbances are of frequent occurrence in -the generato 89 F. acetic degeneration is not known in cold wine cellars.. development keeps up a slow vegetation when the fluid is reduced to a low temperature. tne formation of vinegar ceases all at once.. is generally tors. quantity of heat. has shown that at this temperpossible. depending on the quantity of alcohol to be If now oxidized within a certain time. and for this reason one of 86 The of of the formation vinegar itself exprocess preferred. it is extremely difficult to cultiThis is very likely the reason why vate it upon a cold fluid. plains why disturbances It is by the use of a temperature ferment is is close to 95 F. It must. Since the propagation of the ferment and its fermenting activity increase with a higher temperature. while in cellars with a temperature of over 59 F.. a large quantity of alcohol in a short time converted into acetic acid. as Experience. . however. though at a much reduced rate. and consequently so much heat is liberated that the temperature in the gener- ator rises above the permissible immediately ceases its activity. this dreaded procan only be guarded against by the greatest care. it would appear most suitable to keep the temperature of the fluid to be concess verted into vinegar as near the uppermost limit of 95 F.20 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.

a peculiar form- playing in many cases a role in the practice of making This is the so-called mother of vinegar. e. Thomson.. water. name of Mycoderma. any ash that lose. Kiitzing's results. who because he failed to discover the presence of a structureless precipitate of of the reasons put forward in suplife.336 per cent. but the referred to. attracted but little attention because two years after their publication. and gave it the general skin or fungoid skin. The formation of mother of vinegar can always be successfully attained by exposing young wine to the air until the commencement of the formation of appearance of white dots mold is indicated by the and then transferring the wine to a . and named them Ulvina that alcohol is converted and asserted aceti. life ITS CONDITIONS OF LIFE. One " mother of port of this view was a chemical analysis of the vinegar" by the Dutch chemist. organic matter and 0. quite positively into acetic acid by the vital activity of these organisms. who showed that a.VINEGAR FE11MENT AND Mother of Vinegar the conditions of ation. mucinous " mother of vinegar" is Kiitzing. thought of protein and cellu- Mulder's statement was refuted in 1852 by R. i. Liebig appeared on the scene with his theory of acetic fermentation. 5. which has already been which no mention was made of the potency " " mother of vinegar was asserted living organisms. These he classified as algae. has to be mentioned. The first botanical investigation of this substance was made in 1822 by Persoon. in 1837. Mulder. sample of " mother of vinegar" contained 94. 21 In connection with the description of of the vinegar bacteria. G. ash. vinegar.33 per cent. the term having very likely been applied to it on account of its causing acetification when brought into a fluid suitable for the formation of acetic acid. who described the organized skin developing on various fluids. showed that the number of minute dot-like of a constructed organisms which are now called bacteria arranged together in the form of chains.134 per cent. however. in of to be a formation devoid of albuminous matter. it must be regarded as a compound constituents.

and the conversion of the is in a certain ratio to the pro- pagation of this organism.22 MANUFACTURE OP VINEGAR. Acetic acid formed during many chemical conversions. alcohol also be used for the purpose. only two methods is are available. it ago. Acetic fermentation is induced by a microscopic organ- and vinegar may 3.. for the manufacture of acetic acid. as from wine is In speaking of the preparation of vinegar from wine. the preparation of vinegar from alcohol by fermentation. the manufacture of vinegar yet carried on in the primitive way of centuries Summary. this room having a temperature F. will be shown that the conversion can be effected by means of the ordinary vinegar ferment without the appearance of mother of vinegar. provided contain small they quantites of certain organic substances and salts. that its formation was considered as inseparably connected with that of acetic acid from alcohol. and especially generally the case. while actually it is only due to the peculiar constitution of the fluid to be converted into vinegar. is still entertained. of 86 temperature the development of the vinegar ferment proceeds so vigorously that it suppresses the mold ferment. . and the peculiar mass constituting the mother of vinegar soon forms upon the surface. and not over 14 per cent of alcohol. In many places this opinion is where. All alcoholic fluids formed by vinous fermentation of sacchariferous plant juices or fermented malt extracts are suitable for the preparation of vinegar by fermentation. Specially prepared mixtures of water. However. or the production of acetic acid by the destructive 2. and consequently of vinegar on a large scale.. the points of the theoretical conditions of the formation of vinegar of importance to the manufacturer are : 1. ism belonging to alcohol into acetic acid the bacteria. viz. distillation of wood. Briefly stated. At Mother of vinegar occurs is so generally in young wine which largely used for the preparation of wine vinegar.

It would be erroneous to suppose that the conproduction. It being very probable that a portion of the alcohol contained in the fluid is consumed for this purpose. The body of the ferment. CHAPTER IV. a small but nevertheless perceptible loss of alcohol will occur in the present. requires for its 2. 23 Besides the substances mentioned in ment 5. small quantities of other products are formed which are in a measure not yet thoroughly known. albuminous substances. all of which must be formed from the substances (sugar. In the acetic fermentation the greater portion of the cohol is al- converted into acetic acid and water . contains cellulose. besides these.. formation of vinegar by fermentation being a chemicophysiological process. the regular propagation of the ferment is the main point of the entire manufacture. very likely fat and other combinations not nutrient yet known. however. In the conversion of wine. other combinations contained in the fluids. etc. the quick conversion of the alcohol contained in the fluid being a necessary consequence of it. Attention cannot be too frecesses quently called to the fact that from the standpoint of the manufacturer. version of alcohol into acetic acid and water is effected accord- . beer. many and complicated chemical pro- THE must take place in the fluid to be converted into vinein order to produce all the combinations required for the gar propagation of the ferment. etc. PRODUCTS OF ACETIC FERMENTATION.PRODUCTS OF ACETIC FERMENTATION. the vinegar fervigorous development free oxygen and a temperature lying between 68 and 95 F. 4. albuminous substances. are also essentially changed. besides alcohol.). dextrine.

Acetic Aldehyde or Acetaldeliyde. malt. besides acetic aldehyde and acetal are best known. ducts of vinous fermentation. but they must nevertheless be classed among the most important products of acetic fermentation. besides alcohol and carbonic acid. and besides acetic acid and water other little-known products of fermentation are regularly formed. it is found that from the sugar. acid. They impart to the fermented fluid. large quantities of glycerine and succinic acid and probably other bodies . commonly called simply aldehyde (from alcohol dehydrogenatum). in making vinegar according to the methods customary at the present time. explained. etc. or of alcohol prepared into vinegar. of course. since a certain portion of it is always converted into other combinations. these combinations appearing always. which must undoubtedly be classed among the proSimilar processes. the nature and formation of which can only be. According to the nature of the sacchariferous fluids subjected to vinous fermentation. Of the products of acetic fermentation. no doubt. they being characteristic as regards the derivation of the vinegar. very small.). the fusel oils are also changed very and with some experience the material (wine. is obtained by oxidizing spirits of wine by means of manganese dioxide (pyrolu- . to a certain extent. In the conversion of such a fluid. take place in acetic fermentation. ing to the formula given on p.24 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. likely oxydized beer. small quantities of certain bodies called fusel oils are formed which are decidedly products of fermentation. cesses has In the vinous fermentation. even in small quantities. from be determined by the sense of smell.are formed. from which the vinegar has been made can it. as well as to the alcohol distilled from it. such characteristic properties that from the odor of the alcohol a correct judgment can be formed as to the material employed in its preparation. which of all fermenting probeen most thoroughly studied. The quantities of aromatic substances which reach the vinegar in this manner are. 6.

all the aldehydes it is very easily oxidized and acts. while the vapor of the aldeh}T de. is purposes. on heating it with a ammonia and outj coating the sides of the vessel nitrate of silver. or platinum black. glass plate. is absorbed in anhydrous ether. a violent reaction soon sets in. Pure aldehyde thus obtained composition C at 2 is a colorless liquid of the H 0. Alcohol and various other products are condensed and flow back. placing watch crystals containing platinum black . over a large. and it boils F.PRODUCTS OF ACETIC FERMENTATION. acetal. It has a pungent and suffocating odor. about 71. or if alcohol or ether be burning without a sufficient It is also formed by heating a mixture of caland calcium formate. Though it is likely that in the manufacture of vinegar by the quick process. previously moistened with 25 per cent. acetic and formic ethers are formed. in the presence of air. and the liquid begins The vapors have first to pass through an ascending tube surrounded by warm water at about 122 F. metallic silver separates with a bright mirror. they are of comparatively little importance for our Of more importance. therefore. and 4 of water added. It is contained in concium acetate supply of air. alcohol. . in the To prepare pure aldehyde. flask with a the condenser the mixture is renecting freezing moved to boil. 25 site) and sulphuric acid. 4 Its specific gravity is 0. tion of this combination affording an interesting insight into acetic acid. after having passed through a descending condenser. the forma- Acetal is best prepared by distributing pieces of pumice. Like readily soluble in water. however. 3 parts of potassium dichromate in small pieces are placed in a flask surrounded by a freezing mixture and a well-cooled mixture of 2 parts of spirit of After conwine. siderable quantities in the first runnings obtained manufacture of spirit of wine. little Thus.800. 4 of sulphuric acid.5 is and as a powerful reducing agent. besides aldehyde. It combines with ammonia. and forms a crystalline compound which has the peculiar odor of mice. alcohol and acetic acid.

Nitrate of silver in the presence of ammonia. In a few weeks quite a thick fluid of an agreeable odor has This is collected and discollected upon the glass plate. " C6 H U O __ 2 acetal. being collected It by Pure composed of C 6 H 14 2 . has a specific gravity of 0. from several points of view.821. is a colorless liquid. upon the pieces of pumice. and covering the whole with a large The alcohol absorbed by the pumice being conbell-glass. According to other opinions. the portion passing over at 219 acetal is F. It may be regarded as an ethyl alcohol (glycol) C 2 H 6 2 in which two atoms of hydrogen . calling to mind that of fruit ethers. 60 percent.2 F. itself. 2 2 or as a combination of aldehyde with ethyl alcohol. verted into acetic acid. and it remains unchanged on boiling with From its composition acetal may be considered lye. acetal may be considered as a combination of aldehyde and aldehyde ether : C H. alcohol is poured upon the plate and the air in the bell-glass from time to time renewed. tilled. By oxidizing agents it is rapidly converted into acetic acid.O aldehyde C4 H 10 aldehyde ether C6 H^6 acetal. is not reduced by potash it. and boils at 219. one molecule of water in the latter having been replaced by the alde- hyde : . It has a refreshing odor.126 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. fact that This view of the composition of acetal is supported by the methyl or amyl can be substituted for either one or both molecules of ethyl in the combination. however. have been replaced by two molecules of the radical ethyl C 2 H 5 hence thus .

0564 Kopp 1.0590 1.0553 1. of water in the acid. acetal. The strongest acetic acid which can be prescribed later on. from its crystallizing in F.. 1. then turns them brown.. and acetic ether may be formed which. The specific gravity of pure acetic acid is at 59 F. colorless liquid of an exceedingly pungent and well-known odor. since in the presence of only 2 per cent. causing when redness and swelling.. It first whitens mucous membranes. Highly concentrated acetic acid is a solvent of and resins. 1. Pure acetic acid.PRODUCTS OF ACETIC FERMENTATION.: volatile oils According to Oudemans Roscoe " . it will be understood that during this process aldehyde. the crystals fuse to a thin. Above about 60 F. Ethyl alcohol: 2(C 2 27 H 6 H 0=C H O 2 4 10 aldehyde C 2 H 4 O acetal C4 H M 2 By keeping of vinegar is in view the fact that the process of the formation an oxidation of the alcohol which does not pro- ceed with equal energy in all parts of the apparatus. H pared is known icy leaflets at about 40 as glacial acetic acid. . " Mendelejeff Mohr .. lemon oil is no longer dissolved by it. as as corrosive of acids and sulphuric nearly organic strongest acid. it is followed by vesication and desquamation of the cuticle.0607 . followed by paleness of the part. the operation be correctly conthough small quantities of them will be found in the vinegar when just finished and exert an influence upon its constitution. and in practice its high conmany centration is tested by its ability to dissolve lemon oil.0600 . causing meanwhile a severe burning pain. C 2 4 2 cannot be directly obtained from from acetates by methods which will be debut only vinegar. will be finally converted into acetic acid.. and. Applied to the human skin it acts as an irritant. if ducted. Pure acetic acid is a powerful restorative It is the applied to the nostrils in impending fainting. if its application be prolonged..

In regard to the composition of acetic acid.28 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. density of the liquid then diminishes so that a mixture containing 46 per cent. etc. of water shows the same specific The From this point on. and an accurate determination can only be effected by chemical methods. by means number like the tables at the differ considerably from each other.0600 " 1. it may be mentioned that one atom of hydrogen can be readily replaced by . besides acetic acid. are formed in abundance in the destructive distillation of wood. 1.0 " 68. of decrease with the increase in the mixtures specific gravities the content of water. the latter rising steadily until the content of water amounts to from 20 to 23 per cent. to According pure Mohr's determinations. Highly concentrated acetic acid has found considerable application in photography and surgery.0 " 1. the specific gravity of it acetic acid varies much at different temperatures. impossible. the gravity as the anhydrous acid. ture.0480 79. it is very fallacious when the acid increases in strength.0630 54.0 ki Mixtures of acetic acid and water show a peculiar behavior in regard to their specific gravity. and frequently occurs in commerce in the form of so-called vinegar essence. von der Toorn.0198 u 59. and is only fit for the preparation of table vinegar when a chemical examination shows no trace of tar products. at being 1.0 " 77. so that. The acetic acid occurring under this name is generally prepared from Oudemans.5 F.). while the specific gravity test answers very well for the determination of the amount of anhydrous acid in dilute solutions. end of this volume.0555 1. but they wood vinegar. which. This peculiar behavior of the mixtures renders the accurate determination of the content of acid in a concentrated mix- There are a of the aerometer. of determinations of specific gravities of acetic acid with varying contents of water (by Mohr.

for instance : Na C or sodium acetate. By to be understood the quantity of the body manufactured which would result if no losses of substance theoretical yield is on the other hand. the practical yield. the substituted hydrogen in two molecules of acetic acid must evidently be replaced by this bivalent metal. a neutral acetate itself be replaced formed. If a bivalent metal or compound radical yields a neutral combination with acetic acid. or ethyl C2H 5 . were connected with the chemical process. If this 2 H 3 atom of hydrogen is replaced by a univalent com- pound radical. by methyl CH 3 . CH C 2 H 3 3 Acetic acid methyl ether. Acetic acid ethyl ether. is that in which such losses are taken into account^ the average being ascertained by long-continued . for instance. hydrogen is compound If the one atom of hydrogen standing by is by a univalent metal. univalent metals or univalent compound radicals which be expressed by 29 may H whereby the one atom of acetic acid is C2 H 3 '\0 C J TT -| considered as water replaced by the ^r V in which radical C 2 H 3 = acetyl.PRODUCTS OF ACETIC FERMENTATION. Theoretical Yields of Acetic Acid In industries based upon chemical processes a distinction is made between the theoretical and practical yields. for instance : Ca 2(C 2 H 8 0) \ j Q u * Neutral calcium acetate. the so-called compound ethers are formed.

or by taking 100 follows that 100 parts by weight acetic acid. Make Hence from 46 weight parts of alcohol it .32 . . because of acetic acid : C2 H4 2 and its molecular = H = = C 2 ' .46 is The composition weight 60. .43478 parts by weight of This in- crease in weight has to be attributed to the absorption of one atom of oxygen. . of alcohol must yield 130. . . Make . atomic weight 2.24 6 = . 4 2 . the more suitable the method the theoretical one. atomic weight 16.24 . or an atomic weight C H = 6 2 = . because : C 2 H 6 0. Alcohol has the composition of 46. against the loss of two atoms of hydrogen. . who has Now suppose no loss of substance (by evaporation or formait tion of other combinations) occurs in the conversion of alcohol into acetic acid. 4 .16 . 60 parts by weight of alcohol 60 parts by of acetic acid may be formed. proaches in the pursued production evidently is. . . Since these two atoms of hydrogen are themselves oxidized to water by the absorp- . can readily judge of the value of his method by comparing it with the practical yield attained. . facturer. The closer the practical yield apyields. and thus the manucomparison of daily a clear idea of the theoretical yield. can be readily calculated from the composi- how many parts by weight of acetic acid can be formed from a determined number of parts by weight tion of the two bodies of alcohol.30 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.

and it of The quantity can be readily calculated how much of the latter is required to convert a given quantity of alcohol. Examinations oxygen in the air escap- ing from well-conducted vinegar generators have shown that on an average only one-quarter of the entire content of oxygen is consumed in the formation of vinegar. A vinegar generator. or one cubic metre of air. hence four times the theoretically calculated quantity of air must pass through the apparatus to completely convert the alcohol into acetic acid.PRODUCTS OF ACETIC FERMENTATION. Water Total. Hence 100 grammes of alcohol require at least 942. least Since. tion of oxygen. 1000 liters. and. In round numbers the air contains in 100 into acetic acid.92 liters of air for their conversion into acetic acid. . as above stated. without being far wrong. it may be assumed that in a vinegar factory. for instance . . Since 1 liter parts by weight 23 parts by weight of oxygen. on an average. e.562 parts by weight.56521 parts by weight. oxygen required to form acetic acid and water from 46 parts by weight of alcohol. in round numbers. are required for every 100 grammes of alcohol to be converted into acetic acid. it follows that 235. hence for 100 parts to 69.283 grammes. . 69.562 parts by weight are necessary for the conversion of 100 parts by weight of alcohol into acetic acid. that which should at the of air of 68 F.13043 169. " " 39.70 liters of air are required for the as to the content of same purpose. 130.100 grammes. weighs 1. of i. converts daily 3 . litres of alcohol into acetic acid 3 litres of absolute alcohol (specific ..43478 parts by weight.. the total yield from 100 parts 31 by weight of alcohol would be Acetic acid : .29509 grammes. the oxygen contained in it weighs 0. temperature always prevail in the vinegar generators. The oxygen is conducted to the alcohol in the form of air. amounts to 32 parts by weight.

if. in which a vigorous formation of vinegar takes place.48 kilogrammes from able development of heat and thus a considerrise of caused by the temperature in the apparatus. the quantity of heat liberated by the conversion of 100 parts by weight of alcohol into acetic acid can By combustion. Now. 2 parts by weight of hydrogen. to heat 148.32 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.4 liter (more accurately 0.34782 parts by weight of hydrogen.794) weigh 2382 grammes. or of 100 parts by weight of alcohol 4.820 liters of must pass daily through each vinegar generator in opera- Calculated to 16 working hours a day. 1 cubic metre of air is required for every 100 grammes of alcohol.82 cubic metres. gravity 0.413 liter) must pass every second through the generator in order to supply the quantity of oxygen required for the conversion of alcohol into acetic acid. as stated above. 1 gramme of hydrogen 34. * it follows that 23. and hence 4. is may air be said and con- effected in generators . is C. air tion..373 units of heat.. In answer to the question.34782 grammes of yields hydrogen. to boiling. e. somewhat more than 0. it may be said there are many points of great importance for the execution of the work. what can the practical manufacturer of vinegar learn from these theoretical explanations. In fact it that most of them allow only a limited change of * It is always supposed that the manufacture of vinegar used in the quick process. in the conversion of 100 grammes of alcohol into acetic acid sufficient heat is also be calculated. to 1 or 1. liberated C. in which of 4G parts by weight of alcohol. Since the formation of vinegar has theoretically to be considered as a process of combustion.126 units of heat. are consumed. alcohol requires a large supply but the generators in general use in the quick process are by no means so arranged as to be adequate to the theoretical demands. 148. i. The calculation of air shows that the . or 23.373 kilogrammes of water from C.

and ment of the this can be best effected by a suitable arrange- workroom. The acme of the formation of vinegar and hence the aim should be to maintain is at about 86 F. on the other hand. the more alcohol and acetic acid are lost by evaporation. especially in modern times.. in happen consequence of the vigorous oxidation of the alcohol. perature kept sufficiently low. too low a temperature is less injurious to the regular course of the process than too high a one. the generators act sluggishly and do not produce so much as when the correct conditions are observed. so that the acme in the interior of the generator may not be exceeded. or in other words. it may easily that. the temperature most favorable for the formation of vinegar. i. the smaller the yield of acetic acid. of the workroom be must. Bat while by raising the temperature of the workroom the activity of the generators is increased. By regulating the change of air so 3 . 33 That the sequently work slower than they actually should. By the skillful utilization of conditions the manufacturer must aim to reduce this loss to a minimum.. whose chief aim heat is is to afford a free pas- The fact that considerable developed in the interior of the generator deserves consideration in connection with the If the temperature in the latter heating of the manufactory. in is now use are deficient conclusively proved by generators the numerous constructions which have been proposed. however. The closer the temperature in the interior of the generator approaches the acme and the quicker the supply of air. sage to the air. Another factor may here be mentioned. the temperature of the workroom is kept too low. the temperature in the interior of the generators be increased to such an extent as to exceed this acme. this temperature as The temnearly as possible in the interior of the generator. e. and the activity of the vinegar ferment would immediately diminish and even cease altogether. If.PRODUCTS OF ACETIC FERMENTATION. is so high as nearly to approach the acme.

on the other ably connected with this high performance.. the loss in some vinegar factories is not less than from 15 to 20 percent. purpose. These enormous losses of material conclusively prove the defectiveness of the processes in general use and the urgent The experiments made for this necessity for reformation. entirely destroyed by cent. of of ten the by evaporation. it is not greater than absolutely necessary. quantity of per alcohol originally used must no doubt be considered a large them too much one . In a vinegar factory occur many unavoidable losses. and may even be as much as 30 per cent. will works for he not force the he stock. the sources of which have been indicated in the preceding explanations of . but from numerous observations it may be asserted that even 'with the greatest care in working. Yields of Acetic Acid Obtained in the Practice for By keeping some time an accurate account of the actual yields and comparing them with those theoretically obtainable. and in this case must submit to the increased losses inseparIf. though they were partially instituted by . and further a portion loss Now a oxidation. the air will soon become so saturated with vapors of alcohol and acetic acid that no further loss will take place until the renewing of the air in the workroom appears necessary.. cannot be considered entirely satisfactory. the former will be found to fall more or less short of the latter. capacity of the generators to the utmost. alcohol is and acetic acid evaporate. etc. hand. and which have been especially directed towards a remodeling of the apparatus used. the better the method of production in use. but in order to work as cheaply as possible direct his attention to reduce the losses to a minimum.34 that MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. In which manner the manufacturer is to work in order to carry on the business most advantageously depends on the conditions of trade. If large orders have to be filled. and the difference will be the smaller. he will endeavor to increase the capacity of the generators to the utmost by maintaining the acme of temperature and a vigorous change of air in them.

If. vinegar generator has frequently been compared to a furnace. quickly reduced to within the correct limits by decreasing the current of air. it can be air. In such a fur- A nace as much fuel is burned as corresponds to the quantity of oxygen entering. which on account of the high temperature then prevailing in the apparatus is accompanied by considerable loss of substance. The principal requirement is to provide the generator with a suitable ventilator. and is so constructed that the vapors of alcohol and acetic acid (or at least the larger portion) carried away by the current of air are condensed and thus re- gained. lacked the necessary theoretical knowledge. 35 practical manufacturers. however. . An apparatus unprovided with a ventilator is left more or less to itself. A vinegar generator of suitable construction should be provided with a similar arrangement. If the thermometer on the apparatus shows too low a temperature hence too slow a process of oxidation the course of the operation can in a short time be accelerated by the production of a stronger current of and the temperature correspondingly increased.PRODUCTS OF ACETIC FERMENTATION. while in a furnace of suitable construction the combustion of fuel can be accurately regulated by increasing or decreasing at will the supply of air by means of a simple contrivance. who. which will allow of the passage of exactly the quantity of air required for the conversion of the alcohol into acetic acid. oxidation proceeds too rapidly. that the construction generally used is a furnace lacking every arrangement for the regulation of combustion. while one provided with such an arrangement is under the entire control of the manufacturer. on the other hand. and in continuation of this comparison it may be said.

and the re- . fermentation and by destructive distillation. The preparation of pure acetic acid from acetates. under circumstances favorable to acetic fermentation. it is possible to prepare it from all sweet fruits and parts of plants. has been previously said. METHODS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. as well as crystallized cane sugar. CHAPTER V. sulting alcohol converted into acetic acid. two methods of manufacturing vinegar can only be distinguished. which represents a concentrated solution of fermentable sugar. or the preparation of acetic acid by destructive distillation. The various methods employed gar for the manufacture of vine: may 1. as well as from the juices of the sugar cane. By therefore be designated as follows fermentation according to the old or slow process. bananas. namely. in fact. since solutions of either can be brought into vinous fermentation. etc. or manufacture by fermentation with the application of improved methods in keeping with our present knowledge of chemistry. By 2. strawberries. Manufacture of wood vinegar. figs. Since alcoholic fluids. directly formed by the vinous ferIt mentation of sacchariferous plant juices. such as cherries. etc. into vinegar. the quick process. however. would seem proper to commence the description of the manufacture of vinegar with the old or slow process. it has been concluded not to do so. Honey. can likewise be indirectly used for the preparation of vinegar.36 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAK.. but for reasons of an entirely practical nature. and the quick process will be first considered. chicory root. FROM what been deemed advisable to describe separately the old or slow The process by fermentation and the new or quick process. 3. 4. by It has. it is evident that the latter can be prepared from them and. beet. possess the property of changing.

i. again require different treatment from grape wine. salts. or quick process. which possesses the property of converting starch into fermentable sugar. in a certain sense.METHODS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. requires a different treatment from wine. etc. but scarcely 2 Fruit-wines. and for this reason. of alcohol. the old or slow process. with only 5 to 6 per cent. etc. per cent. By employment of a suitable process. so that. now in general use. In the old process many modifications are found. and the new. The beer prepared from the malt contains a certain quantity of alcohol. (cider. and can thus be directly converted into vinegar. we can speak of grain and malt vinegars. etc. of alcohol but a large quantity of extractive substances. Beer. two principal methods of manu: may be distinguished. 37 By malting grain. Hence. and upon this fact is based the manufacture of beer and alcohol. which contains only about 4 per cent.. of alcohol and a large quantity of extractive substances (sugar. it is many different methods of making vinfundamental materials. it was found that the to the ing conversion of dilute alcohol into acetic acid could be effected the in a much shorter time than is by the old method. and upon this process based the quick process viz. it may be said there are as egar as there are latter. one correspondlaws of acetic fermentation.). and by taking into consideration the difference in the chemical composition of the of vinegar. for instance. which are partially based upon old usage and partially upon the difference in the chemical composition of the raw material used. and the latter into alcohol -it is therefore possible to prepare vinegar from every substance containing starch. Alcohol forming ultimately the material for the manufacture of vinegar. which requires more time. In an indirect manner the starch having to be converted first into sugar. e. which contains on an average 10 per cent. evident that there must be just as many varieties Besides acetic acid and a certain amount of water. the direct use of dilute alcohol became obvious. facture as previously stated. a peculiar body called diastase is formed. . of extractive substances. dextrin..).

malt extract. tartar. sis. which. Though these bodies occur in vinegar in such minute quantities that they can scarcely be determined by chemical analy- an expert can detect them by the sense of smell. Even vinegar obtained from dilute alcohol shows differ- ences in odor. On account of the presence of so many substances each possessing a specific taste. The but also to the taste. glycerin.. nevertheless exert considerable influence upon its properties. tains traces of potato fusel oil (amyl alcohol). fre- every vinegar contains other substances. In the oxidation of the alcohol by the vinegar ferment. differences in vinegar from wine. that of the wine vinegar must. though quently only present in very minute quantities. a series of extractive sub- and are converted into other odoriferous com- binations with suclx a characteristic odor that wine vinegar can at once be recognized as such by it. and succinic acids. and The odoriferous substances stances not thoroughly known. while other fusel oils are found in alcohol prepared from grain or molasses. and extend not only to the odor. these fusel oils are also oxidized and converted into combinations distinguished by their peculiar and very strong odor. and hence vinegar prepared from these fluids must possess definite properties. tartaric every kind of wine contains oenanthic ether. of course. Besides a specific odoriferous principle. differ from that of pure dilute acetic acid. etc. and the oenanthic ether also undergo alteration in the oxidation of alcohol. and from the specific odor of the vinegar form a conclusive judgment as to the material used in its preparation. beer.38 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. which depend on the material used in the prePotato alcohol always conparation of the specific alcohol. . fruit. beer and malt are still more pronounced. Similar conditions prevail in fruit-wine.

and by the current of air passing through between the shavings is enabled to oxidize the alcohol to acetic from the liquid all acid. in Germany by Wagmann. the chemical processes being the same in both cases.. and diffuse over. invented. and is chemical appropriation of the therefore better adapted for the oxygen in the current of air The mass of shavings. the alcoholic solution percolate slowly through. present- By making ing a large surface. it forms a very thin layer. a mass of shavings. appropriate for this It will uator. and in England by Ham. converted into acetic acid. is transmitted over it. QUICK PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. etc. 39 CHAPTER VI. the process of acetification would be greatly facilitated. pieces of coal or cork. which be readily understood that this arrangement presents in a high degree all the conditions required for the formation It will of vinegar. wooden blocks. but also as a carrier of the vinegar ferment. very slow process only in less time being required for its execution. the vinegar ferment upon the shavings acquiring the substances required for its nutriment and propagation. serves not only for the division of the liquid into fine drops." used in the quick process be seen that the generator. and soon after the quick vinegar process was generally Analogous processes were nearly at the same time adopted. The principle involved of course depends on an extreme This is very skilfully division of the liquid being effected. contrived. His experiments proved successful. IN 1823 Schiitzenbach conceived the idea that by greatly enlarging the relative surfaces of contact Of the alcoholic solution and air containing oxygen. etc. This process taking place simultaneously on thousands of points in a normally working generator explains why a large quantity of alcohol can in a comparatively short time be The term quick process is hence it differing from the older method. technically called "gradmay be compared to a fur- ..QUICK PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.

Generators erator. overcome by the acceleration of the motion of the air upwards. and by thus coming in contact with the fresh air entering the lower part of the apparatus its oxidation must evidently be promoted. largest part of the apparatus. The current of air in passing from below to above yields a certain portion of its oxygen in the lower part of the apparatus. while the lower one serves for the collection of the vinegar. . but its practical execution is accompanied by many difficulties. . called the genrequired for the production of vinegar by the quick It is divided A into three spaces above one another. and hence a large number of various constructions of generators have been proposed by which this object is claimed to be best attained.40 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The product of the vinegar collects in a reservoir in (partial) combustion the lower part of the generator. which must ascend uniformly from below through the mass of shavings. etc.4 liter of air per second. Each generator. This form offers to the alcoholic liquid in its passage from the upper part of the generator the opportunity of spreading over a constantly increasing surface. nace in which the fuel (in this case the alcoholic fluid) is introduced from above and the air from below. The spaces between the shavings. requires about 0. the alcoholic fluid running down would come in contact with air Hence this evil must be sought to be quite poor in oxygen. as previously stated. which is accomplished by giving the vessel the form of a slightly truncated cone. At the first glance this would seem very simple. is peculiarly constructed vessel. the uppermost serving for the division of the alcoholic liquid into many small drops in the center one. vinegar ferment and air. The best form of the generator is that of a truncated cone. the alcoholic liquid is converted into vinegar. which forms the process. etc.. may be compared to the interstices of a grate. and if it were allowed to ascend in a vessel of a purely cylindrical shape. combustion taking place on the points of contact of the alcoholic fluid.

O r are bored. be described later on. at the same distance from the top. The cover D. but on the cover. For the construction of the generator wood thoroughly seasoned and as free as possible from knots should be used. similar in strucThe aperture A ture. It consists of a perforated false bottom L a few inches from the bottom. holes. These holes are intended for the entrance of air. besides its being too expensive. serves for regulating the drought of air In the lower part of the generator. the wooden vat K provided with Fig. Formerly oak was largely employed for the purpose but. and another S.QUICK PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. since the regulation of the current of air is not to be effected on the lower portion of the apparatus. serves for the discharge of the fluid collecting underneath the false bottom L. 3 41 shows a common form of generator. the arrangement of which will in the generator. and in number may be as many as desired. it has the disadvantage of be- .

by placing several false perforated bottoms in the generator. as otherwise the vinegar prepared in a long time acquire a disagreeable tang and would for dark color. with a diameter of up to 6J erators feet. with a lower diameter of 3 feet 3 inches. and care should be had imme- any injury to this coating. as where. thus obstructing the proper It has been sought to overcome this evil passage of the air. and hence a correspondingly high temperature must be maintained in the workroom in order to keep up the proper degree of heat in their interior. as otherwise heavy rusting is caused by the vapors of acetic acid contained in the air of the work room. etc. becoming strongly compressed by their own weight. structed of ing so rich in extractive substances that a generator conit. with which the center space is filled. generators of considerable height have the drawback of the shavings. should be coated with good linseed-oil varnish or asphaltum lacquer. There is considerable variation in the dimensions of the generators. and is well adapted for the purpose. as well as all other metallic parts in the factory. in order to divide the weight of the filling into as many smaller But this arrangement is weights as there are false bottoms. Some manufacturers hold that the production of very . In this country pitch pine is largely used. also attended with inconveniences. It is cheap and readily obtainable everyclaimed by some manufacturers that the pitch it is pine protects fermentation in generators constructed of it from the influence of rapid variations in temperature which are of frequent occurrence in portions of this country. and others again a height of 20 feet diately to repair or more. The small gen- have the disadvantage of rapidly yielding heat to the exterior. On the other hand. Larch is an excellent wood for the construction of generators. it being difficult to maintain a sufficiently strong draught of air in generators of such height..42 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The hoops of the generators. some having only a height of 5 feet. has to be several times lixiviated with water it before use.

howonly possible in very tall generators. expehaving shown that the greater portion of the warm cur- air in the parts of the filling rent of air ascending in the interior takes the nearest road to the top. of acetic This opinion is. with the use of generators 20 feet high. which besides are very expensive. since even with the best heating arrangement the temperature near the ceiling is always much higher than on the floor. are are intended for draught apertures. Fig. suitable generators are very likely those with a not exceeding 10 feet. This arrangement is. without passing sideways into the filling. it being even possible to direct it towards a certain portion of the filling. which makes the ceiling of the work room must be at least 26 it impossible to maintain a uniform to temperature. does not produce the intended favorable effect upon the draught of rience surrounding it.. The most A to be sure. Every generator of suitable construction should be provided with a well-fitting cover. 43 acid is strong vinegar containing 11 to 12 per cent. If the draught of air in the interior is too great. parts of the filling. bored. through the tube. feet high. in concentric circles. it can be at once diminished by closing a number of these holes. the manufacture of very strong vinegar being than just as well or rather better effected in small generators in those twenty feet or more high. holes which In this cover. contributes towards the maintenance of a uniform temperature in the generator. unfounded. as the difference between the upper and lower parts would frequently amount more than 25. and a lower diameter of about 45 height inches and an upper one of about 35 inches. however.QUICK PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. large diameter. i. The manufacture of vinegar should be carried on in a room with a low ceiling. however. ever. but it has the disadvantage of making it difficult for the air to ascend uniformly through all This drawback is sought to be evercome. Such tube. 4. only available when the false bottom to be described later on is . However. e. by placing in the center of the generator a tube open above and below and provided on the sides with holes.

ineffective as regards the oxidation of alcohol. the. regular current of air . attended with the disadvantage that a regular draught of air only takes place in the outer layers of filling next to the walls. with the use of many apertures below the false bottom and a single one in the center of the cover. It is also incorrect to have but one air aperture in the cover. the base of which is formed by the lower false ture in the cover. Many generators are provided with a number of obliquely bored apertures below the false bottom through which the air can escape. which can be made larger or In a generator thus arranged. while it is not sufficiently strong in the center of the apparatus. In Figs. 4. This is. embraces this is bottom and the apex by the draught aperThe lower portion of the filling. 5 and 6 the hatched surfaces terminated by the dotted lines illustrate the portions of the generator in which. which remains without sufficient ventilation and cone. the smaller by means of a slide. FIG. number of short vertical either not used or provided with a tubes which permit the passage of the air. however.44 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. current of air entering below will naturally pass chiefly through the conical portion of the filling.

6. Generally. however. and is provided with an arrangement for FIG. which serves for the collection of the vinegar. it is in most cases the generator is not consequently the entire available space of sufficiently utilized. This can be by a spigot fixed immediately above the bottom or. from below to above passes. and place outside of these lines. FIG. 5. which bends upwards nearly as high as the air-holes and then curves downward so as to dis- . FIG. 7. m Each generator may also be entirely open below and stand in a shallow tub. the lower portion of the generator itself is used for this purpose. by a glass tube. 45 Although a current of air takes too weak. as in Fig. the occasional discharge of the collected effected either fluid. 7.QUICK PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.

The disk. into an appropriate vessel placed to receive it. on which is placed a perforated disk which serves for distributing the alcoholic fluid as uniformly as possible over the entire filling. and hence it is better to provide the generator with an ordinary spigot. it is scarcely suitable in the practice on account of its being too liable to breakage. a knot being made at the top end to keep them from falling through. Simple as this arrangement is. in which is fitted to the about one foot from the In generators of older construction a strong hoop is fixed top. The threads reach down to the shavings. when it rises as high as the shelf in the interior of the apparatus.46 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The vinegar rising of this pipe will commence to run off. and prevent the vinegar from rising too high. is perforated with numerous holes (about 400 with a disk diamThese holes are eter of 3 feet) arranged in concentric circles. and thus height give warning to empty the generator by opening the spigot. loosely filled with cotton wick or packthread. Fig. and serve the double purpose of conducting the liquid equally through the body of . by boring about J inch below the draught apertures a hole a pipe leading to a tub. 8. charge the liquid.

disk. open . so that it can be made larger or smaller at passage of the air. The dripping of the alcoholic fluid through the disk taking place uniformly only when the latter lies perfectly horizontal. By withdrawing or inserting the stoppers the draught of be properly regulated. about 3 inches square. but also assures its conveyance to the center of the apparatus. As previously mentioned the current FIG. great care must be exercised in placing the generator. it is recommended to insert in the center of the lower part in which the fluid collects a tube. the disk and the others in a circle equidistant from the center and the periphery. 9. is fitting slide. which is best effected by a packing of tow. It is important to pack the disk so tightly against the walls of the generator that none of the liquid can percolate. Upon the disk is placed the well-fitting cover. must pass through all portions of the tubes. r (Fig. and for this purpose seven short glass in diameter.QUICK PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the generator and also of stopping it 47 from passing too rapidly through it (see Fig. As previously stated. To prevent warping several strong cross-pieces are inserted in of air the lower side of the disk. R. provided with a wellwill. Fig. 8). and coating this with a mixture of equal parts of wax and rosin. 10. are inserted in the inch about f These tubes are so arranged that one is in the center of filling. 9). it is more suitable to provide the cover with a large number of draught holes arranged in concentric circles and to fit each hole with a wooden stopper. provided with an aperture for the This aperture. To effect the influx of air from below in such a it air can then that manner takes place not only through the draught holes in the circumference.

which consists. the same quantity of liquid dripped from all the threads. wooden tubes with a small I This arrangement. for instance. difficult to attain. it . 11). useless in case of the slightest warping of the disk.48 at both ends MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. while passes in a full stream through the others. This being. A uniform distribution of the alcoholic liquid upon all portions of the filling of the apparatus would be effected if about FIG. a number of the tubes being then raised so high that no fluid runs through them. however. it has been sought to give the disk a more suitable arrangement. though aperture on the side (Fig. however. and protected above by the hood H against the dropping in of alcoholic liquid. in the insertion of small FIG. very suitable in itself. becomes. 10. 11.

partition 2 is gradually filled with alcoholic 1. 13. But even this arrangement is not free from objections. FIG. If the tilting trough is in the position shown in Fig. and so on. As soon as this partition is filled to a certain height it turns ovef in consequence of the disturbance of the equilibrium of In the trough and assumes the position shown in Fig. and that this arrangement can be used for distributing the alcoholic liquid upon the disk. The apex working entirely satisfactorily only as long as the disk remains in a perfectly horizontal position. it inverted cone. 13. It will be seen that with the assistance of such a tilting trough the same quantities of liquid can always be poured out at certain intervals. placed above. 12.QUICK PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. troughlike vessel divided by a partition into two equal parts. into the partition marked 1. which is arranged as follows ing trough : Upon a perfectly horizontal axis is placed a rotatory. 12 and 13). the alcoholic liquid runs through the cock. liquid the trough then tilts back into position FIG. 12. In the more modern constructions of vinegar generators the disk is generally entirely 4 > I . this position . the latter in this case being best provided with holes having the form of an of this cone forms a very narrow which the alcoholic liquid poured upon the aperture through disk trickles in very thin jets upon the filling of the generator. 49 These drawbacks connected with the use of a disk can be somewhat diminished by the employment of a so-called " tilt" (Figs.

etc. 14 and 15.50 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. FIG. . The tubes are so arranged that all the holes are directed toward one side. 14. Their construction will be understood glass. Spargers used in vinegar factories can be constructed only of a material indifferent to the action of acetic acid. closed at both ends and perforated ^lengthwise with numerous small holes. and opposite to that in is moved by reaction which the discharge of the in the direction fluid takes place. cross- Into a hollow cylinder of wood are screwed four thin wooden tubes. such as wood. simple turbine." similar to the one used in beer brewing The sparger is arranged like a for sprinkling malt residues. omitted and the distribution of the alcoholic liquor effected by a so-called " sparger. showing a view from above and a section. hard rubber. from Figs. closed on top The basin in the center is by a glass tube about 20 inches long and of sufficient width to allow of the passage of as much fluid as can at one time run off through all the lateral tubes.

16. fluid is through which the alcoholic poured in. a funnel-shaped vessel. and the cover of the generator. 51 is principal requisite of the correct working of the sparger This is that it revolves with ease around its vertical axis. is placed upon . FIG. The effected by placing in the center of the vessel a glass pin drawn The out to a fine point and running in a small glass step.QUICK PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. move freely between it being in position as the glass tube. vertical glass tube is guided in a sharp-edged wooden ring fastened to a stay placed upon the cover of the generator (Fig. The strip is placed at such a height that the sparger can FIG. 15. The sparger shown in Fig. This 16). sparger finds its center of motion upon a strip inserted in the direction of the diameter of the generator.

a glass reception of a by introducing at about half the through an obliquely bored hole in tube closed at the lower end and This tube serves for the filling.52 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. over the filling in the generator. especially as regards the position of distributed in the form of a fine spray the latter. which would render induction of acetic fermentation impossible. dry places being thus formed during the operation. and especially in the center. so that the of wood. can be readily read A thermometer is off. Corn cobs thoroughly dried and finely be used to advantage. and. thermometer can be quickly drawn out and the temperature reaching to the center of the read off. apertures in the cover of the generator serve also here for the regulation of the current of air. it passes in fine jets through the lateral openings. This material absorbs liquids like a sponge. so that during its influx the glass tube remains filled. Small pieces of cork and cork waste have also been recommended for filling. This is best effected height of the apparatus. and should be so placed that the temperature prevailing in the apparatus. one of the staves. The space between is filled the upper disk with a material offering a large Pieces of surface for the distribution of the alcoholic liquid. Filling the generators. Grape stems are still occadivided may . thermometer fastened to the lower end of a stick The latter projects from the glass tube. especially in the manufacture of wine and cider vinegar. By now pouring through this funnel-shaped vessel the alco- holic liquid in a sufficiently strong stream. The use of the sparger overcomes the difficulties frequently occurring with the disk. and lower false bottom charcoal and of pumice washed in hydrochloric acid and well rinsed in water to remove empyreurnatic substances. the sparger revolving in is an opposite direction. but when sucked full does not press evenly together. have been used for the purpose. and the circulation of air through the apparatus also A number of takes place in a perfectly uniform manner. an indispensable adjunct to a generator.

beechwood presents many advantages: It can be had easily and is cheap. and hence 58.56 square feet. 53 actually present a very large surface of fact that they cannot be everywhere the but. The beech shavings are generally made in special factories.56 feet high is equal to 55.7 for 0. The generator 3. They consist of wooden bands about 0.92 each shaving. but they will not stand so well as beech resinous woods are not porous enough. and besides . sionally used. as otherwise the average . we over 1075 square feet at our disposal. are now almost generally employed for filling the generators. it will be readily seen that the surface over which the alcoholic fluid is distributed is an extraordinarly large one. Now suppose only 5 per cent. White woods will curl as well. By allowing an -f- the shavings. have still a surface of But the active surface would seem to be actually much smaller even with the most favorable working of the generator. 1. as it may partly dissolve in the vinegar oak wood does not curl as well and contains too much coloring matter and tannin. of this surface is continually interspace of . independent obtained in sufficient quantities. they have the drawback of They becoming in a short time the free passage of air. are required for the purpose.44 cubic feet. is objectionable.85 cubic inch between cubic inches space is required to be filled with shavings in a space active in the formation of vinegar. and each shaving. as a generator of moderate size contains many thousands of such shavings. with a total surface of 22. 1 J inches wide. They are rolled into close spirals by a special machine.7 cubic inches. presents a surface of about 62 square inches. however.QUJCK PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.28 feet in diameter and 6.85 = 1. and 16 to 20 inches long. A shaving of the stated dimensions represents in a rolled state a cylinder with a volume in round numbers of 1. their rosin .733. Now. it curls well and stands without breaking for a length of time.000 shavings. according to the above dimensions. so firmly compressed as to prevent Beechwood shavings. Indeed.02 inch thick.

to prevent the steam entering with great force from throwing off the lid. would for a long taste) to the vinegar. consisting of almost boiling water charged with extractive substances of the wood. but after some time the vessel becomes very hot. The shavings are thrown in loosely and covered with a loaded lid. it time impart a disagreeable tang (woody Hence is recommended to lixiviate the shavings in water repeatedly renewed. and remove the last traces of them by treatment with steam. or even In the commencement of the operation bursting the vessel. this drying of the shavings can be effected without *The arrangement of a central heating apparatus will be described later on in speaking of the arrangement of the factory. erator quantity of alcohol daily converted into acetic acid in a genwould be much larger than is actually the case. and the tap-hole near opened. the steam-cock is at first opened but slightly. which is later on to be used as a generator. the steam condenses on the shavings. A steam-pipe is introduced through a hole near the the bottom boiler. in is lid. In a factory provided with a central heating apparatus * in the cellar. tractive substances. Beechwood shavings contain a considerable quantity of exwhich if not removed. Although not absolutely necessary.54 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. steamed shavings. The steam-pipe being connected with a which prevails a tension of 1J to 2 atmospheres. of water. Hence it is recommended to dry the shavings completely by exposing them for some time to a current of air of 194 to 212 F. After continuous steaming for about 20 to 60 minutes according to the size of the vessel is the fluid running off becomes clearer until finally clear water discharged. begins to run off. which in the subsequent acetification of the generator must be replaced by vinegar. This steaming is best effected in a large tub or vat. which is indicative of the removal of the extractive substances soluble in water. in order to get rid of the substances soluble in cold water. it is When air-dry they still advisable to dry the contain about 20 " " per cent. and a dark-colored fluid. .

. and place the vessel over an aperture of the register through which the hot air from the heating apparatus ascends. it is necessary to allow them to swell by placing them in water or If this were omitted and the shavings inalcoholic liquid. the shavings thus dried should immediately be brought into another vessel and. but for a uniform distribution of the alcoholic fluid it is advisable to proceed with the filling in a it is First place the shavings in three or four regular layers upon the false bottom. and continue in this manner The uppermost portion should until the generator is filled. with an equal temperature and draught of air. In most factories customary simply to pour the shavings into the generator. again consist of three or four regular layers. and in the same time convert equally large quantities of alcohol into acetic acid. i. moistened with the vinegar intended for acetification. on account of the increase in volume by swelling. All the generators used in a vinegar factory should be of the same size and charged with the same number of shavings. closing all other apertures. and after leveling the surface as certain order. As perfectly dry wood absorbs with avidity moisture from the atmosphere. e. difficulty. they would rise above the generators as soon as moistened. The total surface of shavings being thus nearly the same in all generators. Before using the shavings for filling the generators. troduced in a dry state. much as possible pour in again. while still hot. the latter will work uniformly.QUICK PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. it 55 only being necessary to put them in a vessel with a perforated bottom and open on top. then pour them in loosely to a height of 8 to 12 inches. . which is best effected by filling them with the same quantity by weight.

and so arranged that no unintentional ventilation can occur. that every considerable variation in the temperature causes also a disturbance in the formation of THE arrangement vinegar. while the high temperature required was sought to be maintained by heating. simple devices for the conveyance of the raw materials and the finished product must be provided for. and ceilings should be plastered and preferably papered with heavy packing paper asbestus shingles are also highly recom. manufac- For the maintenance of a uniform temperature in the workroom. and the latter so placed The walls that one can be closed without opening the other. Further. and means devised for regaining the acetic acid. By considering. the waljs should be of more than ordinary thickness and the number of windows and doors sufficient only for est the necessary light and communication. with the vapors of which the air in the turing room is constantly saturated. abso- The principal requisites to be observed are : The mainten- ance of a uniform temperature in the room and a suitable arrangement for ventilation. which the vinegar lutely necessary. is to be manufactured is. The windows and doors should. however. . tomary The generators were generally simply placed in a room adapted for the purpose by its size. CHAPTER VII. therefore. of the manufacturing rooms formerly cusin even large factories is by no means a suitable one. mended for this purpose.56 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. ARRANGEMENT OF A VINEGAR FACTORY. which should remain almost constant even in the coldseason of the year and during abrupt changes in the outer temperature. be double. therefore. it will be seen that the object of keeping up an undisturbed working of the factory cannot be attained by such A suitable arrangement of the room in primitive means.

though floors may also be constructed of large slabs of sandstone with the joints filled in with asphal- tum.ARRANGEMENT OF A VINEGAR FACTORY. run along the Ci. If the room is to be cast-iron plates. warm air can be admitted to the room. The heater. ashes will unavoidably reach the air. H M t In the vault flues a circular aperture. 17 and 18 can be recommended. center of the room to be heated. ing channel is conducted lengthwise through the workroom. the register in the flue L. of the Heating of the itself room depends on that of the generators. gutters for the rinsing water to run off must be arranged on both sides. for the reception of the The latter ascending slightly. Where stoves are used it is recommended to arrange them so that the fuel can be supplied and the ashes removed from the outside. The height workroom tories . from a room adjoining the In attending to the stoves fine particles of actual workroom. e. 0.. P. Cement care must be had to give it such an inclination that the entire If the heatsurface can be cleansed by a simple jet of water. . floor of the is 57 also indifferent to the for the undoubtedly the best material it workroom. and the air-regulating door provided with the feeding-door in the center of the room to be a beneath stands vault A. heated without renewing the air. reaching from the floor of the cellar to the top of the vault. For large factories a heating apparatus similar to the one shown in Figs. can only be recommended provided they are immediately after their construction coated with silicate of In constructing the floor soda until they cease to absorb it. Workroom Heating by a stove placed in the can only be recommended for very small fac- in larger ones a special heating apparatus should always be provided. Above they are covered by is C and and by pushing these plates apart or suba lattice stituting plate for one of them in any part of the flue. Asphaltum being impermeable and action of acetic acid. i. and being soluble in acetic acid may injure the vinegar ferment. It is surrounded on all sides by the sheet-iron jacket heated. and from the latter they may get into the generators.

however. ings being again sucked through L. In the illustration) in the lower part of the jacket opened. 17. the air-flue L is closed and a register (not shown in If. 18. the air in the room is sucked in the direction of the arrow through 'the flue L. and passing between the jacket and the furnace. and so on. heated and distributed through the flues C and Cj. is opened. FIGS.OO MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the air in the workroom is to be entirely renewed. ascends and penetrates through the openstrongly heated through in air the flue. The furnace being pipe with the lower part of heated. By partially opening this . this case the air in the cellar is sucked in. a flat iron which communicates by the jacket.

ARRANGEMENT OF A VINEGAR FACTORY. 19. If wires with a galvanic battery consisting of several elements. wire. e. The ends of ceeded. 59 and that in L. a portion of the air can be renewed at In order to be able to form a correct idea of the state of the temperature prevailing in the room. Fig. By placing two such thermometers in the room. i. and that of the other that it has fallen below it. it is advisable to have several ordinary thermometers and also a maximum and minimum FJG. the mercury rises to the point of the platinum wire at the figure 35. If the latter to shows no greater the process of variation than from 4 5. register will. in one part of the con- now. circuit is again opened by the . Into the bulb of mum electrical 15 an ordinary mercury thermometer is melted a platinum wire another platinum . and the bell rings and keeps ringing until the mercury falling below 35. 35 the platinum wires projecting from the thermometer are connected by insulated copper not to be ex- an ordinary door-bell being inserted ductor. in consequence of a continued increase in the temperature.. which is so arranged that a bell rings in case the temperature rises above or falls below a certain degree. the bell of the one indicates the rise of the temperature above the limit. heating may be considered as satisfactory. the circuit of the battery is closed at the same time by the column of mercury. thermometer. one which the temperature of the when a bell rings room exceeds a certain limit. very suitable apparatus for controlling the temperature in a vinegar factory is an electrical A thermometer. is inserted in the tube up to the mark indicating the temperature C. 19 illustrates the principle of a 45 maxi- -20 thermometer. for instance.

By placing such thermometers not only in the working room but also in every generator. alcoholic liquid having to be correspondingly heated. This has the further advantage that the alcoholic liquid can be with a short rising-pipe. remains closed. but at the present time these useful and at the same time inexpensive instruments are but little used in vinegar factories. the entire room. whose armature opens a second battery which is connected with an electric bell. As long as the mercury remains above this point a battery. and the armature of the electro- magnet falling down effects the closing of the second battery and sets the bell ringing. If the temperature falls below the minimum. In factories arranged according to the automatic system. which changes a piece of iron to an electro-magnet. the control of the entire process would be immensely facilitated. the alcoholic liquid is contained in vessels placed at such a level The that their contents can run directly into the generators.60 MANUFACTURE OP VINEGAR. The minimum electrical thermometer. the circuit of the first battery is opened. reservoirs are placed. and the liquid can be readily conducted from the reservoirs to the separate generators by means of pipes. adequate provision must be made for heating the space in which the recommended to place these vessels in the center and give only to this portion the required height. it is In order not to increase the height ot pumped up by the use of a pump . used for indicating the falling of the temperature below a certain degree. is so arranged that one platinum wire is melted into the bulb of the thermometer and the other in the tube at the point below which the temperature is not to fall.

in the circumference of the generator. ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF THE VINEGAR GENERATORS. can readily be explained: In a generator in full activity.of air from above to below entirely incorrect. 20. 61 CHAPTER VIII.. experiments in conveying direct air to every genbut though this step towards erator were made in England in making vinegar must be considered an improvement first . upon which the Above each false bottom holes are bored shavings. By this means the air would be forced to pass in a uniform current through the entire layer of the filling material. etc.ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF VINEGAR GENERATORS. generator is inserted a pipe which In the bottom of the is connected with an arrangement for sucking in the air. oxidation of alcohol must already take place in the uppermost is portion. rest. the current of air being much more checked in the upper portions by the false bottoms and holes in the circumference. and hence a certain quantity of oxygen is withdrawn . Hence the effect of the air-pump or blower will chiefly assert itself in the lowest This drawback might be remedied by leaving out partition. a blower or air-pump being used for the purpose. That the passage of the current . the tall generator is open on top and divided into several partitions by false bottoms. As will be seen from the illustration. As shown in Fig. THE important advance. than in the lower. the false bottoms and placing no air-holes in the circumference of the generator entirely open at the top. the English process failed of being accepted in practice on account of the inadequacy of the apparatus used. the suction of air through all parts of the generator cannot be uniformly effected by the use of this apparatus. In the English factories by a special apparatus a current of air was sucked from above to below through every generator. because contrary to all theoretical requirements.

By the higher temperature it ac- however. that it will induce the process of the formation of vinegar. the warmer current fur- of air moving upwards has the ther advantage of yielding heat to the drops of alcoholic fluid trickling down. all parts of it the gen- while rises considerably in the upper part of those in which the air passes from below to above. air enter- agreeable to nature. it only proves that the air has lost too much oxygen to further effect a vigorous oxidation of the alcohol. to The ing from below oxidizes the alcohol acetic acid. If no rise of temperature is observed in the lower portions which the air passes from above to below. would be sucked in the same direction which the drops of alcohol take. even in the uppermost portions of the generator.62 from the MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the maximum temperature will not be exceeded. so quires. 20. Besides. formation of acetic acid. It will be readily of a generator in . even in the uppermost portions of the generator. however. a current of air already deprived of a its portion of oxygen. and hence less suitable for the further FIG. This process being also continued in the lower of the parts generator. The principal reason advanced for the use of a current of air from above to below is that by these is means a uniform temperature maintained in erators. and with a suitable regulation of the draught of air. it is. capable of a more vigorous chemical activity. air. With the use of generators of moderate height. This rise of temperature is. becoming thereby poorer in oxygen and again heated.

ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF VINEGAR GENERATORS. as will be seen from Fig. which serves for the Schulze's generator differs : while another aperture on the side serves for pouring in the alcoholic liquid. hence. The ventilation of the vineSchulze's Ventilating Apparatus. requires the presence of an uninterruptedly acting power for working the air-pump. by which it becomes specifically lighter and ascends. fitting air-tight. and a diameter of 2 feet 6 inches. cannot be very considerable. this etc. In the upper part it is terminated by a false head. however. no diminution in loss by evaporation could be To render this possible. to a certain degree. method Schulze. and. The generator is diameter. and about f inch in entrance of air. which afford a passage to the air. be effected. the current of air sucked effected. arranged about 8 feet. the diminution in loss of substance . gar generators. In the false head are inserted four glass tubes. 21. 68 understood that under these conditions a diminution in the loss of substance can. be also produced by heating the air passing through an ascending pipe. filled with pieces of washed and assorted charcoal. the current of air passing downward will be loaded with as much vapor of alcohol or of can absorb at this temperature. but it i& doubtful whether the generators are utilized in the manner they should be besides. open at both ends. in the center of which is an aperture about 2J inches in diameter. somewhat from the ordinary conand is as follows The vat has a height of struction. acetic acid as it from the generator would have to be sufficiently cooled off by a suitable arrangement to allow of the greater portion of the vapors carried away by the current of air being condensed to a fluid. Since a high temperature also prevails in ventilated generators. etc. according to the previously described method. while denser air enters from below. a current of air can. so that pieces of the size of a nut are placed upon the false bottom. has applied to the ventilation of vinegar generators. and is further provided with a cover. As is well known. it would seem. blower. gradually decreasing in size . and upon this smaller pieces.

10). with a clear diameter of 2 inches. is inserted a wooden tube. ascends and effects the passage of a curFor keeprent of air from above to below in the generators. The draught-pipes thick and are of cast-iron. open at both ends to prevent the trickling in of vinegar (see Fig. FIG. however. of the bottom In the center until those on the top are only that of a pea. 21. over the flues of a heatingapparatus and covered above by a double course of stone. and are about J inch about 4 \ feet long. By a suitable intermediate piece. are placed. in and provided on top with a hood which the ascension of the air by heating is effected.64 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. ing up a constant ventilation it is claimed to be sufficient to With this construction it heat the furnace only once a day. 21). . strongly inclined. The same effect draught-pipes as there are genermight. this tube is connected with the draught-pipe (see Fig. being heated by the escaping gases of combustion. The They air in the iron draught-pipes. also be attained by connecting the pipes leading from several generators with a draught-pipe of a somewhat greater diameter and length. is necessary to have as many ators.

Its principal parts consist of the and the The is the same by is construction of the lower part of the generator. rapid current of air. in the first case. a low D strip L. object to The ances is be attained by the use of special ventilating contriva double one To conduct a constant current of air : through the generators. It is 65 not difficult to prove that a uniform ventilation of the generators cannot be obtained by the use of this construction. and. from which rises a quadrangsits ular pyramid. a too degree as the pipes cool off. ventilation would be so sluggish that the process of the formation of vinegar would not proceed in a normal manner. however. P. 22. upon which The sparger has its center of motion prism. As long as the draught-pipes are strongly heated. This object can. be attained only by the use of an apparatus which allows of the most accurate regulation of the these current of air passing through the generator. generator. a very rapid current of air will pass through them and the generators connected with them. decrease in the same Hence. however. is guided above in the short strip L v which carries the upon the and sharp- edged ring described on page 51. In the center of a square aperture.ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF VINEGAR GENERATORS. accompanied by a correspondingly strong evaporation of alcohol. A. ventilator. Generators with Constant Ventilation and Condensation. for the by the current of air can be condensed as is The apparatus described below well adapted purpose. The cover fits tightly upon the upper edge air-tight the cover of the vat. so as to decrease by means the loss by evaporation of alcohol and acetic acid. which will. further. and is connected with a contrivance by which the vapors of alcohol and acetic acid carried along much as possible. the apparatus for condensing the vapors. 5 E is the glass tube through . and in the latter. constructed of boards. as of those previously described. placed in the uppermost portion of the generator. the joint being made of strips paper pasted over it. Fig. would pass through the generators. not to allow the temperature to rise above a certain limit.

On the point where the pyramid passes into the prism A. S. 23. 2J to 3 inches in diameter. provided on the lower end with a wooden disk. 24 shows the apparatus in crossFig. section. FIG. 0. In a sheet-iron vessel of the same height as the generator is placed another vessel. The aperture 0. 22. the aperture less or entirely. This conduit R is connected best in the center between an equally large number with the condensing of generators a worm similar to is of which the chief feature apparatus. which the alcoholic liquid flows into the funnel of the sparger. By can be closed more or prisms A by the conduit R. so that there is a distance of about 5} inches between the walls. From a reservoir situated at a higher level cold water runs into the apparatus through the In the space bepipe K. of a somewhat greater diameter than the raising or lowering this screw. and off through the short pipe W. tween the walls of the two vessels lies a tin coil with very thin . is a bottom provided with a circular aperture. in which runs a wooden screw. Upon the top of the prism A is placed a nut. and thus the strength of the current of air regulated at will in every generator. of all the generators are connected with each other of boards.66 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. that used in a still. constructed FIG.

23) and below ratus. The apparatus works as follows According : as combustion in the stove proceeds slowly or quickly by the corresponding position of the regulating register.ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF VINEGAR GENERATORS. in diameter. 24. walls coil is 67 and a diameter of at least 2J inches. On top this tin connected with the wooden tube R (Fig. which reaches nearly to the bottom of the flask half filled with water. the air between the heating . ventilating apparatus consists of an ordinary self-feeding but its jacket is closed below so that air can stove. which leads to the ventilating appaC is a glass tube about 16 inches long and J to f inch FIG. with the iron pipe R. only pass in between the heating cylinder and the jacket through the The R pipe l coming from the condensing apparatus.

is it. To regulate the current for it of the each is generator. water. The fluid thus obtained consists chiefly of alcohol. and the greater the the water. of air passing from the it tin coil carries with the total wooden tube R into the amount of evaporated alcohol By passing through the tin coil. the condensed alcohol does not even contain the total quantity of water evaporated with it. little success would be attained. but with vapors The of at the utmost 95 F. 22) more or less by raising or lowering the screw. But as the further entrance the of air can take place only through the pipe ly the tin coil. cylinder and the jacket becomes less or more heated and ascends with corresponding velocity. a uniform current of air from below to R all the generators. By working. strength only necessary to close the aperture (Fig. a very large quantity of fluid containing but little alcohol would be obtained in the course of a day. and wooden tube R. It is. As the quantity of vapor separated from the air cooled however. however. and is again used for the preparation of alcoholic liquid. possible in this manner to condense the greater portion of vapors of a higher temperature and tension. and this fluid could at the best be used only instead of water for the preparation of alcoholic The value of the material thus regained would not liquid. has been proposed to regain the vapors by conducting the air containing them into a large vessel in which water in the form of a fine spray trickles down or is injected. be the greater the more energetically the tin coil off. it is recommended to reduce the temperature of the water to nearly 32 It F. On account of the peculiar form of the cooling vessel but little water is required for feeding will. greater portion of the vapors remaining uncondensed. above must pass through The current or acetic acid. cover the working expenses of the apparatus. of course. and it need only be compounded . by throwing in pieces of ice. and acetic acid. which is cooled air itself becomes cooled off. by of the portion vapors held by it condense to liquid and run off through the tube C into the bottle. with the condensing apparatus described above.68 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.

Singer. shows an essential difference in construction from those previously described. the tubes are inside provided with horizontal gutters. of Berlin. tubes so that the alcoholic fluid runs drop by drop from one vessel into the other. passing thereby through the tubes. . In order to distribute the fluid as much as possible. 25. It consists of several shallow wooden vessels arranged one above the other and connected with each other by wooden The generator manufactured by FIG. 69 with the corresponding quantity of water and vinegar again to yield alcoholic liquid. whereby the surface of the fluid passing through is greatly increased. In addition.ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF VINEGAR GENERATORS.

the latter being effected by elongated staves. 26. Above. 26. This is repeated four times and oftener before the alcoholic fluid has passed through the apparatus. the sections of the tubes through which the alcoholic fluid is to run slowly are provided above with six annular gutters. each tube is also provided with two gutters. 26 the separate vessels and their connection by drip tubes. allowing of a free passage of the air. a. As will be seen from Fig. is provided in the center with a slit running The latter length-wise. by which they are connected with The the vats B and B 1 below. slit lengthwise for the free admission of air. which above only connect the vat B with A 1 and below pass into the vat C. and which can be heated in winter. whereby. at FIG. bottoms of the latter are provided 32 with tubes. encounters in the tubes the finely-divided fluid and effects the oxidation of the alcohol to vinegar. Fig. The entire apparatus stands in a case which protects it from cooling off and from too great an access of air. the latter is connected with the reservoir is Of all . closed with a The lower end of On top each tube lid. the five vats only the upper one. but the end entering the vat below is open. A. a very complete forma- tion of vinegar is attained. uniform distances. and upon the latter is fixed a holder.70 each of the tubes MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Fig. it is claimed. In the bottoms of the vats A and A 1 are inserted 37 tubes. Above these gutters are four apertures for the In the center the tubes are entrance of the alcoholic fluid. and Fig. 25 shows Singer's generator in cross section. is provided with a cover. b. /. for securing the tube g. 25 represents five shallow vats standing one above the other.

J. D. which serves for the reception of the total quantity of alcoholic liquid which has passed through the apparatus. which permits the alcoholic fluid to run into the upper vat In addition to the drip-tubes. and the other. The alcoholic fluid now and runs through them into B. On top the roof is pro- The vided with a trap. 71 E. D. on C. is provided with a glass gauge. which can be opened and closed at will by means of a rope. and the alcoholic fluid is in the separate drip tubes distributed over a compara- . By opening the slides and the trap. is soon filled so far that the openings of the drip-tubes are reached by the level of the fluid. the admission of air can be regulated. i. Below the case is provided with slides n n. passing through the roof of the reserthe glass. . B 1 with Each the third. m. A 1 with B 1 and of these tubes is provided with . k. B C. every two vats standing one A. the same manner. is provided with two disnected at will. g. serves for discharging the fluid from D. at the bottom. case enclosing the apparatus is constructed of wood and rubber tube. charge pipes. which penetrates into the drip-tubes. with J. PJ In addition. It is provided with the opening. which by turning it downward. #. until it stands 1 J to 2J inches deep over the drip-tubes. about 1J inches higher up. (7. and the short pipe h. As the admission of alcoholic fluid continues uninterruptedly. filled with alcoholic fluid and below ends in the short pipe h. The cock on the pipe i is then closed. voir E. a cock to allow of the separate vats being connected or disconThe lowest vat. The upper one of these knees i issues from the bottom of the vat A and enters The second tube connects in the vat B close to the bottom. which is connected by a rubber tube with the cock. . The five vats rest upon the reservoir.ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF VINEGAR GENERATORS. one vat after another is filled. one. above the other are connected with a knee. 1 lowest one. holding the alcoholic fluid. In the commencement of the operation the cock on E is opened and the alcoholic fluid is allowed to run through the tube g.

it being only necessary regularly to fill the reservoir with fresh alcoholic fluid. The interior of the barrel is divided by a horizontal lath-grating into two partitions. The admission so that of alcoholic fluid can readily be regulated. Below the lath-grating in the bottom of the barrel is a horizontal tube for the admission of air. since the surface over which When with water to prevent dryto be recommenced. 3 feet 3 inches in diameter at the widest point. For the constant continuation of the formation of vinegar. is manufacture is and alcoholic fluid admitted. and the air-cock opened.72 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. rests horizontally upon two supports. Michaelis' revolving generator consists essentially of a strong barrel.the upper smaller one being filled with shavings. The alcoholic fluid is poured in close to the lath-grating by means of a funnel. and a The barrel space of 3 feet 3 inches between the two bottoms. same time brought in tively very large surface. so that it can be rolled to and fro upon them. and to draw off the finished vinegar into barrels. The commencement recognized by and the operation is then in full progress. . and above in the side of the barrel a cock for its escape. and the apparatus is filled ing out. the water drawn off. the air-cock is closed and the barrel revolved to allow of the shavings to become thoroughly saturated with the alcoholic liquid. being at the intimate contact with fresh air. In about 15 minutes the barrel is brought back to its original position. is of the formation of vinegar will soon be the increase of temperature in the shavings. It is doubtful whether this apparatus possesses advantages over the ordinary generator. When the apparatus is once in operation. If for some reason the operation is to be interrupted. the formation of vinegar progresses without interruption. on reaching the lowest vat it is converted into vinegar. the alcoholic fluid is distributed is much smaller than in gen- erators filled with shavings. the alcoholic fluid still contained in the vats is drawn off through the respective knees. it only necessary to revolve the barrel for a few moments sev- .

Further. it is almost next to impossible always to pour in the same quantity at exactly the same intervals. for instance. with hot water. larger yield. greatest of these evils is that with the cessation of the supply of alcoholic fluid the propagation of the vinegar fer- The . The greatest disadvantage is. saving of alcohol. in a factory working 16 hours a day. and losses by spilling are unstantly engaged avoidable. and better quality of the product.AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS. 73 day to saturate the shavings with the alcoholic progress of the formation of vinegar is shown by a thermometer placed in the bottom of the upper space. of the formation of vinegar in all the generators. The advantages of this generator consist. The apparatus is cleaned by rinsing the shavings. however. simple operation. which is drawn off in 24 hours. according to the inventor. and filling the barrel with strong vinegar. eral times a fluid. the interruption for several hours daily. and thus remain inactive until the next supply of alcoholic liquid is poured in. these interruptions are accompanied by many other conditions injurious to the regular run- ning of the factory. AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS. CHAPTER IX. one-third of the time is lost. and sometimes a generator may even be entirely overlooked. principal work to be performed in a vinegar factory consists in pouring at stated intervals the alcoholic fluid into the generators. in cheapness of first cost. so that. THE In a large factory several workmen are conin this work. Independently of the small return on the capital invested. without taking them from the barrel. the lowering of the temperature indicating the completion of the The process.

this phenomenon appearing even in factories provided with the best heating apparatus and keeping up a constant temperature in the workroom during the night. under conditions favorable to the ferment. the repeated reduction of the temperature in the generators has the further disadvantage that. is very sensitive to changes of temperature. Besides the debilitation of the vinegar ferment and the consequent disturbance in the regular working of the factory. of heat in the interior of the apparatus at the ment diminishes and development same time ceases and the temperature is reduced several degrees. find their easy explanation in the daily interruptions lasting for hours in the regular working of the factory.74 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. it is in most cases necessary to vigorously air the apparatus by opening all the draught holes. the finally ceases altogether. of the vinegar becoming suddenly weaker. There can scarcely be a doubt that the many apparently inexplicable for ments able may disturbances in the working of the generators. as well as to the concentration of the nourishing substances surrounding it. and there can be no doubt that its propagation to is temperature which prejudiced by the continuous variations of it is exposed during the interruptions of several hours a day. in order to gradually restore the temperature to the required degree. That such is actually the case is shown by the fact that the quantity of vinegar ferment formed in the generators is small as compared with that which. besides the vinegar ferment. In the morning when work is resumed. Besides the increase in the capacity of the factory. The vinegar ferment. and it will be some time before the apparatus again works in a normal manner. other fer- whose development a low temperature is more favorbe formed. however. or the entire cessation its formation. such as their remaining cool notwithstanding an increased current of air. and these ferments may increase to such an extent as to entirely suppress the vinegar ferment. forms in a short time upon alcoholic liquids. Further. disturb- .

different generators being required. V 1 arrangement for the reservoir for the alcoholic liquid. and passing through this. genTo avoid erally three. Fig. they may be divided into two principal systems. cannot be converted into finished vinegar by passing once through the generator. The Terrace System. but in either case the latter has to be brought into a reservoir placed at a certain height above the generators. pouring out of the alcoholic liquid. raising the alcoholic liquid to a certain height. CONTINUOUSLY ACTING APPARATUS. thus arranged requires but little attendance. P the pumping the alcoholic liquid into the reser- . 75 ances are. so that" the alcoholic liquid coming from a reservoir placed at a higher level flows first into the uppermost generator. a repeated pouring into several.AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS. 27 shows a vinegar factory arranged according to this system. three rows of generators have been arranged one above another. and from there into the third.. the number of workmen By employed in a vinegar factory can. and those with a periodical. however. III. the use of simple automatic contrivances for the regular pouring out of the alcoholic liquid. which it leaves as finished vinegar. viz. the necessity of raising the alcoholic liquid three times. less likely to occur where the work is carried on uninterruptedly. but in order to do this there must also be a corresponding increase in the number of workmen employed in pouring alcoholic liquid into the generators. representing the three rows of generators placed one above another. The alcoholic liquid. as when once in good working order it may be left to itself for factor}^ A many hours without the occurrence of any disturbance. and an occasional control of the temperature in the interior of the generators. II. /. therefore. as is well known. be reduced to the attendance required for looking after the heating apparatus. runs directly into the second. According to the characteristics which distinguish the differ- ent constructions of continuously working apparatus from each other. into those with an uninterrupted.

runs above the upper- most row. distributing vessel for the alcoholic liquid. 8 the vessel for the finished vinegar. tors. and conducts . L.fiTthe heating collecting apparatus for the entire establishment. to the generators standing on the same level a conduit. Another conduit. 27. common it to all the genera- serves for the reception of fluid (finished vinegar) running to the collecting ves- off from the lowest row. from which the alcoholic liquid flows into each generator. .76 voir. V the For a uniform supply of alcoholic liquid FIG. L l . MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.

sel. From According to this. To overcome this drawback nothing can be done but to place law. the warm the series J. the highest temperature should prevail in the lowest series of generators (///. and. An unavoidable drawback of the terrace system is the cost- the factory building. finally. sents many difficulties not easily overcome. each of which is . 27) and the lowest in the uppermost (/). Fig. to correctly distribute the warm air in the separate stories by suitably arranged registers. the highest temperature prevailing in I and the lowest in III. 77 The arrows all indicate the course the alcoholic liquid has to traverse. as. however. that a disturbance occurring in one of the generators must simultaneously affect liness of two others of the vertical series. according to natural air being specifically lighter than the cold constantly strives to ascend. But in practice just the reverse is the case even with the use of the best heating apparatus. appearances the arrangement of a factory according to the above-described system would be most advisable. there being actually nothing to do but to raise the alcoholic liquid once and to remove the finished vinegar from the collecting In practice. stories entirely separated // and III of the generators in as many different from each other. much and to divide preferable to place all the generators on the same them into three groups. The solution of this problem offers no insuperable difficulties. S.AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS. it being level idle until the disturbance is removed. Experience shows that the temperature in a generator must be the higher the more acetic acid the alcoholic liquid contains. in case there is a central heating apparatus in the cellar. which must necessarily remain Considering all the with connected the terrace disadvantages system. or. this so-called terrace system prevessel. seemingly adapted to practice. to but requires the arrangement of the entire factory be carefully planned in accordance with the laws of physics. though it is so it is but little suitable. the greatest undoubtedly being the solution of the heating problem.

In case of a disturbance in one of the groups. the generator in question can be left out without causing an interruption in the work of the other groups. V F 3 . finally collects as finished vinegar in a third Though times. or with apertures loosely filled with cotton-wick. provided with a reservoir for the alcoholic liquid and a collecting vessel. pump the alcoholic and 2 liquid three times into the reservoirs V l much greater than that which has to be used to raise . 4. pack-thread. generators into another collecting vessel from there it is again pumped into a third reservoir. 2. 3. solid floors. pumped into a second reservoir placed on with the first. and runs through group II of it is .78 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. which is filled with shavings. The uniform distribution of the alcoholic liquid into each generator is very simple in factories arranged according to the terrace system. The pipes ascending from the vinegar-forming space. Notwithstanding the greater area required. the erection of a one-story factory is less expensive than that of a three-story building with complicated heating apparatus and very strong. and after passing through group /// of generators collecting vessel. etc. The power required to . are inserted water-tight in the false bottoms. By a suitable regulation of the heating apparatus the required temperature can be readily main- tained in the separate groups of generators. they are provided either with narrow holes alone. is not it to the height of the reservoir in factories arranged according to the terrace system. The mode of working according is to this system is as follows : The alcoholic liquid pumped into a reservoir. . which are required on account of the great weight of the generators. from which it passes through group From the the latter level same / of generators and collects in a vessel. it the arrangement of it all the generators on the same terrace system for level renders necessary to raise the alcoholic liquid three would seem more suitable than the the following reasons: 1. and can be effected in the following manner : The false heads are fitted water-tight in the generators .

and from this the lowest from which it runs off as finished vinegar into the col- lecting vessel. and the latter rushes in a full stream from the spigots connecting the conduit with the generators. Theoretically no more simple or convenient process for . the air in the conduit i& expelled by the alcoholic liquid flowing in. series. These spigots are then closed so far that the of alcoholic only quantity liquid required for the regular process of the formation of vinegar can enter the generators. and When first filled the factory is to be put in operation the reservoir is with alcoholic liquid. it being necessary some time for to test the fluids running off from the different groups of gen- erators as to their contents of acetic acid in order to find out whether too much or too little or just enough alcoholic liquid reaches the generator.AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS. From the lower portion of the uppermost series of generators the alcoholic fluid then gradually reaches through a pipe the false bottoms of the next series. so that the liquid running off from the lowest series contains no alcohol and may be considered a& finished vinegar. It will readily be seen that experimenting is required before a factory arranged according to this system can be brought into regular working order. Now. by suddenly opening the latter. it is recommended to give the latter only a slight height but a large bottom surface. On the reservoir containing the alcoholic liquid is is a spigot securely connected At the with the conduit leading to the separate generators. is on conduit the alcoholic to introthe where be liquid place duced into the generator is a discharge-pipe also provided with a spigot. but the principal spigot closed. the spigots on the several gen- erators being entirely open. To prevent the force of pressure from varying too much in the conduit by the lowering of the level of the fluid in tire reservoir. which can be accurately adjusted. Any fault in the working of the generators can in this case be overcome by a corresponding adjustment of the spigots so as to regulate the influx of alcoholic liquid.

Iserlohn. and a capacity erator). no hoops whatis of solid and massive construction. 3 apparatus with a base of about 107 square feet. order to carry on the work for any length of The disadvantages connected with this system having been already explained need not be further referred to. alcoholic liquid is but the operation may periodically supplied at fixed interalso be carried on continuously day and night. work and lated with little narrow columns of shavings. 28 shows a No. . Saving of space and volume. by means of a pump operated by hand or power. length 10 feet. and not. of producing 20 to 25 quarts of 13 per cent. The process is carried on without being separated by partitions in many iso- following principles 1. : Its construction is based upon the 2. Provided the spigots supplying the separate generators be once and the temperature of the different stories suitably regulated. Utilization to the best adfacility vantage of the square fermentation-surface. Westfalen. is The average height rectangular in form. It is built entirely of wood. Large producing capacity. Lenze. in time desired. Losses of material by spilling or otherwise are impossible since the alcoholic liquid moves in closed tin pipes and the finished vinegar is conveyed in the same manner. Lcnze's chamber generator : * This apparatus is a Schuetzenbach generator of logically improved construction. Surface-fermentation 6. made in three sizes. making vinegar than the correctly adjusted terrace system could be devised. width 6 feet. *. ever being used. height. it is only necessary constantly to supply the reservoir with alcoholic liquid. vinegar per 10J square feet of shavings-surface (base of gen- The vals. control. 5. Simplification of the of 3.80' MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The attendance of the apparatus is entirely mechanical. as might be supposed at the first glance. It Fig. 4. Germany. and is of the apparatus is about 7 feet.J. and the heating apparatus with fuel. an arbitrary modification of the exterior shape.

The upper layer of shavings is also not impaired by higher degrees of heat. 6 is con- . 28. and is so secured that its Notwithstanding cannot warp or get out of position. The alcoholic liquid is very uniformly distributed over the entire large surface of shavings latter is tightly by the perforated head. large superficial area the perforated head it the coolest place in the apparatus and this evidently contributes towards reducing the loss by evaporation to a mini- mum. the lath-bottom and the air-outlets below the perforated head. and such loss can be still further limited by the use of a cover fitting almost air-tight. The fields. because the ascending air which has been heated and exhausted. covered with cloth. the intermediate space being packed with beech The air-holes are between the actual bottom and shavings. 81 The apparatus is furnished with a lath-bottom and a perforated head.AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS. divided into square FIG.

no matter whether one or several ap- paratuses are operated. which requires about one hour's consumption of time and power. When the B contains the vinegar. The intermediate vat automatically by suitable contrivances the measuring off of the separate pourings. By this of of vats the the danger any running over is arrangement excluded. where it is diluted to a operation is carried on with back pourings. the overflow passes through a pipe to the storage-vat. so that after pumping the entire E effects quantity of alcoholic liquid required for one day. pumps being used in the latter For the accurate control of the operation a contrivance is provided which indicates in the office whether and at what time the separate pourings have been effected. 28. The mode ance is of operating such an apparatus and its attend- illustrated by Fig. This generator. by the pourings of alcoholic liquid and partly condenses on the lower surface of the perforated head. patented by Dr. aldehyde formed impossible. the a minimum. The product running off from the apparatus collects in the course of the day in the vat D. larger case. the vat C and a suffipump P conveyed to weak wash. When the latter is full. Hence the formation of vinegar takes place constantly and the regulation of the current of air can be Since the effective surface effected with the utmost accuracv. arrangement of the apparatus is such that on all portions of the surface of the plates air and alcoholic liquid are in undisturbed contact. of is Vienna.82 stantly cooled MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the actual labor is finished. Plate Generator. so arranged as to render the formation of as well as the destruction of acetic acid already . Austria. and the loss by evaporation is reduced to As will be seen from the description. Bersch. is alcoholic liquid cient quantity of it is The contained in the vat of the by means the vat A. otherwise it is omitted. escapes through a pipe-system below the perforated head. and thus cooled.

the same temperature will be indicated by the thermometer.. Since the total surface of 'the wooden plates in a generator about 8J feet high is more than 10764 square feet. 83 e. and air ascend undisturbed between them. the performance of this generator is extremely sur- passing by far that of a generator packed with shavings. most recent construction the plate-generator of a vat filled inside with layers of extremely thin plates of wood arranged in such a manner that the separate layers are fixed crosswise at right angles one above the other. fluid can run down on both sides of the plates. Since in two the each other are every plates layers lying alongside kept apart by prismatic wooden rods. strength of the current of air in the generator is regulated by a register-bar in the cover of the apparatus. in the bottom of the The upper portion admitted to the interior. air is open at both ends. he having nothing In its else to do than to fill once a day the consists reservoir for alcoholic fluid. be- . and for- mation of vinegar takes place uninterruptedly upon this entire surface. and the lower opening is covered with fine gauze to exclude the entrance of vinegar lice (vinegar mites). i. of each apparatus. and thus the work of a factory using a large number of generators can be done by a single work- man. This generator is provided with a contrivance which automatically attends to the pouring-in of alcoholic fluid with the regularity of clock-work.764 square feet. is more than 10. generator. the surface upon which the formation large. the efficacy of the plate generator as regards producing capacity is the highest attainable.AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS. in which is The also fixed a thermometer. suitable for the formation of vinegar. of vinegar actually takes place. In the commencement of the operation the register-bar is so set that the thermometer indicates the temperature about 91 to 93 F. of this pipe is furnished with a hood to prevent fluid from dropping into it. So long as alcoholic liquid runs in and the temperature of the workroom remains the same. Through a pipe.

three. size as to This contrivance consists of a vat of such a be capa- ble of holding the fluid required for supplying for 24 hours one generator or a group of two. distribution of the alcoholic fluid in the form The uniform of very fine drops over the plates in the interior of the generator is effected by a sparger fixed over the uppermost layer of plates. is working regularly day and night without interrupprovided with an automatic pouring contrivance. like every other generator. four or more generators. However. To is this float-gauge is secured a siphon. In this supply-vat floats in float-gauge. to make it entirely independent of the workman. the longer leg of which furnished with ^a [checking contrivance which has to be .|which rises and sinks with the a suitable guide a wooden level of the fluid. can be charged by pouring in the alcoholic liquid by hand.84 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and especially The to keep it it tion. apparatus. cause in equal periods of time the same quantity of vinegar will always be formed and a quantity of heat corresponding to it developed.

85 By shifting this checking contrivance. The liquid running from the siphon passes into a distributThe latter should be of sufficient ing vessel underneath. always changed. 30. can be determined. The automatic pourcapacity of at least 3 X 24 When the in the fixed distributing vessel. in one hour. is to receive a every generator in a battery of twenty-four should have a pouring of 3 quarts. accurately regulated. the quantity of fluid discharged in a certain unit of time. latter contains the matic pouring contrivance then opens the distributing vessel and the alcoholic liquid passes through the conduits to the .AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS. the distributing vessel 72 quarts. ing contrivance is all = for quantity of alcoholic liquid required the time one pouring for a determined number of generators. If. and its length remains unruns off under the same pressure. for instance. sinks with the level of the fluid. The autofixed between every two pourings has elapsed. for Since the siphon instance. pouring upon the generators in a battery. the fluid capacity to hold the total quantity of liquid required for one FIG.

The term " periodical " may be applied to this system of automatic apparatus. float-gauge is secured the siphon H. the tilting trough. morning. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. V is the for the alcoholic S the to which supply-vat liquid. or. used for feeding a sparger. and 29 is of a plant for automatically J the conduits conveying the alcoholic The dotted line aa plate-generators P.86 generators. By a modification of the apparatus. The fluid may be either poured out upon the false head. the discharge-contrivance closes automatically. The Three-group System. Fig. 29 and 30 show the arrangement of the separate parts only necessary to fill it working plate generators. Figs. the distributing vessel has been emptied. In the second system of automatic generators it has been sought to imitate the ordinary working of a vinegar factory by providing the apparatus with certain mechanical appliances which allow of the distribution at cer- tain stated intervals of any desired quantity of alcoholic liquid into the generators. distributor. 31. the fluid in the supply-vat. liquid to the separate represents the level of PERIODICALLY WORKING APPARATUS. 12 and 13. p. shown in Figs. stands at a suitable . 49. 30 a side view. The mechanical appliances used generator for the purpose of admitting at certain intervals a fixed quantity of alcoholic fluid into the may be constructed in various ways. and is again The automatic distribut- ing contrivance thus continues working without interruption If the latter so long as liquid is contained in the supply-vat. any desired quantity of fluid can with its assistance be at certain intervals admitted to the generator. a view from above and Fig. being an example. A is the automatic. what is more suitable for its better distribution. within the determined time. As seen from the illustration a prismatic box with a bottom formed of two slightly inclined planes. as shown in Fig. is of sufficient capacity to hold it is enough alcoholic liquid in the for 24 hours. the distribut- When filled ing vessel is emptied when this time has elapsed.

Above the box is a spigot connected by a pipe with a reservoir FIG. The pipe is provided with small spigots which discharge the fluid into the tilting troughs. . 31. and can be shut higher level. 87 In this box a tilting trough is height over each generator. for the alcoholic fluid placed at a plying a large This reservoir serves number of generators. a pipe is inserted which extends to the false head or to the funnel of the sparger. On the point of contact of the two. placed so that its axis of revolution runs parallel with the line formed by the two bottom surfaces of the box. leads to the conduit running in a horizontal direction over the generators.AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS. for supoff by a From the latter a vertical pipe carefully adjusted spigot.

Since the other partiupon the tion of the tilting trough has the same capacity. for instance. after the expiration of 30 minutes. and again empty 5 quarts of fluid. and setting the latter in motion is poured in the form of a fine spray over the shavings. placed at a higher level than the edge of the funnel of the sparger is a siphon. each partition holds 5 quarts. 32. and adjusting the spigot By so that 30 minutes are required for filling trough will. trough will. the FIG. the longer leg of which passes through the bottom of the vessel into the funnel. may be used for effecting the discharge of a certain In a spherical vessel quantity of fluid at a stated interval. as the first. the over and empty From here it runs into inclined planes.88 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR." Fig. On the edge of the vessel . the fluid tilt one partition. the sparger. again tilt over. this being continued long as the reservoir contains any fluid. as In place of the tilting trough the so-called " siphon-barrel. 32. at the expiration of this time. and the quantity of the alcoholic fluid remains the same. giving each tilting trough such a capacity that.

or for its being conducted to a spe- cial reservoir at the rate at which it from the shavings. and so on. hence in 12 hours 24 pourings of . This time being suitably fixed for 12 hours. while a glass cylinder secured to this tube by Fro. action of the siphon commences. The siphon of bent glass tubes being very is tube which forms the longer leg of the siphon. In working with automatic apparatus. the ar33. again filled up to the liable to breakage.AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS. fixed quantities of fluid being at stated intervals introduced. The action of is the siphon then ceases until the vessel line. It of which is in consists of a glass shown Fig. represents the other The action of this siphon is the same as the other. means of a leg. Example : The generator receives at intervals of 30 min- utes a pouring of 5 quarts. rangement it when it recommences. the appa- ratus can during this time work without further attendance. the so-called frequently replaced by bell-siphon. and the content of the vessel line. and so adjusted that within a previously determined space of time the vessel is filled with fluid up to the height indicated is a spigot which by the dotted as the fluid reaches that height. case the space beneath the false bottom must be of sufficient size to trickles first In the receive the fluid passed through the apparatus in a certain time. pro- vision for the reception of the fluid must be made in the apparatus itself. is 89 connected with the pipe conveying the fluid. so that the required space beneath the false bottom can be calculated by multiplying the number of pourings with the quantity of fluid poured in at one time. 88. perforated cork. As soon its runs through the longer leg into the funnel of the sparger until level is sunk to the edge of the shorter leg.

converted and the process finished in the third. . and group III is charged . it is fluid trickling decidedly preferable to arrange the generators so that the from the shavings is at once conducted to a . arranged according to the automatic principle. The space beneath the perforated false bottom must therefore be of sufficient capacity to receive = up to the height of the draught-holes at least 120 quarts of fluid. into a third. a factory contains 48 generators. and. it can be readily . Besides the easy control of the work. . collecting vessel. very rich in alcohol. If.90 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Arrangement of a Vinegar Factory Working According to the Automatic Principle. for instance. The generators in which the remnants of the alcohol of a quite strong fluid are to be converted into acetic acid are best kept at a somewhat higher last temperature and with a suitably arranged heating apparatus and the eventual use of curtains by which the workroom can be divided at will into two or three partitions. this arrangement into groups has another advantage. As previously stated. It being in all cases advisable to prepare vinegar with a high percentage of acetic acid. In practice it is recommended to place the generators which are to receive alcoholic liquid of the same content of acetic acid alongside each other. In the is second apparatus another portion of the alcohol into acetic acid. charged with freshly prepared alcoholic liquid with the fluid yielded by group II. and if this semi-product is is the liquid used brought into a second generator. most manufacturers now pass the alcoholic liquid successively through three generators. 5 quarts each 120 quarts. the generators of group II contain the alcoholic liquid which has already passed through those of group I. it is not possible to convert all the alcohol contained in the liquid into acetic acid by one pouring only a portion of the alcohol being converted. As will be seen from the following general description of a vinegar factory. each group contains 16 group I is . which leads naturally to the division of the generators into three groups.

: and III.. Conduits for the alcoholic liquid to be poured in Conduits for the alcoholic liquid running off. . A flue for the conveyance of warm air apparatus in the cellar and room. sunk in the floor or placed in the given a description of a periodically working establishment with 24 generators. the following articles belonging group 8 generators 1 reservoir. An The chamber is a man-hole for access to the reservoir. retain solid bodies such as shavings. to each I. three reservoirs rest upon the joists of the ceiling of the workroom. while the collecting vessels are either cellar. To prevent loss by evaporation the reservoirs should be provided with well-fitting covers. 8 apparatuses for the distribution of the alcoholic liquid into the generators . . 1 collecting vessel . which might eventually obstruct To . The height of the actual workroom of the factory should not be greater than required by that of the generators. For the three groups in common A pump to convey the alcoholic liquid from the : collecting vessels to the reservoirs. The reservoir is placed under the roof of the workroom. each being enclosed by a small chamber conIn the floor of each structed of boards which are papered. etc. The generators are arranged in is Below three groups. flakes of mother of the fine apervinegar. being of import- ance that the reservoirs should constantly be surrounded by warm air which ascends through the man-holes. for its distribution in the from the heating work- apparatus for heating the alcoholic liquid. it The man- holes should not be furnished with doors. 91 arranged to convey somewhat more heat to the second group of generators and the greatest quantity of it to the third.AUTOMATIC VINEGAR APPARATUS. II.

. Each generator may be furnished with a vessel containing the automatic arrangement. which conduct the alcoholic liquid to the separate this arrangement all the generators receive a simultaneously pouring of an equal quantity of fluid which either sets the sparger in motion or gradually trickles through generators. tures in the false head or sparger. the distributing vessel serving for a group of 8 generators must have a capacity of 40 quarts. and for a factory containing a large from them to extend smaller conduits rators. which number of generators is rather expensive. suitable filter for the purpose is a horse-hair A sieve containing a linen bag. Hence it is recommended to use for each group only one or at the utmost two distributing vessels. to the separate -gene- where of the principal conduits is provided. it Each a pouring of 5 quarts of alcoholic liquid every 30 minutes. it being. as above mentioned. the connection of two pieces being effected by pieces of rubber hose pushed over the ends and secured with twine. By the apertures in the false head. at the place enters the distributing vessel. which is adjusted for the discharge of a certain quantity of alcoholic If. The conduits for the conveyance of the alcoholic liquid to the distributing vessels and from there to the generators are best constructed of thick glass tubes. it in 30 The discharge-pipe of the automatic arrangement must enter a space in which are inserted eight pipes having the same diameter. however. every generator is to receive liquid. the latter being from time to time replaced by a new one. and the spigot has to be so adjusted that exactly this quantity passes through minutes. a filter is placed on the end of the pipe through which the alcoholic liquid passes into the reservoirs.92 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. with a spigot. in this case necessary to provide for each a special conduit from the reservoir. The alcoholic liquid which has passed through the generators collects either in the space under the false bottom or runs directly through conduits to the collecting vessels.



before the discharge apertures of the are intended to conduct the alcoholic generators liquid to the and there no of fluid in them they reservoirs, being pressure

The conduits placed

might be merely open gutters. For the sake of cleanliness and to avoid losses by evaporation it is, however, advisable to use At the places where the disglass tubes for the purpose.
charge-pipes of the generators are located, the connection of two glass tubes is effected by a wooden joint with an aperture

on top in which
sels for

is placed a glass funnel. For collecting vesthe alcoholic fluid running off from the generators of

one group, vats provided with lids are used. They have to be placed so low that some fall can be given to the conduits, and
in each of



as a suction-pipe for the

a pipe provided with a spigot, which serves pump intended to raise the alcoholic


The manner * The

of working in a factory thus arranged is as collecting vessel Ci serves for the preparation

of the alcoholic liquid, which is then pumped into the reservoir Ri, from whence it runs through the first group of genFrom this it is erators, Gi, to the collecting vessel, Cn.


Rn, and runs through the second group of genGn, into the collecting vessel Cm. On being pumped

up the third time

runs from the reservoir

Rm through the

third group of generators Gm, and passes as finished vinegar either into a fourth collecting vessel or is at once conducted
into storage barrels. The distance the alcoholic liquid has to be raised from the bottom of the collecting vessels to the reservoir amounting to

not more than from 23 to 25


an ordinary suction-pump


be used

for the purpose,

though a forcing

doing the work more rapidly. structed of material entirely indifferent to acetic acid (wood, silvered metal). glass, hard rubber, tin,, or thickly
avoid repetition the collecting vessels are designated ervoirs Ri, iiTand.iii .; the groups of generators Gi, n, in.

pump is better, The pump must be con-



Ci, n,



the res-





metallic vessels used in the factory should be of pure unalloyed with other metals, it being the only metal
it is

entirely indifferent towards acetic acid, but unfortunately too soft to be suitable for the construction of pumps.

The pump


hood of the collecting

generally located in the immediate neighborvessels, and the three branches of its

suction pipe pass into the latter.
FIG. 34.


one of the collecting

vessels is to be emptied, the spigot of the

opened and the spigots

of the other

branch pipe entering branch pipes are


Ordinary well or river water being used in the preparation
of the alcoholic liquid, the temperature of the latter does not generally exceed 54 F., and if it were thus introduced into

the generators acetification would be very sluggish until the temperature rises to above 68 F. Independently of the loss

of time, there


would be the further danger of injuring the deof the velopment vinegar ferment hence it is necessary to heat the alcoholic liquid to the temperature required. This is best

by passing it through a coil surrounded by hot water. 34 shows an apparatus especially adapted for heating the Fig. alcoholic liquid. In a copper or iron boiler filled with water,

which can be heated from below, is a coil, S, of pure tin it enters the boiler above at a and leaves it at 6, so that the place of inflow is at the same level with that of outflow. With this form of construction the coil of course remains always filled with liquid, which with the use of pure tin is, however, of no consequence besides, this can be remedied by placing on the lower coil a narrow pipe, R, which projects above the edge of the boiler and is bent like a siphon. By opening the
; ;

^The arrangement by which the alcoholic liquid can be brought either directly from the collecting vessel into the reservoirs, or
forced through the heating apparatus. It consists of a wooden with three prismatic body provided spigots. By closfirst

spigot h the fluid contained in the coil runs off through R. rising pipe of the forcing-pump is provided with an

ing spigots 2 and 3 and opening 1, the alcoholic liquid is immediately conveyed from the collecting vessels to the reserclosing spigot 1 and opening 2 and 3, which are connected by short pieces of rubber hose with the ends of the


coil, S,


the alcoholic liquid forced upward from the collecting by the pump must pass through the heating coil, and

being heated it returns to the rising pipe, which conveys to the reservoirs. The arrows in the illustration indicate

the course of the alcoholic liquid has to traverse 2 and 3 are open and 1 closed.



The diameter and

length of the tin


quantity of fluid which is to pass through it, a clear diameter of 12 to 14 inches and a length of 23 to 26 Besides by slower or quicker feet will, as a rule, suffice. pumping the fluid can be forced with less or greater velocity

depends on the though one with

through the


and correspondingly more or





walls of the coil should be as thin as possible so as to yield heat rapidly.


The heating

of the alcoholic liquid, of course, can also be

by heating one portion more strongly than necessary and reducing it to the required temperature by mixing with cold fluid. In working, however, with a fluid containing living vinegar ferment and such, as will be explained later on, is

claimed to be already contained in freshly prepared alcoholic care must be had not to heat the liquid above 120 F.,

this temperature being destructive to the ferment.



Acetification of the Generators.


to thoroughly saturate the filling material
coal, etc.

object of acetification is shavings, char-

of the generators with vinegar and to cause the development of the vinegar ferment upon it. The generators are first filled with the filling material, the false heads or

the spargers are next placed in position, and the temperature For acetificaof the workroom is brought up close to 86 F.



saturating the shavings, vinegar of the same e., with the same content of acetic acid as that



to be prepared in the generators, is used.

35J cubic feet of the space

For every with shavings or charcoal are

required for complete acetification the following quantities of

For shavings loosely poured in 60| to 71 gallons. For shavings piled up one alongside the other ..90 to 105 gallons. For charcoal, the size of a walnut 142J to 211 \ gallons.

The value

of the vinegar used for acetification has to be

considered as dead capital.



vinegar running off from the generators is not only considerably weaker than that used for acetification, but, notwithstanding the previous lixiviation of the wood, has a disfirst


agreeable taste so as to render


unfit for the preparation of

table vinegar, and can only be utilized, for instance, in the When the vinegar running preparation of acetate of lead, etc. off exhibits a pure taste, it is collected by itself and later on

converted into a product of greater strength by mixing it with alcohol and passing again through the generators. By this
saturation of the shavings with vinegar, the vinegar ferment locates in abundance upon the surface of the shavings, and the generators are fit for the formation of vinegar.

Regular production, however, can be commenced only gradually, which may be illustrated by an example as follows


first, for instance, alcoholic liquid is introduced only

once a day, either early in the morning or in the evening. In about eight days, or under certain conditions even later,
the temperature in the generators has risen to from 86 to 95 F., and alcoholic liquid may now be introduced twice daily,
for instance, early in the morning and in the afternoon. The fact that the generator is working is recognized by the in-

creased temperature and by the flame of a candle held near a draught-hole being drawn inwards. After eight to fourteen

days more the thermometer shows 96




and then

alcoholic liquid is introduced three times daily, for instance, early in the morning, in the forenoon and in the afternoon,

whereby the temperature rises to 102 or 104 F. If now the vinegar running off shows the desired strength, the generators are in good working order, and are subjected to the regular
Accelerated Acetification. By closely considering the process which must take place in acetification and the first stage of

the operation,


will be plainly seen that the above-described

method cannot be

called a rational one, there being a waste of time as well as of material, and the commencement of regular

working being largely dependent upon accident.



object of Rectification is, as previously stated, first to thoroughly saturate the shavings with vinegar and next to

develop the vinegar ferment upon them. This can, however, be attained in a more suitable and a quicker manner than by
the above process. Air-dry wood contains on an average 20 per cent, of water, and during acetification this water must be gradually replaced by vinegar hence the vinegar trickling from the generators

remain poor in acetic acid and rich in water until the shavings are entirely saturated with pure vinegar and the water has been expelled. The removal of the water from the shavings and its substituwill

by vinegar are effected by osmose, i. e., the cells of the wood surrounded by vinegar yield a fluid consisting of water and extractive substances of the wood and absorb sufficient of the exterior fluid until both liquids have the same composition. Now, by pouring only a small quantity of vinegar at one time over the shavings in the generator, as is done in acetification

according to the old method, the course of the process is very slow, 14 days or more, as already mentioned, being required
before the vinegar running concentration.

shows no longer a change in


In a generator in a stage of acetification an uninterrupted, though slight, current of air upwards takes place, since even
with the use of the best heating apparatus the air in the upper This current of air belayers is warmer than in the lower.

comes stronger with the development of larger quantities of vinegar ferment and causes a large absolute loss of vinegar. The greater portion of this loss must be set down as being due to evaporation, which must be considerable on account of the great surface over which the vinegar is distributed, and the
smaller portion, to consumption by the vinegar ferment. By placing the shavings in vinegar the above-described process of substitution of vinegar for the fluid contained in the
cells of


wood takes place very quickly, and,


would therefore seem

to be advisable to follow the




course on a large scale, i. e., to saturate the shavings with vinegar before placing them in the generators. By using artificially dried shavings (see p. 54) the saturation is effected in the course of a few hours, the dry" woody tissue absorbing
the fluid like a sponge.

The shavings, while still hot, are brought into a vat and covered with the vinegar to be used for acetification. In about 12 hours they are thoroughly saturated. The excess of vinegar
is drawn off through the tap-hole in the bottom of the vat, and having absorbed neither water nor extractive substances from the steamed and thoroughly dried shavings can be imme-

diately re-used for the saturation of another portion of shavThe saturated shavings are at once used for filling a ings.


and the


completely acetified, of the formation of vinegar according to the method described below.

which may now be considered as can at once be employed for the process

Instead of in a vat, the shavings can also be saturated For this purpose the shavings, directly in the generator. after having been artificially dried, are immediately brought
into the generator,

and vinegar


poured over them either by

of the false head or the sparger until a considerable quantity has accumulated in the space below the false bottom.


This accumulation


then drawn


and again poured over

the shavings, this being continued until they are thoroughly saturated, which is effected in a comparatively short time.
Induction of the Operation with an Artificial Culture of Vinegar In the process of accelerated acetification of the Ferment. generators no development of vinegar ferment can of course

take place, since by heating the shavings to about 212


any fermenting organisms accidentally adhering


them are

The vinegar ferment

increases with astonishing

rapidity provided



finds nutriment suitable for its develophowever, a very poor material for this

repurpose, and this is very likely the reason why weeks are quired before production can be commenced in generators



The ferment can according to the old method. however, be so rapidly propagated in the generator that production can be commenced almost immediately after acetification


For this purpose a method similar to that employed in the manufacture of alcohol and yeast has to be pursued and vigorous ferment obtained by cultivation. As previously mentioned, the ferment causing acetic fermentation is widely distributed

throughout nature and


most abundantly found in the air of

thickly populated regions. The "pure culture" of the vinegar ferment, i. e., in which no other than the desired ferment is developed, is not difficult, it being only necessary to prepare a fluid especially

adapted for


nutriment and allow
order to obtain


to stand

at a suitable

a few days a vigorous a individual few growth produced by germs reaching the fluid from the air. The best fluid for the purpose is one which con-

temperature in

tains, besides a large

quantity of water
of alcohol

about 85


90 per cent.

a certain


quantities of

and very small and mineral substances salts. Hence nitrogenous
acetic acid,

preparation is not difficult, it being only necessary to mix ordinary vinegar and alcohol in suitable proportions and add a small quantity of a fluid containing nitrogenous substances and mineral salts, such as wine, cider, beer or malt extract.
that a fluid containing from 4 to 6 per cent, of acetic acid and the same quantity of 'alcohol with the addition of a small quantity of one of the

Numerous experiments have shown

above-mentioned fluids

is best adapted for the vigorous nourferment. ishment of the vinegar Ordinary table vinegar contains as a rule from 4 to 6 per cent, of acetic acid the average

percentage of alcohol is in wine from 8 to 10 in cider from 4 to 6 and in beer from 3 to 5. Taking this statement as a


guide, the preparation of a fluid containing from 4 to 6 per cent, of acetic acid, 4 to G per cent, of alcohol, and the required

nitrogenous combinations and salts will not be diflicult. Fluids of this composition are obtained by mixing, for in-



stance, equal parts of cider and vinegar, or one part of wine with two of vinegar, or one part of beer with three of vinegar,

and adding 5 per cent, of 90 per cent, alcohol to the mixture. Such mixtures, possessing the power of vigorously nourishing
the vinegar ferment, can at the same time be considered as types for the preparation of alcoholic liquid of suitable composition.


assure the exclusive development of vinegar ferment any of the above-mentioned mixtures it is best to heat

it to the boiling-point of water. Young wine as well as cider contains considerable quantities of albuminous substances in solution, and fluids of this nature being well adapted for the

nutriment of the mold ferment, the development of the latter might increase to such an extent as entirely to suppress the
vinegar ferment and thus render its cultivation a failure. Beer is also very suitable for the nutriment of the mold ferment, though in a less degree than young wine, and besides
living yeast, contains alcoholic ferment. By heating wine or beer only for a moment to about 158
P., a large portion of the albuminous substances in solution becomes insoluble, and on cooling separates as a flaky precipitate, all ferments present in the fluid being at the same time



for the preparation of a fluid



the cultivation of pure vinegar ferment, it is recommended quickly to heat to the boiling point 1 quart of

ordinary white wine in a covered porcelain vessel, and after cooling to the ordinary temperature, to mix it with 2 quarts
of vinegar. To substances, filter

remove the separated insoluble albuminous through blotting paper. To prepare a nourishing fluid from beer, heat a quart of it

to the boiling point,



after cooling

with 3 quarts of

vinegar, add J quart of 90 per cent, alcohol, and filter. Distribute this fluid in a number of shallow porcelain vessels

near a window in the heated workroom. To prevent dust from falling into the fluid, cover each dish with a glass plate resting upon two small wooden sticks placed

and place the


across the dish.

In two or three days, and sometimes in 24

of the development of the vinegar be ferment recognized by the stronger odor of vinegar than that possessed by the original fluid and by the appearance of

hours, the



the surface of the liquid. By observing the latter at a very acute angle, dull patches resembling grease-stains and consisting of a large number of individuals of the vinegar ferment

be seen.

In a few hours these patches will have increased

considerably, until finally the entire surface appears covered by a very delicate veil-like layer of vinegar ferment.

By touching tain amount of

the surface with the point of a glass rod a certhe coating adheres to it, and by rinsing it off

in a fluid of similar composition not yet impregnated, the fer-

ment quickly develops upon it. By placing a drop of the fluid under the microscope a picture similar to that shown in Fig. 2, p. 14, presents itself, the entire field of vision being covered with germs of vinegar ferment. By the development of mold ferment the cultivation of pure vinegar ferment may sometimes result in failure even with the use of the above-mentioned fluids. The development of this
is recognized by the appearance of white dots upon the fluid, which quickly increase to white opaque flakes, and if left to themselves finally combine to a white skin of a peculiar

wrinkled appearance. Fig. 35 shows a microscopical picture of such abortive culture of vinegar ferment. By observing at the commencement of this phenomenon the fluid with the
microscope, very small individuals of vinegar ferment, 6, will be observed alongside of the much larger oval cells a, of the mold ferment. Such fluid being not adapted for our purposes

has to be thrown away and the dish rinsed


with boiling

is entirely covered with pure a vessel containing the into poured the fluid intended for the first of alcoholic greater portion charge of the generators, and in the course of 10 hours the


the fluid in the dishes

vinegar ferment,


entire surface of this fluid is covered with vinegar ferment.



being poured into the sufficiently acetified generators and trickling gradually through them, the greater portion of the ferment adheres to the shavings, and increases with
such rapidity that the great
rise of

temperature in the interior

of the generators shortly indicates the regular beginning of their activity, and the pouring in of alcoholic liquid can at

once be commenced. Vinegar ferment developed upon one of the above-mentioned fluids is evidently so constituted that it can be thoroughly




A. '^t y V i' l












nourished by it, and hence the generators might be continued to be charged with alcoholic liquid of a corresponding comIt being, however, as a rule, desired to manufacture position.
as strong a product as possible, an alcoholic liquid much richer in alcohol than the above-mentioned nourishing fluids has to

be used.
fluid of the By, however, suddenly changing the nourishing fluid containing only 4 vinegar ferment, for instance, from a 12 to 13 per cent., the with one to to 6 per cent, of alcohol action of the ferment would very likely be sluggish before it



became accustomed







suffer serious disturbance



decrease very sensibly, so that notwithstanding strong heating of the workroom and thorough ventilation of the generators, the temperature in the latter would suddenly fall, and would

become accustomed

only be restored to the required degree after the ferment had to the new conditions and recommenced
vigorous propagation.
disturbances, 'it is only necesthe gradually change composition of the nourishing sary fluid to that which the alcoholic liquid to be worked in the

To overcome such annoying



to have.


for instance,

with an alco-

holic liquid containing 5 per cent, of alcohol, the next day one with 6 per cent, is used, the succeeding day one with 7

per cent., and so on until the maximum percentage of alcohol the liquid is to have is reached.



the term " alcoholic liquid" is to be understood every kind of fluid to be converted into vinegar which, besides water


of nourishing salts and albuminous subThe stance, does not contain over 14 per cent, of alcohol. " " term " wash or " mixture is frequently applied to the alco-

and small quantities

In the directions generally given for the prepaholic liquid. ration of such liquids, vinegar is mentioned as an indispensable constituent.



cannot be denied that a content of

vinegar in the alcoholic liquid exerts a favorable effect-upon the formation of vinegar, it must be explicitly stated that it is
not the acetic acid in the vinegar which in this case becomes active, but the ferment contained in it.

In a vinegar factory, vinegar just finished and quite turbid as a rule used in the preparation of alcoholic liquid, and a

This ferment on com- ing in contact with increase rapidly That alcohol. and a chemical analysis a constant increase. The best proof. which is almost completely converted into acetic The fluid runacid by one passage through the generators. acts in a similar manner. the ferment contained in the vinegar having been killed. of acetic acid. however. to 158 F.PREPARATION OF THE ALCOHOLIC LIQUID. the formation of vinegar in the generators proceeds more slowly. is developed without the fluid the start contain a The alcoholic fluid to be used may from to the desufficiently large percentage of alcohol to correspond sired strength of the vinegar to be made. such wine be stored for years in a cool cellar. 105 microscopical examination shows such vinegar to contain innumerable germs of vinegar ferment. and in this case the has to be poured several times into the generators. and this must If very likely be considered as ar product of vinous fermentation. however. microscopical examination will show the development of vinegar ferment upon it. that the alcoholic liquid does not require any considerable quantity of acetic acid for its conversion into vinegar is furnished by the behavior of wine. much and it air in the generators will evidently contribute to the rapid acetification of the is which exerts a favorable actually the ferment in the vinegar used effect can be shown by a simple ex- By adding vinegar previously heated to from 140 periment. composed of 5 to & per cent. By another method an alcoholic liquid is first prepared containing but fluid little alcohol. fluid A many cases the vinegar ferment containing acetic acid. its content of acetic acid does not change. and a very In small quantity of malt extract. By. of water. to the alcoholic liquid. Propwine of a normal composition contains only a erly prepared few ten-thousandths of its weight of acetic acid.. of alcohol. mixed with a cerning off from the generators is then further . it alcohol into being impossible to convert a large quantity of acetic acid by passing it through but once. exposing it in a shallow vessel to the air at from 66 to 78 F. soon amounting to several per cent. 94 to 95 per cent.

Both bodies. of the total quantity of alcohol in the preparation of the alcoholic liquid to be employed for the first pouring.106 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The method is evidently the best as regards the conditions of last life of the vinegar ferment. To what an extent even smaller quantities than 14 to 15 per cent. is the fact that evidently more alcohol will Another argument against the use by evaporation than by commencing with a fluid containing less alcohol. This can be shown by a very simple experiment. the vinegar running off shows a smaller percentage of acetic acid than that poured in. be poured into a generator in full operation. but after the oxidation of all the alcohol. it attacks the acetic acid and decomposes it to carbonic acid and water. and being poured into a generator in which the vinegar ferment is already accustomed to larger quantities of alcohol and vinegar. the acetic acid missing having been destroyed by the ferment. and actually the only one by which the strongest vinegar (with from 12 to 13 per cent. if present in large quantities. tain quantity of alcohol. If finished vinegar. being capable of checksuch an extent as to disturb the process of production. of alcohol. this being an assurance that only alcohol and not unfinished acetic acid has undergone an alteration. and so on. That it is advisable only gradually to increase the content of alcohol in the alcoholic liquid is shown by the behavior of the ferment towards alcohol and acetic acid. a fluid containing from 14 to 15 per cent. is also converted into acetic acid.of alcohol for the first pouring should be so chosen that the fluid running of small quantity unchanged alcohol. or as ing it to much acetic acid. of acetic acid) can be obtained in generators. and adding a corresponding quantity of be lost the latter after the fluid has once passed through the generators. The quantity . are decidedly inimical to the propagation of the ferment. of alcohol or acetic acid exert a restraining influence . More alcohol can then be added. instead of alcoholic liquid. off still contains a So long as alcohol is present in the alcoholic liquid the vinegar ferment is almost entirely indifferent towards acetic acid.

This must be whose largely decided by local conditions. and that the expense of transdeserves consideraporting a strong article is relatively less.PREPARATION OF THE ALCOHOLIC LIQUID. in a be advislarge city. the weaker the vinegar is. described strength by diluting the strong product with water. The consumer can readily prepare vinegar of any tion. Though in exceptional cases a can with 13 cent. Sour or stale beer can of course be used. be laid down as a rule that the manufacturer should not strive to prepare vinegar with more than about still 12 per cent. the greater the quantity of quantities acetic acid already contained in the alcoholic liquid. . The quantity of beer required for the purpose of offering suitable nutriment to the vinegar ferment is very small. The reason for the em- alcoholic ployment of larger quantities of beer in mixing the such from the that fluids is found in the fact vinegar prepared mixtures sooner acquires a pure taste than that made from The addition of beer should. it will also be obper product served that the respective generators gradually yield a weaker product. but if he has to send product the fact that the more freight has to be paid on what is of no value. of acetic acid. 107 activity of the vinegar ferment can be seen in generators charged with alcoholic liquid of different strengths. to the alcoholic liquid being ample. For a manufacturer custom lies in the immediate neighborhood. be obtained. those containing less concentrated liquid can in the upon the propagation and same time form those in which a a much liquid is acid. The preparation subject to greater difficulties of high-graded vinegar being undoubtedly than that of a weaker product. the production of weak vinegar only would a considerable his distance. fluids containing but little beer. therefore. the question might be raised whether the manufacture of weak vinegar only would not be the most suitable. the slower larger quantity of acetic acid than used which already contains certain the conversion of the alcohol present in the acetic acid. or that their activity suddenly ceases to such an extent as to require them to be placed out of operation. It may. able. for instance. an addition of 1 per cent. of acetic Hence.

a larger quantity would be injurious to the process of acetic fermentation. as previously stated. Theoretically a certain quantity of alcohol yields exactly a certain quantity of acetic acid.108 MANUFACTUKE OF VINECJAK. and extractive matters of hops it contains. of the total quantity of alcoholic liquid. as on account of the comparatively high percentage of albuminous substances and the maltose. 10 per cent. not exceed 15 per cent. Of freshly prepared. due to the ferment contained in it. dextrin. since the only quantities effect produced by the vinegar is. the generators being frequently rendered inactive by the so-called is " slimto ing of the shavings." The production of the latter due the fact that by being partially excluded from contact with the air by the comparatively thick fluid passing over it. to the shavings as a slimy The quantity is of finished vinegar added to the alcoholic liquid varies between 10 and 33 per cent. The use of large however decidedly inexpedient. The following table shows the between the two bodies proportions : . the vinegar ferment deposited upon the shavings assumes the form of mother of vinegar which adheres mass. is ample for the preparation of alcoholic and a greater quantity can only be considered as use- less ballast. turbid vinegar. liquid. however.

0 10.7 7.5" - ' ' The strength of commercial alcohol varying considerably. 10 11 12 5. the quotient obtained by dividing to which the spirits have to be reduced by the addi- be pregives the .9 " 13.6 k 88 8. and consequently the greater the content of alcohol in the alcoholic prepared is to show. 109 Practically less vinegar with a smaller percentage of acetic anhydride is. The higher liquid must be. E = per cent. kind of apparatus used and on the strength the vinegar to be the percentage of acetic acid which is to be obtained. avoidable losses must be taken into consideration. and more alcohol has to be used for the production of vinegar with a de- termined percentage of acetic acid than is theoretically reHow much more has to be taken depends on the quired.8 ^ 11.. of acetic acid.5 per cent. however. it be able to calculate in of is importance to the manufacturer to have to be added water of manner how many gallons a simple an alcoholic strength in order to obtain The calculaof alcohol.7 k 99 9. this being due to losses of material caused partially by evaporation and partially by the oxidation of the alcohol extending beyond the formation In preparing the alcoholic liquid these unof acetic acid.9 " 12. but practically the proportions are : as follows For the production of vinegar with a content of acetic acid of Is required an alcoholic liquid with a content of alcohol of 5 per cent 6 7 8 . the greater the losses will be.PREPARATION OF THE ALCOHOLIC LIQUID. of alcohol in the spirits to be used. of alcohol in the alcoholic liquid to P by E volume pared. always obtained. Theoretically one per cent.4 to 5.1 11. 0. of alcohol yields one per cent.0 6. liquid with the desired percentage follows tion is executed as to alcohol of known : Suppose : p = per cent.6 k 7.2 13.

It is advisable to of beer to the add about 1 per cent. Tr. Tr. Alcohol of : : 90 per cent. For vinegar with about 12 per cent. E = ? xL = 7. arid beer. or to one gallon of spirits 6. of the entire volume above alcoholic liquids. of acetic acid.110 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. 11 P = 86 . The follow- ing may serve as examples of such receipts : . Example : From spirits of 86 per is cent. vinegar with 8 per cent. calculation.818 gallons of water have to be added. Alcohol of 90 per cent. tion of water in order to obtain alcoholic liquid with the desired percentage of alcohol. beer 14. but simply to Vinegar of a certain per- centage is obtained.818. For vinegar with about 8 per cent. water. of acetic acid 12. water 107. 10 parts by volume. Alcohol of 90 per cent. 10 parts by volume. vinegar. 10 parts by volume. beer 9. vinegar with 5 per cent. Alcoholic liquid from alcohol. and vinegar For vinegar with about 7 per cent. alcoholic liquid with 11 per cent. of alcohol to be prepared. but its strength cannot be predetermined with the same nicety as by calculating the percentage of alcohol in the alcoholic liquid by the above formula. Hence one volume to 7. water 107. Tr. vinegar with 12 per cent. of acetic acid 7. of acetic acid. of acetic acid 13. water 65. of acetic acid Alcohol of 90 per cent. B. Tr. Examples of the composition of alcoholic liquid A.818 of the spirits to be used has to be brought volumes. For vinegar with about 5 per cent. C. In many factories it is customary not to determine the com- position of the alcoholic liquid by work according to certain receipts. 10 parts by volume. water. Tralles'. Alcoholic liquid from alcohol. of acetic acid 10. water 92. of acetic acid. vinegar with 7 per cent.

Tr. As the manufacture of yeast is frequently comby bined with that of vinegar. Though it may be very convenient for the manufacturer to to I. Tr. Alcohol of 50 Ill per cent. F.E. Alcohol of 80 per beer 750. Tr. the distillates obtained from the fermented liquors are after skimming off the yeast utilized for vinegar manufacturing purposes. 100 quarts. With the assistance of the . 100 quarts. vinegar 900. It is far better for the manufacturer to prepare the D alcoholic liquid according to a receipt of his own. cent. allow it to ferment by the addition of yeast. 850. water 600. 100 quarts. Alcohol of 90 per cent. G. beer are only given as examples of 100.PREPARATION OF THE ALCOHOLIC LIQUID. H. know exactly the per cent. The mixtures A. water 1400. In the United States low wine containing 12 to 15 per cent. beer 100. vinegar 300. Tr. He has then at least the assurance of obtaining vinegar with exactly the percentage of acetic acid desired. Tr. water. beer 175. and is in the position to obtain an accurate view of the entire process of the operation. Alcohol of 50 per cent. it is necessary to by weight of alcohol it contains. vinegar 175. work according to such receipts as are given under their use without a previous examination cannot be recommended. 100 quarts. water 1350. and then distil off to between 12 and 15 per cent. Tr. 100 quarts. I. . D. vinegar 300. Alcohol being the initial material in the preparation of alcoholic liquid. by volume of alcohol is as a rule used for the preparation of Some manufacturers prepare the sacthe alcoholic liquid. Alcohol of 90 per cent. Alcohol of 90 per cent. water 100. and not shrink from the slight labor it involves. water 1200. 100 quarts. chariferous mash themselves. B and C how alcoholic liquids which yield vinegar containing the desired percentage of acetic acid are prepared according to receipts. volume.

whiskey of any desired concentration. by volume of alcohol contained in the spirits of wine examined. requires a corresponding correction.. . others used in different places. It being desirable. by weight.G to 7. and the next the per cent.112 tables at the spirits of MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. by weight would have to be employed according to the table on page 109. which is.according to rational principles. of course. With the temperature it of the spirits of its wine at exactly 59 F. 7 with cent. vinegar per alcohol of 7. The specific gravity as well as the during the cold season of the year. the content of alcohol in wine can be readily determined by means of the alcoholometer and thermometer. of acetic acid is used. especially varies with the temperature. and IV give data relating to the proportion between the specific gravity and per cent. Tables alcohol table). to raise the temperature of the spirits of wine by mixing with water. the execution of which is simplified by the use of Tables VI and VII. Table VIII shows how much water has to be added in order to obtain from 105. specific gravity by testing with an aerometer and to find the indicated figure in Table I (Hehner's suffices to determine The figure in the next horizontal column gives the per cent. end of this volume. for If. III volume of spirits of wine and the statements of the aerometer for temperatures above the normal of 59 F. the acetic acid contained in the vinegar added must necessarily be taken into account as well as the alcohol in the beer. In order to know exactly the yield of acetic acid which is obtained from a given quantity of alcohol. The following compilation shows the manner of preparing alcoholic liquid . It is best to make it the content of alcohol in the alcoholic liquid so that produces vinegar whose strength corresponds with that of the vinegar added. instance.6 quarts of spirits of wine of known strength. by weight and volume of spirits of wine of various concentration. as well as the decrease in volume by mixing with water. Table V shows the relation between the statements of Tralles' alcoholometer and a few II.7 per cent. converted into acetic acid.

and in determining the quality of the vinegar to be produced this circumstance has to be taken into consideration. water. 26. by weight Vinegar with 7 per cent. or spirit of wine with more than 7. exactly 3 per cent. since 10. and should the latter contain too little of it.PREPARATION OF THE ALCOHOLIC LIQUID.) by volumetric and from the result of such determination it can be readily seen how near the correct proportion of alcohol in the alcoholic liquid has been attained.6 to 7. vinegar. for instance. acetic acid There would be required pared. The material lost in the course of production amounts. Spirits of wine of 7.7 per cent. Hence alcohol by 16. as previously stated. and 8 . " " Suppose the beer contains. to at least 15 per cent.7 per cent. The content great ease analysis. the factor of the qualitative yield It will.82 to 27. Fundamental Materials used in the Prepara- Spirits of wine. of acetic acid Beer .18 ounces of alcohol.6 10. as should be the case.56 quarts of the alcoholic liquid do not contain. of a acetic aci$ sufficient quantity of spirits of wine will have to be added to the alcoholic liquid to increase the content of ounces.. if too much. According to this. Constitution of the tion of Alcoholic Liquids. 113 is to be pre- 105. be understood. of acetic acid in vinegar can be determined with and accuracy (up to T 5^ per cent. that the data given above hold good only for the quality of the vinegar in reference to its content of acetic acid. of acetic acid could not be expected. Suppose vinegar with 7 per cent.56 10.6 to 7. by the addition of some water. a result of 126.57 ounces. but only 10. spirit of wine.56 quarts.56 quarts. being left out of consideration.58 actually to obtain vinegar with 7 per cent. it can be readily brought up to the deter- mined percentage by the addition of some strong or. hence 10.22 to 16.78 quarts of vinegar with exactly 7 per cent. by weight of alcohol.58 ounces in 10. of course. by weight will have to be used from the start.

Many well-waters are very hard. in most cases beer. should not be used under any circumstance. while soluble in water with comparative ease. but remains partially dissolved in the is When and water very rich in gypsum mixed with alcohol the fluid. they contain a com. Water containing no gypsum but much calcium carbonate it after mixing with spirits of wine a similar behavior at first becoming turbid and again clear after separating a deliCalcium carbonate is soluble only in cate white precipitate. wholesome drinking water is suitable for the manufacture of vinegar. the calcium carbonate is decomposed by the acetic acid and the vinegar contains a corresponding quantity of calcium acetate in solution. becomes in a short time opalescent After long standing a very sediment delicate white separates on the bottom of the vessel.. Other well-waters contain a large quantity of gypsum (calcium changed by finished vinegar. Any kind of paratively large quantity of calcium carbonate in solution. on standing in the air the carbonic acid escapes and the calcium carbonate separates. If such water be used in the preparation of alcoholic liquid. shows . i. are . This salt is not acetic acid. water containing a corresponding quantity of carbonic acid . plained by the fact that gypsum. constitute the fundamental materials for the preparation oi alcoholic liquids. This behavior of water when mixed with alcohol and standing in the air can be utilized for the almost complete separation of the gypsum and calcium carbonate. in the proportion the alcoholic liquids are to have. Water containing a large amount of organic substance or living organisms. at first entirely clear. is next to insoluble in a fluid containing alcohol. and hence gradually separates in the form of minute crystals. or which possesses a specific taste from the admixture of salts. finally perceptibly turbid. This phenomenon is exthe fluid becoming again clear. sulphate) in solution. Mixtures of water and alcohol. e.114 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.

the use of wellwater wherever possible is recommended. the bouquet of the vinegar to be prepared depending on it. and a number of experiments with different varieties (from turer potatoes.PREPARATION OF THE ALCOHOLIC LIQUID. amyl acetate is formed which in a diluted By state smells like jargonelle pears and is used by confectioners under the name " " of pear essence for flavoring so-called fruit . and are then drawn off from the sediment by means of a rubber hose. and the greater portion of the fusel oils is thereby converted into odoriferous combinations or compound ethers. therefore. Commercial spirits of " fusel oils. is seldom sufficiently clear to be used without previous filtration." wine always contains certain foreign bodies known as which have a very intense odor and can only be removed by careful rectification. For the vinegar manufacit is of great importance to know the behavior of spirits of wine containing fusel oil when converted into acetic acid.. It is further very likely that the small worms. however. gypsum and calcium River water. though generally soft. treating potato fusel oil (amyl alcohol) with sulphuric acid and an acetate. e. from that of the original fusel oil and developing by storing into a bouquet of a peculiar but agreeable odor. i. which frequently become very annoying in vinegar factories. differing. wine) have shown the respective vinegar also possessed of a specific odor. poor in the abovementioned salts. The constitution of the spirits of wine used in the prepara- tion of the alcoholic liquids is of great importance. A comparative examination of the water and the mixtures shows that the latter contain only very small quantities of carbonate in solution. known as vinegar eels. first 115 prepared and the fluid stored in barrels in a warm apartment near the workroom. grain. This phenomenon is exthat the the fact energetic oxidizing process which plained by takes place in the generators extends not only to the alcohol but also to the other bodies present. The mixtures at first turbid become clear after some time. and. reach the alcoholic liquid through the use of river water.

the smell of un^ changed fusel oil is perceptible in the vinegar besides the odors of the products of its decomposition. while vinegar prepared from entirely pure spirits of wine has at first a stupefying smell and acquires a harmonious odor only by long storing. be advisable for the manufacturer who works with potato alcohol not to use the highly rectified product. WORK IN A VINEGAR FACTORY. CHAPTER EXECUTION OF THE XII. spirits How much of the crude of amyl alcohol present.116 bonbons. take place by passing spirits of wine containing potato fusel oil through the generators. it being only neces- sary to admit at stated intervals to the generators a previously . and offers far greater ance to oxidation in the generators than amyl alcohol. In working with alcoholic liquid prepared with a large quantity of grain spirits containing fusel oil. the fusel oil of brandy. WHEN the factory is execution of the operation in proper working order the further is very simple. as a rule. The fusel oil contained in spirits of wine from grain consists resist- largely of a mixture of fatty acids. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the vinegar prepared from such spirits of wine process to The same would seem showing an agreeable odor immediately when running off from the generators. only enough should be taken to assure the conversion of the entire quantity duct. but. therefore. With the use of small quantities of grain spirits containing fusel oil. the vinegar prepared from such a mixture acquiring a more agreeable odor than that obtained from the rectified prohas to be used can only be determined by experience. It would. vinegar possess- ing a more agreeable odor than that from entirely pure spirits is obtained. The same may be said of cenanthic ether. but a mixture of it and of crude spirits containing fusel oil.

the quantity of fluid is as follows : .8 per cent. such as changes in the temperature in the generators. alcohol 22. according to Table I. 80 per cent. attention has only to be paid to the maintenance of the correct temperature in the workroom and in the generators. the fluid shows a specific gravity of 0. by weight has to be used. the chemical process proceeding regularly without further assistance. on be discussed in a special chapter. variations in the composition of the alcoholic liquid.799 part fluid. A for calculating the execution of the operation. by weight cent.80 per cent.94 29.. the contraction in this case amounts to 0.8 per cent. hence 3 liters have to be compounded with 2G. each of vinegar and beer. deviations from the reg- ular order occur.83. and to prepare this. Actually the quantity is somewhat = + smaller. and are due to external influences.94 liters of fluid.9858 at 59 F. 3 liters of 100 per cent. alcohol of 8. as in mixing alcohol with water a decrease in vol- ume If the alcoholic liquid is to contain 10 per takes place.EXECUTION OF THE WORK IN A VINEGAR FACTORY. so that. 26. alcohol have to be reduced with water. however. alcohol yield.16 quarts) of absolute alcohol. . for instance. by volume of water. by weight. when 3 diluted to spirits of wine of 8.8 per cent. According to Table III. etc. alcohol with 90 per of alcohol contains 11. and this quantity will be taken as the basis to be erators in operation. of acetic acid is to be manufactured. etc. 117 determined quantity of alcoholic liquid and to collect the With the operation running its proper vinegar running off. cent. 8.94 water (according to Table III. vinegar with 8 per cent.98 liters of water have to be added to every liter of 100 per alcohol to obtain spirits of wine of 8. They will later The capacity of a factory depends on the number of gen- regularly working generator is supposed capable of daily converting 3 liters (3. which has to be liters of by volume taken into consideration in making the dilution). by volume for every 100 parts by volume of the Hence the 3 liters of 100 per cent. course. According to Table III. If. In many cases. cent.

. to about 36 liters.) contained in the beer. as previously mentioned. 29.. Much has been written about this gradual strengthening of the alcoholic liquid with alcohol.. 2. and explicit directions are given as to the original composition of the alcoholic liquid.. of the generators.17 ozs.994 " " 35.. the size added. and. since. the conversion into acetic acid is effected with greater ever. too much lost liquid contains less alcohol.928 Hence the quantity to be worked in a generator in the course of a day amounts to 35. Dilute spirits of wine Vinegar with 8 per cent. and to add a corresponding quantity of strong alcohol to every fresh pouring. as well as to how much. Besides the content of alcohol in the alcoholic liquid.. how often. be by evaporation. the work of the generators would be comparatively slow. alcohol would. or taking into account the quantity of alcohol (about 90 grammes or 3. on the other. .. acetic acid Beer . 2..928 liters. commences^with great energy to oxidize the latter to carbonic acid and water.994 2. the strength of the draught in them.. on the one hand. in the commencement of the operHence it is advisable to use ation a fluid which contains only about one-half or two-thirds rapidity when the alcoholic of the total quantity of alcohol.4 liters would have to be poured every hour. are factors which must be taken into consider- . the vinegar ferment.94 litres. by this method. and hence the quantity of spirits of wine added to the alcoholic liquid must be sufficiently large for the vinegar running off to contain always a minute quantity of it. and when the alcohol is to be These directions may have proved useful in many but local conditions exert too great an influence upon cases. the temperature prevailing in the workroom and in the interior of the generators. When all the alcohol has been converted into acetic acid. as is well known. This quantity has to be divided among the separate pourings so that in a working time of 15 Howhours. the process of manufacture for them to be of general value.118 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR...

for settling the exact plan of opera- tion from the start. five and also serve. are the only means gar of obtaining an accurate control of the working of the factory. the alcoholic liquid must contain a total of 8. and with some experience requires four to five minutes for its execution. of course. The first into portion of the alcoholic liquid being poured * The manner of executing these determinations will be described later on.5 F. vinegar 8 per cent. Now if the manufacture is commenced with an alcoholic liquid containing the total quantity of water. by weight 'of alcohol. of acetic acid is to be prepared. of course. vinegar. 119 ation in determining on a plan of operation actually adapted to existing conditions. only 5 per cent. There still remains the determination of the most favorable proportion of the content of alcohol in the alcoholic liquid to be first used and its gradual strengthening by the addition of spirits of wine. higher than that of the workroom. by weight of alcohol. which every vinemanufacturer should be able to make.8 per cent. fluid running off from the This chemical examination is restricted to the accurate de- termination of the quantity of acetic acid in the fluid and to that of the alcohol to 0. The size of the generators is.1 per cent. for instance. The determination of the acetic acid is effected by volumetric analysis. In a proper state of working the strength of the current of air must be so regulated that the temperature in the interior of the generators is only about 4. which is readily accomplished with a suitable central heating apparatus. fixed once for all. which can only be effected by a chemical examination of the generators. For the determination of the alcohol an examination with the ebullioscope suffices. but. the following method will have to be pursued in order to accurately determine when and how much alcohol has to be added.EXECUTION OF THE WORK IN A VINEGAR FACTORY.* These two determinations. with reference to the example given above. which can also be accomplished in four to minutes. and beer. . with If.

4 per cent. If a generator works up the quantity of alcoholic liquid intended for 12 or 15 hours in 10 or 12 hours. of alcohol. which the alcoholic liquid is again reduced. of alcohol is made. test after the third pouring shows the fluid to contain only 0. the total quantity of alcohol. of alcohol.2 per cent. of acetic acid and only 0. the last addition of 1.. and weaker vinegar would be obtained after each pouring. to induce slower work by decreasing the draught of air in order to maintain the rule that a generator has to work up 3 liters of absolute alcohol in the working time of a day. after the complete oxidation of the last remnants of alcohol. it is more proper.1 or 0. the generator. for instance. after the sixth or seventh pouring. + + = When.3 to 0.3 or 0. by weight of alcohol to the alcoholic liquid before the fourth pouring. After controlling for several days the work of a generator. on account of the diminished loss by evaporation. but contrary to the end. 2 per cent. since itself from the after then it is accurately known . in view. the test being repeated after the Each test must show an second and each successive pourings. having now been used. now contains. and a certain quanbe at the same time destroyed.4 per cent.8 8. by examining the products as to their contents of acetic acid and alcohol. the fluid running off is tested as to its content of acetic acid and alcohol. and the latter and a decrease in that of must finally have disappeared so far If the that a new addition of alcohol seems to be in order. Hence it is necessary to add. of alcohol (a small remnant of alcohol should always be present) the process is considered as finished. to 0. increase in the content of acetic acid alcohol. When this 2 + 0.8 per cent.4 per cent. the plan of operation resolves results of these tests.120 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. that of acetic acid would immediately commence. running after a certain off number shows a content of 8 per of pourings. and a further pouring into the generator would not only be useless labor. since. this quantity would be quickly and tity of acetic acid completely oxidized in the fourth pouring. 2 5 1. a test of the fluid cent.3 or 2 -f- 0.8 per cent.

according to the old method. however. so that directions for the progress of the operation can be given to the workmen according to time and quantities. the temperawould be observed to rise. it of directly vinegar with such a high percentage the all would. and also of acetic'acid. the consumer reducing product by the addition of water. pourings a finished product present. suppose the work in a newly arranged factory having reached the point at which acetification is complete. On account of its greater commercial value. it became produce the strongest vinegar possible. however. the work would require most careful and constant attenwith which oxidation takes tion on account of the be so great as to make difficulty . With the customary to progress in the manufacture of vinegar. after how many . the latter is partially replaced by the fluid poured in. it to a weaker To prepare acetic acid. with about 12 per cent. Now. By this method the losses of alcohol by evaporation. of acetic acid. more. would. and to use holic liquid very rich in alcohol. The normal working of the is generators can always be controlled by from time to time repeating the test of the products. though it would at first be impossible to establish a change in the composition of the fluid running off. the actual production. in alcoholic liquid of corresponding of the generator having been saturated with acetifying vinegar. Slight variations in the content of acetic acid and a small percentage of alcohol could be deter- mined in the fluid only after the acetifying vinegar originally present has been entirely expelled by a series of pourings. be necessary to acetify alcogenerators with vinegar of the same strength. If the generator should at once The shavings ture in its interior commence to work regularly. Furtherthe product too expensive. and as much as is expelled runs off. this article could be sent greater distances. will be gradually commenced by pouring concentration.EXECUTION OF THE WORK IN A VINEGAR FACTORY. 121 how many pourings tion of an alcoholic liquid of known composian addition of alcohol is required further. the so- called triple vinegar.

and it might only too readily happen that the generators suddenly worked with less vigor.. In factories which do not produce vinegar of the greatest attainable strength (12 per cent. J per cent. Group System. the group system may be considered as the perfection of the quick principle of the operation consists in the division of the generators into two or three groups. but also for It will is Passing the alcoholic liquid but once purposes. method general be readily understood that the employment of this not only advantageous for the production of vinegar with the highest attainable content of acetic acid. it is recommended to ar- range the factory for continuous work with three groups of generators. and more. of acetic acid. advisable in most cases. an examination always showing a considerable quantity. e. however. of acetic acid. which. vinegar). two groups might suffice. sitates the to be sure. through the generators does not suffice.122 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. each group process. The manufacture of a product of the greatest attainable strength being. of course. even for vinegar with only 5 to 6 per cent. vinegar. and the quantity of alcohol remaining unchanged correspondingly increase. The conversion of alcoholic liquid with a small content of alcohol into vinegar by one pouring can. caused by the packing together of the shavings. . of acetic acid. it has become customary to charge the greater number of generators with alcoholic liquid yielding the so-called double vinegar with about 8 per cent. as well as practically. On account of these difficulties. i. but only double vinegar with about 8 per cent. be accomplished. Theoretically. The preparing vinegar of determined strength. and to work this vinegar with the addition of the required quantity of strong spirits of wine in a number of generators. place in alcoholic liquid containing much acetic acid. that the content of acetic acid in the vinegar running off would decrease. but it necesuse of very tall generators and a constant struggle with difficulties on account of the irregular draught of air. of unconverted alcohol in the vinegar running off. must be acetified with 12 per cent.

4. the entire factory is. etc. in a factory III. 9.. in operating according to the group system. so that. vinegar. acetic acid. the generators belonging to one group are treated in the same manner. into Group The pourings is dation of alcohol are here repeated until the oxiThe finished nearly complete.EXECUTION OF THE WORK IN A VINEGAR FACTORY. 3. 2. 6.. and III vinegar of 12 . generators have to be provided. tity of the alcohol is oxidized. form one group. The The process of operation is then as follows : Group generators belonging to this group are charged with an alcoholic liquid which yields vinegar with a content of 6 per cent. be acetified with vinegar of 6 per cent. II. To this vinegar is then added sufficient strong alcohol to form an alcoholic liquid which will yield 9 per cent.. and is brought III. vinegar. divided into three factories. of which 1. II and with one group stance. so to say. For the preparation of the strongest vinegar (12 per cent.. off is The vinegar running alcohol to form sufficient with again compounded alcoholic liquid for 12 per cent. Hence 3. and the fluid I'. product is then stored or As will be seen from the above. of which I produces vinegar of 6 per cent. to have been converted into acetic acid. acetic acid. 12. and those of group III with 12 per cent. vinegar. Group The alcoholic liquid for 9 per cent. I. vinegar.) the generators belonging to group I can. etc. for instance. with the exception of a small remnant. For this 123 purpose the number of generators must be divisible by three. and III. clarified. II vinegar of 9 per cent. the poured pourings being repeated until all but a very small quanII. running off is poured back into the generators until a test shows the alcohol. vinegar. we have groups I. those of group II with 9 per cent. and in acetifying and operating. for in- working with 24 generators belonging to the same number.is into the generators belonging to group II.

to collect under a false bottom and then drawing it off and returning it to the same generator. it now containing the weakest alcoholic liquid (with 6 . be simplified The The work running by conducting the fluid. fied II. The product of I. after it has acquired the percentage of acid attainable in that group. the passage of the liquid through all the generators will be shown by a measuring scale placed in the common receiver. which. and the latter also serves for the conversion of the vinegar. suitable addition of alcohol into alcoholic liquid adapted for the preparation of 9 per cent. the fluid running off from one generator need not necessarily be returned to it. vinegar. would. If. which has passed through a generator. indicating that the latter contains 3x8=24 litres. 8 generators belong to at the one same time been poured into each. according to the above method." By this " crossing the alcoholic liquid. to effect an intimate mixture. therefore. acid). for group and 3 litres have instance. so that after some time the generators of this group are converted into generators of group III (with 12 per cent. for instance. after having been converted by a per cent. In many customary from time to time to alter- nate with the pourings in the groups or " to cross the genera" tors. and at the same time prevent the vinegar ferment floating in the fluid from suffering injury by coming in contact with the highly concentrated spirits of wine. is poured into group I. off from all the generators by means of a suitable pipe-system into a common receiver instead of allowing the fluid. The samples for determining the content of acetic acid and alcohol are taken from the common receiver. and group III becomes group I. and that of II for charg- generators belonging to one group having been acetiwith vinegar of the same strength.124 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. pass from group II to group III. can. is directly used for charging the generators of group ing III. into In order stronger alcoholic liquid by the addition of alcohol. the required quantity of the latter is introduced in a thin jet and with constant factories it is stirring.

Crossing.EXECUTION OF THE WORK IN A VINEGAR FACTORY. 122 is et seq. the quantity of alcoholic liquid poured in at one time and by increasing the draught of air. holic liquid with 12 " " +3. such a factory of the arrangement. vinegar in such a factory the best so to prepare the alcoholic liquid for the several groups that Group I contains alcoholic .. however. Group System with Automatic Contrivances.6 p. If the pourings of the alcoholic liquid are to be effected at determined intervals by an automatic contrivance. I.5 to 6. . . 125 per cent. liquid with Group II contains alcoholic liquid with c. and (The other component and conduit. should be used. II.2 to 3. 3 Group III contains alco. acetic acid and 6. Recourse to crossing is most frequently had for the purpose " of " strengthening the vinegar ferment by working weaker alcoholic liquid in the generators of one group generally that which yields the strongest vinegar when their activity diminThis strengthening of the ferment can. . so that the principal reasons for " " crossing the generators (which many manufacturers consider indispensable) have no force.. . the group system as de- scribed on p. very simple. distribuleft out of con- For the production of 12 per it is cent. be effected in a more simple and suitable manner by diminishing ishes.3 .. because a sudden change in the constitution of the nourishing fluid always exerts an injurious influence upon the propagation of the vinegar ferment.2 to 3. be provided with a reservoir. acid).) parts. a collecting vessel sideration. the generators are divided into three The operation of As seen from the description Besides the generators each group must groups. 6 p. however. . alcohol. can here be ting arrangements C. c. cannot be recommended. which may be designated R. and III. and the consequent change of temperature in the generators. . 9 " +3.

which after and yields being again compounded with 3. spirits of wine. after being Group 3. To the vinegar of 6 per cent.2 to 3. of alcohol. vinegar. collected in G l is now added 3.3 per cent. vinegar. The resulting stronger alco- . vinegar. vinegar. contains but a very small remnant of alcohol. the conditions of temperature in the interior of the generator remain always the same. II with 9 per cent. is for the second time pumped into R! and passes again through the generators of group I. the fluid running off from group I. Under these conditions there will be in the lower half of the generator an alcoholic liquid in which the alcohol is nearly as much oxidized as it can be by one passage through the generator. The alcoholic liquid for group I is pumped into the reservoir B^ and passes through the generators of group I into the All the alcoholic liquid having run off collecting vessels Cr from RV the fluid collected in Cv after having been tested as to its content of acetic acid. II as alcoholic liquid for 9 per cent. group compounded with is used in 9 per cent. after being twice poured in. vinegar. The uninterrupted working of the generators constituting one of the principal advantages of the automatic system. it is advisable to regulate the automatic contrivance so that but a small quantity of alcoholic liquid be at one time poured out. The automatic contrivance is so regulated that the alcoholic liquid. while in the upper half will be fresh alcoholic liquid in which oxidation is continued without interruption. and the ferment con- stantly finds nutriment. A further advantage obtained by this is that a generator will to yield quantitatively more than one working only 15 .2 to 3.2 to 3. yields 12 per cent. and group III with 12 per group cent. and to fix the intervals between two pourings so that the second pouring takes place after about one-half of the first has run off. 16 hours further.126 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. best in the form of 80 to 90 per cent.3 per cent. I having been acetified with 6 per cent. vinegar after having passed through group III.3 per cent. of alcohol. by weight of alcohol.

3 per cent. group disturbance may. however. in the other case. it is mixed with the second portion of 3.2 to 3. and by the use of the above means the normal or giving a few pourings of working of the generators can be restored. sign vailing not working in the same manner as the others. the product of all the generators of one . from that preof the respective generator it a in is sure the others. a reliable and if it shows in one of is. and the product of acetic acid from it should be tested by itself as to its content and alcohol. the generator works too sluggishly. . but seldom happen.7? 2 . them a temperature varying from 37 however. occur in either one of the generators. and it would take considis treated as a whole. and again collected in C If it now shows the required strength. by weight of alcohol and is pumped into J?3 and after passing twice through the geneis then tested. to 49 F. and the difference is sought to be equalized by increasing the current of air somewhat warmer alcoholic liquid. rators collects as finished vinegar in (73 It will be seen from the above description of the process that in making the tests. 127 is at once pumped into J?2 and passing through the generators of group II reaches the collection vessel C2 It . 2 . holic liquid . . pumped back into . A erable time before its existence would be detected by a change in the constitution of the entire product. and its activity has running off to be moderated by decreasing the admission of air. however. With a good heating apparatus producing a uniform temperature in the workroom such disturbances will. it will contain either no alcohol or very much of it.EXECUTION OP THE WORK IN A VINEGAR FACTORY. The thermometer with which each generator is provided guide as to the activity of the latter. Generally In the first case the temperature of the respective generator is higher than that prevailing in the others.

and the draught of air ceasing soon afterwards. In such alcoholic liquid the nitrogenous substances necessary for the nutriment of the ferment are wanting. and the is composition of the alcoholic liquid has to be changed.128 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. no improvement is observed. stances dissolved in the fluid and free oxygen. irregucan actually occur only in working continuously with an alcoholic liquid composed exclusively of water and alcohol. IN no other industry based upon the process of fermentation are irregularities and disturbances of such frequent occurrence Besides the nourishing subas in the manufacture of vinegar. As larities regards. the temperature in the interior of the generator same time falling. the greater portion of the alcohol suddenly runs off at the unchanged. the vinegar fer- ment requires a certain temperature for its abundant propagation. the same as in every insufficiently nourished ferment-organism The fermenting activity suddenly diminishes. CHAPTER XIII. by which alone large quantities of alcohol can in a short exercising the necessary care for the fulfillment of these conditions serious disturbances can be entirely avoided. and if the temperature rises the generator gradually resumes its normal working. propagation proceeds sluggishly and ceases entirely if abundant nutriment is not introduced.the nourishing substances of the ferment. the disturbance is due to defective nutriment. alcohol. DISTURBING INFLUENCES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. If. and the slighter ones due time be converted into acetic acid. For this purpose the draught-holes are entirely opened. By to insufficient acetic fermentation of the ferment readily re- removed. Hence it may happen that from a generator containing alcoholic liquid composed only of water. nor are the phos- The consequences are phates present in sufficient quantity. When these phenomena appear it should first be ascertained whether the disturbance is not due to too slight a current of air. which . however. and vinegar.

An water and the solution neutralized with potassium. they possibly may pass unchanged into the vinegar. Honey and glucose are also sometimes used for strengthening purposes. towards this a sensitive ferment salt. or malt extract is to be preferred. best effected 129 by the addition of a few per cent. and theoretically. disturbance actually exists and may show itself in The generator may work first too feebly or too vigorously. but while the former might be substances abundance of salts and nitrogenous no substances of any value to the ferment are present in the latter. being very very vinegar small quantity of the solution. how- made very cautiously. various ways. be may be added. Acid. and the effect upon the working of the generator carefully noted. In the case the content of acetic acid in the fluid running off de- 9 . a solution The of potassium phosphate being in this manner obtained. useful of the it on account contains. a tenths of one per cent. and as it has not yet been ascertained whether the latter recommended for ''strengthening and the carbohydrates in general can be consumed and digested by the ferment. slight variations not exceeding a few Should greater differences appear. about 10 ouo of the weight of the alcoholic fluid ever." These substances also furnish albuminous bodies and phosphates to the alcoholic liquid. At any rate the addition of beer. of beer or of fermented alcoholic mash. Disturbances ascribable to the quantity of newly formed Acetic conditions the alcoholic liquid brought into the generators should be completely converted into vinegar. the product running off show Actthe same strength a? the vinegar used for acetification. but they also contain maltose and dextrin. The experiment must. mash. either one of them containing a sufficient quantity of phosphates and albuminous substances.DISTURBING INFLUENCES IN MANUFACTURE. addition of phosphate to the alcoholic liquid is also claimed to produce a favorable effect upon the propagation of Commercial phosphoric acid is dissolved in the ferment. however. The use of sweet beer wort or malt extract has also been highly weak-working generators. Under proper working ually there are.

a great portion of the alcohol being converted. with the loss of a considerable Hence the control of the working of the quantity of alcohol. perceptible only has continued for some time. and then an inIf the disturbance was due to an increased draught of air. however. the temperature soon rises and the To generator will be able to work up the regular quantity of alcoholic liquid. of this combination is lost to the manufacturer on account of low boiling point (71. dation progresses to the formation of vinegar. sufficient draught of air.6 F. decrease in the content of acetic acid in the fluid running from off the generators without the presence of alcohol being shown. it is best to try first the effect of smaller pourings. restore the generator to a proper state of working. only half process carried through. generators by a frequent determination of the acid becomes necessary. of so formation to of the vinegar is. say. indicates a too vigorous process of oxidation. The creases considerably. far less heat being liberated in the mere conversion of alcohol into aldehyde than when oxiThese phe-. and may be due to the pourings being too large. The temperature in this case remains only for a short time unchanged and soon falls. The greater portion not into acetic acid. becomes after the disturbance odor. the stupefying odor of which when noticed in the air of the its workroom is accepted by all manufacturers as indicative of a This disturbance in the regular working of the generators. it escaping in the form of vapor. By the use of alcoholic liquid of a somewhat higher temperature the restoration of the normal conditions can be accelerated. while that of alcohol increases. nomena are indicative of the generator not being able to master the alcoholic liquid introduced. but into aldehyde. or finally to an insufficient draught of air. or the temperature of the alcoholic liquid poured in being too low.).130 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the alcohol being not only oxidized to acetic acid. Repeated observations of the thermometer also furnish valuable hints about the progress of the chemical process. but the latter further A .

by the use of alcoholic liquid of a somewhat lower temperature during the hottest season of the year." they must. large amount injurious to the ferment and might kill " " This disturbSliming of the Shavings in Generators. on the one hand. Salicylic acid. or by pouring in a larger quantity of alcoholic liquid than previously used. and just in to attain the desired result. and its progress generally ends in throwing the entire operation into complete disorder so that finally no more vinegar can be produced. be as carefully protected against too high a temperature as against cooling during the cold season. into carbonic acid 131 and water.DISTURBING INFLUENCES IN MANUFACTURE. of the generators rises considerably. above that In this case the restoration of the respective generator to a proper state of working is not difficult and can be effected in two ways. during the warm season of erators as the year. ance sometimes occurs in a vinegar plant. with great caution and only be added by the TTOOITO f the weight of the alcoholic liquid. about 45 of the workroom. This is effected. either by considerably decreasing the ventilation ot the generator. however. become easier than smaller ones. has been frequently proposed to counteract a too vigorous activity of the generators by the addition of a little oil of cloves It or salicylic acid which have the property of checking fermentation. sufficient quantity is A it.. is an excellent corrective for It has to be used. The temperature in the interior F.. Heating of the generators is generally due to faulty construction. and too " warm much warm " being just as injurious to the efficacy of the gen" too cool. After fruitless experiments nothing remains but to empty the . by a suitable ventilation of the workroom too during the night. Moreover. Generators of large dimensions. as a rule. on the other. disturbances from too high a of air need only be feared in counthe exterior temperature tries with a very warm climate. especially. and. the faulty working of a generator. the phenomenon also more appearing frequently in summer than in winter.

heat in their interior decreases. wash the shavings with hot water and. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Viewed under the microscope this slimy coating presents a structureless mass. and. erator. Long before this phenomenon becomes apparent. after drying and steeping them in hot vinegar.132 generator. When the finally. throughout which numerous germs of vinegar ferment are distributed and sometimes the vinegar eels. the intermediate product between alcohol and acetic acid. and can be drawn into short threads. this slimy coating . which is somewhat sticky. is perceived in the workroom. larger quantites of alcohol in the shavings which affects the Sliming bacteria to such an extent that they have no longer the power of forming acetic acid or only very sinall quantities of it. . disturbance has progressed thus far a disagreeable musty. the temperature in the interior may rise considerably and products of putrefaction be developed to such an extent as to taint the air of the workroom. instead of the characteristic acid odor. A shaving taken from a normally working generator has the ordinary appearance of wet wood but one taken from a generator working in the above-mentioned faulty manner is coated with a slimy mass. return them to the gen- may be due to infection by foreign bacteria and as to super-oxidation and the accumulation of as well fungi. By allowing one of the faulty working generators to stand for a few days without charging it with alcoholic liquid. By heating the workroom more strongly only a temporary improvement is brought about. Independently of the presence of the latter. after a fixed number of pourings converted into acetic acid. a large number of pourings are. so low that work has to be interrupted. and the production of the generators becomes less and less. now required to The generators work slower and the attain the same result. an altera- tion takes place in the shavings. The ing to trouble begins to work alcohol was show itself by the generators commencWhile formerly a certain quantity of irregularly. but only aldehyde.

and filling the latter f the height of the shaving with alcoholic liquid. The slimy coating thus formed upon the shavings envelops the vinegar ferment and prevents its immediate contact with the air . presents the 133 same appearance as the so-called mother of vine- gar. followed by a lower temperature in the generators. erators become weaker. it will generally be found to be due to conditions p. and they quickly putrefy on account of the high temperature. the previously described delicate veil of vinegar ferment develops upon the surface. of course. An alcoholic liquid overly rich in young beer containing much albumen. such as First of all. Should. and the gen- This decrease in the production is. consequently the alcoholic liquid does not encounter as much ferment as is required for the complete oxidation of the alcohol. these unfavorable conditions finally becoming so great as to bring the activity of the generators to a standstill. however. .DISTURBING INFLUENCES IN MANUFACTURE. or one to which much malt extract or young fruitwine has been added. when it can be remedied without much tors for want of air. similar to those which give rise to the formation of the latter. give rise to the most disagreable A careful manufacturer will observe sliming at the commencement of the evil. the composition of the alcoholic liquid must be changed by discontinuing the use of fluid containing many carbohydrates and albuminous substances. difficulty. and consequently by a decrease in the propagation of the ferment. is apt to give rise to the formation of mother of vinegar in the generators. By placing a shaving coated with slime upright in a shallow dish. in the generadie to large masses of these animalcules happen due to the constantly decreasing draught. and in searching for the cause of the formation. odors. while the portion of the shaving covered by the fluid is surrounded by flakes distinguished by nothing from mother of vinegar. The settlement of vinegar eels upon the surface of the mother of vinegar has no connection with sliming. Hence there can scarcely be a doubt that the slimy coating actually consists of the same structure to which the term mother of vinegar (see 21) has been applied.

to a certain extent nothing can be done but to empty the generators.134 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.. activity of the ferment is at the same time a stronger draught of air in the generators and which is recognized by the normal conversion of alcohol into acetic acid. it being best to use alcoholic liquid of water. want of air> or an incorrect state of the temperature. the evil has progressed FIG. since such nonsensical additions as beer-yeast. If. however. the condition of the shavings should be at once examined into. which have been proposed as remedies. and if they show the first stages of sliming . In a few days the generators will be again in a proper working condition. etc. young beer. Though considerable labor is connected with this operation. honey. malt extract. The increased by by raising the temperature of the workroom. and alcohol only until the generators are entirely restored to a normal working condition. 36. vinegar. turbance occur which cannot be accounted for by defective nutriment of the ferment. tartar. there is no further use of experimenting. only accelerate the final catastrophe the Should a disentire cessation of the formation of vinegar. young fruit-wine.

. off FIG. and the layers of slime upon the shavings short time disappear. 36 of their form slightly resembling that of an eel. as animalcules. shows a microscopical picture of a drop of vinegar swarming eeis slightly magnified. if possible. tous structures scarcely visible to the naked eye will frequently When viewed under the microbe observed in the vinegar. to which the scope they will be recognized term vinegar eel (Anguilla aceti) has been applied on account Fig. vinegar. contains only water. and Fig. 37. be remedied by changing the comIf the new alcoholic liquid position of the alcoholic liquid.DISTURBING INFLUENCES IN MANUFACTURE. In many factories filamenDisturbances due to Vinegar Eels. is globular and passes The eggs are placed intesdirectly into the long at about the centre of the . 37 a vinegar with vinegar eel greatly magnified. sliming cannot will in a progress. and alcohol. 135 the evil should. they being partially utilized in the nu- triment of the ferment. The mouth-opening the throat tinal tube. The animalcule consists of a cylindrical body running to a is covered with small knots sharp point. and partially mechanically washed by the alcoholic liquid running down.

which is inimical to its existence. animal always seeks the surface. and in an alcoholic liquid which contains it. under the surface and thus render it harmless. correctly when vegetating upon the surface of the fluid and in The vinegar eel being an air breathing contact with air.3. alcoholic liquid containing much alcohol and acetic acid they do not thrive as well as in weak liquid. and thus deprives the animalcules of a condition A portion of them die and fall necessary for their existence. latter in proportion of 1 eels can exist in dilute alcohol of the strength used Vinegar In in making vinegar as well as in dilute acetic acid. and upon whose surface an abundance of ferment grows.136 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. changes (Submerged vinegar ferment. These conditions can be readily induced by escape to the sides of the vessel pouring vinegar containing a large number of vinegar eels into a flat glass dish and adding a fluid upon which vinegar ferment has been artificially cultivated. as is well conditions of existence aud becomes mother If the conditions are favorable for the developof vinegar. to the bottom of the vessel.all conditions an injurious The vinegar ferment can only carry on its function one. its known. and consequently the process of the formation vinegar case.0682 Paris inch and that male 0.0486. actual combats between animalcule and ferment can be observed. the former being larger than the 1. two tubes which unite of the to a plainly perceptible aperis The average length : of the female 0. In a few hours the .) ment of the animalcules. the former striving to force the latter. Under conditions favorable to the development of the ferment the reverse is the will The ferment the oxygen floating upon the fluid consumes nearly contained in the layer of air immediately above the surface. while another portion of them where they congregate immediately above the surface of the fluid in such masses as to form a whitish ring. Their part in the manufacture ol vinegar is under . the latter overcome the ferment and submerge it so that it can continue to exist only as mother vinegar. all of of be considerably retarded. in body ture.

large quantity generator of traces last sulphurous through it. Since the vinegar eels consume oxygen. If by means of blotting paper the veil of ferment be removed as fast as it propagates. kills the vinegar eels. From the above explanation it is evident that the appearance of vinegar eels in large masses threatens danger to the regular working. which will be referred to later on. An alcoholic liquid containing much living ferment is remain. their bodies being found in the vinegar running off. Several remedies for the suppression of vinegar eels in the generators have been proposed. e. and their struggling to dislodge the latter may be the first cause of the formation of slimy masses of mother of vinegar upon the shavings. the animalcules soon spread over the entire fluid. Sulphurous acid. When the animalcules reach the shavings the strug- gle for existence between them and the ferment commences. faction being also effected by bacteria capable of decomposing organic combinations (even small quantities of such strongly antiseptic bodies as salicylic and carbolic acids). sulphurous acid. the vinegar ferment. it is true. . the development of the ferment may again become so vigorous that a large portion of the ferment. one of them consisting of the introduction of vapors of burning sulphur. however. which is generally the first remedy tried. of the vinegar eels are killed. which will remove the acid.DISTURBING INFLUENCES IN MANUFACTURE. 137 ferment has spread over the entire surface and the animalcules form the above-mentioned white ring on the sides of the vessel. i. it is evident that vinegar containing vinegar eels. cannearly all known not possess good keeping qualities and must be subjected to a special treatment. but at the same time.. and if small remnants To restore a the newly-introduced ferment. the air in the generators becomes thereby less suitable for the nourish- and consequently the generators will work feebly. By accelerating the draught of air in the generators. also then poured in. finally putrefy and give rise to the preThe processes of putreviously mentioned disagreeable odor. The dead vinegar eels remaining in the ment generator. be blown must air of thus a treated.

many hours stand the exclusion eels die oxygen without being destroyed. stands upon a tripod a shallow dish. the use of a very small quan- acid as an addition to the alcoholic liquid would be advisable. and the respective generators must be watched with special care in order to meet at once any appearance of putrefaction. The killing of a large number of vinegar eels in the above is. is left to itself for 6 or 8 hours after closing all the draught-holes. The acid by checking putrefaction would prevent the immediate decomposition of the killed vinegar tity of salicylic eels still present in the generators. The opening in the center is closed by a well-fitting clay stopper. It may sometimes succeed to keep up the work undisturbed. In a large clay vessel. Should. when commence to work the generator may at any moment irregularly. In manner such critical cases. of considerable danger to the regular working of the factory. energetic means should at once be taken to arrest its progress. The ferment in a short time consumes all the free oxygen in the generators. and introducing into the latter the nozzle of the apparatus whose arrangement is shown in Fig. By opening the draught-holes and pouring in alcoholic liquid. however. while glass tubes bent at a right angle and with a clear diameter of about J inch are . it being in this case best to sulphur the generator. This is effected by closing all the draught-holes except one. for The vinegar ferment can of in a short time. best glazed inside.138 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. signs of putrefaction appear. the normal formation of vinegar soon recommences. 38. however. while the vinegar This circumstance can be utilized first for the de- struction of the animalcules without recourse to other remedies. the killed vinegar eels being gradually removed from the generators by the vinegar running off. and the vinegar eels die from the want of it. The generator having all been brought into the high- est state of activity and opening by pouring in very warm alcoholic liquid the draught-holes. The cover of the vessel luted air-tight with clay is provided with three openings.

but only volatilized. and consequently all the germs of The sulphurous are also destroyed. and is fitted into. For use the apparatus is put together. nearly down to the plate is hose with a double-acting bellows. the condensation of the portion of the sulphur which is not consumed. 139 cemented in the openings at the side.DISTURBING INFLUENCES IN MANUFACTURE. while the second tube leading directly from the cover is connected with a second clay vessel. shavings of burning sulblowing-in of air are continued until the odor of the generaphur is clearly perceptible in the upper portion The second vessel which contains some water serves for tor. combustion of the sulphur passes through the tube into the the fluid adhering to the generator. . From and small pieces of sulphur are thrown through the The sulphur is ignited by central aperture upon the dish. 38. and in ascending dissolves The addition of sulphur and the to sulphurous acid. The tube reaching connected by means of a rubber the cover of this vessel a pipe leads to. acid kills every living organism in the genthe vinegar ferment erator. the open draught-hole of the generator. as shown in the illustration. sulphur lighted throwing The product of the is put in operation. After allowing the sulphured generator to stand a few hours. and after closing the in a match. the bellows aperture FIG.

of Vienna. They prefer places kept constantly moist. forced through it by means of the bellows. and by reason of the latter putrefying. this vinegar becomes of no value as a commercial article. though the bottle had been sixty hours in transit. so-called vinegar lice will always be found in the factory. will be seen from the following occurrence Some years ago. the generator is again acetified. In consequence of the absorption of sulphuric acid by the shavings. further operations Every drop of one or more from contained the vinegar running generators of the mites. and to which the air has access. Unless the most scrupulous cleanliness prevails. A small bottle half full of vinegar and closed Alair-tight by a cork accompanied the communication. on opening . Disturbances off from correctly working Due to Vinegar Lice (Vinegar Mites). manufacturers do not pay much attention to their presence. the proprietor of a vinegar factory in Italy informed Dr. the case.140 fresh air alone is MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the shavings to a certain height being covered with living and dead animals. however. Bersch. for instance. as they apparently exert no influThat such. As a rule. off had become impossible. that millions of small animals had : appeared in the factory and penetrated into the generators. generator again into operation. The last traces of unchanged sulphurous acid having in this manner been removed from the generator and the greater portion of sulphuric acid adhering to the shavings washed out. is not ence upon the regular working. with a content of acetic acid corresponding to that of the original acetification. the draught-holes and the interior of generators beneath the false bottom. and the generator allowed toopened The air-holes are then stand a few days for the sulphurous acid to be converted into To bring this sulphuric acid by the absorption of oxygen. but it can be used for the preparation of alcoholic liquid. this being best effected by pouring in alcoholic liquid just run generators. it is best to introduce at first a number of pourings consisting only of vinegar.

40. many being only one-quarter or one-half the size of others. they belong to the family Sarcoptidw. . congregated especifissures of the cork. As far as it was possible to determine of these animalcules. it 141 of living animals were found. Figs. 39 and 40 show the two characteristic forms FIG. their zoological position.DISTURBING INFLUENCES IN MANUFACTURE. the On examining them with the in ally a number microscope two forms (male and female?) could be clearly FJG. dis- tinguished.

and again put into operation. which kills them. these insects are frequently found on the bung-holes of the wine-barrels. . appear wherever a fluid passes into acetic fermentation. as as vinegar-flies create working of the factory. scrupulous cleanliness must prevail in the factory. two of which are yellow. and in factories in which the manufacture of wine vinegar is carried on according to the old system. far as known. manner above described. the animals no disturbance in the regular they deserve mention because they six rings. . Though. on the The wings any fluid. is black. To prevent the vinegar mites from collecting in large masses.142 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. which is provided with . In wine cellars. The larva is mouth two black hook-like structures. the larva is transformed into a yellow chrysalis. The thorax and legs are red the abdomen. has twelve rings. they often occur in great swarms. The vinegar-fly (Drosophila funebris. Meig) is at the utmost 0. and on the back part of In eight days the body four warts. known Vinegar. Especially if should the draught-holes be from time to time examined. The collection of these flies in large masses can be readily prevented by keeping the factory thoroughly clean and being especially careful not to spill are longer white. than the body.11 inch long sitting it is especially distinguished by large red eyes on both sides of the head and meeting in front. the manufacturer simply stating that they had come from the soil. The mites might also be prevented from^ pene- trating into the interior of the generators by rings of a sticky substance (turpentine) around the draught-holes. No particulars as to their origin seem to be known. under the supports of the generators and gradually rendered the The generators were sulphured in the latter ineffective. not kept thoroughly clean. thoroughly cleansed with hot water. and.Flies. mites be found. with yellow stripes.

and earthenware pots holding only 3 to 5 gallons are also used. finished By adding a vinegar should be added to the dilute alcohol. must be used. but on account of the loss by evaporation of alcohol. cially suitable for the preparation of barrels are arranged in tiers few slices of bread. furnace. the formation of vinegar can in many cases be accelerated. IN the manufacture by the slow process. SLOW PROCESS OF MAKING VINEGAR. or a decoction of resins. alcohol cent. absolute alcohol. For the induction of the formation of vinegar. It prepared from whiskey or alcohol. The mixture is is of weak alcohol and vinegar is called wash. given to the methods of maintaining an equable temperature. alcohol is employed. very strong vinegar. 143 CHAPTER XIV. of acetic added. is anhydride wash should contain a little over 5 per cent. 1. To this is weak its spirit one-quarter or one-half of volume of vinegar per cent.SLOW PROCESS OF MAKING VINEGAR. the . and Suppose vinegar containing 4J to be made. or an arrangement similar to that Due attention must be employed in heating hot-houses. the substances named offering nutriment to the vinegar ferment. The wooden upon supports in such a manner that their contents can be readily withdrawn by means The heating apparatus may be either of a faucet or a siphon. of alcohol. then the latter would have to be diluted In other so that every gallon of it becomes 13f\ gallons. Smaller barrels with a capacity of from 15 to 25 gallons are preferred.250 gallons of words. it being claimed that they are especovered. to which sufficient water added that the mixture shows a content of about 6 per cent.330 gallons of mixture. If in making this wash 80 per cent. barrels thoroughly cleansed with boiling water and previously saturated with hot The bung-holes are left open or loosely vinegar are used. to 100 gallons of 80 per water are added. Theoretically. a hot-air stoves. a wash of 6 per cent. which makes 1. or beer wort.

This is remedied by re- moval. The resulting wash is placed in the fermenting barrels full. and the temperature of the thermometers observed by placed in different parts apartment. after MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. lazy. this misfortune occurs. is piece of stone or slate. Too cool a location or a constant draught of air will some- times put a cask out of action.144 this. As long as these indications continue. of it. or by covering with a non-conductor. after acetification is restored. and is indicated by a temperature in the barrels slightly above that of the apartment. to the ciently hot to give a temperature of 90 wash. and the barrels scoured well with brushes and water. must be kept at between 75 and 100 F. their contents thrown away. of vinegar. After they are dry they may be saturated with hot vinegar and brought into action again. the addition of 300 gallons of vinegar. everything is going on well. which is warmed in glass bottles. After a lapse of time dependent on the temperature which . becomes 1. and a pungent acid odor is perceived in the room. and placed in the sun. to 100 F. At the mini- to fill each one two-thirds mum temperature less fuel is required. to a warmer location." they are excited by withdrawing a portion of their contents. is bedewed with moisture. but the time needed and consequently more barrels and a larger apartment are needed to make the same amount for acetification is extended. the bad barrels are at once removed restore activity in " one. With the maximum temperature the reverse is Several days after the addition of the wash acetification begins. and with the addition of a little alcoIf only " hol and vinegar is restored to the casks. the case. but every barrel must be examined by " itself to at once any lazy When ness take place and spread to the neighboring barrels. such as heavy paper pasted over it. which laid over the usually bung-hole of each barrel to prevent too A great evaporation and consequent cooling. lest putrefaction or mpuldi- from the apartment.630 A portion of the water must be taken suffi- gallons of wash.

Thus. 8 to 16. The close of acetification is indicated by the diminution of the strong vinegar smell in the room. is 145 acetification is complete. 72 to 86 F. it is the clear vinegar may be drawn off after the deposition of the mother of vinegar. to stand for a short As previously mentioned. a which filled with beech shavings. the vinegar must be withdrawn. the advantage of a greater distribution of the work necessity of a smaller quantity of vinegar stored for sale. clarify it. barreled and removed to a cooler place than the vinegar room. in which its tendency The slimy deto spoil in the heated atmosphere is very great.SLOW PROCESS OF MAKING VINEGAR. vinegar with which fication. by the absence of vapor condensing upon the slate covers of the bung-holes. which is of advantage in keeping up fermentation in barrels 10 . emitting strongly acetic vapors. and stored at intervals of J to J the time required for This modification has the acetification of the whole quantity. 4 to 8. and the pres. to time in a cool room in a vessel When stored. ence of barrels in full action. imbued. Otto gives the time generally re: quired as follows With 95 86 a temperature of to 100 F. the slow process above described may be modified in various ways. " " and the is called mother of posit vinegar removed. so that J or J of the whole quantity of vinegar may be withdrawn. kept somewhat higher towards the end of the operation. to Weeks 2 to required. they may be divided into three or four groups. allow it It is well before barreling the vinegar. pint of spirits should be added to each barrel. and by the temperature of the inside of the barrels becoming equal to that of the room. instead of bringing the fermentation to completion in all of the barrels at about the same time. employed in part for the next acetiIf the sediment from each barrel be placed in a cask. 95 F. 4. As soon as acetification in at once any one barrel is perfected.

value of the large quantity of vinegar kept in the fermenting The intervals at which vinegar may be withdrawn barrels. and at short intervals withdrawing small quantities of vinegar which are This saves time. according to temperature. The disadvantages consist in greater need to its for entering loss of its heat. the fermenting barrels would have each a capacity of J barrel. and leaving the vinegar room. method by calculation for the number of fermenting barrels required for the slow process : Suppose that it is required to furnish a barrel of vinegar per day. and on account of unavoidable loss. It involves loss of heat by a need for too frequently entering the It involves also a loss of' interest upon the vinegar room. made gradually in in a smaller the fermenting barrels.146 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. which would equal 312 forty-gallon barrels per year. not withdrawing any The advantage consists until the barrels are sufficiently full. one gallon of vinegar is withdrawn from every 5 gallons in the fermenting barrels. are closer in proportion to the heat of the apartment. which the time for manufacture. which By this method only . Another modication consists in always keeping a large quantity of vinegar in the fermenting barrels. just going into operation. and in its- In a large factory. more rapid in the presence of large bodies of vinegar. at intervals of one to two -J weeks. bears a ratio to the amount of fuel consumed. excluding Sundays. involving and requiring in consequence greater attention to this the heat is In addition cannot be increased useful in shortening towards the close of acetifi cation. and since they are not filled with wash. four such barrels may be allowed to each barrel of vinegar made. as acetification is replaced by fresh wash. number of fermenting barrels being required than Dr. What is added to make the . Otto gives the following the first described. from each barrel of the vinegar is removed at one time in other words. The vinegar must be either purchased or stead a gallon of is wash added. fires. the latter process requires a large number of barrels of vinegar to commence operations.

one barrel of vinegar may be sold. as before stated. to do which 96 fermenting barrels will be required. The following method is to be recommended as simple. a small room and two generators are the only requisites. From every four fermenting barrels. be proportionately decreased. Their capacity filled is. will be required. 147 a like quantity of course. and furnishing a constant supply of vinegar with scarcely any trouble and at trifling cost : Procure two barrels. If the room. and each of them is furnished with a wooden faucet. The barrels lie on their side. regulated by the yearly demand. barrels from which good vinegar has just been drawn being preferable. This calculation affords the very best illustration of the superiority of the modern quick process. so fuel in heating it. the other for storing the vinegar. which that a large body of vinegar is always kept in the fermenting barrels. Besides. If. however. wash is. 4 times 96 384 fermenting barrels.SLOW PROCESS OF MAKING VINEGAR. expedient. not accounted as manufactured vinegar. a larger apartment will be neces- will involve a higher rent and greater expense for sary. their number may. over the old slow method. The storage barrel is always kept in the cellar. but that of the fermenting barrels is = increased. of course. In the latter case the expense of fuel is lessened. as must be added in the subsequent wash. say to complete the process in 16 weeks. 24 barrels of vinegar will have to be completed drawn off. and hence 6 barrels of vinegar will require 24 fermenting workroom be so heated that the operation is in four weeks. the manufacture will then . a lower temperature be maintained in the workbarrels. Suppose that the generator. to the level of the venti- lating hole. To make one barrel per day by the quick process. contains 10 gallons. and the generating barrel in the house or cellar. If the process be modified. storage barrel a small hole is bored for the circulation of air. as described. Household Manufacture of Vinegar. the one for making. acAt the top of one of the heads of the cording to the season.

and the process then recommenced The warmer the season the more rapid iri the generator. added to the storage cask. supporting a watchIn the glass containing platinum black or spongy platinum. If 86 per cent. and pour by means of a funnel into the generator. Put a small measureful of spirits in the large measure fill quickly to the mark with boiling water. gently evaporated. and three gallons of be carried on as follows . and three gallons of warm This alcoholic liquid is made as alcoholic liquid are added. and adding every week so much of the alcoholic liquid that it fills the barrel in from 8 to 16 Half the vinegar is then weeks. alcohol is used. whisky be employed. Every two or three weeks. The shelves forming these compartments support a number of porcelain capsules. alcoholic liquid are placed in the generating barrel as before. Another method of working the casks consists in half filling the generator with vinegar. have a small measure of 3 pints and a large one (a bucket) of 3 gallons. By means of a small steam-pipe the interior of the house is heated to 79 F. so con- structed as to admit of regulating the access of air. Preparation of Vinegar with the Assistance of Platinum Black. let the small measure be for 2 pints. according to the season. in each of which is placed a tripod. may be the manufacture. : Seven gallons of vinegar of a good quality are placed in the barrel. The poured into these capsules.148 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. This property of platinum has been utilized for the purpose of manufacturing The apparatus used for this puracetic acid on a large scale. pose consists of a small glass house. By this means the alcohol is . also of porcelain. provided in the interior with a number of compartments. In considering the theory of the formation of vinegar it was mentioned that platinum in a finely divided state possesses the property of converting alcohol into acetic acid. three gallons of vinegar are withdrawn from the generator and added to the storage barrel. alcohol to be acetified is roof and at the bottom of the apparatus are ventilators. follows: If common 50 per cent. and coming in contact with the platinum black or sponge is acetified.

the platinum black of platinum black. thus reducing the strength of the vinegar ferment might develop. . however. but never especially agreeable properties. volatilize or oxidize largely on the materials used in the manufacture. its volume diminishes on cooling. CHAPTER XV. By long by storing. The odor depends storing such vinegar acquires a somewhat finer odor. The barrels for storing fresh vinegar should be filled up to the bung-holes and closed air-tight. the latter property being no doubt due to small quantities of aldehyde contained in it.TREATMENT OF FRESHLY-PREPARED VINEGAR. ratus of 52 cubic yards' capacity and with 37 With an appapounds platinum required for working on a manufacturing scale. since when air is present the ferment in the absence of alcohol consumes acetic acid. It is of freshly prepared vinegar is by no means agreevery pungent and at the same time stupefying. but it becomes a commercial article only by long storing and special treatment. that of vinegar prepared from an alcoholic liquid composed of water and alcohol alone without an addition of beer being decidedly the least agreeable. FURTHER TREATMENT OF FRESHLY-PREPARED VINEGAR. and the large quantity of the very expensive retains its property of oxidizing the alcohol. and . So long as the ventilation is 149 maintained. and moreover. 150 quarts of alcohol can daily be converted into pure vinegar. The odor able. mold The temperature of the vinegar running off from the gener- ators being quite high. " vinegar running off from the generators is finished in so far that it contains the quantity of acetic acid obtainable THE " from the content of alcohol in the alcoholic liquid. which. The drawbacks to this process are high prices for alcohol.

of very strong alcohol to the vinegar has also a very favorable effect upon the odor of the latter. thus a oxidation exerts favorable slow decidedly produced very influence upon the odor of the vinegar. Immediately quantity required after the addition of one of the above-mentioned substances By . acetic ether or amyl acetate (pear essence) can be directly added.).150 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.. and this can be reached by storing the barrels in a warehouse having a is temperature of from 57 to GO F. etc. if it may so be called. but an expert can at once detect such additions. which in round numbers weigh 100 kilogrammes. These oils. to be sure. addition of J per cent. for instance.1 liter Of this solution 1 liter of 95 per cent. anise. 5 contains 100 cubic (= grammes of pear centimeters) essence. In place of alcohol. but only in very small quantities and best in alcoholic solutions of a determined content. which has been frequently proposed for the cannot recommended. consequently the barrels when inspected later on will not be When the vinegar is stored in barrels not made quite full. proceeding in this manner the correct can be readily determined. such as oils of caraway. 50 grammes of pear essence to 0. the finer the slower the effect of the oxygen. the latter will contain Tooicro of pear essence. This similarity extends also to the fact that the vinegar bouquet. agreeable odor to the vinegar. air-tight by a suitable coating (lacquer. and if added to 100 liters of vinegar. the air penetrates through the pores of the wood and a constant reThe ciprocal action takes place between it and the vinegar. alcohol. the processes thereby taking place being somewhat similar to those which cause the formation of the bouquet in wine. More suitable for the purpose is the use of a very small quantity (a few hundred-thousandths of the weight of the vinegar) of potato or grain fusel oil. fennel. give be purpose. these bodies forming with the corresponding quantity of acetic acid An the frequently mentioned odoriferous compound ethers. but that of volatile oils. It has been sought to improve the odor of vinegar by various additions. etc. a specific. acetic ether being formed in storing.. paraffin. or in a cellar.

It consists of the glass tube a.TREATMENT OF FRESHLY-PREPARED VINEGAR. aldehyde (very acetic ether. acetic acid. tube is provided with a bulb in which is fitted by means of a cork a tube. 41. The vinegar brought following little). drawn off from this special apparatus. into the storage barrels contains the constituents: Water. and is bung-hole. vinegar ferment on the (living and dead). While the vinegar is in the tap-hole of the barrel stored. out through the tube line. by the dotted lines. 41. After lying for several weeks a muddy sediment forms on the The vinegar can be carefully deepest place of the barrel. b. and filtering has to be resorted to this operation a few words will be said in regard to the storing of vinegar. but becomes pleasant by storing. storing. is inserted and reaches to the bottom. its 151 odor is disagreeably prominent. up to the By turning the tube downward. this tube stands upright as indicated FIG. alcohol (very little). until its level has sunk to the dotted Sometimes the vinegar is not rendered perfectly clear by Before referring to. bent at a right angle. secured to a rubber hose reaching. extractive substances (depending . similar to that shown in Fig. which the purpose. where In front of the bung-hole this it is slightly bent 'upwards. the fluid runs a. sediment by means of a rubber hose or a is used for .

for instance. Vinegar which. the vinegar ferment will develop quite vigorously upon the surface. e. the air penetrates through the pores of the wood. If the barrels are not closed absolutely air-tight. Ihe mold ferment readily settles upon the vinegar and finally dislodges the vinegar ferment from the tartaric The acetic acid is. if these animals exist in the factory. it is first utilized for the conversion of the small quantity of aldehyde into acetic acid. of This happens so frequently. time for want of and fall to the bottom. the vinegar eels and vinegar mites die in a short air. tains considerable quantities of albuminous substances in solution (vinegar from grain. cent. The living vine- gar ferment present in the fluid must assume the form in which it can for some time exist without free oxygen. so that the vinegar tested a decrease in the content of acetic If the finished vinegar still conplainly perceptible.). or if it contains is and malic acids and at the same time only a small percentage of acetic acid. of the vinegar by cooling. vinegar prepared from apples . for instance with fruitvinegar. and later on enables the vinegar ferment to continue to exist upon the surface and to slowly convert the small quantity of alcohol still present into acetic acid. however. and through a luxuriant growth of the latter. filling the storage barrels to the bung-holes and closing air-tight. which floats upon the surface as a white membranous coating. of mother volume When in consequence of the shrinkage in the of vinegar. or fruit).. besides a considerable quantity of extractive substances. there are frequently found alcoholic ferment (from the beer). malt. i. and vinegar eels and vinegar By them mites. as most fruit vinegars do (seldom more than 5 per cent. very rapidly destroyed by the mold ferment. nature of the alcoholic liquid used). that the opinion that such vinegar cannot be made to it. keep. and when when acid all the alcohol is is consumed attack the acetic acid.152 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. is quite general. contains the salts of certain organic acids (malic and tartaric acids). the vinegar may in a few weeks lose one or more per surface. Moreover.

and by the direct determination of the acid a decrease in its content can be some cases shown which. and bacteria inducing putrefaction cannot be thus removed. such as is shown in Fig. if calculated as acetic acid. as even if it readily spoils. even when the which decomposes the. a large of a suitof vinegar can in a short time be heated with the use able apparatus. lose their characteristic agreeable bouquet which may be con- sidered the greatest damage. A few moments exposure at this volume temperature being sufficient for the purpose. due no doubt to the formation of certain products not yet known formed by the ferment effecting the destruction of the tartaric and rnalic acids. 153 must be frequently examined. it is recommended to heat the latter to about 140 F. . In vinegar in which this ferment has long existed a diminution of acidity can be readily detected by the taste. may amount to one per cent. to a considerable extent. acids. By filtration it is. the flavor of the vinegar on account of their agreeable acid taste. 42. wine or fruit-vinegars in which this ferment has for a considerable time flourished. they influence. or wine. In order to destroy organisms Heating the Vinegar. it advisability of filtering the vinegar before bringing into the storage barrels will be readily understood from the The above statement. which might cause the spoiling of the vinegar. even if stored in barrels closed air-tight. In the presence of a large number of vinegar eels their bodies may decay and impart to the vinegar a very disagreeable putrid odor. may first frequently develop. tartaric and malic and though these acids are present only in a compara- tively small quantity. and may suffer bung. Moreover. however. before running it into the storage barrels. so that even filtered vinegar is liable to spoil when all stored. vinegar thus changed acquires a harsh tang. only possible to remove the vinegar eels and vinegar mites swimming in the The ferments fluid and larger flakes of mother of vinegar.TREATMENT OF FRESHLY-PREPARED VINEGAR. Besides the loss of in its former agreeable taste. kept in barrels constantly filled up to the In fluids containing the salts of the above-mentioned organic acids a ferment air is excluded.

A vat. The thermometer t dipping into the hot vinegar indicates the temperature. boiler is filled The vat a is filled with water and placed in an ordinary with the vinegar to be heated and kept constantly supplied.inch. The water being heated to boiling. the hot vinegar runs through the coil sur- . c. The hearth. and the inflow of vinegar is accordAs shown ingly regulated by opening or closing the cock c. in the illustration. and ends outside the barrel at g. is placed. the stop-cock c is opened. placed at leaves at a certain height above the barrel is provided with a wooden stop-cock. t. in which it is also h. which it enters at e/and It then passes into the barrel b. bulb in which a thermometer. d. after filling it. is which is secured open on both ends and of sufficient k. which enters the barrel b above the bottom. In the head of the barrel b is secured a pipe of pure tin with very thin walls and a clear diameter of about j. a. It is -coiled in a boiler filled with water. The vinegar now runs through d into the barrel coil b. 42. a. At i it expands to a coiled. The pipe length to project above the vat FIG. and.154 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. flows at e into the tin and in passing through it in the direction of the arrows is heated. to which is secured a rubber hose. on top of the barrel b.

It consists filter suitable for the purpose. as a rule. The bodies suspended <?lear. k. gradually fall to the bottom of the barrel. By filling the filter below the paper pulp with fine the latter retains the greater portion of the solid bodies sand. s and b. 43 shows a of a small. It is brought into the storage barrels.TREATMENT OF FRESHLY-PREPARED VINEGAR. deep which is the false bottom 1 inch spread a layer of paper pulp f to covered with a linen cloth and then placed upon is by the stop-cock h and the rubber hose s. 8 to 10 feet long. and. The latter have been killed by heating. and it will be a considerable . or small pieces of charcoal. 155 rounded by cold vinegar into the barrel b. strong accelerate clarification the vinegar is filtered. the subse- quent processes taking place in the vinegar being of a purely chemical nature and not caused by organisms. In consequence of the albuminous substances becoming in- soluble by heating. Upon the lower false bottom is spread a linen cloth and upon it fine sand. time suspended in the vinegar. The on both allows of the the deends. which is not attacked by acetic acid. together with all other foreign bodies suspended in the vinegar. The vinegar to be filtered is in the vat a which is connected with the filtering vat b. it clarifies completely and bright from the sediment. in the vinegar some time it takes and causing its turbidity being very small. whereby it is cooled off and the vinegar in the barrel preparatorily heated. wooden vat provided with two perforated false-bottoms. before they settle on the bottom and the fluid becomes entirely off perfectly an be drawn Filtration of Vinegar. however. not be closed air-tight. more turbid than before. To Fig. the vinegar running off at g is. If the vinegar after heating is allowed to lie for a sufficiently long time. By opening the stop-cock h the filter stands under the pressure of a column of fluid 8 to 10 feet high and the filtered the filtervinegar runs off through an aperture in the side of ing vat. Upon the smoothed surface of the sand the latter being forced down by means of the screw k and the pieces of wood r. open escape gases pipe veloped. which need.

should be free from iron and sulphur and previous to use freed as much as possible from lime and earthy constituents which some hydrochloric or tarFine white quartz sand is very may suitable for the purpose. the layer of slime that has accumulated upon the sand is carefully removed and the sand thoroughly washed and dried. 44. When after long use the sand be- comes so closely packed that the vinegar does not run off with the rapidity desired. 43. about 16 inches in diam- . consists of a strong linen bag. White sea-sand is also highly recommended for filtering vinegar.156 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. its use for several months not a single vinegar-eel was found in the filtered product. FIG. such It Sharp. it being claimed that after by washing in pure water taric acid to be added. fine-grained sand should be used for filtering. An fluid It arrangement suitable for filtering larger quantities of under an increased pressure is shown in Fig. become choked up to before the pores of the paper pulp an extent as to require its renewal. 8. when it is again ready for use.

r is gradually opening the stop-cock on the reservoir the bag filled with vinegar. portion of vinegar to The charcoal powder adheres to the sides of the .TREATMENT OF FRESHLY-PREPARED VINEGAR. which contains the vinegar to be and piece of w ood. open at both ends and about 6 inches in diameter. The fluid filter- ing through the bag runs down on the hose and collects in a vessel placed under it. the fluid running off turbid . however. eter. 157 and a jute or hemp hose. 44. hose placed about 10 to 13 feet above the support carrying the bag. but being By enveloped by the hose R cannot entirely expand but only so far as permitted R. even under the pressure of a column of fluid of considerable height. so that FIG. is K with the reservoir B. be remedied by stirring some charcoal powder into the first be filtered. by the diameter of though its entire surface acts as a filter a large number of folds are formed. The bag is tied by means of pack-thread to a cylindrical piece of wood which is secured to a suitable The bag is then connected by means of the rubber support. R. At first this filter generally does not act entirely satisfactorily. and it is thus protected from bursting. the latter being also secured to the cylindrical filtered. and this continues until filter the pores of the have be- come retain sufficiently contracted to the small bodies sus- pended in the fluid. This can. The bag is folded so that it can be inserted in the hose R.

cider-vinegar and fruit-vinegars in general should positively be stored for some time. Then place a sulphur match consisting of a strip of linen about 6 inches long and f to 1 inch broad dipped in melted sulphur into a perforated sheet-iron cylinder about 8 inches long and 1 inch in diameter. however. But as sulphurous acid readily dissolves in vinegar. and after igniting the sulphur match. if correctly applied. sulphurous fluid and kills the vinegar ferment as well as all other fersuffices for a barrel of 100 to If the ments present. The sulphurous acid dissolved in the vinegar is after some time converted into sulphuric acid and its presence can be It may. runs subjecting the freshly-prepared vinegar to heating and filtering. the latter must not be brought in direct contact with the gases arising from the burning sulphur. By storing it. be barrel now immediately filled with vinsulphured the acid becomes distributed throughout the egar. however. can also be used for that of vinegar. a commercial article is obtained which is perfectly By and does not spoil by keeping. Sulphuring has long been employed as the most convenient method for the preservation of wine. secure this cylinder to a wire. The sulphuring of vinegar is best executed as follows : The barrel intended for the reception of the vinegar is thoroughly rinsed and immediately placed in the storeroom. and. be remarked that the readily detected. tissue so that the fluid bag and contracts the pores of the off entirely clear. the odoriferous bodies which make these varieties so valuable clear for developing only by that means. lower it from the bung-hole to the center of the barrel. some time in barrels it gains considerable in fineness of odor and taste. . so that the vinegar cannot undergo any further change except it come again in contact with living ferments. Sulphuring of Vinegar. sulphur match of the above size A 125 gallons.158 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The sulphurous acid formed by the combustion of the sulphur is at once dissolved by the water adhering to the interior of the barrel. Wine-vinegar.

24 hours. cose in a shallow iron vessel over a fire. moreover. Vinegar prepared from alcohol is limpid as water or only slightly colored. The resulting jelly- mass is pressed through a linen cloth. must color his vinegar by artificial means. quantity of sulphuric acid which reaches the vinegar in the above manner is exceedingly small. vinegar can be obtained with isinglass. Fining Vinegar. The melted mass soon turns . Prior to the general introduction of the quick process consumers "were accustomed to the dark yellow product prepared from wine or beer. and to suit the Carpublic taste. considerUnfounded as this prejudice is. The clarified vinegar is finally drawn off from the | sediment. and many are still prejudiced against slightly colored vinegar.TREATMENT OF FRESHLY-PREPARED VINEGAR. The isinglass to be used scissors into pre- pared as follows J to 1 Cut with a pair of drachm of isinglass for water in a porcelain dish for like narrow strips 20 and soak it in every gallons. Sulphured vinegar must be stored at least several weeks before it is salable. the manufacing it weaker. his barrels need not fear being accused of having adulterated his vinegar by the direct addition of sulphuric acid. and disappearing only is at the rate at which the sulphurous acid converted into sul- phuric acid. nevertheless obliged to recognize it. Coloring Vinegar. is partially fixed to the mineral bases (lime and magnesia) contained in the water used in the preparation of the alcoholic Hence a manufacturer who sulphurs liquid. then thrown into the barrel and thoroughly mixed with th& contents. the odor of sulphurous acid adhering to it perceptibly. This method is employed it offers no advantages is compared with : filtration. " bright by fining by a number of manufacturers though as " Similar to wine. and. stirring constantly with a long-handled spoon. amel or burnt sugar prepared from glucose is a simple and turer is It is made by melting the gluperfectly harmless coloring. A solution of J to drachms of tannin for every 20 gallons is then added to the The whole is isinglass and the mass diluted with vinegar.

as well as from the juice of sacchariferous fruits which has passed into alcoholic fermentation. PREPARATION OF VINEGAR FROM VARIOUS MATERIALS. becomes black. the caramel deliquesces to a thick so. of course. such concentrated solution keeping better black fluid. therefore.160 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. cider. vin- egar can. such as beer. than a dilute one which readily molds. and enough of it added vinegar to give it the desired coloration. ring until it tents poured out upon metal or stone plates. be converted with water into a solution of the consistency of syrup. the addition of a about small quantity of pulverized carbonate of ammonium If to 2 per cent. Immediately before use the solution is diluted with water. and a sample dropped upon a cold surface congeals to a black mass impervious to light except upon The vessel is then lifted from the fire and the conthe edges. By allowing grain to germinate. runs from the spoon in viscous dark brown threads. The taste of the congealed mass should not be bitter. it should immediately after its preparation. SINCE acetic acid is formed by the oxidation of alcohol. be prepared from every kind of fluid containing alcohol. of the weight of the glucose used is of serThe mass is now heated with constant stirvice at this stage. a body to which the term diastase is applied is formed. to the CHAPTER XVI. therefore. The conversion into caramel being hastened in the presence of alkalies. be prepared from starch in a round-about way by treating the latter with . Some manufacturers use molasses or dark syrup for coloring vinegar. rises in brown and the vessel. which possesses the property of converting starch into fermentable sugar and dextrin when brought in contact with it under certain conditions. though Vinegar can. or at least only slightly On exposure to the air. wine. and.

and with a correct execution is of the The resulting alcoholic liquid converted into alcohol by vinous can then be used for making vinegar. the vinegar obtained was not ing vinegar. The fluid (sweet mash) is compounded with yeast. The great progress made in modern times in the preparation of malt.PREPARATION OF VINEGAR FROM VARIOUS MATERIALS. of a fine taste and remained turbid. in consequence of defective processes. many a brewing or batch of malt spoiled. present the greater portion of the latter brought into commerce might actually be designated potato or malt vinegar according to the elementary material used. 161 grain containing diastase (malt). whereby it is converted into maltose and dextrin. there are at present numerous establishments exclusively engaged in this branch of the industry which sell their product to the brewer and distiller. brewing of beer. Beer-wort judged by 11 its composition does not seem a suit- . the operation was frequently interrupted by all sorts of incidents. and the sugar process the dextrin also fermentation. With the present immalt and the production of of in the provements preparation alcohol. Alcohol or spirits of wine obtained in the above-described manner from the starch contained in potatoes or grain being at the chief material used in the manufacture of vinegar. it was used for makBut. when. While formerly every brewer and distilling industry has distiller prepared his own malt. the vinegar manufacturer can work more cheaply by buying the alcohol. as a rule. and the manufacture of so-called malt or grain vinegar would pay only where heavy taxes prevent the direct use of alcohol. The manufacturer of vinegar who did not use materials con- taining finished alcohol (beer or wine) had to undertake the laborious work of making the malt and preparing and ferment- ing the mash in order to obtain an alcoholic liquid which he could finally convert into vinegar. Formerly. and besides. which led to the opinion of malt-vinegar not possessing keeping properties. and in the been accompanied by a constantly extending division of labor.

when used for vinegar. According to experience. of the weight of the alcoholic liquid of fermented mash. it being frequently changed by further processes of fermentation into a slimy fluid. of dextrin and other fermentable bodies. however. belongs to vinegar. Fermented whiskey-mashes properly prepared contain. is of a Moreover. Under certain local Manufacture of Malt or Grain Vinegar. with or with- . it fermentable sugar (maltose). the process of the formation of vinegar proceeds in the most uniform manner by preparing the alcoholic liquid from dilute alcohol. . consequently. when freed by filtration from admixed husks. it Besides a certain quancontains a considerable For the purpose of making vinegar the maltose alone can be considbeing the only fermentable constituent of beer-wort. can be used as a material for the manufacture of vinegar and yield an entirely normal product. The latter containing salts and add from 10 and nitrogenous substances suitable for the nourishment of the vinegar ferment serves. and ac- quires an insipid taste of acetic acid. this drawback exerts a disturbing influence upon the behavior of the vinegar when stored. able material for tity of amount ered. a behavior similar to that of beerwort the vinegar obtained clarifies with difficulty and does not keep making well. in this case. and clarifies with difficulty. only very small quantities of dextrin and extractive substances. and loses a large portion of its content Alcoholic mashes containing in consequence of faulty preparation a considerable quantity of dextrin show. and. making vinegar. vinegar prepared from beer-wort always contains a considerable quantity of dextrin and. and extractive substances. more thickly fluid nature than Hence.162 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. in a vinegar factory connected with a distillery it would be best to dilute ti on-rectified spirits of wine with the required quantity of water to 20 per cent. and. as a substitute for the beer generally used in vinegar factories for the prepara- tion of alcoholic liquid. conditions the manufacture of vinegat from malt. consequently.

which in mashing with water effects the conversion of the starch into maltose kiln-drying at a very high temperature a portion of the diastase is. By large quantity of dextrin would have to is formed. in which the efficacy of the diastase has not been injured by a high temperature. Independently of the dark color of the vinegar prepared from such malt. requiring much labor and knowledge. a description of the preparation of vinegar in connection with that of compressed yeast without the use of expensive machinery will be given. it contains a considerable quantity of dextrin. it will be best for the manubuy the article already prepared. Such factories for evident reasons not being established on an extensive scale. With the use of but slightly kiln-dried malt. and is readily subject to in- Malt. Malt kiln dried low a temperature as possible and yielding a light-colored extract when treated with warm water should be chosen. of malThe dextrin cannot be tose and 20 per cent. directly converted into acetic acid by the vinegar ferment and words. The preparation of the fundamental material. rendered ineffective. 163 out an addition of grain. the greatest directly obtainable quantity of maltose and the smallest amount of dextrin are procured. The proportion of maltose to dextrin is in this case as 4 1. malt. the finished mash . however. and consequently acquires an insipid by-taste.PREPARATION OF VINEGAR FROM VARIOUS MATERIALS. as is well known. jurious alterations. can be profitably carried on in connection with that of compressed yeast. in this case. for the formation of certain aromatic combinations specific taste and coloring substances which are to impart to the beer a and dark color. Many malt houses prepare such malt especially for distilling Malt prepared for brewing purposes is after the purposes. be continued for a long time in order to obtain a larger quantity of maltose. and in mashing comparatively little maltose but a and dextrin. or in other : contains about 80 per cent. Mashing. clarifies with difficulty. facturer to at as actual kiln-drying heated to a temperature frequently exceeding 158 F. of dextrin. contains diastase.

such quantities of maltose and dextrin. arid the product thus obtained contain only a small quantity of extractive substances of the malt which are not decomposed by alcoholic or acetic fermentation. exceeding this then cooled off to the degree required for the and temperature. possible that the total quantity of dextrin contained in verted into maltose and the latter into alcohol. the latter is con- and dextrin. to which the term of the diastase has after-effect been applied. consequently would be found in the finished product. the starch is formed into paste and the diastase passes into solution. By heating to above 158 F. however. the finished mass is heated for a short time to mass containing For reasons dextrin. etc. besides the stated i. . By of this nature with yeast.164 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. treat the finished mash in to a such manner however. f grain and J malt. the finished 80.8 F. and 141.. Before entering upon a description of the mashing process.. It is. The latter is. the diastase entirely loses this property. between 140 induction of alcoholic fermentation. effective diastase.) can be used instead of malt alone. e. By the action of the diastase verted into maltose upon the starch. without.. and consequently the total quantity of starch originally present is converted into alcohol by this peculiar process. By bringing the comminuted malt in contact with water of about 131 to 133 F. the diastase with the simultaneous action of the yeast is able to convert all compounding a mash the dextrin present in the fluid into maltose. it can be conin this case the theoretically calculated yield of vinegar from the malt will be nearly approached in practice. Mash prepared in this manner contains. of maltose and 19. Malt contains starch and diastase. the theoretical part in mashing will be briefly discussed. however. as possesses the power of liquefying starch.9 per cent. latter Unmalted grain being cheaper than malt and the of starch into maltose containing sufficient diastase to convert a very large quantity and dextrin.1 of given later on. a mixture of malt and unmalted grain (equal parts of both.

would form lactic and butyric acids during fermentation which would be injurious to the process of alcoholic fermentation as well as to the properties of duced to a The mash is now rethe vinegar to be manufactured. The malt carefully ground is mixed with cold water to a thin paste. Lactic acid ferment and frequently also butyric acid ferment always adhere to the malt. is permitted to run in. dougldng in as it can be effected with the assistance of a crutch or rake. This mixing of the ground malt with water. only a brief sketch of the operation will here be given. working be suitably cooled by allowing cold water to pass through a When coil placed in a vat containing it. and as the necessary information can be obtained from any treatise on that subject. The mash having reached this state. The purpose of this operation is to render all ferments present in the mash ineffective.8 F. apparatus. converted into soluble bodies. be observed to become thinly fluid by the starch paste being Mashing is finished in 2 to 2J be the more complete the more accurately the P temperature is maintained at 131 to 133 F. 1G5 preferable for the manufacture of vinegar. and will iodine solution. . if allowed to develop in the mash.PREPARATION OF VINEGAR FROM VARIOUS MATERIALS. Doughing-in being finished. and. but best in a vat provided with a mechanical stirring is called. sufficient hot water is added with constant stirring to raise the temperature to 140 or 141. it yielding a product of a finer taste than unmalted grain. by bringing it 57 or about of temperature into the cooling-back or passing it through a system of refrigon a small scale the mash can erating pipes. water of 140 to 149 F. During this operation the mash should be The at first thickly fluid mass will soon constantly stirred. until the mash shows a temperature of about 131 to 133 F. The mode of preparing the mash is exactly the same as for the distillation of alcohol. 59 F. The completion of the process is recognized by a filtered sample cooled to the ordinary temperature remaining colorless after the addition of hours. which is stirred until all small lumps are dissolved.

though the latter may the mash still shows a temperature of 71. etc. are retained but not the cells it gar. of alcoholic ferment which may be It is. of alcohol which yields vinegar of about 8 per cent. with the exception of the portion to be used for setting fresh mashes. 5 is be to F. At a certain stage of the alcoholic fermentation the yeast comes to the surface of the fluid and can be lifted off. the object of which is to prepare a fluid containing no living yeast. present. a valuable product being thus obtained without any extra expense and with but little labor. compressed yeast is obtained which. does not essentially differ from that to which mashes for the manufacture of alcohol are subjected. however. contain after fermentation about 9J per cent. The mash added when 75 now set with yeast.. can be sold. strength of the vinegar to be manufactured depends on mashes showing a sacchathe concentration of the mash The . best to heat the mash beF.. By washing it water and then freeing the yeast once or twice with cold from the excess of water by pressing. mashes showing 18 per cent. so that 1 per cent. the latter propagating abundantly and inducing a very vigorous process of fermentaThis can be profitably utilized by combining the manution. Mashes prepared from malt alone are uncommonly rich in nourishing substances for the yeast. .. Up to the completion of alcoholic fermentation the treatment of the mash as can be seen from the preceding description. fore filtration to about 140 whereby the ferment is killed. yield vinegar of about 7 per cent. of acetic acid in the vinegar may be calculated on for about every 2J degrees indicated by the saccharometer. the com" pletely fermented ripe "mash is to be used for making vineshould be subjected to a special treatment. the yeast having then time to vigorously propagate.166 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. If. rometer statement of 20 per cent. facture of vinegar and that of compressed yeast. count of their minuteness. By filtering the mash through a closely woven linen cloth the particles of malt-husks. on acdifficult to separate from the therefore.. and which. are fluid by filtration.

A large saving of labor will be effected by connecting elevated tanks holding the fermented wort with pipes and movable flexible hose which will allow of the rapid and easy filling of the casks. According to the slow process. be obtained perfectly clear in this manner. the fermented malt-wort is run into casks placed in apartments called " stoves. . and it is therefore allowed.PREPARATION OF VINEGAR FROM VARIOUS MATERIALS. is being repeatedly poured back into the filter until it runs off hol contained in it would be lost sufficiently clear. By mixing the filtered fluid with from 10 to 15 per cent. which deliver it is it to a central underground tank. It will not. the yeast cells being too minute to be retained by such a filter. F. were allowed to cool in the air. their presence in the fluid is connected with no disadvantage. The vinegar produced is siphoned off into inclined troughs. but having been killed by heating." since they are heated by stoves or steam to a temperature ranging from 70 to 80 F. an alcoholic liquid is obtained which can be worked in the usual manner in the quick-process generators. The casks are arranged in parallel rows. resting upon long wooden beams elevated about 18 inches from the ground. at least 86 F. and yields an agreeable aromatic vinegar which clarifies rapidly and improves byt storing. of its volume of vinegar. and at the 167 same time a certain quantity of stances dissolved in the fluid is rendered insoluble rated. albuminous suband sepa- of the mash is best effected by passing it of a coil tin-pipe placed in a boiler filled with water through kept constantly boiling. after heating. a large portion of the alcoreadily regulated which it by evaporation. from which pumped into the storing tanks. however. and having their bungs uppermost while a small hole on top of the front head of each causes the circulation of air. The temperature of the fluid can be The heating by increasing or decreasing the velocity with If the fluid heated to 140 passes through the coil. to pass through a second coil of pipe which is surrounded by cold water whereby it is cooled to This fluid is then filtered through a linen bag.



Malt vinegar generally contains a great deal of mucilaginous matter which settles with difficulty, preventing its keeping, It is therefore while giving nourishment to vinegar eels. it is this and for filter to it, purpose pumped into necessary These vessels are often filled with the refining or rape vessels. wood shavings, straw, or spent tanner's wood, but nothing acts
as well in producing by filtration a clear bright vinegar as the " stalks and skins of grapes or raisins technically called rape."

power and a large quantity of vinegar is manufactured, the filtering is effected under a considerable hydroThe rape is placed in a closed vessel between static pressure.





false perforated



circuit of pipes is connected

at the lower

and upper part of the


the vinegar


to pass

and by means of a and again again through

the rape.
" fieldfrequently effected by In this case, as the term implies, the process is coning." ducted in the open air. The casks rest on small frames 1J

The mode

of manufacture


feet high,



being supported by firm pillars of brick-work or operation generally begins in spring and continues

during the summer.

The fermented


casks by the bung-holes, the latt^fr being left loosely covered with a tile in wet weather.

run into the open in dry, and

Gradually the

alcohol of the "gyle," as the fermented liquor is called, becomes oxidized, and acetic acid is produced, of course simul-

The latter is then drawn off and taneously affording vinegar. transferred, to the refining or rape vessels where it passes through the process of filtration already described.
In some factories large quantities of sour ale and beer are converted by similar processes into vinegar, but the product is



The large inferior to the vinegar made from malt-wort. of nitrogenous and other extractive substances which

those liquids contain undergoes a second or putrid fermentation after the alcohol has been oxidized into acetic acid, and
in doing so reacts

upon the acid,, leaving a liquid of a disodor By the agreeable slightly resembling very stale beer.



addition of sulphuric acid this second fermentation is postponed for some time, but the vinegar has nevertheless a nauseous smell which renders it objectionable.

The juice of the sugar-beet conVinegar from Sugar-Beets. tains a considerable quantity of cane-sugar and is readily brought into alcoholic fermentation, so that seemingly this

would form a very suitable material

for the


of vinegar. Sugar-beets contain on an average 12 percent, of cane-sugar, the latter yielding, when completely fermented,

a fluid containing about 6J per cent, by weight of alcohol a fluid with this percentage of alcohol yields vinegar with 6 per

of acetic acid.

In addition to sugar the juice of the beet-root contains, however, a large number of other substances which exert an

upon the course of

alcoholic fermentation, and, be-

sides alcohol, a large quantity of fusel oils is formed, so that

the alcohol has to be thoroughly rectified before

it is fit


The fermented

beet-root juice itself has, however, a dis-

agreeable taste and odor, and the vinegar prepared from it showing similar properties will not be fit for household purposes until a


for these





experiments made for the purpose of freeing beet-root vinegar from the substances which impart to it a disagreeable odor


have given no favorable results. Filtering through charcoal, and even distilling the vinegar and treating the distilled product with strongly oxidizing bodies, do not produce the desired effect. From these experiments it would seem to impossible directly obtain from sugar-beets vinegar fit for household use. By fermenting Vinegar from Sugar, Fruits and Berries. off the clear alcoand solution with sugar pouring pure yeast

shows a slightly acid reaction (from succinic acid), but is not converted into vinegar even if standing for several weeks in the most suitable temperature, because the vinegar ferment is wanting. By adding, however, an
holic fluid, the latter

excess of yeast, so that


remains partially suspended in the


which can be

by the addition of solution of


or starch paste, the nourishment for the spores of the vinegar ferment reaching the fluid from the air is provided and
acetification takes place.

Cadet-Gassicourt advises the fermentation together of 124
parts of sugar, 868 of water,

and 80

of yeast,


to filter after

one month.


Or, according to another 61, water 2145, yeast 20.


Sugar 245
ferment at completed





Fermentation begins the same day and

in 15 days.

Doebereiner gives the following directions Dissolve 10 Ibs. of sugar in 180 quarts of hot water, add 6 Ibs. of pulverized

crude tartar


dissolves only partially),


F. induce fermentation


after .cooling to In of beer yeast. 4J quarts


about eight days, when fermentation is finished, add about 15 quarts of spirits of wine of at least 50 per cent. Tr. or 8 quarts of alcohol of 90 per cent. Tr., and bring the mixture into the
acetifying vessel.

This fluid would also be suitable
scale for domestic use,

for the

quick process.

For making vinegar on a small


sugar with water alone, or sugar with raisins, currants, and These should be especially ripe gooseberries, may be used.


in the proportion

which would give a strong wine, put

into a small barrel filled to about three-fourths of


and bunged very
the barrel set in

Some yeast should be put in and loosely. the sun in summer or a little way from the
will soon begin.

in winter,

and fermentation

This should

be kept up constantly, but moderately,

the taste and smell

indicate that the vinegar is complete. poured off clear, and bottled carefully.
better, if it is

should then be

It will



boiled for a minute, cooled, and strained before



ties of fruit

the exception of apples and pears, the different variecannot be had in such abundance as that they

could be used for the manufacture of vinegar on a large scale, and hence only a brief description of their utilization for that

purpose will be given.

It is characteristic of


most of our

varieties of fruits,


especially of berries, that in proportion to their content of sugar they have a much greater content of free acids than

must be taken into considerawine would be obtained which contains a considerable quantity of unfermented sugar. The following table shows the average content of sugar and free acid in the most common varieties of fruits
this circumstance
tion, as otherwise



Free acid calculated as malic acid.






6.25 to 13.99













. . .



5.09 to 11.31










Raspberries Blackberries





...... .......






1.484 1.188




to the


table, currants, gooseberries, rasp-

berries, etc., contain on an average scarcely 6 per cent, ol sugar, and consequently their juice, after complete fermenta-

would give a fluid with about 3 per cent, of alcohol, from which vinegar with about 2J per cent, of acetic acid could be obtained. Such vinegar being, however, too weak, those berries would not seem suitable for the direct preparation of vineMoreover, the complete fermentation of the juice of most gar. berries is very difficult, the free acids, among which malic acid preponderates, exerting an injurious influence upon the protion,

gress of fermentation.

Vinous fluids of an agreeable taste can, however, be prepared from berries, and from them an aromatic and finely
flavored vinegar, by decreasing the content of acid in the juice and increasing that of sugar. The juice of currants, as seen from the above table, contains in round numbers 6 per cent,
of sugar

and 2 per cent, of malic acid. By diluting this juice with an equal volume of water a fluid containing 3 per cent.



of sugar and 1 per cent, of acid is obtained, and the content of the former can be increased at will by the direct addition
of sugar.

100 quarts of currant juice with 100 quarts of water and adding 34 Ibs. of sugar, the resulting fluid contains about 20 per cent, of sugar and after complete fermentation gives a fluid with about 9.5 per cent, of

By compounding,

for instance,

which yields vinegar of nearly 9 per cent, strength. vinegar is, however, stronger and more agreethat of vinegar from alcohol, it containing bethan acid ably


taste of this

sides acetic acid

Moreover, vinegar obtained from berries contains a certain quantity of extractive substances and odoriferous products of fermentation, so that it possesses an agreeable bouquet and thus appears



per' cent, of

malic acid.

more valuable than the ordinary product. In many regions bilberries grow in abundance and can be bought very cheap. Treated in the above manner, they yield an excellent vinegar, possessing, however, a somewhat harsh by-taste, due to the tannin contained in the berries. The latter can be removed from the fermented fluid before using it for
the preparation of vinegar, by compounding the latter when quite clear with gelatine solution or fresh white of egg, both

forming insoluble combinations with the tannin, which separates in the form offtakes.


In regard to the preparation of vinegar from berries, it reto be remarked that, after pressing the bruised berries,

the juice

brought into

compounded with water and sugar and at once fermentation by the addition of yeast (best fresh

wine-yeast, or if this be wanting, compressed yeast divided in water). Fermentation should take place at quite a high The separated yeast is carefully temperature, 68 to 72 F.

removed from the fermented liquid and the
in barrels kept constantly filled for the preparation of vinegar.

latter stored



to the

bung, or at once used


vinegar by means
fluid a

of the vinegar ferment floating

converting fruit-wine into upon the


finer product is obtained

than by the quick




Peaches as Vinegar Stock. Mr. H. C. Gore * has made experiments regarding the value of peaches as vinegar stock. The conclusions drawn by him from this work are, first, that
stock, and, second, that they

peaches contain sufficient fermentable sugar for use as vinegar can be successfully handled by

machinery already in use for making apple cider and vinegar. Other points of interest are as follows First, but little variation was found in the composition of the same variety of peaches when obtained from different localities. Second, the peach juices analyzed were found to be richer in sugar than those which have been previously analyzed by others, but they were about 1 per cent lower in sugar than average apple


They were considerably
in acid.



culture yeasts was mentation. Fourth, the ciders prepared from peaches were considerably poorer in alcohol than apple ciders on Account of

richer than apples in sucwas found that the use of pure Third, not necessary to insure rapid alcoholic fer-

the fact that peaches contain less total sugars than apples. Fifth, the presence of brown rot was found not to interfere

with the alcoholic fermentation of the ground peaches,

but a large proportion of the sugars was wasted by allowing the fruit to rot before fermenting. Sixth, well-flavored vinea of small were the use gars quick-process generproduced by

These vinegars were of acceptable quality, though turbid, and did not possess the distinctive peach flavor. Cider Vinegar. The manufacture of cider itself will be de-

scribed in another portion of this work and, hence, its utilization for the preparation of vinegar will here only be given. The preparation of vinegar from good cider is not difficult,

the process of acetification by means of the vinegar ferment floating upon the surface yielding an aromatic product of a fine flavor which is nearly of as good a quality as wine vinegar.


account of


content of malic acid, the vinegar


United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry


No. 51.



more acid than ordinary vinegar with the same content of But in order to produce cider vinegar of the first acetic acid. quality one must have good cider vinegar made of watered cider will be thin and weak.


cider extracted

by the


but in rare cases used for making by subjecting the pomace, with the addition of water or sugar solution, to a second and third pressure being as a rule utilized
juice thus obtained should be so constituted as to yield vinegar containing 4 J to 5 \ per cent, of acetic acid. The cider to be converted into vinegar should be as
for the purpose.

pressing of the apples is vinegar, the juice obtained


clear as possible and, if necessary, filtration over sand or storing for some time is advisable.

The conversion of cider into vinegar is best effected in a generator furnished with a tilting trough for the intermittent
supply of cider. After the cider has been extracted and the cheese removed

from the

press, the

pomace may

also be utilized for


vinegar by treating it as follows The pomace is piled up on a platform of suitable construction and allowed to ferment.

In the course of a few days considerable heat

will be devel-

when a few

pailfuls of

poured upon the


warm water (not boiling) are in the course of twenty-four hours

the pomace will be in proper condition for grinding. It is then run through a grater-mill and relaid upon the press in a
tlpe same manner as originally laid in cider making. then subjected to heavy pressure until the liquid contained in the cheese is extracted. This liquid may be ex-

cheese in
It is

posed in shallow open casks in a time will be found good vinegar




room, and in a short may be immediately

passed through a generator. Mr. Walter G. Sackett * gives directions for home-made cider
vinegar as follows

The sweet

cider as


comes from the

* Bulletin 192, November, 1913.

Agricultural Experiment Station of the

Colorado Agricultural College.




not be


either be placed at once in barrels, which should more than two-thirds or three-fourths full, or if

one has suitable wooden tubs or vats, in a clean, cool place it may be stored there from 12 to 24 hours to permit settling,



should be


should be transferred to barrels. The bung out and a loose stopper of cotton batting in-

serted in the hole to decrease evaporation and prevent dirt from falling in. The barrels should not be tightly stoppered until the vinegar contains at least 4 to 5 per cent, of acetic

which time they should be filled entirely full and securely bunged. Throughout the entire period of vinegar casks should the be placed on their side and not on making,
acid, at

the end. the

This gives the cider a larger free surface exposed to
quite essential to rapid vinegar formation. also be of some advantage in admitting air to bore a



If inch hole in each end of the barrel along the upper edge. If this is done, the holes should be covered with fine gauze
wire or two

exclude small

vinegar flies. "A few days after the cider
acteristic frothing


put into the barrels the char-

appears at the bung-hole.

To use

a com-


This indicates expression, 'it is beginning to work.' that the alcoholic fermentation, the first step in the vinegarmaking process, has begun, and the sugar of the apple juice is
being converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. To depend upon the wild yeast of the air to accomplish the fermentation is too uncertain since many of them are able to convert
only a small part of the sugar into alcohol, while others act so slowly that they are impracticable. Inasmuch as the percentage of acetic acid in the vinegar depenjds directly upon the


of alcohol produced,



very essential to secure as

large a yield of alcohol as possible from the sugar present. This means converting all of the sugar into alcohol in the
shortest time possible.
this is to

The most satisfactory way of doing add one cake of compressed yeast, stirred up in a

cooled, boiled water, to each five gallons of sweet cider.



In place of

from a pure culture,

one quart of liquid wine yeast, propagated may be used for each thirty gallons of

During the alcoholic fermentation, the cider should be Here is where many kept at a temperature of 05 to 80 F.


the very serious mistake of putting their fresh cider into a cool cellar where the fermentation takes place entirely too
If the cider



in the


the barrels should be

out of doors for a while on the protected, sunny side of a building and kept warm, unless a regular vinegar-cellar, artificially heated, is at " If yeast is added


and the proper temperature is maintained,

to three

the alcoholic fermentation should be completed in six weeks months in place of seven to ten months as in the old-

Experiments along this line have shown that added and a temperature of 70 F. is held, the yeast cider at the end of one month contained 7.25 per cent, of alcohol as against .11 per cent, when no yeast was used and the temperature was between 45 and 55 F. Cider kept in a to 55 F. with no yeast added required seven cellar at 45 months to make 6.79 per cent, of alcohol. " Temperature, alone, is an important factor as shown by an experiment wherein cider to which no yeast was added was held for three months at 70 F. and yielded 6.41 per cent, of
fashioned way.




no question but that the time required for completing the alcoholic fermentation can be reduced at least onehalf by adding yeast and by maintaining the proper temperais



By hastening

this operation, the loss of alcohol


started that "

reduced, and the acetic fermentation can be


as alcoholic fermentation is completed draw off the clear liquid, being very careful not to disturb the sedi-

As soon


in the barrel.


out the barrel thoroughly and


It is believed that removing this sediplace the hard cider. ment permits the acetic acid to form somewhat more quickly,



and furthermore, the sediment may undergo decomposition and impart a disagreeable flavor to the cider. Again these dregs may harbor living bacteria which either destroy acetic
acid or interfere with its formation. " are now ready to introduce the acetic acid germs. This ma}7 be carried on in a number of different ways, but


preferably by means of a pure culture of a desirable organism which has been selected because of its ability to produce strong
acetic acid

and impart an agreeable

flavor to the vinegar.


place of the pure culture starter, one quarts of good cider vinegar containing

may add two to four more or less mother

left to

The introduction of a desirable organism is chance in this case. A serious objection to the latter method is that sometimes one introduces foreign organisms with the mother' which may prove detrimental to the vineeach barrel.

gar. "

Pure culture

With the

from this objection. acetic fermentation, as with the alcoholic, the

* is free

higher temperatures favor the changes. Experimental work shows that hard cider to which no acetic acid bacteria were

added other than those that came from the air, and kept at 65 F., when six months old, contained 7.03 per cent, of acetic acid, while that held at 55 F. showed only 3.63 per cent. " The addition of some kind of an acetic acid starter, either
pure culture of the acetic organism or as good vinegar, hastens the fermentation and reduces appreciably the time
as a

required for

making marketable
satisfactory results


For most

we would recommend using

the pure cultures and holding the vinegar at a temperature of 65 to 75 F. Under these conditions, salable vinegar can be obtained in three to six months in place of two to three years,
as is often the case.

Theoretically, 100 parts- of alcohol should

give about 130 parts of acetic acid, but in actual practice this will probably fall below 120.
* The pure cultures, both of yeast and acetic acid bacteria, for vinegar making, here referred to, can be obtained by addressing The Bacteriological Department,

Experimental Station, Fort Collins, Colorado.




When the acetic acid has reached 4.5 to 5 per cent., fill In this way, the barrels as full as possible and cork tightly. contact of the air with the vinegar is cut off and the acetic
If this is not done acid organisms soon cease their activity. and the acetic and other bacteria are allowed to develop indefinitely, there is apt to be a reverse reaction

resulting in a

partial or complete loss of the acetic acid. of course, worthless."

Such vinegar







be divided into two groups



those with a specific odor, and those with a specific odor and

As an example
it is

both kinds tarragon vinegar


be taken.

gar the volatile


prepared by simply dissolving in the vineof dragon's wort (Artemisia dracunculus) ob-

tained by distillation with water, the product is simply perfumed vinegar, the odor of the volatile oil being mixed with
that of the acetic acid, but the taste remains unchanged. If, however, the fresh leaves of the plant are macerated with vinegar, not only the volatile oil is dissolved, but also certain ex.
tractive substances peculiar to this plant, and the taste of the vinegar is also changed, the product in this case being aro-

matized vinegar.

dissolving in vinegar rose oil or rose water (perfumed), is obtained. By treating raspberries with vinegar the latter absorbs not only the odoriferous substances of the


rose vinegar

raspberry, but also the non-odoriferous extractive substances,

and the product



aromatized vinegar. manipulation every volatile


can be dissolved

in vinegar,

and consequently as many different varieties of perfumed vinegar can be prepared as there are volatile oils.



perfumers prepare a number of such varieties which contain one or more volatile oils whose odors harmonize and
are sold as volatile spirit of vinegar, fumigating vinegar, etc.

Such vinegars can be prepared in various ways, the finest odors being, however, obtained by distilling the fresh parts of the plants with water and mixing the distillate, which actually
represents a solution of the volatile oil in water, with strong The finest rose vinegar, orange blossom vinegar, vinegar.

are prepared in this manner. For this rather tedious process of preparing perfumed vinegar, the one in which freshly prepared volatile oils are used


be advantageously substituted.

Td be

sure the volatile

oils dissolve only sparingly in vinegar, but sufficiently so to impart their characteristic odor to it. By using an excess of volatile oil it does not dissolve; but distributes itself in fine

drops throughout the vinegar, rendering the latter opalescent, so that fining with tannin and isinglass is necessary to make

bright again. This drawback can be avoided by a simple manipulation which is based upon the fact that a body dissolving with diffi-

culty dissolves the the solvent.

more readily the greater


it offers


Prepare glass-powder as fine as the best wheat flour by heating pieces of glass, throwing them into cold water, and pulverizing and elutriating in a mortar. By the sudden cooling the
it can be readily converted into a a suitable powder. Bring quantity of this powder into a porcelain dish and drop volatile oil upon it with constant rub-

becomes so

brittle that

bing until

it is

uniformly moistened.

Pour the vinegar

to be

perfumed upon this glass powder and stir gently with the The fluid is then poured into the barrel intended for pestle.
the reception of the perfumed vinegar and a fresh quantity of vinegar poured upon the glass-powder, this being continued
until all the glass-powder has been brought into the barrel by The barrel is then stirring and pouring over fresh vinegar.

entirely filled with vinegar,



being securely bunged,

are allowed to rest for a few weeks in a moderately room. The entirely clear perfumed vinegar is then drawn off into bottles. a large quantity of water. In case glass vessels are used they have to be in a dark room. as it acts in the same manner the only difference is that the glass-powder being an insoluble body falls to the bottom of the barrel. Concentrated acetic acid 8 ounces. a in suitable to be extracted are vessel. lavender 2 drachms. Below a few formulas for toilet and table vinegars are given : warm TOILET VINEGARS. peppermint. acetic acid. pulverized sugar may be substituted for the glass-powder. and Mohr's Volatile Spirits of Vinegar. a great number of fumigating and may be obtained. anise.. the above-described process perfumed vinegar with the oil in odor of dragoii's-wort. oil of oils of rosemary and cloves each 1 1 ounce. Equal parts of acetic acid acetic ether. it volatile fumigating or toilet vinegars is best to dissolve the volatile oils in uncolored vinegar pre- For the preparation of pared from alcoholic liquid. then allowed to rest for a few days for the glass-powder to settle. uniform mixture of its rolled in order to secure a It is contents. which are oil to be kept in a dark cool room. Where the remaining of a small residue after the volatilization of the perfumed vinegar is of no importance. rose. as a rule.. toilet vinegars The preparation of aromatized vinegars by means of the ex- The parts of tractive substances of plants is very simple. a barrel placed plants or large flask. should be used. The vegetable substances used for aromatizing vinegar containing. perfumed with a few drops of oil of cloves. with the volatile By the vinegar. light exerting an injurious influence upon kept the odors. may be prepared. and after pouring vinegar over them and closing the vessel. drachm. etc.180 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the odor of the volatile being injured by light and heat. etc. oil of camphor . and by a suitable mixture of those whose odors harmonize. while the sugar dissolves together . Aromatic Vinegar. strong vinegar. with 10 to 11 per cent.

' 181 Bruise the camphor and dissolve it in the acetic acid. Vinaigre des Quatre Voleurs. dissolved previously filter camphor Hygienic or Preventive Vinegar. the acid and digest for a week longer at a temperature of about 59 F. and lavender each benzoin 1 ounce. Macerate the materials for a day in the alcohol then add . cloves. concentrated aromatic vinegar 1 ounce. oil of nutmeg J drachm. Finally press out the now aromatized vinegar .VINEGAR SPECIALTIES. shaking frequently. alcohol (rectified) 8 ounces. camphor J alcohol or brandy 1 ounce. caraway seed f. the liquid off. close the vessel air-tight and let the whole digest in Then strain a warm place for 6 to 8 days. strain or filter. gum Macerate these together for a few hours. at summer heat then cinnamon. cloves. mint and rue each } ounce. press out the residue. . and put . 1 drachm. then add 2 pints of brown vinegar and Cosmetic Vinegar. oil of neroli 1 drachm. express and the vinegar produced and add the in the brandy or alcohol. sage. in a closely covered vessel. Fresh tops of common worm- wood. for a fortnight. Digest all the materials. wormHenry's Vinegar. fennel and coriander seed each J. strong vinegar 4 pints. rue. it up in bottles. oil of Brandy 1 pint. mint and lavender flowers each 1 ounce. it is strained nutmeg. angelica root and camphor each J ounce. calamus aromaticus.and filter it. sional agitation and ready for use. Alcohol 1 quart. Dried leaves of rosemary. sage. TABLE VINEGARS. Convert into a coarse powder anise seed 5 parts. and nutmeg each 1 drachm. balsam of Peru 1 ounce. filter the vinegar. lavender flowers 1 ounce. Roman wormwood. garlic. except the camphor and spirit. bruised wood. gum benzoin 3 ounces. pour 5 parts of alcohol and 45 parts of strong vinegar over the powders. ounce. Anise Vinegar. oils of cloves marjoram J drachm. concentrated acetic acid 32 ounces. then add the perfumes after standing for a few days with occa. rosemary.

and filter. and allow the whole to simmer for 3 or 4 minutes as soon as the mixture is cold add J pint of strong vinegar. previously boiled up.vinegar. and 12 parts of beer yeast thoroughly washed. Then strain the vinegar through linen. Pick the young tender leaves of dragon'sTarragon Vinegar. until it has been converted into strong vinegar. Dissolve 500 parts of loaf sugar in Effervescing Vinegar. Keep the vinegar in well-corked bottles in a cool. This. Put all in a suitable vessel. dark place. press agitating it. strained liquor add 2J ounces of salt and the same quantity of flour together with the pulped anchovies. 1J parts of the best cinnamon. while remaining in the pots. let it stand in a warm place and digest 5 or 6 days. and The yeast in the proportion of 1 spoonful to 5 Ibs. pour good wine-vinegar over them. Comminute leaves of dragon'swort 100 parts. fluid is then distributed in several earthenware pots and exposed to a temperature of 77 to 88 F. and after agitating it thoroughly let it ferment at a temperature of 55 When ferto 60 F. and let the whole stand for a few days. and shallots 25. 5000 parts of water. . Place the whole in a barrel. common bean leaves 25. Then strain the vinegar through a cloth.182 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. out the residue. Anchovy Vinegar. of sugar. Compound Tarragon Vinegar. add lemon juce and rind cut up in the proportion of 1 lemon to 1 Ib. frequently 3J. bay leaves and orris root each 25. strong vinegar over it. of sugar. pour 700 to 750 parts of pure. leaves of basil and marjoram each 12J. mentation has ceased the vinous fluid is strained and mixed with 1000 parts of best wine. as otherwise the vinegar will not keep. Bruise the leaves. bottle. The bones and parts which do not pass through the sieve are To the boiled for 15 minutes in a pint of water and strained. filter and pear. The bottles must be filled entirely full. wort (Artemisia dracunculus) when the first flower-buds ap. Reduce 1 pound of boned anchovies to a pulp in a mortar and pass the mass through a hair-sieve. cloves cinnamon 6J. place them in a suitable vessel. add 25 parts of alcohol.

f part of crystallized part of bicarbonate of soda. Clove Vinegar. Pour 600 or 700 parts of good vinegar over the herbs and treat in the same compound tarragon vinegar. Digest one week and filter.loses its Pine-apple vinegar. This excellent vinegar soon. flavor. brandy and after two days pound of this vinegar are tartaric acid..VINEGAR SPECIALTIES. Cloves 3J ozs. basil and celery each 3 J. Digest . Lovage Vinegar. ozs. vinegar 1 pint.. and it is therefore best to prepare a small quantity at a time and keep in bottles closed air-tight. but if thereby too much the vinegar itself is not very strong diluted and consequently weak. and J bottles. filter. vinegar 1 pint. is 183 added. must be corked as quickly as possible and then stored in a cool place. Bruise the slices of pine-apple and pour over them a conClose the vessel air-tight and siderable quantity of vinegar. Chop fine the leaves of marjoram and thyme each 13J parts. and fresh shallots 1 J. as The soon as the re- spective portion of the mixture has been added to each. mixed with 200 parts of French To each bottled in small bottles. as it contains sufficent aroma to impart to vinegar macerated with it for some time an agreeable odor and taste of raspberries. the juice may also be used. then pour off the vinegar and filter. let it manner as given for stand 12 hours Celery Vinegar. Mustard Vinegar.. Herb Vinegar. Digest one week and filter. best to use the residue remaining after pressing the ripe and crushed berries. vinegar 1 1 oz. lovage seed vinegar 10 ozs. Celery seed 4J ozs.. However. 14 days . common bean leaves 6J. for the small quantity By the alcohol . is For the preparation of this vinegar it Raspberry Vinegar. stirring it of sugar contained in the berries to ferment. Lovage root 2 ozs. leaves of mint. pulverized. Black mustard seed 2 pint. frequently. Digest 7 days and strain. to a paste it becomes latter to Crush the fresh berries and allow the stand a few days..

it is The whole is then allowed to digest The flavor of pressed and filtered. raspberry vinegar is improved by adding 10 drops of acetic For 1 pound of pressed residue about 4 to 5 ether per quart. not absolutely necessary to leave a small quantity of alcohol in the vinegar. and imparting a very to the vinegar. and in the latter. special ease when the latter is in a nascent Hence a small quantity of it is found in nearly all red wines not prepared by fermentation in closed vats. and it is when would seem with state. acetic acid enters with other bodies. . it is deli- and agreeable bouquet recommended conduct the production of a fine article so that it contains a small quantity of it. Among the numerous combinations into which. it being It is readily directly used in the manufacture of vinegar. acetic ether of special value for the vinegar manufacturer. made into paste with vinegar and spread out red. flat. The quantity of vinegar required is then a vivid red color. few days. for the formation of acetic ether. But in both cases the vinegar has to be stored for several weeks in the first. at first again acquires. The press-cake is crushed. as either acetic ether or alcohol can be directly added to the finished product. being pale frequently stirred. In vinegar containing a small quantity of unchanged alcohol some acetic ether formed by the conversion of this alcohol into acetic acid cate to is always present. Preparation of Acetic Ether. ether and of acetic. however. its presence being due to the formation of a small quantity of acetic acid from the alcohol. thus formed the pectin in the juice is to a great extent separated. poured over the for a paste. quarts of strong vinegar are used. for the purpose of harmonizing the odors of acetic . During this time the paste. which immediately combines with the ethyl oxide or ether.acid. exposed to the air for a few days. It is.184 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The paste is then brought into a small bag and pressed. in consequence of a process of oxidation. formed on alcohol coming in contact with acetic acid.

at stupefying odor. Thus 6 parts of pure acetic ether are obtained. of acetic ether suffice ment of the odor of 100 quarts of vinegar. Entirely pure acetic ether is best prepared in the following manner To : 9 parts of concentrated sulphuric acid 3.2 F. all traces of water are removed. allowing the fluid to stand in a warm room for several months.932 and it boils. from which. for the improve- . 185 fluid quite rich in acetic ether and very suitable for imparting bouquet to table vinegar can in a very simple manner A be prepared by mixing in a flask one volume of highly concentrated acetic acid with 95 or 96 per cent. at the same time keeping the liquid well stired.6 parts of commercial absolute alcohol are added by means of a funnel tube which reaches to the bottom of the vessel. and after clos- ing the flask air-tight. best in a cool place. After standing for 24 hours this mixture is added to 6 parts of sodium acetate which has previously been fused and broken in small fragments. The resulting fluid is used as an addition to the vinegar whose odor is to be improved. alcohol. 165.VINEGAR SPECIALTIES. and after 12 hours the mixture is distilled. by rectifying over calcium chloride. IT O ^ Pure acetic ether or ethyl acetate has the composition fluid clear as water with p** and represents a an agreeable but Its specific gravity is 0. About 3J to 7 ozs. On account of its volatility it has to be kept in well-stoppered bottles.

Since wine contains between 6 and 14 per cent. Both white and red wines may be used for the purpose. but as white wine vinegar is as a rule preferred. According to Bioletti* one ton of grapes of 20 Balling should on the aver- age yield 135 gallons of vinegar of 9. Bulletin No. This is because one or two percent. University of California Publica- . 1912. and by reactions within the liquid which produce other subIf the stances at the expense of the alcohol and acetic acid. Grape Vinegar. acetic acid. and because during the process there is a considerable loss of alcohol and acetic acid by evaporation. to which even the If grapes are used they must of course best grapes can be put. It may be greater or less than this according as the grapes This yield may be diminished by and imperfect crushing pressing of the grapes whereby more in Alcohol may be lost by imperfect must is left the pomace. 227. CHAPTER XVIII. MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. or if the acetic bacteria are allowed to act too long.186 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. of alcohol. and the process of decolorizing impairs its flavor and aroma. tions. The greatest difference between the theoretical and the actual yield is in the change from wine into vinegar. of alcohol remains unconverted in the vinegar. be first made into wine by the usual process. * contain more or less sugar. By Frederic T.8 per cent. temperature during acetification is too high. it evidently furnishes an excellent material for vinegar making. in some cases. this loss may be much increased. or improper fermentation in which case the vinegar will be weaker. Vinegar may also be made from grapes which are unsuitable for drying. the product obtained from red wine is generally not salable until it has been decolorized. Bioletti. shipping or wine making. and this may be the most profitable use.

quet substances are also changed in such a manner that bodies distinguished by a characteristic odor are formed. series of non-volatile organic acids.. The following table shows the composition of wine and of the vinegar formed from it : . will be darker colored and. amyl alcohol. the cenanthic ether found in every wine forming. wine very likely contains a series of odoriferous substances which proner as ethyl alcohol is duce its peculiar aroma termed bouquet or flower. red. and finally What changes these bodies not accurately known. a the so-called extractive substances. This color can be removed. converted into acetic acid. wine contains glycerin. or 160 gallons of vinegar from a ton of grapes. succinic acids. reddening the juice very much. tartaric. so to say. Furthermore. The vinegar. The question. 187 By allowing the crushed grapes to ferment on the skins before pressing. which in the same manof the constitution of wine. Moreover. Fermentation for twenty-four hours on the skins will much facilitate the extraction of the juice without.MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. for instance. are changed into acids possessing a peculiar odor. but the decoloration is diffi- cult and involves some loss of quality. wine vinegar contains very small quantities of other alcohols. malic. except in the case of grapes very rich in coloring matter. but all of them are very likely subject to certain modifications because a smaller quantity of extractive substances and of non-volatile acids is found undergo is in the vinegar than in the original wine. however. a somewhat larger volume of wine and thereThis may amount to 150 fore of vinegar may be obtained. what constitutes the superiority of wine vine- gar over the ordinary product obtained from alcohol is not difficult to answer for those who have an accurate knowledge Besides the ordinary (ethyl) alcohol. the keynote in the harmony of the odoriferous substances constituting the In the conversion of wine into vinegar these boubouquet. in the case of red grapes. etc.

Tartaric acid." the wine. Potable wine can be profitably used for making vinegar only in localities where in consequence of a very abundant The chief supharvest it can be bought at a very low price. and consequently have become unsalable as a beverage. Ethyl alcohol (none or very Other alcohols (changed). Wine-vinegar contains Water. a sickness fre- quently occurring in wines poor in alcohol. little) Glycerin. Malic acid Snccinic acid (less). Tartaric acid (less). Another sickness chiefly. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Tannin. (traces). Tartar. Coloring substances changed. renders the wine unfit for " " Turning sour is. (Enanthic ether. Tartar (less). Malic acid. (Enanthic ether (changed and unchanged). Ethyl alcohol. acquiring in a short time by the action of a peculiar ferment such a disagreeable bitter taste as to render it " absolutely unfit for drinking. Other alcohols. The above comparison shows the thorough modification wine undergoes in being converted into vinegar. Acetic acid. (less). Snccinic acid. The term " sick " is generally applied to wines in which alterations take place when progressed to a beverage. . Bouquet substances. as the term implies. Extractive substances > I Bouquet substances. and that the resulting product must have a bouquet or flower having a certain connection with that of wine. for instance. Glycerin (less?) Acetic acid (much newly formed). Extractive substances. of alcohol. Tannin (changed). occurring in red wines is the so-called turning bitter. especially from ply making vinegar varieties with from 8 to 9 per cent. It manifests itself by the development of large masses of a certain ferment which quickly destroys the tartaric acid contained in the wine. which have deteriorated on account of incorrect treatment in the cellar. by the activity of a certain ferment which. a certain degree. J Coloring substances Acetic ether and other compound \ newly / ethers formed.188 Wine contains Water. for from is derived wines.

. less. wine alvinegar.. 189 Such wine cannot be used even for vinegar. but yields a product of very inferior quality. Such wine need only be exposed a somewhat higher tem- perature in order to induce acetic fermentation. which if not disturbed in its progress. By but becomes rather storing the wine.MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. because on the wine being subjected to acetic fermentation the lactic acid contained in it is readily converted into butyric acid. e. Many generation. showing a taste of mold. but none of the wine to about 140 killed remedies have been proposed for the cure of acetic dethem is of any value except heating F. the latter showing the same disagreeably bitter taste. the acetic acid does not increase. absolutely no remedy for the removal or neutralization of the acetic acid already present in the wine. Wine no longer young and not overly rich in alcohol to is especially adapted for the nutriment of the vinegar ferment. though only about a few ten-thousandths of its weight. besides the bodies belonging to the series of fatty acids. which possesses a disagreeable rancid odor completely killing the pleasant aroma of the bouquet substances. will finally convert all the alcohol in the wine to acetic acid. It may be here remarked that every normal wine always con- tains. however. wine which though not sick is unsound. and if examined with the microscope the ferment charac* teristic of acetic fermentation will be found upon its surface. acetic acid. There only remains as a material actually fit for the preparation of wine" acetic degeneration. Hence. wine attacked by ready so it much changed by the vinegar ferment as to render unfit for a beverage. etc. Heating the wine can only be recommended when the evil has been in existence but a short time and the increase of acetic . There is. and." i. whereby the vinegar ferment is and the further progress of acetic fermentation checked. a rapid increase of the acetic acid an indication of the wine being attacked by acetic degeneration. Wine attacked by what is " called " lactic acid degeneration can be used for the manufacture of vinegar. further. it being consumed in the formation of compound is ethers. of the barrel.

since except a short delay in the reappearance of the infection to the sound transmission the of the evil and can be attained by wine. while for the latter nothing is necessary but a few vessels readily procured. by a process introduced by Petiot.190 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. though more rapidly by the latter. cannot be effected by every wine grower. more suitable for Young wine the nutriment of the mold ferment than for that of the vinegar ferment. lutely necessary to work the marc fresh from the press. and. On account of its large content of albuminous substances it is. For preparation of cognac or converting it into the first a distilling apparatus is required. however. or heating after the introduction of air to about 140 F. * Gahrungs-Essig.. These difficulties can. be air into difficulties oc- largely overcome by introducing large quantities of such wine and storing for some time in barrels filled up to the bung. wine attacked by acetic degeneration with sound wine in order to cover the acid taste is especially unadvisable. might give rise to injurious com- The so-called after wine obtained from grapes once pressed. Before further working the wine has to be filtered to remove the albuminous substances rendered insoluble by the treatment effected described. consequently. . since after fermentation its composition as regards alcohol and extractive substances is very advanFor successfully carrying out the process it is absotageous. since their presence plications. is a very suitable material for making wine vinegar. Mixing nothing acid can be detected only by a very sensitive tongue. however. * According to Paul Hassack there are used for the purpose. attacked by acetic degeneration is also fit for nothing else than the preparation of vinegar. 1904. it acetic degeneration There are but two ways in which wine attacked by can be in any wise profitably utilized By : employing it for the wine-vinegar. and consequently many cur in its conversion into vinegar. the separation of the albuminous substances being by either means.

the vat.sieve. to 1000 quarts by the addition soluFIG.* 150 Ibs. of fresh marc are brought into a fermentation-vat Fig. An addition of 1 Ib. The marc is it from acquiring a darker taken from the fermentation-vat and pressed. and the large content of tannin effects a more rapid clearing of the wine. The wine pass the wine through a medium fine hair. Fermentation as a rule commences after six is hours and as by it the marc forced to the surface. Fermentation is effected under exclusion of the air. 45. 45. 191 fresh marc. to * .. and the but a fermenting liquid allowed to remain in the vat till very weak current of carbonic acid escapes through the ventiThe young wine is then lating bung (about 6 to 8 days). as will be seen from the illustration. 400 Ibs. as quickly as possible racked off into barrels for the second or In filling the barrels it is advisable to after-fermentation. F. Fermentation is best carried on at a temperature of 68 is to 75 F. and the sugar solution at a temperature of 72 to 75 not poured over them. In the meanwhile 400 Ibs. a hydraulic ventilating bung g being used. which permits the escape of carbonic acid but does not allow air to enter. or more of crushed quinces per 100 Ibs. is The marc and brought into the vat in large lumps. glucose and 1000 quarts of water. by which the marc is kept below the level of the liquid. should be broken up.MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. The glucose is and after making the whole up of 600 quarts of cold water. the tion is dissolved in about 400 quarts of hot water. should not come in contact with the air any more than can possibly be avoided to prevent color. of marc imparts the wine and indirectly to the vinegar a very agreeable aroma. thoroughly stirred. is furnished with a perforated head B.

wine treated by the quick process yielding a product very poor in bouquet. squeeze hours in fresh water.6 to 6. acid. and would yield vinegar with 5. off several times into clean. When made with the exclusion of After racking durable. it During the first two weeks of the second fermentation is By of advantage to have a ventilating bung in each barrel. and its odor is aromatic and rich air. of tartaric acid has previously been The isinglass swells up and is converted into a dissolved. it is through a For with linen or paper filter. and After-wine for vinegar making should be perfectly at least 4 to 6 months old. The wine thus obtained when carefully made is dark yellow. 5 per cent. 0. of Pound isinglass is sufficient for each 100 gallons of wine. fining isinglass J to J oz. slightly sulphured barrels. the isinglass. taking into consideration the sugar solution that has been added to the marc and the sugar contained in the latter itself.G to 2. The treatment of the young wine in the cellar is the same as that The barrels should be kept full up to the of original wine. bung.5 per cent. alcohol. it thoroughly and bring it into a vessel together with 1 gallon of water in which f oz. addition of tartaric acid to wine prepared by the abovedescribed process is seldom required. and clarifies readily. Very young turbid after-wine is not fit for making wine clarified by means of isinglass solution or filtering vinegar. when fermentation is finished. and in any case a solution of crystallized acid An racked off for the per 100 quarts of the wine when second fermentation will be sufficient. .3 per cent. cut it into small pieces and soak it for 12 to 24 When taken from the water. Dilute this solution with 40 gallons of thin jelly-like mass. will contain about 7 to 8 per cent. easily managed. sugar and l. extract free from sugar. the wine. acetic acid. wine. it is bouquet. Before entering upon a description of the various methods of making wine vinegar it may be mentioned that a product of actually fine quality can only be obtained by a slow process of acetification. bright. add it to the wine to be fined and stir thoroughly.192 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. 5 to 10 per cent. has an agreeably pure in taste.

ten. which are employed. which. as entirely empty and clean it. being still partially practised there in some large winevinegar as the factories. may be suitable fielding. for the southern part of France. A barrel was filled f full with wine to be cona portion of the fluid was then heated to boiling and poured back into the barrel. The operation was continued in this manner until so much slimy sediment had accumulated in the barrel as to render it necessary to This crude process. the development of the vinegar verted into vinegar . and in the course of a few months the greater portion of the alcohol was converted into acetic acid.MANUFACTURE OP WINE VINEGAR. Experience has shown that the propagation and efficacy of the fer- ments are very much injured by great variations of temperature. or twenty such rows constituting what is termed a vinegar field. hold not The more than 22 gallons. Immediately above the level of the fluid a hole is bored in the surface of the front end of each cask.. this hole as well as the bung-hole remaining open a stop-cock for the discharge of the fluid is . as the temperature may fall very low during the night and rise very high during the day. called mothers. but cannot be recommended for more northern regions. for instance in Orleans." was similar to the method formerly in general use in France. Orleans or old French Process of Making Wine Vinegar. This so-called which is carried on from spring to fall. " in was known mentioned. The casks are placed in placed in the lower part of the cask. eight. Upon the wine thus heated to about 8(3 F. ferment commenced. Germany as vinegar boiling." the barrel again filled f full with wine. may be designated casks. fifteen. and which. and a portion of this heated. The greater portion of the contents of the barrel was then drawn off as " ripe wine vinegar. rows in the open air. 193 The oldest method for making wine vinegar is that to which the term " boiling of wine vinegar" (Weinessig Siederei) has been applied. and consequently it is decidedly preferable to keep the casks in a room the temperature of which can be maintained 13 . each cask being filled | full.

according to the manner or 10 days are required for the conversion of this quantity into vinegar. In the beginning of the operation a certain quantity of strong vinegar is brought into the casks about one-fourth of its volume of wine is then . The hole in the front end of the cask and the bung-hole permit the free access of air to the surface of the In other French factories the work is carried on accordwine.194 at. 68 F. 10 quarts of vinegar are again drawn off after the expiration of that time. The appearance and developing to such an extent that they form a slimy coat- . 8. vinegar ferment vegetating below the surface (the so-called mother of vinegar). putrid odor. the regular process of drawing off vinegar and filling up If.. added. above-mentioned aperup to the ture. The wine remains in these casks until it is The latter is then drawn off by means converted into vinegar. charge the casks with wine as well as for the The casks are placed in three rows one above another in a room which can be heated. and at intervals of eight is When the cask nearly filled days about 10 quarts more. of working. which serves entrance of to air. Casks having a capacity of up to 100 gallons are used. ing to a method somewhat different from the one just described. In the course of time large masses of slimy matter consisting of albuminous substances. a disturbance occurs. the same quantity of wine is replaced in the cask. 10 quarts of again with wine is commenced. and suppose that. decayed form a deposit in the cask. immediately above the level of the fluid cask a disagreeable. finished vinegar are drawn off. so that the latter has to be emptied and thoroughly Sometimes the operation has to be interrupted cleansed. at least MANUFACTURE OP VINEGAR. much sooner on account of the contents of the cask acquiring vinegar ferment. etc. for instance. each cask having in the surface of the front end a square aperture. this being continued until 7. such an extent as of putrefaction is generally due to vinegar eels settling in the interior of the as a rule. of the above-mentioned stop-cock and the casks are again filled with wine. and finally to occupy half the volume of accumulate the cask. to etc.

ing vinegar it is irrational.MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. These animalcules are destroyed by being deprived of air. The acetification of the casks with boil- by heating the vinegar and into the hot casks. if as to not absolutely killed. The presence of vinegar in a fluid which itself is to be converted into vinegar promotes. but is not absolutely necessary. the formation of acetic acid. and. however. The above-described method of making vinegar is full of defects. as has been fre- quently asserted. how- . hence. such as beer or wine to pass on its own account into acetic fermentation. when reduced to the proper temperature and cause its The air penetrating into the cask may. for the induction of the process. If such were the case. it progresses to such an extent that the entire contents of the cask are converted into a stinking mass which has to be removed The casks in which such disturbances as quickly as possible. it would evidently be impossible for an alcoholic liquid. takes place must of course be carefully cleansed by sulphuring and washing with boiling water before they are again used. not only the vinegar ferboiling pouring ment contained in it. but also that present in the cask or wine. because is. is That acetic fermentation nevertheless takes place due to the following causes. cooling-off takes place the air contracts in the cask and air The latter. when the vinegar it ferment is brought to vigorous development withdraws so much of the oxygen from the air in the cask that many of them die and their bodies sink to the bottom. where they If this putrefying process takes place sooner or later putrefy. germs of vinegar ferment which rapidly develop upon the fluid acetification. at least weakened to such an extent be incapable of converting alcohol into acetic acid. very likely The hot fluid in the cask gradually cools off and is finally reduced to a degree of temperature most favorable to the development of the vinegar ferment in the same proportion as . carries with it enters from the outside. before a cleansing of the casks is considered necessary. to be sure. 195 ing on the cask and upon the fluid and suppress the development of the vinegar ferment.

It is further a well-known fact that the addition of a few drops of sour to sweet milk suffices to immediately induce the formation of lactic acid in the latter. being only necessary to mix the wine with a fluid containing living vinegar ferment and place it in a sufficiently warm room in order to immediately start the pro- Exactly the same course it may In this case the vinegar sowed upon the wine. Pasteur. be avoided the direct culreadily by tainty 'can. ever." be fermented has for a long time been in use in the preparation of beer and of alcohol. The setting of wine" with vinegar ferment is the only correct method for the preparation of vinegar from wine. and in a short time turns the rapidly. or that contained in it may not reach the wine in such case the wine . " brought into fermentation by sete. or in other words. however. the wine is impregnated with vinegar ferment and intentionally made " This method of transmitting ferment to the fluid to sick. as is well known. ture by the vinegar ferment upon the. i. converts the sugar into entire quantity of milk sour. or Modern French Method of Preparing Wine Vineis gar. the mash. ting" it with yeast.196 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. turns sour on exposure to the air by the milk sugar being converted into lactic acid by the action of a ferment frequently occurring in the air. Milk. the ferment of lactic acid fermenta- tion being in the true sense of the word sowed upon the milk. wine to be acetified. as previously mentioned. The ferment develops very lactic acid. be pursued as regards the vinegar ferment. weeks remain in the cask without any perceptible acetification taking place until the latter finally appears by an may for This unceraccidental development of the vinegar ferment. made exhaustive investigations regarding the conditions essential to the life of . this souring taking place in several hours or several days according to the temperature 'to which the milk is exposed.. In the brewery the wort. and in cess of the formation of acetic acid. ferment is the distillery. Pasteur's. accidentally contain no vinegar ferment. alcoholic ferment is intentionally " added.

MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. if wanting. calcium phosphate 1. sary for the propagation of the ferment. Pasteur gives the following mixture of phosphate FIG. The liquid prepared according to the above directions is exposed to the action of the air at a temperature of 68 to 77 ammonium F. crystallized glacial acetic acid 1. an inorganic combination that contains all the substances quired for the nutriment and development of the vinegar ment. phosphate 2. : refer- Po- tassiurn phosphate 1 part by weight.. 197 the vinegar ferment. pure alcohol 2. The latter is absolutely necescontains a trace of phosphates. while a corresponding quantity of wine has been sterilized by . magnesium phosphate 1. alcohol and vinegar. phosphate *As . and found that it thrives especially well upon a liquid which in addition to water. Pasteur recommends a liquid consisting of boiled water 100 per cent. the ferment cannot attain vigorous development. In a short time the surface of the liquid becomes covered with the vinegar ferment and by the agency of the latter the In the meanalcohol present is converted into acetic acid. 46.

and a. being also in this case observed. the pasteurized liquid is cooled by passing through a through the coil in B. d. full. the folds being formed by the superposition of the cells. to B. the temperature of the liquid being indicated by the thermometer h. In the furnace C sits a vessel F this vessel lies a coil of pipe tinned. This process is called heating it to between 158 to 176 F. silvered inside. the cocks 6. where it is heated. /. 46. heating at the same time the wine in B. o. . an be effected and "Pasteurization" may Upon apparatus for that purpose being shown in Fig. but does not show acidity. A similar coil also tinned inside lies in the preparatory heater and cooler B. the wine in this case becoming constantly poorer in alco- A thick Sometimes the previously in in the wine suddenly increase the content of acid steady ceases and a very rapid decrease in the content of acid takes place. and conse* Gahrungs-Essig by Paul Hassack. By regulating the quantity of wine passing through the apparatus can be readily controlled so that the thermometer h constantly indicates a temperature between 131 and 140 F.198 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and finally runs off at d. but before entering upon a description of the process.* filled with boiling water. or better. in various ways. The wine to be heated is contained in the vat A. The formation of this white coating upon the surface is due to the development of mold ferment which in a short time propagates to such an extent as to form a thick membranous layer. e. The mold ferment has the property of converting alcohol as well as acetic acid into carbonic acid and water. form may frequently upon the surface of the wine to be acetified. the development of the white skin upon the surface hol. From the coil in F. and when the latter is passes through into the coil in F. it will be necessary to discuss a few undesirable phe- nomena which may appear in the conversion of wine into white skin having the appearance of a ruffle vinegar. Various methods based on the researches of Pasteur have been devised. It passes through e g.

and the filtered fluid. and vessels should be thoroughly disinfected by means of sulphurous acid. if not checked in time. The its vigorous development. however. the workroom. but ratus shown in Fig. the entire factory the greatest cleanliness should Throughout be too scrupulous in this respect.MANUFACTURE OP WINE VINEGAR. 42. re.. and. considerable quantities of therefore. The sulphurous acid kills the vinegar eels as well as the vinegar ferment. and quantity of acetic mold ferment requires. can again be used as alcoholic liquid. the vinegar p. quently if it 199 settles if in alcohol. In case of their appearance in large masses it is best to interrupt the process in time in order to prevent the previously mentioned phenomena of putrefaction.used for as otherwise by-fermentations readily take place. which is best effected by means of the appa- acetic degeneration. is Another serious annoyance in making wine-vinegar appearance of vinegar the eels. This fact large quantity explains the reason why young wine is seldom attacked by nitrogenous combinations for it readily becomes moldy. concannot be recommended as vinegar material except sequently albuminous the substances be first separated by heating the wine to 140 F. which. . whereby the sulphurous acid is converted into sulsels in The vesphuric acid. and another plague. and consequently their introduction is likely due to such water. cules are seldom found in factories working with pump or well water. The fluid containing the vinegar-eels should be drawn off into a thoroughly sulphured barrel. or more correctly vinegar mites (see 140) may appear. but frequently in those using river water. which the vinegar eels have settled must also be thoroughly sulphured and then repeatedly washed with water before being making vinegar. fluids. and upon young wine which contains a of albuminous bodies in solution. Should either of these drawbacks happen. readily settles upon the wine the latter becomes poorer upon wine containing already a certain acid the latter is also decomposed. in cannot fact one prevail . lice. after standing a few weeks. may These animallead to the interruption of the entire process.

. This is one of the methods based on the researches of Pasteur. When filled. 227. Fig. The apparacessitates tus used.200 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Bioletti * as follows: " It consists essentially of a wide. Claudon's Method of Making Wine Vinegar. and when ne- On top of this liquid is floated a light wooden which grating /. the process is started by placing a small quantity of a good bacterial film on top of the liquid which soon becomes completely covered when the proper conditions of temperature and aeration are maintained. cessary filtered." which depreciates the quality and ne- expensive cleaning of the casks. furnished with numerous openings near the top. . air can be facilitated and Da a a Da a a . Bulletin No. rectangular vat." University of California Publications College Experiment Station. Agricultural Grape Vinegar. a by which the entrance of Fig 47.a Da regulated. the Orleans method of As previously mentioned making wine-vinegar cannot be recommended. 1912. 47 is described by Frederic T. it being slow and laborious. covered. "Each vat * " acetifying vat is R from which the proper amount of liquid connected with a small measuring is taken every of Agricul- ture. This vat is filled to near the bottom of the air vents with a mixture of 4 parts of good new wine and G parts of wine which has been pasteurized at 140 F. helps to support the bacterial film and prevents its breaking and submerging during the various operations. and besides there is considerable loss of material by evaporation and by the formation of large masses of gelatinous " mother of vinegar. shallow.

the cost of operation tion much is considerably less. which are placed in a warm room. then mixing it with an equal volume of vinegar and pouring the resulting fluid into shallow porcelain plates. generally effected 140 in 24 to 30 hours. several of which. The culture of pure vinegar ferment on a small scale is best by heating wine in a porcelain or glass dish to between and 150 F. The vessels are so arranged that the finished vinegar can be removed and replaced by wine to be acetified without disturbing the ferment. " A factory includes several of these The batteries are fed from a large vat or reservoir..MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. The contents of . it is an indication of the development of mold ferment. directly vinegar there to a pasteurizer." The essential part Rersch's MetJtod of Making Wine. batteries. According to the above statement.Vinegar. spots of pure white color are formed. the loss by evaporaand the quality equal and much more reduced. and thence to the storage casks. usually six. In a short time. are united in a battery. The drawn from the batteries runs from to filters. besides the dull spots which are characteristic of pure vinegar ferment. and producing of taste vinegar unsurpassed by any other product as regards delicacy and odor. These two vats constitute a unit. the operation includes the culture of the vinegar ferment on a small scale and on a large scale. of the entire process is the impregnation of the wine in suitable vessels with pure vinegar ferment under conditions suitable for the rapid propagation of the ferment. one thus enabled to uninterruptedly continue the process of being the formation of vinegar for a long time. where the mixture of wine and vinegar is prepared and stored. under the Control of the manufacturer. 201 day after a corresponding amount of vinegar has been removed. The of these batteries is from two to times as five output great per square yard of acetifying surface as that of the old methods. the former for the production of pure ferment and the latter for obtaining wine-vinegar. viously described is observed upon the surface of the fluid. the veil-like layer of vinegar ferment preIf.

the plate is so that the latter is distributed upon the surface . a small quantity. where it is allowed to clarify. the surface of the covered with a thin veil of of the which wine proceeds rapidly. and after filling again with wine. The ferment propagates very wine in the vat it. until in about 8 days all the wine is converted into To avoid the necessity of esvinegar when it is drawn off. When the vat is to be cleansed the last batch of vinegar is to be drawn off as long as it runs off clear. the latter is mixed with pure vinegar is ferment in the manner already described. then withdrawn. With sufficient care the process of the formation of vinegar could thus be uninterruptedly carried on for any length of time by transferring the vinegar ferment from the finished vinegar to the wine. tests repeated at in24 hours tervals of showing a constant increase in the content of acid. upon the surface of which the vinegar ferment floats.. if a cleansing of the vat were not from time to time required. mold ferment in the form of the above-mentioned white spots appears upon the surface besides vinegar ferment. on account of the accumulation on the bottom of the vessel of decayed vinegar ferment and flakes of albumen which have become insoluble. as may happen in very rare cases. By now introducing' a fresh lot of wine the vinegar ferment propagates upon it and after some time converts it into vinegar. shallow vats. rapidly. and the turbid remainder in the bottom of the vat is collected in a special cask.202 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. in acetification of the room entirely the temperature the vats are placed at about 68 F. so is that. The vat it then thoroughly cleansed with water. the vat must at once be . and is brought to fermentation by carefully submerging in it one of the above-mentioned plates containing pure vinegar ferment. (about f to an inch deep). in 24 hours. The wine to be acetified is in large. phenomenon have to the plates showing this be boiled and then again exposed to the air. the By keeping pecially impregnating the next quantity of wine the finished vinegar is not entirely drawn off. If. being allowed to remain in the vat.

together with the ferment floating upon it. The fluid to be acetified air. towards sudden changes in the composition of the fluid upon which it lives.. The fresh supply of wine entering from below then lifts up the remainder of vinegar. The strength of the or water by ordinary vinegar. as they yield vinegar with about 5J per cent. a very simple matter but there are some difficulties which can. can be readily separated from the mother of vinegar by filtering through a close cloth. . From. Stronger wines with a content of alcohol up to however. and the mixture of both fluids is effected so gradually that to prevented by not drawing allowing a small portion of off all in the composition of the fluid the finished vinegar. however. The latter appears generally in the form of a soft gelatinous mass sub- The and consists of vinegar ferment. be readily prevented by proper heating.. but the change in the composition of the nourishing fluid proceeds very slowly. as well as towards rapid changes in the temperature. be entirely prevented The vinegar ferment is very sensitive or readily overcome. the best to use. latter must be so chosen that the wine-vinegar prepared from a mixture of wine and vinegar contains 5J to 6 per cent. is The sudden change it remain in the vat. merged in the fluid. of 10 per cent. to the wine and that of acetic acid in the vinegar. Ripe wines with not much above 6 per cent. the mother of vinegar remaining upon the latter and finally drying to a whitish mass resembit ling very thin tissue paper. either The proportions in which vinegar and wine are be mixed for this purpose are found by a simple calculation after an accurate determination of the content of alcohol in acetic acid. of alcohol are of acetic acid. on of account not being in direct contact with the however. of course. emptied. does not produce acetic acid. which. best reduced to about 6 per cent. A sudden change in the temperature of the work- room can. 203 process should also be interrupted in case of the development of the so-called mother of vinegar.MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. are.the above description preparation of wine-vinegar is will be seen that the rational .

204 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and in this hole is fitted a glass tube.39 inch diameter are then bored in the wall of One hole. the height of the level of the fluid being marked on the inside wall. the latter The level of the begins to run off at g. The vats are placed in FIG.39 inch deeper than I. 48. If the vat be filled can only fluid during the operation with wine. and tables for holding the plates for the culture of the vinegar ferment should be provided. it is ada few barrels of the material to be worked. is bored in a place about 0. so situated as The workroom should be a furnace or self. best with a diameter of 3 J to 5 feet and a depth of 9 to 14 inches. the vat. For the formation of the vinegar very shallow vats. At distances of 3 j inches apart. In the bottom of the vat is a tap-hole. iron hoops are protected from the action of the acid vapors by a coat of asphalt lacquer. g. holes. Fig. and 5} in large vats. The H the position they are to occupy in the workroom and filled with water up to about If to 3} inches from the top. under which is placed an ordinary tumbler. visable to store in it If the size of the room permit. however. being but little below the holes I. I. 48 of 0. bent at a right angle. The vessels for the forma- tion of vinegar are placed upon suitable supports. the fluid thereby gradually acquiring the proper temperature. an uniterrupted change rise until it . are used. Z. closed by a stopper.regulating to be protected against sudden changes in the temperature and provided with stove.

For this purpose as many shallow porcelain plates as there are vats are placed upon the table. vats are charged by allowing the fluid to be converted into vinegar to run in until it begins to pass out through g. wooden is fitted in the vat 1 about to inch above the { spigot. but with . R. A the vat. The operation in such a factor}^ commences with the culture of the vinegar ferment. Finally the lid is placed upon the vat and the latter left to itself.MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. The room should be heated and kept at a temperature of 86 F. in a second aperture a thermometer. The The impregnation with ferment is then effected by carefully emptying the contents of one of the plates upon the surface of the fluid. In the centre of the lid D. . and wine to the depth of J to f inch is poured in each. In the com- mencement of the operation the culture of the ferment requires great attention. 205 in the layer of air above the fluid takes place. but when the factory is once in proper working condition it is readily effected because the air of the workroom then contains a able for its rapidly propagates on coming in contact with a large quantity of the ferment. it being frequently disturbed by the development of mold ferment. The ferment soon covers the entire surface of the fluid in the vat. which lies loosely upon bottom. //. aperture is fitted a glass funnel. As long very rapidly and the thermometer rises constantly . reaching nearly to the bottom of the vat. which fluid favor- development. and the commencement of the process of oxidation is in a short time recognized by the rise of the thermometer dipas the quantity of alcohol in the fluid is comparatively large. r. is is inserted. so that the greater portion remains floating upon it. whose bulb dips into the fluid and in a third . the process of the formation of acetic acid and the propagation of the ferment takes place ping into the fluid. The manner of the development of the vinegar ferment upon the fluid in the plates as well as the precautions which have to be taken has already been described. an aperture.

and a constant temperature is maintained for several days until it commences to fall almost simultaneously in all the vats. not to allow it to rise above 86 or 90 F.. as otherwise there absolutely necessary for the correct working. is an indicanow containing a comparatively large amount of acetic acid hol. advisable perature of the fluid to above 95 F. this examination gaining in importance the further the formation of vinegar progresses. would be a loss of acetic acid or alcohol by The most convenient and business-like manner of operating a factory arranged as above described is to simultaneously charge all the vats with alcoholic liquid..206 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. as long as the fluid re- Side by side with the observation of the statements of the thermometer a chemical examination of the fluid has to be carried on. however. an increase in the quantity of acetic acid these processes become slower. which is indicated by a fall in the temperature of the fluid. is By the oxidation of the alcohol sufficient heat liberated to increase the tem- It is. not be al- it lowed to sink below a certain limit. If. F. and of the slow oxidation of the remaining alcofor In order to maintain the most favorable conditions the efficacy of the vinegar ferment and to smoothly and rapidly complete the process the workroom is now so heated as to show a constant temperature of 86 mains in the vat. but not is higher than evaporation. however. The energy of the process must. care being taken to keep up by raising the temperature of the workroom. for instance. This fall in tion of the fluid the temperature. as previously mentioned. the thermometer will soon be observed to rise even if the tempera- ture of the workroom remains unchanged. the operation commences at 77 F. If the content of alcohol . it being then entirely in one's power to regulate the heating of the workroom according to the indications of the thermometer dipping into the fluid. Hence. if the fluid reaches this limit of temperature the heating of the workroom is so regulated as to prevent a further rise of the thermometer. as otherwise the losses by evaporation are too great.

and the stop- A cock being closed a fresh supply of alcoholic liquid is introduced through the funnel R until it begins to run out through The process then commences anew in the manner above g.15 or at the utmost 0. the course of the process must be very and controlled. described. of alcohol. however. after the finished vinegar is drawn off.2 per cent. H. but if the process has so far advanced that the fluid contains scarcely 1 per cent. carefully interrupted when still 0. of the terruption process is. and. The vat is then . of alcohol is present. and removing the slimy mass by means of a broom or crutch. The interruption of the process is best effected by separating the fluid from the layer of ferment floating upon it. as the vinegar ferment which floats upon the fluid that remains in the vat. necessary. is opened and left open as long as fluid runs layer of vinegar about j to 1 inch deep upon which floats the vinegar ferment. This is effected. remains in the vat. The result after a number of operations is a slimy sediment. Fig. 48. During the conversion of the wine the greater portion of albuminous substances held in solution in it separates as flakes. This small amount of From moment on unchanged alcohol exerts a favorable effect of the vinegar. the test is up stage limited to the determination of the acetic acid. rapidly propagates upon the fresh supply of wine and In practice an occasional short inconverts it into vinegar. acetic ether being formed from upon the quality it and a corre- sponding quantity of acetic acid during the time the vinegar has to be stored. which finally accumulates to such an extent that it has to be removed. the latter has also to be determined by means of the ebullioscope this which will be described later on.MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. The stopcock. Theoretically unlimited quantities of wine could be converted into vinegar by means of such an apparatus. in the wine to be 207 to a certain worked is known. out. further. by opening the tap-hole Z. a portion of the vinegar ferment sinks below the level of the fluid and assumes the form of the flaky masses called mother of vinegar.

the barrels must from time to time be examined and kept filled up to the While stored in the barrels the vinegar almost bung-hole. it is drawn off and brought into the above-mentioned clarifying vat. the can be used for which are filled up to the bung and closed air-tight. it has to be filtered through a bag or other filter as described on If the vinegar has p. Vinegar is much more difficult to fine than wine and for this reason alone. and then the entire operation interrupted for the purpose of thoroughly cleansing the vessels by washing with boiling water or steaming. When a considerable quantity of slimy sediment has collected in the storage-barrels. Should it be turbid. the process once commenced as well as possible. been made from clear. 156. and the lower one of a thickly-fluid mass from which a certain quantity of vinegar can be obtained by filtration.208 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The turbidity is caused by various substances separated during the formation of the vinegar. must be carried through Under no circumstances should it be attempted to continue mold or vinegar eels. thoroughly washed with water and can be immediately recharged with wine. ripe wine. ripe wines should be used for production. The . would be more difficult. as it with with vats infected working would only lead to a considerable loss of material. The vinegar drawn off from the vats is brought into storage layers.> or is by filtration. completely clarifies^ and by carefully siphoning off the clear portion. as may sometimes happen. clarified In case of disturbances in the production by the appearance of mold ferment or vinegar eels. The volume of the vinegar decreasing by cooling. it will generally come quite clear from the apparatus used for its production. it can be at once brought into commerce without barrels further treatment. its only clarified. upper one consisting of quite clear vinegar which filling up storage-barrels. The slimy mass is best collected in a tall In a few days it separates into two vat and allowed to rest. and the cleansing of the vessels which would have to be finally done.

be attributed to the decomposition of the tartaric and malic acids in the vinegar by a ferment. of course. As the vinegar should be perfectly bright before racking it When into bottles it must first be filtered or fined. while thus stored it may sometimes depreciate in quality and strength by unfavorable conditions of temperature or handling. 209 simplest method to clarify the vinegar is to store it for several weeks in a cool cellar in casks filled up to the bung. izer may be used for the purpose. The indicated by a change in the aroma. and in the interior with a perforated false bottom. an iron receptacle furnished with a cover fitting air-tight.MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. Many manufacturers pasteurize the bottled vinegar. French manufacturers store their best it quality of for at least one year before offering price. bunged tight and placed in a cool cellar. Between the perforated false bottom and the actual bottom is a pipe-system which is connected by two iron pipes with the is furnace. Wine for several vinegar acquires its special aroma only by being stored months. for or 46. 197. this being the most profitable way of selling it. Fig. The apparatus. 3 feet 6 inches wide and 1J feet deep. it for sale and. 17970 granted to Boldt & Vogel. such depreciation being vinegar in a cool cellar. is brought into clean casks and stored However. any other form of pasteurpasteurizing wine. The greater portion of the vinegar can then Tbe drawn off perfectly clear and only the filtered last portion will require filtering. The vinegar should come out of the pasteurizer cool and the storage-barrels should be completely filled. p. The this alteration may only sure remedy lize for this and all other alterations is to steri- the vinegar by heating to 140 F. 14 . and the acid taste loses its sharpness and shows a peculiar The cause of insipidity. Hamburg. The apparatus about 5 feet long. charge a good the wine vinegar has acquired a fine taste and aroma by storing it should be bottled. * The bottles are placed alongside each other upon the German patent No. An ap- * is shown in It consists of paratus for this purpose Fig. 49.

210 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. tus. The temperature prevailing in the interior is indicated by a thermometer on top of the apparatus. the best results are without doubt obtained by one of the slow methods above described. if ing temperatures or even It is free from suspended in the air. and pasteurization can thus be carried on to any desired degree. Cooling is effected and the cover. and is not attacked by the spores of the vinegar ferment eels. if exposed to vary- kept in open or improperly closed all kinds of ferments and vinegar receptacles. 49. steam is in a short time evolved in the apparatus. water is admitted into the latter so as to below the perforated false bottom and cover the latter. that furnished with a tilting . a very good product can be made from clear wines in one of the generators previously described. by discontinuing heating opening Pasteurized wine-vinegar does not spoil FIG. Wine-Vinegar by the Quick Process. Before placing them in the apparafill the space perforated false bottom. Although in making wine vinegar of fine quality. because the nutriment required for their further development has been withdrawn. Fire is then started in the furnace and the water commencing to circulate.

skins and seeds of the grapes and contains a not unimportant quantity of must. Wine Vinegar from Marc The marc left after the wine has been pressed consists of the stems. of marc used. The process is the same as for ordinary vinegar. correct measuring of the quantity to be false its below the perforated poured and uniform distribution. It is . by subjecting the marc with the addition of water or sugar solution to fermentation a wine is obtained which forms an excellent material for making vinegar. cleansing the perforated head every week or two. and finally continuous working. about 10 quarts of water are pot. The mass of marc as it comes from the press is broken up and put in a pile where it is left to itself until it becomes warm and acquires the odor of alcohol and acetic ether. then shoveled into a vat and gently pressed together with a For every 220 Ibs. However. now By sprinkled over the mass by means of a wateringthe entrance of air while shoveling the pile of marc into the vat the action of the vinegar ferment has been accelerated and a considerable quantity of alcohol converted into acetic acid. previously described. continuous working is necessary to prelast condition vent the product from being impaired during the rest at night by a decomposition a decrease of its most valuable properties. by storing it for about three months it gains in quality and aroma so that it can scarcely be distinguished from vinegar made by the Orleans method. The mass is shovel. the latter running off through an aperture in the bottom of the vat. However. As. according to the accumulation of slime. absolute cleanliness. The Wine-vinegar made by the quick process has less aroma than that prepared by the other method. the marc may also be directly used for the purpose.MANUFACTURE OF WINE VINEGAR. the principal conditions for smooth working being a limited admission of air bottom. pasteurized wine. The indicated by the stronger vinegar odor. water permeating the marc almost completely displaces is which the fluid containing the alcohol and acetic acid. 211 trough being by some manufacturers preferred for the purpose. the use of perfectly clear.

This can. collected in a shallow vessel placed in an apartment having the ordinary temperature of a living-room. where it quickly propagates and converts the remainder of the alcohol in the fluid into acetic acid. obtained into vinegar. more advantageous to prepare wine from the marc as described on p. and conse- quently is immediately fit for table use. the vinegar from the marc prepared according to this method shows. however. ment then commences to propagate and suppresses the further growth of the mold ferment. 190. rises to the surface. if not too much water has been used. which is recognized by its pure white color. it resembling that of vinegar prepared from wine. of acetic acid. . By barrels kept filled up to the bung-holes. however. and is allowed to The vinegar ferment present in abundance in the fluid rest. and convert the product thus it. of sugar. be met by removing the growth of this ferment. The only difficulty to be overcome in preparing the vinegar according to this method is the appearance of the mold ferment upon the surface of the fluid. If the grapes originally used contained from 18 to 20 per cent. a content of at least 4 or 5 per cent. On account of the simplipity and the slight expense conespecially adapted For industrial purposes it is.212 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. by means of a spoon as soon as it has atThe vinegar fertained the thickness of a few millimeters. long storing in acquires a flavor nected with the above-described process for is for making vinegar household use.

. maltby vinegar extracts. . according to the statements of the must-aerometers. No special saccharometer for fruit-must having as yet been constructed. The sacchariferous materials used the manufacturer are either whiskey-mashes. ascertaining from it tha content of sugar. 'or degrees in the latter case the . an ordinary areometer indicating the specific gravity can also be and the content of sugar corresponding to a certain Tables X to specific gravity found from a reducing table. or must prepared from wine-marc. According to the arrangement of their scales. with different names and graduations.CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF RAW MATERIALS. the must-aerometers indicate either direct sugar per cent. apples. XIII at the end of this volume give the content of sugar espeused. 213 CHAPTER XIX. the determination of the content of sugar has to be effected either by a tedious method unsuitable for practice. and directly indicate the content of sugar in the fluid in per cent. which are really hydrometers. what can be more quickly done. cially for wine-must. The instruments mostly used for the determination of sugar in whiskey-mashes and malt worts are known as saccharometers. A similar inknown as the serves for the determistrument. The determination of sugar contained in these fluids is effected by means of various instruments. by fermenting a sample and after determining the quantity of alcohol. use of special tables accompanying the instrument is required for finding the per cent. Determination of Sugar. nation of the content of sugar in grape-must. of sugar corresponding to a certain number of degrees. of the respective must. must-aerometer. etc. In place of special saccharometers or must-areometers. CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF THE RAW MATERIALS AND CONTROL OF THE OPERATIONS IN A VINEGAR FACTORY. but also with sufficient accuracy for apple respective or pear-must. or.

For the manufacture of vinegar. For the determination of the content of alcohol in pure spirits of wine consisting only of water and alcohol. one being thus it strument in so far as enabled to ascertain the temperature of the fluid simultaneously with reading off the statement of the alcoholometer. ment which is combined with a thermometer. Determination of the Alcohol with the Alcoholometer. the percentage of absolute alcohol contained in it has to be accurately determined in order to enable one to correctly calculate. and after determining its strength by the alcoholometer. instru- ments called alcoholometers are generally used. For examining fluids with a very small content of alcohol. Tables I to VIII appended to this work give the necessary in a fluid as- sistance for the determination of the actual content of alcohol whose temperature is above or below the normal temperature (59 F. they indicating the volumes of alcohol contained in 100 volumes of the spirits of wine. as a rule.). as is frequently the case in a vinegar factory. material for making vinefundamental as the wine of spirits gar. the spirit of wine In this case. the quantity of water required for the preparation of alcoholic liquid of de- termined strength. the content of alcohol in the total quantity of fluid ascertained by is calculation. contains other bodies besides water and alcohol. however.214 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. They are. 109. not suited for this purpose when. They should be so selected that one is to be used for fluids with from to 4 . either the alcohol contained in a sample has to be distilled off. In a factory using commercial Determination of Alcohol. alcoholometers have been constructed which accurately indicate at least 0. For the the is an manufacturer alcoholometer vinegar important inserves for quickly ascertaining the deIt is best to use an instrugrees of the spirits of wine used. or the determination effected in a short time and with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes by the use of a special apparatus. four alcoholometers will. suffice.1 percent. in the manner explained on p.

.. These instruments serve for the determi- only of nation of the content of alcohol in alcoholic liquid consisting spirits of wine and water. the second for indicating 4 to 8 per cent. can- not be ascertained by immersing the alcoholometer in the re- In order to determine the content of alcohol spective fluid. each. or fermented alcohol in alcoholic liquid containing a certain quantity of whiskey-mash. 50. By diluting the fluid distilled over with sufficient water to restore it to the volume of the fluid originally used is and immersing the alcoholometer the all ex- content of alcohol determined. the third 8 to 12 per cent. in such a fluid a determined volume of it is subjected to distillation. etc. A rapid and at the same time accurate execution of aminations being of great importance in practice. is sufficiently large to allow of the easy reading off of one-tenth per cent. of alcohol. wine. having \ liter in which sits by means capacity of a perforated cork a glass tube. and the fourth 12 to 1C per cent. and terminates over a graduated cylindrical glass vessel G. by a perforated cork. K. which is placed in a with water. The scale of such alcoholometers comprising only 4 per cent. and are used in examining the progress of the formation of vinegar during manufacture. of a flask. Hence..CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OP RAW MATERIALS. The uppermost mark on G indi- . filled angle leads to a cooling-coil. From the latter a glass tube bent twice at a right vessel F. and the latter continued until is it may be supposed that all the alcohol present volatilized and again condensed in a suitable cooling apparatus. beer. 215 per cent. Such an apparatus It consists of a glass boiling in Fig. the content of acetic acid. a suitable apparatus should be used for the distilling test. which is about f inch in is shown On top this tube is closed diameter and 7f inches in length. E. as the statement of the latter would be incorrect on account of the foreign bodies exerting a considerable influence upon the specific gravity. Determination of the Alcohol by the Distilling Test The content of alcohol in a fluid containing other bodies besides alcohol and water cannot be directly determined by means of the alcoholometer.

latter pass 500 cubic centimeters. 50. The contents of are then heated to boil- K . put the apparatus together as shown in the illustration. which the vessel ^ liter = cates the height to must be filled to contain Generally vessels are used which are so 'graduated that the distance between two marks is equal to 2-V liter or 50 cubic centimeters. This is overcome by placing a few pieces of chalk the size of a hazelnut in the tube R. correct.216 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. In distilling a fluid containing acetic acid the vapors of the over together with those of alcohol and water. and consequently. then pour into the boiling flask K. the statement of the alcoholometer would be inFIG. and after pouring the rinsing water into K. rinse out G with water. of executing the test with this apparatus is as fol- Fill the vessel G to the is uppermost mark with the fluid it whose content of alcohol to be examined. The boiling-flask stands upon a plate of thin sheet-iron (to prevent bursting from an immediate contact with the flame). and together with the cooling vessel is screwed to a suitable support. is fixed to the lime con- The manner lows : not a trace reaching the cooling vessel. By the vapors coming in contact with the chalk the acetic acid tained in it.

Good however. By testing the fluid with an alcoholometer the content of alcohol found corresponds exactly by the fluid examined alcoholic liquid. without the use of an sero meter or table. of the boiling flask is fluid is distilled over into G to fill it continued until sufficient from one third to one half this being a sure indication of all the alcohol present in The flame is then removed. fermented whiskey-mash. The apparatus is very simple. The principle of the apparatus is based . Determination of the Alcohol by Means of the Ebullioscope. the mouth of G being The fluid now contained in G consists only of water and alcohol. etc. but a few minutes being required for the test with this apparatus. and thus even a results are. working of the generators obtained than is possible with a single determination by the distilling test. however. The heating full. which would necessitate a repetition of the experiment with another quantity of fluid. and whiskey-mashes frequently foam up on heating. of the direct more accurate idea of the reading-off of the content of alcohol in a fluid containing not much over 12 per cent. be almost completely overcome by the addition of a small quantity of tannin solution to the contents K might foam By too strong heating the contents of inK. the flame being so regulated that the distillate flows in drops into G . and the fluids intimately closed by the hand. and allows. beer. and its volume is equal to that of the fluid originally used. beer. 217 ing by a spirit or gas flame under the sheet-iron plate upon which Crests. it can be frequently repeated. Wine. the above-described distilling test is objectionable on account of the time (about twenty minutes) required for its execution. which can. obtained by the use of the ebullioscope and. It is much used in France for the ex- amination of wine. the the fluid having passed over.CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF RAW MATERIALS. is easily managed. ( up and pass into (r. mixed by shaking. to that possessed Many fluid determinations of the content of alcohol in the alcoholic to be having made in a well-conducted vinegar factory. vessel G filled to the uppermost mark with distilled water.

the one end of the ring entering it somewhat higher than the other. On filling the cup with the fluid to be exFig. point of the fluid to be examined. dips into the fluid. and by placing a small spirit lamp under this the fluid in the cup is heated. in determining the boiling-point.7 " " 198. by volume of alcohol. which requires about ten minutes. the boiling point remaining constant during the short time (one or two minutes) necessary for making the observation. Upon the upper edge of the cup a lid is The screwed. During the determination of the alcohol. F. 51 cast-iron stand . which is surrounded by a wide brass tube for the reception of the cooling water. also mometer when dipped into boiling water scale is so that the ther- indicates 0. an more alcohol For instance. and. by volume of alcohol boils at 196. the latter carrying the scale. initial boiling upon the it alcoholic fluid boiling at a lower temperature the contains. To a round is screwed a thick-walled brass cup which extowards the top a screw-thread is cut in the somewhat pands A hollow-brass ring is soldered into the cup near upper edge. consequently.3 shows Vidal-Malligaud's ebullioscope. arrangement securing a quick circulation of the fluid during heating. the cooling water need not be renewed. On the one side the ring carries a small sheet-iron chimney.218 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. F.3 10 " 8 201. F. amined this hollow ring also becomes filled. In heating wine. The the lid is secured by small screws. its base.0 5 F. Into a second aperture in screwed the cooling-pipe. in which a thermometer is inserted air-tight. be shifted upon a supporting plate so that it can be fixed at any desired place. of the thermometer is bent at a right angle outside the lid. wine with 12 per cent. which is divided not into lid The tube The scale can degrees but in per cent. " 203. mercury bulb of the thermometer is on the lower side of the this and. the gases and besides a few light volatile varieties of .

and in heating beer. etbylamine. as acetic ether. carbonic acid. 219 and similar combinations escape through the cooling pipe. nor does it give accurate results with the use of dilute wines. For the vinegar manufacturer the ebullioscope is tively large. For the determination of the alcohol in sacchariferous wines. aldehyde. ether. propylamine. The entire apparatus with the thermometer being of metal. it is not liable to The mercury bulb of the thermomter is comparabreakage. which is open on top. from those found by accurate exception of the distillation.CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF RAW MATERIALS. a very valuable instrument. as it enables him to accurately . It has been ascertained by the French FIG. the ebullioscope is less adapted. 51 Academy that the JL statements of the ebullioscope as regards the quantity of alcohol in the wine differ on an average J per cent.

The statements of these instruments are. when it will contain exactly the number reached a of the instru- of cubic centi- meters indicated opposite to the mark. but vinegars made from malt. the content of alcohol in a fluid in a shorter time than is possible with any other instrument. The latter is filled by dipping the lower end of it into the fluid and sucking on the upper end with the mouth until the fluid has ascended nearly to the . however. do not admit of being tested with the required degree of accuracy by this method. perfectly reliable results being obtained in connection with the deter- mination of the acid by titration. . very unreliable. since the apparent quantity of real acetic acid is increased by the presence of foreign bodies which add to the density of the liquid. The best method of ascertaining the percentage of acetic acid in vinegar is by titration or volumetric analysis. poor wines. namely. times ascertained by a species of hydrometer termed an Determination of the Content of Acetic acetometer. a burette and pipette. and such liquids as contain an excess of organic matters. Its use is especially recommended when the working of one or more generators is to be ascertained in a short time. determine to within % per cent. For the execution of the test a few instruments are required. By slightly lifting the finger the is then allowed to flow off by drops until its level has liquid mark above the convex expansion ment. the solution filtered.220 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. In some cases the vinegar is saturated with chalk or milk of lime. Anhydride in Vinegar The content of acetic acid in vinegar is someor Acetometry. and the specific gravity of the acetate of lime liquor ascertained. by which a nearer approximation is arrived at than by the direct testing of the vinegar. The upper end is then quickly closed with the index finger of the right hand. Vinegar made from dilute alcohol or ripe wines in which no great excess of albuminous or other matter is present might to a certain limit be tested with sufficient accuracy by the acetometer. yet implicit reliance cannot be placed on either of these two methods. top.

and after bringing it into a beaker. By a drawn out The rubber tube is quick.06 gramme of one acetic anhydride.CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF RAW MATERIALS. 221 a cylindrical glass tube open on the top. cubic centimeter of it corresponding to 0. some liquid is then allowed to flow in a jet into a vessel. The lower end of the tube is burette is The drawn out to a somewhat distended point so as to allow a rubber tube to be drawn over it and securely fastened. after some experience. colored red by the addition of one or two drops of litmus tincture and diluted with four or six times its quantity of distilled water. be ejected in drops or in a The number of cubic centimeters which have stronger jet.0006 gramme. For determining the acetic acid the burette is filled to the point with soda solution. and for especially accurate determinations The decinormal solution. A corresponding quantity of vinegar is then accurately measured off by means of the pipette. the soda solution interrupted as soon as a blue coloration on the runs in is observed. one-tenth and one-fifth cubic centimeters. in the center by a pinch-cock compressed or clip. whereby the lower end is closed. After thoroughly stirring is again allowed to . strong pressure upon the handle-joint of the clip. the fluid being constantly agitated by gently swinging the beaker with the left. In the lower end a glass tube to a fine point is inserted. the tube below the clip tained in it expelled. It is graduated. The burette is filled with fluid from above by means of a small funnel. The beaker is placed upon a white support under the burette and the soda solution in the latter ejected in a strong jet by pressing with the right hand the handle-joint of the clip. into whole. The inflow of soda solution is point where it the fluid with a glass rod. is filled By been allowed to flow out can be readily read off by keeping the surface of the fluid in the tube on a level with the eye. By this with liquid and the air cona slight or stronger pressure the liquid can. test liquor generally used is normal caustic soda solution.006 it corresponding gramme of acetic anhydride and -^ cubic centimeter to 0. one cubic centimeter of to 0. commencing from the top.

ammonia till the specific gravity 1000 grains of this dilute ammonia contain one equivalent of ammonia. The is application of this test is similar to that already described.. of the ammonia volatilizes. and the upper one of the . 52. Instead of soda test liquor. strength. the fluid being stirred after the This is continued until the fluid has addition of each drop. but now drop by drop. addition of one drop more of soda solution changes the color The appearance of the violet coloration is called the neutralizing point. acquired a violet color with a strong reddish shade. while the change of color from violet to blue indicates that the fluid is now neutral. more strong ammonia static is till the hydro- drops are properly readjusted. When added. and the other floats just under the surface of the liquid as long as the testIf a part liquor retains the proper strength.992 . e. which is 0. times used to saturate the acid. it is advisable to . partly above the surface.222 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. which an objection to its use but a uniformity of be insured by introducing into the bottle two glass hydrometer bulbs so concentration may - adjusted that one remains barely touching at the bottom. run in. and the to blue. violet in neutral. i. contains neither free acetic acid nor an excess of caustic soda. There dilute is some difficulty in preserving the ammonia of the same . capable of saturating one equivalent of acetic acid. The determina- tion is based upon the coloring substance of litmus appearing red in acid. and the glass bulbs rise the lower one higher from the bottom. and blue in alkaline solutions. a solution of ammonia is someThe solution is prepared by to concentrated is adding water FIG. this happens. Determinations of acetic acid by titration having to be frequently executed in a vinegar factory. the specific gravity liquor will become proportionately greater.

52.is refilled long as the flask contains soda solution. The portion of this tube outside of the flask. of this tube The outside portion consequently. Through another of these perforations passes a glass tube. R. the tube is by a glass tube drawn out to a fine point. 223 use an apparatus which will facilitate the operation. For working with the apparatus the flask is filled with normal soda solution and the cork inserted air-tight after removing from it the tube A. Such an apparatus is shown in Fig. The flask is closed air-tight by a cork provided with three perforations. and. the latter reaching only to below the edge of the cork. cease into the burette. By now pressing on the clip Q the fluid passes into the burette. whereby the fluid is forced This being done. Above and below the burette is closed by the clips Q andQ. bent twice at a right angle and reaching to the bottom of the flask. is then placed in position. in the lower end of which is a stopper of cotton upon which closed are placed small pieces of burnt lime. which is connected by a short rubber tube with the tube L.. On top. two rods position by placed on the stand holding the flask. Below the burette is connected with a short rubber tube in inserted a glass-tube drawn out to a fine point. In one of these perforations is inserted a glass tube. . A. The burette being emptied by the discharge of the fluid acid for another determination of and this can be repeated as on Q. through the tube R to press upon Q. the tube forms a siphon. A. The tube. is connected by a short rubber tube with the upper The latter is secured in a vertical portion of the burette B. by simply pressing through Q lt it . is somewhat longer than that in the flask.CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OP RAW MATERIALS. Upon a table stands a two-liter flask holding the normal soda solution. whereby the latter closes and stops a further discharge of the fluid. Now open the upper clip Q and blow vigorously through the glass-tube substituted for A. as will be seen in the illustration. On the side near the top of the burette is a small tube bent at a which is right angle. and substituting for it a small glasstube. the air contained in the latter entering the flask through the tube L.

to be given off.of acetic acid .2 per cent. pass through the lime which fixes the carbonic acid contained in it. University of California Publications.42 gramme. In doing so it must.* the acetic acid is determined by the volume of gas given off by bicarbonate of soda vinegar. As soon as the bottle is tightly closed with the cork the bicarbonate is shaken gradually into the vinegar and immediately carbonic acid gas com- mences. 100 cubic centimeters contain 10 times 0. the determination of the strength of vinegar with suffi- cient accuracy for manufacturing and commercial purposes an instrument called a vinegar tester is largely used. or the vinegar examined contains 4.42 gramme = 4.224 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. calculation of the quantity of acetic acid present in the vinegar examined is made as shown by the following example : The For 10 cubic centimeters of vinegar were consumed 70 cubic centimeters of decinormal soda solution. In the form shown in Fig. as 10 cubic centimeters contain 0. In discharging the fluid from the burette by opening Q v air from the outside passes into the apparatus through A. College of AgriculBulletin No.2 grammes . 53. however.006 of decinormal soda solution being gramme of acetic acid. glass tube " when treated with a measured volume of volume of vinegar is measured in the small and poured into the bottle B. as described by Frederic T. ture Experiment Station. 227. Now. The stronger the vinegar. A sufficient amount of bicarbonate is then taken with the spoon E and inrequisite The A troduced carefully into the bottle. hence 70 cubic centi' meters=0.42 gramme of acetic acid. One cubic centimeter equal to 0. . For by weight of acetic acid. This gas passing through the rubber tube forces the water in the bottle to rise in the large glass D tube * C. Bioletti. so that the fluid in the flask for remains free from carbonic acid even after standing months. the more gas will be given Grape Vinegar.

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF RAW MATERIALS. If the vinegar 0. 15 This is determined by allowing the column . be taken that none gets into the vinegar until the bottle is securely corked. By reading the number of the line nearest the level reached by the water and adding the estimated height above or below this line. FIG. 53. insure sufficient accuracy with these instruments certain precautions are necessary.5 per cent. The bicarbonate of soda sold for " To In placing it in the cooking purposes is sufficiently pure. There must be no leak in bottle care should the apparatus. This is marked with numbered lines. off 225 and the higher the water will rise in the tube G. must be deducted from the observed reading to allow for the tartaric acid of the wine. the strength tube of the vinegar is is made from wine obtained directly in per cent.

226 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. If the column does not fall in this time there is no leak of importance. of water to remain for a few minutes in the cylinder after making a determination. "The instruments perature. If the water is either very cold or very are adjusted for water of ordinary temwarm the The following table shows some of the variations due to the use of too warm water. but they are to be of any significance and the absorption none of them large enough the vinegar maker. the determinairregular. There are other sources of error such as the atmospheric pres- shown by the sure. results are inaccurate. the pressure of the column to of gas by the water. tions agree very closely with the results of more accurate tests. as is possible as the variations are table." KESULTS OF VJNEGAR TESTER COMPARED WITH ACCURATE ANALYSES " No temperature At 65 correction F!." of water .

warm place. the sulphate of baryta produces a precipitate and the bottom of the test-glass. . sample of the vinegar a few drops If the vinegar becomes the due to sulphates naturally are slightly cloudy. To the clear fluid cooled to the ordinary temperature add a drop of a solution of iodine in spirits of wine. the quantity of sulphuric acid is more than a thousandth.EXAMINATION AS TO PRESENCE OF FOREIGN ACIDS. but dangerous to health. the fluid remains colorless. and it is necessary to indicate the means by which such additions can be detected. vinegar containing sulphuric acid leaves a dark-brown stain which on heating the plate turns black. of a solution of Sulphuric Acid. pure vinegar evapo. AS WELL AS TO ITS DERIVATION. Such adulteration is not only a fraud. 227 CHAPTER XX. falls rapidly to The presence of free sulphuric acid in vinegar can also be determined by coating a porcelain plate with strong sugar solution and allowing the latter to dry up. . free leaving a slightly brownish stain The presence mined with still of free sulphuric acid in vinegar can be detergreater sharpness by the following test Divide : a piece of starch the size of a grain of wheat in 50 cubic centimeters of vinegar arid reduce the fluid one-half by boiling. Detection of Acids. impurities in the water or in the substances from which the present A heavy white cloud slow in subsidvinegar has been made. in weak or inferior vinegars. order to pass off manufacturers. If ing will indicate free sulphuric acid in small proportion. Add to a barium chloride. Vinegar containing no free free sulphuric acid at once acquires a blue coloration if sulphuric acid be present. EXAMINATION OF VINEGAR AS TO THE PRESENCE OF FOREIGN ACIDS AND OF METALS. By bringing a few drops of the vinegar to be examined upon the plate and placing the latter in a moderately rates. adulterate them Some unscrupulous with mineral acids.

This acid occurs only in vinegar prepared by fermentation when stored in freshly sulphured barrels. the vinegar examined contains lactic acid. The addition of sulphuric acid and copper turnings will cause the evolution of nitrous vapors if nitric acid be present. which can be detected by slowly evaporat- ing 100 cubic centimeters of vinegar in a porcelain dish until but a few drops remain. that it. not due to an intentional addition. It may. Take about 100 cubic centimeters of Hydrochloric Acid. The most simple method of detecting the presence of sulphurous acid is by in a glass distilling apparatus. Lactic Acid. Nitric acid is not a frequent adulteration. In the pres- ence of hydrochloric acid a white. which caseous precipitate is consists of chloride of silver and dissolves in liquid ammonia added in excess. 50. Compound the fluid distilled off with a few drops of solution of nitrate of silver. the vinegar to be tested and distil off one-half by means of the apparatus Fig. 216. immediately formed. and evaporating the whole to dryness. If these drops show a very strong acid The taste. p. prepared from grain. In many varieties of vinegar small quantities of lactic acid occur. occur in vinegar whose content of acetic acid has been increased by the addition of high-grade acetic acid prepared from wood-vinegar.228 This test is MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. It is detected by saturating with carbonate of sodium or of potassium several ounces of vinegar. teristic very small quantity of starch gives with iodine the characblue coloration. pure presence of lactic acid is. malt or beer always containing Sulphurous Acid. but to the material used in the manufacture of the vinegar. placing 100 cubic centimeters of the vinegar to be examined and connecting the latter by a glass-tube with a vessel containing 50 cubic centimeters of . however. however. based upon the fact that starch by continued boil- ing with sulphuric acid is converted into dextrin and finally Neither of these bodies reacts upon iodine. while a sugar.

zinc and tin are occasionally found in vinegar. After distilling over -jfc of the vinegar the acidulated water is heated to boiling for a few minutes and solution of barium If the vinegar contains sulphurous acid. Tin Evaporate to dryness at least 2 or 3 quarts of the vinegar dissolve the residue in hydrochloric acid. of Detection of Metals. 229 pure water compounded with about 10 drops of nitric acid. the use of metallic utensils. Copper. Copper in vinegar can be detected by evaporating to dryness about 1 quart of the vinegar to be examined and dissolving the residue in a few drops of nitric acid. and conduct sulphuretted hydrogen through it until the fluid has .EXAMINATION AS TO PRESENCE OF FOREIGN ACIDS. Besides iron. should be avoided as much as possible. and the solution divided into several portions. other metals such as copper. or more serious. that of copper. the vinegar contains no iron. The occurrence pumps. little While the presence of a small quantity of iron is of tin is importance in hygienic respect. metals in vinegar is due to the vessels employed in the manufacture or the storage. hence. The presence of this metal imparts a black color to the vinegar. zinc. acquired a strong odor of the it is latter. If the iron becomes coated with a perceptible red film (consisting of actual copper). filtered off. If a precipitate is formed. the combinations of these metals having a poisonous effect upon the organism. or only so small a quantity as to be of no importance. drops of solution of tannin is not changed after standing a few hours.. The latter can be shown with still greater sharpness by dipping polished iron into another portion of the fluid. etc. y - Iron.the presence of copper. tion with By compounding a portion of this solu- ammonia in excess. the presence of this metal is shown. a chloride added. the fluid acquires a perceptible blue coloration in . which is increased by a few drops of tincture of If the color of vinegar compounded with a few gall-nuts. such as stop-cocks. white heavy precipitate is formed. dissolved in strong hydrochloric acid. and. Compound one of these .

such as salts of ashes. swells up when heated. the vinegar contains tin. generally with a reddish shade. a number of only colored slightly yellowish. and a very small quantity of is of a dark brown color. If such vinegar has a dark yellow color resembling that of wine. an accurate examination showing it to consist sodium chloride. tests of however. The examination of a vinegar as regards the materials used in its preparation is generally effected by the. Vinegar prepared from dilute spirits of wine is colorless or are. serve as a controlling test if potassium the fluid contains tin. and. . The latter consists chiefly of dextrin.230 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and leaves a lustrous black coal. gum-like residue. gypsum. Determination of the Derivation of a Vinegar.senses of odor and taste. portions with dilute solution of chloride of gold if after some time it becomes red and precipitates red flakes. leaves a very small residue of a whitish or very slightly yellow color. the of calcium acetate. when carefully evaporated. There assist ready execution which the judgment of the tongue and nose. The behavior of the fluid towards solution of . leave a brown. On account of their content of dextrin they foam when shaken. the solution of potassium permanganate permanganate may becomes discolored. The presence of tin is also indicated if another portion of the solution of the precipitate in hydrochloric acid does not acquire a blue color after the addition of potassium ferrocyanide. it is generally due to the addition of caramel. and contains. Beer and malt vinegars are dark yellow. the addition being chiefly made on ac- count of the erroneous opinion prevailing among the public that vinegar clear as water or only slightly colored lacks strength. which chiefly consists of the salts contained in the water used for the preparation of the alcoholic liquid. Vinegar prepared from spirits of wine. besides the other extractive substances occurring in beer and malt vinegar. . If the residue vinegar has been colored with caramel. when carefully evaporated in a porcelain dish.

and after allowing it to stand for a in the tumbler. which contains the phosphoric acid present in the fluid. the then vinous odor becomes more prominent. how- ever the surest means of distinguishing genuine wine-viriegar from a spurious article. The great content of phosphoric acid characteristic of malt or beer-vinegar may also serve for the determination of the derivation of such vinegar. after standing. a characteristic sign of wine-vinegar. few hours examining the odor of the few drops remaining The greater portion of the acetic acid having volatilized.EXAMINATION AS TO PRESENCE OF FOREIGN especially ACIDS. does not prove the sample genuine wine-vinegar. the fluid. acid. a sand-like precipitate falls to test-tube. can in this manner be plainly distinguished from the latter. the latter becoming especially perceptible by rinsing out a large tumbler with the vinegar. At a still higher temperature the residue turns black and finally acts it evolves like caramel pungent vapors and leaves a lustrous coal. and adding double its The presence of potassium bitartrate is volume the/ bottom of the of strong spirits of wine. which consists of very small crystals of tartar. to be This. the residue in the tumbler having an entirely different odor. In case the derivation of a vinegar is to be established with absolute certainty. By compounding beer or maltvinegar with some nitric acid and a solution of ammonium molybdate and heating. With a sufficiently sharp sense of smell this is. rapidly filterthe ing boiling fluid into a test tube. 231 much phosphoric odor calling to mind that of . By evaporating wine-vinegar to a brownish mass. and this being better made by an analytical . Wine-vinegar is best recognized by its characteristic odor. tartar also being contained in imitations. however. it has to be subjected to an accurate chemical analysis. separates a yellow precipitate. On heating strongly an is toasted bread evolved. Cider-vinegar. the odor of which is somewhat similar to that of wine-vinegar. syrupy boiling the latter with some water.

and in this case small quantities of dextrin and of phosThe total absence of tartaric acid phates will also be found. be present. though not necessarily from apples or pears. chillies. especially in the case of cider-vinegar to which tartaric acid has been added. etc. no proof of genuine wine-vinegar. the liquor. A content of tartaric acid is. they may be detected by neutralizing the acid with carbonate of soda and tasting Should pepper. the alcoholic liquid used for the production of the vinegar consists very likely of spirits of wine and water with the addition of beer or fermented whiskey- mash. the solution will retain the sharpness peculiar to such spices.. as tional addition. only a few hints are here given which may serve as a guide for such analyses. as a rule. be added to vinegar for the purpose of conferring more pungency.232 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. only in very small quantities. still . and the presence of malic acid indicate the derivation of the vinegar under examination from fruit. these bodies being always formed by the fermentation of a sacchariferous fluid. In vinegar prepared from a fermented fluid a certain quantity of glycerin and succinic acid will. if these bodies be present. and consequently when found the vinegar in question cannot have been prepared from an alcoholic liquid If they are found consisting only of spirits of wine and water. chemist. however. other sacchariferous fruits also containing malic acid. its presence may be due to an intencertain and it is very difficult to arrive at a conclusion as to the genuineness of a pretended wine-vinegar.

6 Common Alder fir 39. fiber.WOOD VINEGAR AND OTHER. and is composed of C6 10 5 H . 6. The inorganic constituents the incineration of the wood are the same kinds of wood. IN THE Wood essentially consists of woody small quantities of salts and sap and a varying quantity of hygroscopic water. 100 parts containing 44.. Red Beech Oak Oak (quercus pedunculata) White fir. Woody fiber or cellulose constitutes about 96 per cent. but wood thus dried re-absorbs .38 oxygen. Elm Ked fir.4 37. .2 The branches always contain more water than the trunk. Constitution of Wood. A few varieties are heavier.7 . The vegetable sap consists chiefly of water.45 parts carbon. according to Schubler and Neuffler. but contains organic as well as inorganic matters. . Wood is called air-dry when its weight no longer changes at an ordinary temperature in this state it contains still 17 to 20 per cent. nearly than water.6 44. The quantity than in erally larger in the soft wood is genthe hard varieties. BY-PRODUCTS. of water. kinds of wood are specifically lighter felled. 41. One hunof water in : dred parts of wood recently felled contain. the following quanties of water Beech Birch 18. of dry wood.7 30. different woods : . 233 CHAPTER XXL WOOD VINEGAR AND OTHER BY-PRODUCTS OBTAINED DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF WOOD. partly in solution and partly left after the ash in all in suspension. The latter can be expelled by continued heating at 212 F. about 20 per c'ent.17 hydrogen and 49.8 34... but these are the harder kinds in which the cellulose to leave little is When so compactly packed as The table very here given exhibits approximately the specific gravity of the space for the retention of air.5 35.1 . 45.7 39. of water all from the air.

in the cherry tree the content of ash is greatest in the leaves (about 7 per cent.3 per cent.effective constituents creosote mercuric chloride. wood rich in water decays more than wood. many other substances having been recommended for this . even thousands of years.. becomes gray. According to Violet. blue vitriol. Hence.5. potassium.64 0.8.1 to 0. first decomposed. and the nitrogenous bodies..) considerably greater in the bark than in the wood. consists chiefly of carbonates of calcium.1 to 3. rapidly dry Wood to be preserved should. it varying considerably in different parts of the same tree and also with its age. and in the latter 0.70 0. for a long time. oxygen and nitrogen 34.76 The content of ash is not the same in all woods . of ash. though under especially favorable circumstances it may last for several centuries. however.).2 per cent.4 per cent. found in the bark of the oak 6 per cent. and the decomposition being next transferred to the woody fiber. subject to greater changes. average composition of 100 parts of air-dry wood is : ash 1. chloride of zinc. no doubt. in the former from 1. be as dry as possible.. The Carbon 39. and in the trunk 0. and pletely combinations .6 further of magnesia and the phosphates of different bases. oxygen and nitrogen 43. In the presence of sufficient moisture and air the nitrogenous . the latter loses its coherence. 0. be converted into insoluble tar and one of its most . mains unchanged Cellulose when carefully treated reDecomposition of wood. removed by lixiviation.234 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. hygroscopic water 20 and that of artificially dried wood Carbon 49. .8. therefore. in the branches 0. hydrogen 4.7 Saussure per cent. then brown. .5. The ash and sodi- parts. Wood is. hydrogen 6. : um.8. ash 0. which can be but incom- and finally decays.bodies of the sap are. next in the lower parts of the roots (5 per cent.

formed from cellulose in a closed vessel. according to G. methyl alcohol (see further on). and from" wood.. If this temperature be already decomposed at about 293 F. when heated for some time with water in an entirely closed vessel to 752 F. for instance. If. for instance to 392 F. the wood. Williams. a small quantity of sugar is. an acid not yet thoroughly known. it yielding up only sap constituents. 235 has been successfully attempted to produce certain insoluble bodies. however. or such as barium phosphate.. or blue vitriol. . an oil and 421 F. sulphurous acid being at the same time evolved. tions. however. is converted into a mass having the appearance of stone-coal and approaching Baroulier made similar observaanthracite in its behavior. pine. cellulose swells sugar). so that the vapors and gases could only escape very slowly. the wood. according to Sorby.WOOD VINEGAR AND OTHER BY-PRODUCTS. wood remains unchanged. turns black and is completely destroyed. By avoiding all heating. however. etc.. by saturating with sodium phosphate and then with barium chloride. By heating to 212 F. With concentrated sulphuric acid. such as aluminium and copper soaps. amyloid. a month. In the presence of water. When up and gradually white flocks. wood in a closed vessel is. in the interior of the wood by saturating it with soda Moreover. is converted into a lustrous black mass with the formation of acetic acid and gases. It being precipitated by water in The starch-like body thus obtained is called is an altered cellulose and is colored blue by dissolves. and a small quantity of boiling between 277 furfurol. concentrated sulphuric acid converts which by diluting dextrin cellulose into a gum-like body with water and long digesting is converted into sugar (starch heated. masses resembling stone-coal being formed by pressing saw-dust. according to Mulder. purpose.. stems and leaves together in moist clay and heating continuously to from 392 to 572 F. kept up for a long time. it soap and then with aluminium chloride. the temperature be increased. According to Daubree.

At the ordinary temperature. violet-red fiber Concentrated hydrochloric acid colors wood rose color to and rapidly destroys it. Dilute hydrochloric acid . By bringing cellulose in contact with dilute aqueous solutions of alkalies. and subsequent washing out in the same manner with water. while wood is colored yellow and partially dissolved. the quantity of absolute alcohol obtainable in this manner is very small. Hydriodic acid reduces hydrocarbons. water being.. or. state its wood thus wood acquires great plasticity. of the weight of the wood. of sugar can be obtained from wood % by boiling 10 to 12 hours with water containing one-tenth of hydrochloric acid. it is.* By macerating wood with dilute hydrochloric acid at an ordinary temperature. and drying by means of a current of air at 98. Concentrated nitric acid.3 per cent. claimed that up ta 23 per cent. into gun-cotton. according to Zetterlund. for instance. forms sugar but.236 iodine. cotton.d. The woody remaining unattacked can be used as material for paper. havior has been utilized for obtaining alcohol by fermenting the sugar . for instance. the cellulose is not changed. and but little when heated. still better. for instance. while at a higher temperacertain quantity of sugar glucose or dextrose is This beformed. amounting to about 2. . has no effect in the cold. but the so-called lignin seems to be dissolved. chalk. however. Dilute nitric acid. water it being formed and iodine liberated. affected MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. on heating. By forcing dilute hydrochloric acid by a pressure of two atmospheres into trunks provided with the bark. but no humus-like bodies .thus obtained with yeast after neutralizing the acid by calcium carbonate.6 F. converts cellulose. a mixture of and sulphuric acid. absorbed at the same time. In a moist treated can be pressed together to one-tenth of wood to various original volume. * According to prior experiments by Bachet. and consequently a starch-like substance is formed. wood is but little ture a by dilute sulphuric aci.20 specific gravity. it is colored blue by iodine. of 1.

. and those which are formed by certain volatile fluids which are liquid at the ordinary temperature. CO. On heating shavings with sodium sulphide an abundant quantity of acetic acid (sodium acetate) is formed. better. carbonic acid and carbonic oxide become less prominent. first formed and then oxalic acid. as well as on whether that temperature has been slowly raised to a certain point. and heavier hydro. is chiefly found. the quantity of the latter increasing with the At between 392 and 428 F. the rise in the temperature. while that of methane. mixed also with hydrogen. . but at higher degrees of heat suffer de- composition and yield gaseous products. CH 4 appear. still ing unchanged. the kind and quantity of which depend on the temperature to which the wood has been exposed. decomposition. In speaking of the gases. Products of Destructive Distillation. the addition latter acid is frequently of sulphur to caustic soda apparently having the effect of preventing the formation of oxalic acid. a great number of products. CO 2 mixed only with very small quantities of carbonic oxide. carbonic acid.WOOD VINEGAR AND OTHER BY-PRODUCTS. quantities of carbonic acid and carbonic oxide are nearly equal. between 320 and 374 F. which will be first considered. the woody fibre remainBy heating with strong alkaline lyes. The obtained by this process. or as rapidly as possible. At between 608 and 680 F. or. either gaseous. liquid or solid. 237 from wood only the lignin is extracted.. Besides charcoal. by fusing with solid caustic alkalies. a distinction has to be The products obtained by gradually made between those which must be accepted as actual products of decomposition of wood.. according to Braconnot. and methane appears in larger Above this temperature the content of carbonic quantities. acetic acid is. carbons make their appearance. there are formed in the decomposition of wood under exclusion of air. and small quantities of methane or marsh gas. increasing the heat are. at the ordinary temperature. acid in the gas mixture becomes small. increases. At the commencement of Gaseous products of distillation.

while the blue coloration gradually becomes less prominent. The following table shows the order in which the gaseous combinations are formed at different temperatures Temperature. that of others is readily explained. C4 H 8 C6 H 6 (-7^8 lre ' From 680 to 812 F.5 oxide. 6. the flame is slightly luminous and shows the characteristic- Later on. 38. and while as regards the formation of many of these bodies only hypothcan be advanced. .6 Up to 680 F. until finally the gases burn with the luminous pure white flame of heavy hydrocarbons. | Propylene Butylene Benzene Toluene Xylene ~) Cumene Napthalene C 8 H ]0 C9 H 12 C ]0 H 8 I } Liquid at the ordinary temperture. : Name.7 Above 680 F. in conpale blue color of the carbonic acid flame. 14-17 hydrocarbons.8 Hydrogen. . | Pettenkofer found the composition of wood gases as follows Carbonic Carbonic Air. the flame exhibits periodically a pure white color. 5 54. : Heavy Methane. 18-25 40-50 8-12 The process by which the above-mentioned bodies.238 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. acid. Carbonic oxide CO CO 2 ] {Carbonic '55: Ethy'lene . acid Composition. it is well to remember that in the execution of carbonization and destructive diseses tillation on a large scale. By igniting the gases escaping from the distilling apparatus. 6. are formed is of a very complicated nature. a conclusion can be drawn from the appearance of the flame At first as to the kind of products which are developing. . it is impossible to maintain the same . . in the formation of methane and increase the of sequence heavier hydrocarbons. Before entering upon this explanation. of which the products of benzene caught by cooling may also be volatilized. C 2 H. ] (above this temperature only a very small quantity of gas is evolved).

Furthermore certain volatile bodies when highly heated.a combination are formed. act at first after being freed from all moisture. carbonic oxide the combination of carbon poorer in oxygen appears in larger quantity. namely Carbonic : acid. The gases above mentioned. . When wood substance is heated. when the wood. However. two cases contact with glowing coal. e. at pletely saturated with hydrogen a somewhat higher temperature. its elementary constituents upon each other in such a manner that water is and formed. possess the property of undergoing decomposition. ethylene C H 4 . consequently steam is evolved. This explains the origin of many bodies which appear among the products of the decomposition of wood. in the So long as hydrogen is present in abundance. carbonic methane and ethylene. and at first combinations composed of the three constituents of wood are formed. is heated to 320 F. When these gases are brought in oxide.WOOD VINEGAR AND OTHER BY-PRODUCTS. temperature in 239 all parts of the apparatus. At a later stage of decomposition. and carbonic acid oxygen is formed so long as an abundance of oxygen is tity of when the quanand mass has decreased the temperature oxygen has become higher. new combinations being formed. 2 poorer in hydrogen. are very possibly those combinations which may originate directly from the decomposition of the wood substance. and then. At a certain temperature the affinity of carbon for oxygen becomes so potent that the two bodies enter into combinathe combination of carbon richest in tion. and new bodies appear in the products of distillation. i. or are highly heated which always occur in destructive distillation they suffer decomposition. and that considerable differences in temperature will occur. at a higher temperature the affinity of carbon for oxygen and hydrogen asserts itself. methane CH 4 a combination of carbon with hydrogen comis first formed. in contact with hot places of the distilling apparatus. It is due to the affinity of hydrogen for carbon that two hydrocarbons present..

240 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. carbon. a graphite-like layer of On carbon is found which adheres quite firmly and is very likely formed by the decomposition of methane and other hydrocarbons in coming in contact with the hot surface. methane is directly decomposed to its is elementary constituents.. ethylene is decomposed so that the above mentioned products are formed. Hence at lower degrees of heat formed : 2CH = 4 methane = C 2 H2 -I- H 6 acetylene + 4 hydrogen. action. C0 with an increasing temperature. carbon being thereby separated. the portions of the iron distilling vessels. The above-mentioned decompositions of methane. 3 C2 H 4 ethylene = acetylene + methane. and at higher degrees of heat : CH =C+ H 4 . however. red heat. there may be formed from these gases a series of . acetylene. the hydrogen being split off from these combinations. which are highly heated in the distillation of wood. Ethylene C 2 H 4 is perature to acetylene decomposed at a comparatively low temand methane. So long as the temperature is not much above 750 F. 4 C'H 4 = 2 C 2 H 2 -1- 3 CH 4 -f C. Carbonic acid in contact with glowing coal changes to car- and it is very likely that the con2 -|-C=2CO. are not the only ones which may occur. content of carbonic oxide in the gases the of stant increase bonic oxide. however being at the same time separated. while at a and hydrogen are chiefly formed from methane. and according to the temperature. = 2 C H + 2 CH 2 2 4 At a higher temperature. is partly due to this reciprocal Hydrogen appears only when the temperature has reached a point at which methane and ethylene are formed in abundance. C 2 H 2.

appears in proportionally largest quantity.large. other combinations. CH 4 + methyl alcohol + ammonia = methylamine + IT 3 N CH N 5 -f H 2 water. the apparatuses in which the products of distillation. This quantity. of which. but. 2 CH + 4 CO carbonic oxide = = C3 T7 6 propylene -J- HO 2 methane + + water. for be instance. there are others which are a source of the formation of gaseous bodies. or at least a large quantity of bodies which might be condensed would be carried away by the powerful current of gases. and the vapors of this combination are entirely or partially decomposed when highly heated. as otherwise the seams might open in consequence of the pressure of the gases . its Wood contains in forms at once substitution products. on the other hand. a con- siderable quantity of acetic acid and methyl alcohol is already formed. explained by the reciprocal action of methane and carbonic oxide. in which a portion of the hydrogen in the am- monia is replaced by methyl. for instance. very little acetic acid why sap constituents small quantities of nitrogenous combinations and the nitrogen forms with hydrogen. Since in the destructive distillation of wood a large quantity of gases is evolved.97 cubic meters of gas. When the heat is rapidly raised 16 .WOOD VINEGAR AND OTHER BY-PRODUCTS. liquid at the ordinary temperature. in heating the wood this explains very rapidly. a very large quantity of gaseous and tar products. which. corresponds only to the conditions prevailing when distillation is carried ' on slowly. however.e. Besides the processes of decomposition above represented. methylamir. By destructive distillation 100 kilogrammes of wood yield on an average 24. ammonia. At a temperature of between 392 and 536 F. and and methyl alcohol are formed. on coming together with hydrocarbons. 241 The appearance of propylene may. are to be condensed must be quite.



nearly 50 per cent, more of gas

obtained and of course the

yield of liquid products of distillation and of charcoal is correspondingly reduced. F. Fischer made thorough investigations regarding the gases formed in the destructive distillation He found that the average yield from 100 parts of of wood.

45 kilogrammes wood vinegar (with 4 kilogrammes anhydride and 1.1 kilogramme wood spirit), 23 kilogrammes charcoal, 4 kilogrammes tar, 28 kilogrammes gases

and steam.
distillation of

The products of destructive Liquid Products of Distillation. wood which can be condensed by cooling, separate, when at rest, into two layers, the upper lighter one, which

an acid nature, forming the wood vinegar, while the lower, Since these fluids are formed at denser one, is termed tar. and there is considerable difference temperatures widely apart

in the chemical constitution of the bodies contained in them, it is best to consider them separately.

At the lowest temperature at which the deVinegar. wood commences according to Violette beof composition


tween 302 and 312 F., and according to Gillot, even between 216.6 and 244.4 F. the three elementary constituents



upon each

other, and, besides a


of acids

of the fatty acid series and methyl alcohol, there are formed The certain products of the decomposition of these bodies.

formation of fatty acids, amongst which acetic acid appears in
largest quantity,

and reaches



commences, according to Gillot, at 255 F., at 437 F. At higher temperatures

considerable quantities of products of decomposition of the fatty acids appear, so that, according to the temperature and duration of distillation, there may be considerable variation, as

regards the quantities of bodies contained in it, in the composition of wood vinegar gained on a large scale. The presence of
the following fatty acids in established

wood vinegar has been



2 2

Formic acid
Acetic acid



Propionic acid
Butyric acid Valeric acid



C2 H 4 O 2 C3 H 6 O 2 C4 H 8 O 2 C5 H ]0O 2 C6 Hi 2 O2

Formic acid
the succeeding

boils at



F., and since the boiling-point of of this series of acids lies about 68

higher, it may be supposed that the lower members of this series of acids are found in the portion of the wood-vinegar which distils over at a comparatively low temperature. This

has been fully confirmed by experience, and for this reason the wood should be very slowly heated if the largest possible yield
of acetic acid
is to

be obtained.


alcohol, CH 4 O, may be produced from

marsh -gas by

subjecting that


to the action of chlorine in sunshine,

whereby chloromethane, or methyl chloride, CH 3 C1, is proIn the destructive duced, and then distilling with potash. distillation of wood it is very likely formed by the action of carbonic acid upon methane

CH +

CO 2
carbonic acid




carbonic oxide,



methyl alcohol

so that the appearance of constantly increasing quantities of carbonic oxide beside carbonic acid would appear to be ex-

plained by this process.

Acetone, C 3 6 0, is formed directly from acetic acid by conducting the vapors of the latter through a red-hot tube whereby
carbonic acid and water are formed
2(C 2 H 4








acetic acid

acetone + carbonic acid

may, however, be also formed from methyl alcohol and acetic acid, or from methyl alcohol and carbonic oxide. The occurrence of methyl acetic ether, CH 3 ,C 2 H 3 02, in wood vinegar is due to acetic acid and methyl alcohol in a nascent state


upon each


while the presence of aldehyde,



C 4 10 2 may be explained by tbe reciprocal action of methyl alcohol and acetic acid, two molecules of methyl alcohol with one molecule of acetic acid being transformed to dimethyl


(= aldehyde) while water and oxygen are liberated, the being immediately fixed by other products.
2(CIT 4 0)
methyl alcohol

+C H






acetic acid








Further products of the reciprocal action of the fatty


oxide, are: Metacetone, C 6 10 0, and alcohol or furfurol, C 3 The small quantities of allyl 6 0. nitrogen originating from the sap constituents of the wood,

methane and carbonic



which are present in destructive distillation, appear in the form of methylamine C 3 H 2 N, and ammonia. There is such a variation in the quantities of the bodies of which wood vinegar is composed that it is impossible to give
figures of general value in regard to them, the time during which heating takes place being of great influence in this re-

from the same variety of wood, by rapid heating, only a few tenths of the quantity of products are frequently This fact is of obtained, which would result by slow heating.
spect, so that

the greatest importance for the practical manufacture of wood vinegar and wood spirit, and will be more fully discussed later
It may here only be mentioned that from air dry wood, with not too rapid distillation, 30 to 53 per cent, (from most varieties of wood on an average 40 to 45 per cent.) of wood


vinegar may be obtained, the specific gravity of which varies between 1.018 and 1.030, and which contains between 2.5 and '8.5 per cent, acetic anhydride, calculated from the gravity of
the wood vinegar.

The products which occur in wood tar are still more numerous than those which originate during the period in which there is still considerable oxygen in the heated mass. Among the combinations which may be termed tar products

in the actual sense of the word, are only a few containing oxygen, and these occur only in smaller quantities. The

larger quantity of the tar


products consist of hydrocarbon combinations and must be considered as having been formed by the elements, carbon and hydrogen, grouping themselves

in various

ways at different temperatures. Ethylene very breaks likely up into a series of hydrocarbon combinations, at a slightly higher temperature than that at which it originates,

for instance,



<J 10

= naphthalene +

8(C2 H 4 )





+G(CH 4 ),

and the formation of all the other hydrocarbons might in the same manner be explained. When derived from hard wood,
wood-tar consists chiefly of parafins,* toluene, xylene, cresol,
guaiacol, phenol,

and methyl derivatives

of pyrogallol.

Since a portion of these combinations is already formed at a temperature at which acetic acid is still evolved from the wood,
certain quantities are found dissolved in


vinegar, the tar

products being While, according to Pettenkofer, the heavy hydrocarbons appear only at a temperature of above 680 F., according to GilF. is already formed at 565 Practical that the has shown experience, however, largest quantities of tar are formed only at a higher temperature, and the boilinglot,

jointly condensed with the wood-vinegar.

tar in


points of tar products also indicate a high temperature of formation, naphthalene, for instance, boiling at 413.6 F. and
paraffin only at over



Besides the above-mentioned combinations, various chemists have established in wood-tar the presence of a long series of combinations, but up to the present time they have not been


examined, or they appear in such small quantities In this that their occurrence is only of theoretical interest. series may be mentioned Iridol/ citriol, rubidol, benzidol and pyroxanthogene and cedriret, further, retene, pittacall,



Under the name paraffin are very likely comprised many combinations which, though having the same percentage composition, possess different physical and chemical properties, i. e., are isomeric.



by Reich enbach, kapnofinally mesite, prepared

further, the combinations established

mar, picamar, creosote




by Schweizer.

The yield of tar obtained in the destructive distillation of wood depends on the time and temperature used, but also essentially on the nature of the wood itself, resinous woods
yielding larger quantities of tar than the varieties free from rosin. By slow distillation, the former yield 9 to 14 per cent., and the latter, 5 to 11 per cent, of tar. The more quickly the
process of distillation is conducted the greater will be the yield The table of tar and gas, while that of acetic acid is less.

below shows the bodies appearing in the destructive distillation wood and the limits of temperature of technical importance,
within which they are very likely formed



Carbonic acid Carbonic oxide


Formic acid
to 680 F.


Methane Hydrogen
Acetylene Ethylene Propylene Butylene


Acetic acid Propionic acid Butyric acid

Qt d<


AO f^ 0/z KWO * TT




Valeric acid to 809.6 F.Caproic acid Methyl alcohol

QQ .,o + 92 to 'cno 68

i? F


f J

Benzene Toluene Xylene < 'umene Naphthalene





to 683


Anisol Phenetol


Acetone Metacetone



.... j


Acetic acid and methyl ether Dimethyl acetate


to 680


Aldehyde Methylamine acetate


At present only a comparatively small number

of the pro-

ducts originating in the destructive distillation of wood are utilized. Of the combinations which belong to the series of
tar bodies, the only products
trial application, are creosote,



and the light from the

which have actually found induswhich consists chiefly of phenic and heavy oils which can be obtained by

is, however, possible to separate from wood tar the various combinations contained in it, as has been successfully done with coal tar. Benzene, toluene, naphthalene, etc., can be pre-

pared, and coloring matters manufactured from these hydrocarbons. The reason why this is not done is very likely to be

sought in the fact that in the manufacture of illuminating gas

coal, a sufficiently large


quantity of coal tar is obtained of the demand of coal tar colors. the manufacturers supply Paraffin might also bs obtained from wood tar, but its manu-


would not pay in competition with the article obtained from the by-products gained in the purification of crude petroleum.


Hence there is nothing work wood free from


in the destructive distillation but

rosin into charcoal, acetic acid


methyl alcohol as chief products, and to consider all other products as by-products, to be utilized as opportunity offers and

When working eventually to be used as fuel in the factory. with wood rich in rosin, it is best first to obtain acetic acid and
a low temperature, and then to raise the heat to such a degree as is required to gain the total quantity of tar, since from this tar, by subjecting it to further treatment, tar


spirit at


* can advantageously be prepared. Wood-tar varies in character with the kind of wood from which it is obtained, that derived from resinous woods being considered the more valuable on account of its content of

When wood


distilled in retorts, the portion of tar

separated from the crude wood-vinegar by settling and that skimmed off of the top of the neutralized wood-vinegar are united, and, after washing with water, may be sold in the
" crude state as u raw tar" or as retort tar."
It is

used for

preserving wood,
for the

antiseptic, and making preparation of wagon grease and other low-grade lubrifor

roofing felts, as



In addition to the tar separated by

settling, the


wood-vinegar contains considerable tar held in solution by the acids and alcohol present, which is recovered when the wood-

and constitutes what is known as " boiled tar." It may be sold as such or burned under the retort, or it may be mixed up with the raw tar and subjected to any
is distilled,

desired treatment.

By the

destructive distillation of resinous woods tar oil conis

taining turpentine

also obtained, but less

eventually calcium acetate.

From 50

wood vinegar, cubic meters of air-dry


wood are obtained about 4600

charcoal, 1500 kilogrammes tar, 400 kilogrammes tar

kilogrammes calcium

75 to

4750 kilogrammes oil, 450 100 kilogrammes woodto

Properties of the Combinations formed in the Destructive Distil"
lation of


Of the many bodies formed

in the destructive

distillation of

wood, only a few are of importance, these being acetic acid, wood spirit and the combinations and especially of products decomposition originating from these two bodies

further the combinations which can be obtained from the tar, namely Creosote and tar oils.

The physical and chemical properties of acetic acid have already been described on p. 27. Of the products of decomposition which acetic acid may yield, those formed by the
Acetic acid.

action of heat are here of special interest. Heated by itself, acetic acid can stand comparatively very high temperatures

without suffering decomposition, and acetic acid vapor can, for instance, be conducted through a red-hot porcelain tube without

However, decomposition takes place albeing decomposed. at a red heat when the vapor comes in contact with ready slight as is the case in the destructive distillation of wood. glowing coal,
If acetic acid
coal, a

vapor remains


some time

in contact with such

gas mixture, consisting of methane, carbonic acid' and carbonic oxide is formed, the latter originating from the action
of the coal

upon the carbonic acid
C 2 H 4O 2
acetic acid,


= CH

CO2 4 -f methane, carbonic acid.


At a less high temperature,
by the following equation
2(C2 H 4





formed by the decomposition of acetic acid




= C TT



C0 2

+H O.

acetic acid


carbonic acid



Acetone is always found in wood vinegar, and in a pure state a liquid boiling at 132.8 F., of specific gravity 0.814, of a



brilliant flame

It burns with a pleasant aromatic odor and a pungent taste. and is miscible in all proportions with water,

an excellent solvent for fats, resins, camphor, volatile oils, gun cotton, etc., and in modern times quite large quantities of it are employed in the manufacture of
It is

alcohol and ether.

smokeless gunpowder. Methyl acetate is in the chemical sense an acetic methyl ester. This ester is formed by the combination of acetic acid with

methyl alcohol, water being withdrawn



3 -|-




By treatment with alkalies such

esters are saponified,


the alcohol and the salt of the acid are again formed. This is also the case with the methyl acetate contained in crude wood-



it is


with the addition of lime.


as a rule, small quantities of it escape saponification, and for this reason the presence of acetic methyl ester can always be

established in crude wood-vinegar.

Aldehyde or acetaldehyde has already been described on page It is a constant constituent of the products of the

destructive distillation of wood.

Methyl alcohol or wood spirit, CH 3 OH, in a pure state, is a colorless, mobile liquid having a peculiar odor and burning taste. When ignited it burns with a slightly luminous flame.
It boils at

149 F. and has a

specific gravity of 0.798 at



It is a solvent for resins


essential oils,


for this reason

It used in the manufacture of lacquers and varnishes. also be employed as fuel in place of ordinary alcohol.


has become an important article of commerce, it in the manufacture of aniline colors and used being largely for many other purposes.

modern times


Crude wood spirit as originally obtained from wood-vinegar a mixture of methyl alcohol, acetic methyl ester, all the

readily volatile products of decomposition of acetic acid (acetone, aldehyde, dimethyl acetate) and the readily volatile


The preparation
of pure methyl alcohol,


will be referred to later on, is therefore connected with certain

Tar Products

Hydrocarbons of the


C n H 2n -6.


considerable variation in the properties of the products ocThose which curring in tar, as far as they are hydrocarbons.

are liquid at the ordinary temperature are of slight specific

gravity but have different boiling-points and belong to different series composed according to a certain type. The best


are those of the series
boils at

Cn H 2n_ mentioned


Benzene Toluene





F, F.

Specific gravity







Cumene Cymene

" "

.... 231.8 .... 282.2 .... 330.8





0.875 0.887


" "

. .












' k



tion bases

These bodies possess the property of yielding by substituwhich by treatment with oxidizing bodies can be


converted into coloring matters, the so-called tar or aniline As an example may here be mentioned the conver-

sion of benzene.

Benzene has the formula C 6 H 6




version of benzene into nitro-benzene








of the latter with


at the nascent











According to the same scheme, nitro-combinations and amines can be prepared from toluene, cumene, and from all other hydrocarbons belonging to this series which can by suitable treatment be converted into coloring matters. At present aniline colors are exclusively obtained from coal

but there


no doubt that they can also be prepared from though thus far only experiments have been made

this direction,


which, however, have proved highly suc-


Besides the hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, etc., boiling at a higher temperature, the presence in wood tar of a few others,

distinguished by very low boiling points and slight specific
gravity, has been established.
Iridol boils at


0.660 0.700






Specific gravity

125.60 F. 140
F. F.


1 '



.134. 60 F.











By treatment with nitric acid, these hydrocarbons can also be converted into nitro-combinations from which, by reduction, amines can be prepared, which may be converted into
colored combinations.

However, thus

far these bodies


not been thoroughly examined.

Naphthalene and Paraffin. These two hydrocarbons, which also occur in wood tar, are solid at the ordinary temperature

and are distinguished by high boiling points. Naphthalene crystallizes in white rhombic leaflets with a peculiar odor and burning taste. It fuses at 174.2 F. and boils at 424.4 F.



C 10 H 8



naphthalene may C 10 H N0 2 and from


treating with nitric acid, into nitronaphthalene,

the latter naph thy lamine is prepared, which serves for the manufacture of yellow and red coloring

The hydrocarbons with boiling points of 680 to 752 F., which occur in wood tar, are designated paraffins and belong According to the material very likely to the series C n H 2n

from which they are obtained, the melting points of the paraffins vary, and all the combinations belonging to this group
are distinguished by their great chemical indifference. Many varieties of wood tar are of a viscous and gritty In fact, nature, which indicates a large content of paraffin.



prepared from beech-wood tar by Reichen-



as previously mentioned, there is at present the preparation of paraffin from wood-tar of prospect proving remunerative, on account of the competition with the

from crude petroleum. Besides the hydrocarbons mentioned, there occur in woodtar small quantities of the following Chrysene, C 12 retene, 8
article obtained



C 18 H 18 and

pyrine, Tar Products Containing Oxygen (Creosote). The combinations containing oxygen which occur in wood-tar are either

C 15 H 15

members of the phenol series or belong The liquid known as wood-tar creosote

to the guaiacol series.

consists of a


of combinations belonging to both series, the longing to the phenol series being
Phenic acid or carbolic acid
6 5




O C6 H




C6 H4




H O.

Ethyl phenate or phenetol C6 H3


C8 H 10O.


these acids, carbolic acid occurs in smallest quan-to

The combinations belonging tity. which are found in wood tar are

the guaiacol


Pyrocatechin or oxyphenic acid

C6 H 4 <^


C6 H6 O 2


OP FT M ethyl-pyrocatechin or guaiacol C6 H <^rT

C 7 H 8O 2


S 3


C 8 H 10O





also be prepared

from coal-tar



however, this creosote consists almost exclusively of carbolic

and cannot be used for medicinal purposes. Wood-tar creosote is a fluid of a peculiar penetrating smoky odor. Applied to a mucous membrane or to the raw cuticle, it excites severe burning pain, coagulates the albumen of the



and may even produce ulceration. It preserves meat probably in consequence of its behavior with albumen, and the preserving action of smoking meat is due to a content

of this body in wood-smoke. Since the introduction of the manufacture of illuminating gas from wood, wood-tar creosotes very rich in carbolic acid

and this may be explained by the conditions under which the tar from which the creosote has
are found in commerce,

been obtained has been formed.
illuminating gases are to be obtained from wood, the latter must as quickly as possible be heated to a high temperature, and under these conditions an abundance of carbolic


formed which passes into the



on the other

hand, destructive distillation is carried on at a slowly increasing temperature, tar is obtained which chiefly contains creosol and

Since carbolic acid is comparatively quite a poisonous body, creosote intended for medicinal use should only be prepared at factories which carry on the destructive distillation

wood chiefly for the purpose of obtaining acetic acid. Besides the above-described constituents, various chemists have mentioned a complete series of compounds as occurring

It can scarcely be doubted that several, but litbodies which have not yet been prepared in a pure known, state occur in wood-tar, but those which have been called

in wood-tar.

eupione, picamar, kapnomar, pittacal, cedriret, pyroxanthogene, mesite, xylite, etc., consist very likely of mixtures of As far as these compounds are known they various bodies.

must be considered
of combinations.


as hydrocarbons belonging to various series few of them, like cedriret and chrysene,

give with acids characteristic color reactions, and pittacal is On heating it evolves itself of a beautiful dark blue color.

ammonia, and hence


contains nitrogen very likely in the

form of combinations known as substituted ammonias. None of these combinations have thus far become of any
technical importance, but they are occasionally observed in The melt of the crude salt the purification of sodium acetate.

CHAPTER XXII. with all the apparatus required for this purpose is necessary. these colorations being produced by the products of decompo- when not sition of the tar substances. IN installing a plant thermo-chemical way. the arrangements for obtaining the products of distillation may be of very varying nature. e. apparatus. few suitably-fitted pipes and barrels. . Retorts in which the temperature can be accurately regulated are the most complicated and complete. WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR IN CLOSED VESSELS. according to the object in view in distilling wood. acid for the } purpose of utilizing wood in a and wood spirit.254 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. PREPARATION OF CHARCOAL. allows also of the utilization of the large quantities of gas evolved in the destructive distillation of Hence. the most simple being a wood. solutions water. a manufacturer who prepares. What kind of apparatus has to be used and what kind of products are to be prepared. yet sufficiently roasted yields. and which. a factory in which chiefly pure acetic and eventually the tar-products tar oils and creosote are to be produced. many a proprietor of woodland does not care to manufacture pure products in a special factory. However. besides pure acetic acid and wood spirit. when treated with of a beautiful blue. i. red to orange color. also tar oils and will thus realize the greatest profit from the wood. violet. but also the most expensive. the arrangement of which is as complete as possible. depends entirely upon local conditions. but desires. besides the gaining of all products liquid at the ordinary temperature. Since the value of a product increases in proportion to the labor expended in the production of it. but to attain this object the establishment of a plant creosote. apparatus will evidently have to be selected.

especially apples. it does not consist only of acetic anhydride and water. work them further in a factory erected at joint expense. To obtain the latter pure and in a highly prepared from alcohol is concentrated vinegar has to undergo almost exactly the same chemical manipulations to which wood vinegar has to be state. fruit. i. e. 255 by the expenditure of a small sum. . Up and to the present time alcohol can only be obtained from the products of agriculture. Some readers may ask the question whether utilize large quantities of it is possible to wood by employing them for the manufacture of products of destructive distillation. besides charcoal. from alcohol and from wood. by the sale of these raw products. subjected in order to prepare from it pure concentrated acetic acid. so that the proprietors of the woodland would prepare charcoal besides wood-vinegar and tar and sell these products. and eventually association deserves recommendation. and besides is very poor in acetic acid. Furthermore.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR IN CLOSED VESSELS. also wood-vinegar and eventually tar. a larger profit from his wood than is attainable by charring alone. There are but two processes by which acetic acid on a large scale can be prepared.. the chief potatoes. This question may be unconditionally answered in the affirmative. but always contains quite a quantity of foreign substances in solution. but the expense of preparing such acetic acid would be very great. in order to realize. vinegar alcohol acetic acid and never pure. namely. since in consequence of the high and steadily increasing tax on alcohol levied in most countries. In such a case the principle of division of labor. raw materials being grain and eventually grapes and certain varieties of taking into consideration the great expense of labor required to obtain these products of the soil and to manufacture By from them. the price of table vinegar must constantly rise. it will be evident that the price of this acetic acid must be greater than of that which can in a short time be prepared from wood. to obtain from his wood. or what is still better.

by the combustion of a portion of the wood. which tive of wood. and the process of impregnating the latter with it is decidedly cheaper than most methods in which other bodies are employed for the purpose. Some of these arrangements are calculated. such as kilns. can be advantaIf the charcoal obtained from such material geously worked. with a of charcoal. and the . since there no difference between pure acetic acid prepared from wood and that prepared from acetic acid. as still the production of charcoal without regard to the recovery of For this purpose the wood under the available by-products. in amount place of the covered heaps. the kiln. Wood vinegar. be moulded to briquettes by a machine constructed for the purpose. wood waste of all kinds. saw-dust. can be utilized for other purposes besides the preparation of pure being in consequence of its content of tar proan antiseptic effect. the latter being The yield of aceplaced inside. spent tan. either of brick-work or iron. and the admission of a little air. The of charring wood. wood spirit and tar are to be produced. however. tate and alcohol is very low even in the best of kilns. the sides of which form a fixed covering for the substances to be charred. an excellent preservahave ducts. on account of the smallness of the pieces. In others the portion of the wood destined to produce the heat is entirely separated from that to be charred. it alcohol. probably first led to the substitugreater tion of stationary apparatus. exhausted shavings of dye-woods.256 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Pure concentrated acetic acid is at present used on an extensive scale in the chemical industries. it must. When Kilns or Ovens and Retorts. is method chief object of the oldest carried on in some localities. a moveable covering is burnt with the access of air in heaps or pits in the immediate neighborhood of where it is cut. and is also more and more employed is in the preparation of table vinegar. to produce the necessary temperature for charring. like the heaps. only acetic acid. is to be used as fuel. The attempt to obtain all the products simultaneously. the former outside. for instance.

fire. and thence through the condensers into ing the oven . another section following the lines cc. a section of the elevation following the lines dd. and thence to the H chimney i. H H H H are wooden . the access of air into the apparatus. 55 and 56. channels wherein the acid and oleaginous matters condense i is the chimney and k a small opening in the chimney. and the smoke and other vapors from the oven pass by the exit pipes d d into g g. d the chimney e e are knee-pipes which convey the tar condensed into the vessels// Fig. they being now only employed in localities where charcoal is practically the only product recovered. The blaze of the fire traverses the oven and carbonizes the charge of wood. apertures through which the wood is brought into the oven. 55. Fig. The construction is shown in Figs. oleaginous and tarry substances pass off through the pipes g g. the fire-places for heat- In the illustrations AA is . The charge is known i. charged smaller wood is introduced. the The oven is first with clay and sand. and the charcoal withdrawn c c. d. All the orifices the of the and the fires at c c lighted. interspace being and of between these with blocks the heaviest wood. current of air being instituted in i by lighting a fire at k as above mentioned. acetic acid. to is when the smoke issuing at which be completely carbonized at first black and heavy. 55. carbonic acid. the space where the wood is carbonized. 257 use of the latter has been almost entirely abandoned. whence they escape to the condensers H. closed space and heat it sufficiently for destructive distillation. and Fig. 56. b. for the purpose of making the inare of fire-brick or may filled terior more permeable oven are then to the action of the closed. openings through which the smoke. Fig. where a The oven walls fire is lighted to establish a powerful draught. 17 . 54. The bend in the pipes prevents .WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR IN CLOSED VESSELS. 54 is a ground plan. The oven introduced by Schwartz into Sweden is based upon the principle that the hot gases furnished by a special furnace must pass through the wood piled in a Schwartz's Oven. For the sake of complete- ness a few of the older constructions will be described. be of two rows of ordinary brick.

55. two holes in the top of the oven which hitherto .258 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. second day. FIG. FIG 56. wooden plugs and then well luted with plastic clay the fireAt the end of the doors are closed and the oven left to cool. The chimney passage is then becomes bluish and light. 54. . of the and the closed. pipes d d stopped up with opening FIG.

as this would occasion the combustion of the charcoal and consequently lessen the product. 259 had been closed air-tight. Fig. closed for a longer period. and water is introduced The openings are again and when the oven gets a little r more water is added. 57. cooler. The space between the two walls is filled . is a square construction with double walls. so as toprevent the formation of a current of air. Great care has to be exercised in accurately regulating the access of air. and attention. this oven will seldom be used where the chief object is to obtain as large a quantity of acetic acid as possible. the access of Since notwithstanding the utmost care oxygen can never be entirely avoided. the inner wall of fire-brick and the outer of ordinary brick. since the smallest quantity of atmospheric oxygen which passes through the fire-room without being consumed causes a corresponding loss of material in the space where the FIG. so that a slight reducing atmosphere would always prevail in the oven. An essential improvement in the oven might be made by introducing generator gases in the heating places and burning them by the admission of just a sufficient quantity of air. to extinguish the red-hot charcoal. If any red sparks are observed the openings and pipes must be carefully stopped up. are opened. 57. wood is carbonized. which could readily be accurately regulated.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR IN CLOSED VESSELS. Reichenbach' s oven.

the upper portion is covered with a layer of sods and earth. 6.260 with sand. is closed by a heavy lid luted with clay. the volatile products of which bottom of the oven through the openings at x. This oven is shown in Fig. acetic acid vapors are carried off to the condenser. where the tar is where the wood is carbonized is vaulted and is provided on top with an aperture for charging the wood. and in the center is provided with which is the ash-pit by an accurately-fitting slide S. a similar conduit. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. pipe G A bottom of the vault thetgrate R. The appaeter ratus having been filled with wood. t . into the conduit/. which raises A the temperature of the pipes so high as to cause them to glow. and are seen in the illustration at a. below serves for carrying off the products of distillation. which can be closed The door T which is bricked C. #. 58. The oven is heated by pipes about 2 feet in diamwhich run from one end of the wall to the other. c. The space Swedish oven. h. which after the The vault is filled. d and m. o. the fire is joints of the latter being carefully luted with clay. and through y at the opposite side into Both products intermix in the pipe ki. the partly deposited. then lighted in the fire-places in front of p and d. or with iron plates. p. The is conical. The wood in the surrounding spaces of the oven abstracts the heat and is pass off at the thereby carbonized. n. From the pipe ki.

upper portion apertures provided with The products of slides. that the vapors are cooled with a certain In a short time the wood and the walls of the 8 so conducted by oven become so thoroughly heated that combustion can be by closing the slide S. serves for withdrawing the finished charcoal. and also for the introduction of a portion of the wood. which serve for regulating the fire. 60. d.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAK up during the process IN CLOSED VESSELS. The effect of the latter is to is ignite a portion of the wood. 59. distillation escape through the pipe e on the bottom of the carbonizing space. o9. The FIG. and in ground plan in Fig. and the fire which is ignited at the opposite side The d circulates between the two walls in the space c c. FIG. completed by An oven of a somewhat different construction is shown in entirely interrupted cross-section in Fig. brick work of this space is surrounded by another brick work 6. The oven is heated so that the interior wall becomes red-hot. 60. distillation being the heat accumulated in the oven. and combustion setting the slide uniformity. 261 of carbonization. On the of the at are oven. is interrupted slide at when no more vapors is escape from* the left to The d then closed and the oven cool . space in which the wood is carbonized is in the form of a cylinder and passes above into a vault closed by a heavy iron lid a. Firing pipe e. It is immediately closed after the introduction through it of some glowing coals.

When a has stand till been kiln has to distilled the or oven off. charge the charcoal is sufficiently cooled off to allow of its being with- struction as When this has been done the oven must be again This is evidently connected not charged. required in two the lower The pass through pipes entering part. is the best for lation. Heating is effected by tire-gases produced in a separate which pass through spiral flues surrounding the wrought-iron cylinder. In the center of the cylinder stands a large vertical heatingThe non-condensable pipe divided into halves by a partition. heating wood in a retort closed air-tight with the exception of an opening for the escape of the products of distil- By fitting to this opening a condenser of suitable an construction. and it only has been endeavored to overcome this drawback by the use of drawn. escape to the chimney. as well as air for the their combustion. and by the production of wood vinegar. mixed with the combustion products of the wood-gases. can gases. retort-ovens. charcoal is sufficiently cooled off to allow of it being in withdrawn without *Carbo-oven. Such an apparatus. with considerable loss of time. fear of ignition.:262 'until the MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. smoke-gases coming from the last flue may also be conducted through this heating pipe and. of distillation pass out through a pipe branching off from the lowest part of the bottom. An outlet on the side of the cylinder serves for emptying the furnace. The wood is introduced through open- The products ings in the wrought-iron cover of the cylinder. The various forms of apparatus for the destructive distillation of wood previously described are of such a con- to exclude uninterrupted operation. though the most expensive. Retorts. apparatus is obtained with which all vaporiform products escaping from the wood can be recovered. heated and so on. The lower portion of the cylinder is protected by brickwork from the direct action of the fire-gases. . but also of heat. latter. this In oven carbonization is effected a WTo-ught-iron vertical cylinder with a capacity of 300 to 400 cubic meters of wood.

The arrangement an apparatus is very similar to that used for the production of illuminating gas from coal. IN CLOSED VESSELS. . On the back end the retort passes. fragile However. of 263 for Horizontal retorts. 61 retort of and 62. For this reason iron retorts portion of the vapors would escape. as well as vertical retorts is hot-riveted boiler plate about 8 Defects in such a retort can be readily millimeters thick.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR 'a. Clay being a worse conductor of heat than iron. clay retorts have the drawback of being and besides cracks are readily formed through which a FIG.2 meters long and 1 meter in diameter. It consists of very suitable construction is shown a cylinder 2. the essential difference being that the retorts for the distillation of wood must the distillation of wood lie in fire-places which allow of the heat being slowly and uniformly raised. but they have the drawback of great weight. FIG. 61. the use of retorts of this material would apparently seem advisable for the destructive distillation of wood. upon the defective A wrought-iron in Figs. while in making illuminating gas rapid raising of the heat is required. Cast iron retorts do not readily burn through and are but little affected by the vapors of the acid. are as a rule used. 62. and defective The best material for horizontal places are difficult to repair. repaired by riveting a piece of boiler plate place.

This prevents quite well the formation of burnt iron which scales off from the portions directly heated. To the center of this disk a chain is fastened which lies upon the bottom of the retort. as will be seen from the illustration. HowFig. protect the portion of the retort which comes in direct contact with the flame it is advisable to apply to it repeatedly FIG. In this construction. shows the manner of bricking in six retorts. two being placed in one fire place. in the which fits a sheet-iron door. this heat can be completely utilized either by placing upon the retort-oven a pan in which the solution of crude sodium acetate may be evaporated. To a mixture of clay and cow hair. into a pipe of such a length that about 30 centimeters of it project from the brick work of the groove of In front the retort is secured to a cast-iron ring. oven. luting with clay. 63 ever. a smaller . as seen in the illustration. or the fire-gases may be used for heating a room in which the wood for the next operation is dried. This door is pressed the against ring by a screw and the joint is made air-tight by For the rapid withdrawal of the charcoal. In working wood very poor in water. 63.264 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the fire-gases pass directly into the chimney which is equivalent to a waste of heat. the interior of the retort is furnished with a sheet-iron disk supported by two rods riveted to it. When the door of the retort is opened the chain is seized with a hook and on being drawn forward the sheet-iron disk pushes the charcoal out.

d the chimney. a a a are the wrought-iron retorts. but it is correspondingly richer in acetic acid. The latter is a cast-iron pipe 1 to 2 feet in diameter according to the number of retorts. 64 and 65. The object it carries a tubulure 5} to 7} inches long. b the Over the somewhat hearth. In Figs.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR IN CLOSED VESSELS. 64. dips into the receiver F. 265 quantity of wood vinegar is to be sure obtained than with the use of ordinary air-dry wood. FIG. . conical neck of the retort is pushed an elbow pipe e which FIG. c c the flues. 65. and ex- tort For the neck of each retends the entire length of the oven.

This the water-joint it suffices for the elbow-pipes to dip f to 1 FIG. tated in the receiver can continue their other condensing apparatus h. the under a retort may have to be entirely removed in order to moderate the chemical process in the retort. increases. an explosion would necessarily follow. inch into the fluid into the receiver. 66. It is advisable fire arrange the gas conduit so that the gas can also be used for heating other apparatus. joint the external air might penetrate into the retort. of the receiver is to receive the products of distillation from all the retorts and at the same time to hydraulically close the Hence the vapors not precipi-elbow-pipe of each receiver. However. because if distillation progresses too rapidly. located in another apartment. provision But must be made for as the fluid constantly its discharge through a into a collecting vessel pipe. for if there were no waterand the vapors should from any cause suddenly cool off. In many plants the gases escaping from the condenser are utilized for heating by conducting them under the retorts through a suitable pipe system. is of no slight importance. evaporating pans. and the latter being filled with inflammable gases and vapors of a high temFor making perature. way through g to the but cannot re-enter the retorts. to . placed below or on the side.266 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. for instance. the pipe-system should be so arranged as to allow of the gas being conducted under any one of the retorts or being shut off from it in case of necessity. etc.

similar in shape are employed. When distillation is finished the cover of the retort is reis moved. Fig. on the other.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR In this country what IN CLOSED VESSELS. If such retorts as shown in Fig. used in equipping plants for hard-wood distillation. on the one hand. in coal is allowed to remain until thoroughly cool. In addi- . The principal drawback of horizontal retorts is that. It is provided with a size large door closing air-tight. and that when repairs have to be made they have to be taken from the oven. a common being 6 feet wide. 267 is largely is known as the oven-retort. Fig. Vertical Retorts. and is heated by wood. charging them is connected with some difficulty in case they are longer than two lengths of the wood. the latter being luted with clay or sand to prevent ignition of the glowing coal by the entrance of air. according as it is intended for two or more cars loaded with wood. and the glowing charcoal FIG. The oven is set in brickwork or is made with double iron walls with an air space between. charcoal. which are immediately closed with tightly-fitting covers. are used. with the assistance of the previously-described contrivance emptied into cans. 67. 66. coal or gas. 66 which the b. This retort is a rectangular wrought-iron chamber. coolers. and. that defects in them cannot as a rule be immediately detected. 7 feet high and from 27 to 50 feet long. 67.

68. number of sheet-iron cans have to be provided' for the reception of the charcoal drawn from the retorts. and it by another. in heating need to be interrupted only during the time required for lifting out the retort and replacing it by another. upper portion of the flat cast-iron K which. lowered into the oven. show the arrangement of the- retort-ovens and the lifting apparatus as devised by Dr. the bottom. is The lid of the retort consists of a sheet-iron disk.394 which is exposed The inch thick. The operation can be carried on without interruption by removing a retort in which distillation is finished and replacing which distillation at once recommences. when the retort P retort is provided with a cast-iron ring ring ring are four eyes $ which serve for fastening the lifting tackle. The accompanying illustrations FIG. e. provided in the center with a conical head- .268 tion a certain MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and the lid of the retort is secured by four pins pushed through the openings in the ring. It is constructed of boiler-plate 0.315 i. inch thick.. because the hot brickwork throws out heat continuous!}'. rests upon a On this placed upon the brickwork. Josef Bersch. 68 shows a retort 12 feet high with a diameter of 3 feet and 3 inches. Fig. The arrangement of the retorts so that they can be lifted from the oven and replaced by others has many advantages. being of the portion plate 0. directly to the fire.

upon which stands a carriage upon the other track E.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR piece denser. The function of this mechanical contrivance Fig. is pushed over the pit for the reception of the charcoal. while hot. having brought into a horizontal position by turning a screw without end. 69. On top of the ovens is a track (7. which is actually a dumping-car. The carriage. which runs to the place where the charcoal is to be emptied and the retort is to be refilled with wood. and the retort. lifted K retort basket-like arrangement for the reception of the retort. after is. IN CLOSED VESSELS. is the contents have been distilled. The track is continued from the last oven to a brick wall upon which it rests. upon which runs a crane with a head-piece having the form of a truncated cone. and beneath this track is another one. The carriage is provided with a as follows : The retort. The been into the lowered the latter is basket. is sufficiently inclined to allow the char- . The crane is then pushed over the opening 0. the lid of which is now taken off. from the oven by pushing the crane over it and drawing it into the hollow pyramid. 69 and 70 show the retorts placed in the oven and the mechanical contrivance for raising and lowering the retort R. 269 D which terminates in the pipe H leading to the con- Figs.

after a retort with charcoal has been taken out. 70. another dumping-car is immediately brought from a side track &' under Fig. another one charged with wood is brought into the oven.270 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. protected from igniThe empty tion by being covered with wet charcoal dust. and the retort lowered. The charcoal is refilled with wood. One crane and two dumping-cars are sufficient for attend- . now immediately If the sides of the oven are hottest at this period. and the first dumping-car has been pushed away. Since towards the end of distillation the greatest heat must be applied in order to obtain the last remnants of acetic acid and tar. and the fire need only be slightly stirred to unin- terruptedly carry on the operation. the retort lifted in. the crane pushed over the empty oven. the crane. While the retort just coming from the oven is thus handled. the heat radiating from the sides of the oven suffices to induce distillation. retort is then again brought into a horizontal position and coal to fall into the pit.

which has been then lowered. and in proper quantities. 271 ing twelve to eighteen ovens arranged one alongside the other. Halliday's apparatus for the production of acetic acid. For a larger number of retorts it is advisable to have twocranes. series of ovens. Another revolving and heated by means of a furnace H. however. conveying the material. in which a vertical screw or worm revolves. Distilling apparatus for upon which the dumping wood where it is cooled by waste. be utilized to greater advantage by subjecting it to destructive distillation for the purpose of obtaining wood-vinegar. charcoal. is shown in Fig. During its progress through the retort the materials are completely carbonized and all the volatile . where the retort is lowered. the operation can be carried on without interruption. placed in a horizontal position. to the cylinder. and to arrange the coarse of the operation as follows : One filled crane. is immediately pushed over the oven as soon as the retort filled with charcoal has been lifted out. in the pyramid of which is suspended a retort standing. in most cases. spent bark from tan-yards and dye woods ex. screw or worm D keeps the material introduced into the retort by C in constant agitation.. Such waste can. covering with wet charcoal dust. 71. lifted from a dumping-car on the right-hand end of the series of ovens. The other crane is pushed to the left-hand end of the so on. tar and etc. and at the same time moves it forward to the end.. In working wood and bark in the various trades a large quantity of waste results which. since thedumped from the retorts directly into pits between the cars run. from sawdust. hausted of their coloring matter. is used as fuel. and of these contrivances the time required reduced to a minimum. The waste to be treated is introduced into a hopper B placed above the front end of an ordinary cylinder C. and it is not necessary to pro- By the employment for distillation is latter is rails vide sheet-iron cylinders for cooling the charcoal.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR IN CLOSED VESSELS. for instance. and the retort is with wood.

which is not particularly favorable. According as the screw revolves with Fig. one Two . into carbonized which the substance falls. the quantity of acetic acid obtained from the wood substance distilled in this appa- ratus is larger than that derived from blocks of wood stacked in other retorts. consisting of pipes of copper or iron immersed surrounded by water. part of the retort. but is exFrom the small clusively due to the condition of the wood. and according to well authenticated statements. particles of wood the products of distillation escape with far . The other ascending pipe E carries off the volatile products of the distillation into the condenser. products disengaged. however. the materials can for a shorter or longer time be exposed to the action of the heat. in a in or -horizontal direction. This fact. or a cistern of water G. cannot be ascribed to the construction of the apparatus.F pipes branch off from the ulterior passing downward and dipping into -an air-tight vessel of cast-iron.. etc. 71 greater or less rapidity.272 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The arrangement of the cylinder A with the screw is similar to the worms used for moving grain. malt.

Hence the products distillation parts. must pass through the strongly-heated carbonized whereby a considerable portion of the acetic acid is defor the distillation of sawdust.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR IN CLOSED VESSELS. FIG. Another apparatus suitable 18 . 273 greater rapidity than from the large blocks. 72. which very hot on the surface before their interior is must be of sufficiently heated for distillation to commence. composed.

of suitable construction. exhausted dye woods and waste of wood in It consists of an iron cylinder. and for this reason it is best to carry on the destructive distillation of wood in very large retorts. The small charcoal resulting in the destructive distillation A portion of wood waste. may be utilized in various ways. is to The be preferred. distillation can be carried on without interruption. acid is obtained. especially that from sawdust. while the remainder. burned upon a grate a step-grate. whereby wood-vinegar very . so arranged that besides thoroughly carbonized charcoal. is shown in Fig. since with their use the temperature can be rich in acetic raised very slowly. that the resulting realize on the charcoal. for instance. materials thrown in at the top are heated in the cylinthe vapors in the cavities of the bell-shaped rings pass and der. In removing the charcoal. this depending decision must particularly be influenced by the fact whether the charcoal is of value or not. spent tan-bark. serves as fuel in the factory itself. 72. while the charcoal falls down and is from time to time removed. and gases can be employed for the retorts. so that by introducing material on top of the cylinder. the principal profit of the plant will be in the yield of acetic acid and wood spirit. it may be stated that it is impossible to say which largely on local conditions. In the first case it will evidently be of advantage to employ smaller apparatus. an excellent disinfecting agent. 18 feet high and 5} feet in diameter. heating But where the conditions are such as to make it difficult to further. the lower portion of the cylinder is The closed by a slide. general. ner a kind of annular cylinder is formed which below terminates in a conical space.274 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. which contains a number In this manof bell-shaped rings placed one above the other. all the wood-vinegar and tar are obtained. The various apparatus employed in the destructive distillation of wood having now been described. forms in the finely divided state in which it is turned out. upwards.

so that a cooler of smaller dimensions can be used. From the reservoir placed at a higher level. Since the current of gas is the carrier of vapors. vapors considerably decreased. and considerable quantities of gas are evolved at certain stages of the process. provision must be made for the thorough condensation of the vapors to prevent the escape into the air of large quantities of valuable products of distillation. In plants working with a number of retorts. in addition to acetic acid. falls constantly upon the condenser. IN CLOSED VESSELS. It spray of water in such quantity that it immediately evaporates. Since by this cooling the tension of the vapors and gases in diminished. the vapors formed in the retorts This is of great advantage.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR Coolers. than would be possible if all The Counter-current Pipe Cooler. Furtheris the non-condensed volume of more. since by the vapors remaining for a long time in the retort a the condenser is considerable quantity of acetic acid is decomposed. containing the vapors to be cooled. pass out with great rapidity. By the use of this contrivance not only a large portion of the vapors are liquefied. filled with water. heavier volatile tar products is already condensed in the conby means of a faucet in the lowest might be suitable to place over thecondenser a pipe with numerous small perforations. cold water . but another advantage is attained. 73. since the condenser in consequence of its large surface yields and gases entering A portion of the considerable heat to the surrounding air. arrangement of such a J9. the vapors it are cooled off to a considerable extent. or their being burned with the gases. is surrounded by another pipe W. cooling had to be done in it. The pipe cooler is shown in Fig. 275 The products which wood tillation of consist. which in a short time after the commencement of the operation becomes very hot. the discharge pipes of the latter enter into a common pipe of large diameter. and is drawn off portion of the pipe. and in this condensing pipe. so that a denser. escape in the destructive diswater and other very volatile products. of very large quantities of gas.

which results in a decrease in 'the yield of acetic acid. see Fig. the lowest part of D have already been cooled little off to a great extent. are carried ^icid and wood spirit away by To obtain this acetic acid. small that but condensed quantities of acetic very completely the current of gas. six retorts in operation at the same time. 5} since otherwise great pressure is caused in the apparatus by back pressure of the gases. the gas before being burned FIG.276 is MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and runs off at A. conducted through the pipe Z to the lowest part of IF. As the water reaches the higher portions of W. they yield but heat to the water.and rinally runs off at A. which is from 3J to 4 feet high and filled with limestone. With cooling pipes should be of considerable length. The acetic acid contained in the gas is fixed by the limestone and the calcium acetate thus formed can be obtained by lixiviation. Since the vapors in passing through the latter. the length of the pipes should be about 130 feet and their diameter inches.-it constantly acquires a withdrawn from the vapors. higher temperature from the heat With a sufficient length of the cool. 76. is allowed to pass through a cylinder d. 73. the vapors are so ing pipes and a powerful current of water. Hence it is advisable to the The arrange upper portion of the cooling apparatus so that the pipe TFhas .

To prevent obstruction in the pipes by the collection of viscous tarry substances. one alongcombine one pipe. 27T side the other. To prevent the fluid running off from the cooler from being Fig. coming from the cooling apparatus. which in passing out from this portion and contains two pipes D. fixed in the lid of the cylinder. carries away the gas from C. C. to in and extends nearly to the bottom of a cylindrical vessel which is fixed a U-pipe R at such a height that the fluid C can rise to the upper edge of the cut end of D.' Since with an increase in the development of gas. in case of necessity. it is recommended to give them considerable inclination and to connect them so that. The pipe gas. The upper pipe is connected w ith the lower one by means of r a curved joint secured by screws. The pipe G. is cut off at an acute forced angle. 74 Fig 7o by fits and starts from the lower pipe by the current of the contrivance shown in Fig. . while the distillate which collects in C runs off through R.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR an to elliptical cross section IN CLOSED VESSELS. the interior of each pipe can be cleansed with a brush. pass off without impediment. the latter. 74 shows the most suitable way of connecting two pipes. in order to escape. needs only to press down a layer of liquid of it can moderate very height. 75 may be used. Fig. D.

running joints. as a rule. One end in a slightly conical socket. Box-cooler. Outby movable elbow side the trough the pipes are connected of each pipe is firmly fixed to the wall of the while the other. the gases directly under the There should be but a fireplace. The pipes are slightly inclined. small space between the collecting pipe a. cooler long. sits loosely trough. to prevent free expansion. it is preferable to collect it in a gasometer and . FIG. so that the fluid. 76. conducts dipping receiver. in at the highest point. flows out at the lowest. A constant stream of water is conducted through b. which conducts the vapors to the condenser. series shown in Fig. wide. 76 In place of the counter-current cooler. as otherwise obstructions might readily be formed by the deposit of tar dried by the hot vapors. one of them leading downward and into the while the other. along the bottom of the trough. and the first condensing pipe. running The development of gas from the wood being very irregular and by no means in the proportion desirable for the heating of the retorts. The lower end of the last pipe divides into two branches. the discharge of is ceases at once. and the uiouth of wood-vinegar from R D closed.278 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. If neither liquid nor gas escapes through D. the heated water off at c. copper pipes with a gradually decreas- ing diameter. the boxIn a is used in some establishments. narrow trough or box of wrought-iron or wood lies a of straight.

being divided between 6 straight pieces and their The vat is 26J feet long with a depth of 5J elbow-joints. wooden vats 6 or more feet high with a capacity depending on the of the daily distillate are generally used. especially wood spirit. 279 from there as may be necessary. For storing the liquid products of the destructive distillation of wood. These receptacles may also be filled with quick which at least fixes the acetic acid. The lime is from time to time extracted with water to regain the soluble calcium acetate. To prevent this evil it is advisable to place on the pipe small receptacles provided with cocks for the collection and discharge of any fluid deposited. instead of con- ducting directly into the fire. thus rendering it harmless for the pipe. lime.26 cubic feet each. In case condensation is not very complete. while the reverse proportion is desirable. and at its exit 5} inches its total length is 164 to 180 feet. d. By distilling the fluid thus obtained. upon which to is lized soda from 2J 2J feet deep. used for the preparation of and the residue in the sodium acetate. provided the period of distillation is 72 hours The diameter : For a condenser of the pipe at its entrance into the water trough is 15} inches. 76. further cool off the current of gas and render the vapors of acetic acid carried along with it harmless for the pipe. Reservoirs for the Product of Distillation. placed a layer of crystalThe vapors of water and acetic acid dissolve the soda. the beginning of the operation. . this length feet. But little gas is developed in and much towards the end.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR distribute it it IN CLOSED VESSELS. provided To with a false bottom. Gillot gives the following approved dimensions. Fig. for four retorts of a capacity of 141. is precipitated. Vincent uses a cylindrical copper receptacle. and the temperature thereby being lowered. the pipe leading to the hearth or gasometer is more or less attacked by acetic acid precipitated in it by the access of air. it being adquantity visable to have them of such a capacity that at least one ol . a further portion of the volatile bodies. the still wood spirit is regained.

78. and on the lowest place gutter. Figs. The serves for filling the arrangement pipe E FIG. 77 and 78 show the of the vats. The U-pipe through run off from the cooling apparatus terminates over a funnel fixed to a pipe which runs alongside the vats. on the corresponding places with stop-cocks by means of which the fluid can be discharged into any vat desired. beneath which is a About 8 to 10 inches above the bottom of each vat is is a cock with a gutter underneath. is filled them which the fluids every day. the cocks Tand the gutter Tl for discharging the tar into the brick reservoir H sunk in the floor . the cocks E and the gutter Ei for drawing . and is provided FIG. provided with a cock. 77. vats with the products of distillation.280 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Each vat is placed so as to incline slightly forward.

collecting boxes sunk in the ground. To prevent a box from being filled too full. When a box has been several times filled with the products of distillation. From the planks prismatic boxes. and the . 281 off the wood vinegar into the small vessel G. to which issecured the suction pipe /S of a pump for the further conveyance of the wood vinegar. into which can be dipped the suction pipe of a pump. number of boxes are placed from the cooling apparatus are conducted through a pipe running the length of the boxes into the vessel to be filled. upon which is placed a lid requisite alongside each other so that about 3 feet of ground remain standing between the sides of every two boxes. The boxes are sunk in the ground. each about 13 feet long. every kind of wood being suitable for the purpose. together with the disadvantage of occupying consideraIt is therefore advisable to use in place of vats ble space. which involves considerable ex Collecting boxes. with the exception of a small portion. When pense. can be separated from the wood vinegar by pumping. all the boxes are connected by the wooden pipe R. Figs. 79 and 80.WOOD VINEGAR AND TAR IN CLOSED VESSELS. The products of distillation run- The made of planks. pump is then lowered to the corner of the box. since the products of distillation with which the boxes become saturated preserves them even in moist soil. It is tar. and the joints between the planks top each box is provided with a frame. The spaces between the planks and the walls of the pit are with pitch. and in the corner of each box is placed a small barrel F. filled On with earth. The suction pipe of the bottom of the small barrel in the tar. 13 feet wide and 8 feet deep are constructed. the layer of tar deposited on the bottom is of sufficient depth to be pumped out. advisable to coat the vats and iron hoops with hot wood working on a large scale quite a number of vats are required. placed about 15 ning off inches below the edge. Such boxes are best and cheapest constructed of about 3inch wooden planks.

very rich distillation of FIGS. it is advisable to first fill all the boxes in turn with products of distillation of the box filled first. in carbonic acid. ordinary construction. 75. hydrogen of considerable value as fuel. Since the separation of the tar from the wood vinegar takes place the more completely the longer the fluids are allowed to repose. and hydrocarbons. 79 and 80 show the arrangement of several such collect- ing boxes in ground plan and elevation. which is of little value as fuel. and it is therefore gener- of gas evolved large quantities . which are The most means of a suitable pump plan would be to catch the gases by from the pipe Fig. a gasholder of sufficient capacity to hold the in a gas holder of would be rather an expensive affair for a plant in the engaged distillation of wood. In the commencement of the operation a gas mixture. Figs. but latter on less obtained. The gases evolved in the destructive wood may advantageously be used as fuel. and then to work further the contents Utilization of the Gases. However.MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and collect them . and to conduct them from the latter by means of pipes to the fire-place. carbonic acid is evolved and the gas contains. 79-80. is besides carbonic oxide.

etc. Care should be taken not to ignite the gas escaping from the retorts before all the air has been displaced from the entire apparatus retorts. which would not only be dangerous. No in which the destructive distillation of matter what the arrangement of the apparatus may be wood is to be carried on. under the pans in which the crude sodium acetate is evaporated to crystalization. 283 ally preferred to conduct the gas directly to the fire-places where it is to be burnt. the quantity in reference to the . and the duraThe latter depends on the of wood time used at one the larger the latter is. but sufficiently heavy to tear apart the lute of clay on the pipes for the vapors. and a distinction has only to be made tion of time for the operation. CHAPTER XXIII. and the gas may be ignited without fear of danger. it is best to conduct the gases of under an apparatus which has to be heated almost without interruption. under the retort just placed in the oven is allowed to go out entirely. for instance. EXECUTION OF THE DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF WOOD. kind of product desired. When the vapors escaping from a retort condense on cooling to a yellowish colored fluid.DESTKUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF WOOD. the course of distillation as regards the succession of phenomena remains the same. so fire When may be working with a large number of retorts. condenser and cooler since otherwise an explosion might take place by the flame spreading into the pipe conduit. the operation conducted that the wood or coal distillation working of the wood vinegar. the condensers. and from which a large quantity of gas In factories devoted to the further is constantly evolved. and to fire only with gases escaping from retorts in which distillation is in full progress. all the air has been displaced from the apparatus. .

will have to be continued. and only when a peculiar arothe retorts are placed open in the matic odor indicates the lids commencement of distillation. a roll of clay is laid apparatus. which is started. and under longer the operation otherwise equal conditions. oven and a gentle fire is At first only steam evolves from the wood. down with an distillation has to be continued deon the size of the retorts. has been temperature reached at which the wood begins to yield more abundant of of quantities products distillation. When working with a larger tion should be so arranged that edly. With the use of vertical retorts and also to prevent being forced to and a suitable lifting tackle. but. the operation pends is so conducted that distillation is finished in 12 hours. the operacarried on uninterrupt- on account of the division of labor. distillation re- quires several days. only in the last period of distillation. since the heating of such a large quantity of wood to the temperature of decomposition takes considerable time.284 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. care must be taken to keep the fire under the retorts so that the increases temperature gradually and reaches 662 F. tar complete and black charcoal are to be obtained. if wood vinegar. which is of special importance with new F. are the placed upon the retorts and connected with the coolingTo make the lid steam-tight. the clay forced out thereby being smoothed elastic steel blade. When the about 393 F. so that with a distilling time of 12 hours. . adopt special expedients by reason of the vast quantity of gas evolved at a certain stage of the operation. Of The time during which course. the temperature in the retorts remains for about ten hours below 662 To gain practical experience in regulating the temin perature heating. more time will be required for the distillation of a charge of wood. upon the edge of the retort and the lid pressed down upon it. with the use of very large apparatus in which a great quantity of wood is carbonized at one time. as a rule. this being advisable number it is of retorts. allowed to escape into the air.

when a more abundant quantity of distillate is obtained. jet with correct firing. the latter beissues in a The gas coming more luminous only later on at a higher temperature when hydrocarbons are mixed with the gas. and of the gases escaping simultaneously. the temperature. If it is raised too such a large quantity of gas is evolved from the retorts as to cause a high pressure in the apparatus. late. the jet last running off from the cooler is henceforth of nearly a black color.DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF WOOD. a temperature of about 662 F. to the center of thermometer. ment of heating. the of distillate suddenly becomes smaller. the fire is increased. due to numerous drops of dark-colored tar products. (the boiling By from time to time consulting this point of mercury). When. has been reached. which is recognized by the force with which the current of gas issues . the in a about the thickness of a lead pencil. a conclusion can be drawn as to the degree of heat prevailing in the retort. In this last stage of distillation certain precautions have to be observed in of fluid reference to raising rapidly at once. The volume of gas becomes larger and these gases burn with a very luminous. which consist predominantly of tar products. Experienced men can accurately judge of the progress of distillation from the quantity of distillate running off. When remnants of the product of distillation. of a wire a thermometer graduated to 680 F. The length of the pipe should be such that the lower end reaches In this pipe is lowered by means the retort. for hours. torts is it is 285 as follows advisable to place a thermometer on one of the reIn a small aperture in the lid of the retort : screwed an iron pipe closed below and open at the top. in about 1 J to '2 hours after the distil- obtained commencecolor. However. pure white flame. and the quanquantity of In order to obtain the tity escaping gas also decreases. The and thickness of the jet of fluid does not it change retains its original yellow moderately strong current from the respective pipe and burns with a pale blue flame. for instance. ovens. 5 cubic meters of wood the contents first is of two retorts are to be distilled at one time.

. of so that in the succeeding operations a considerable quantity from the pipe entering the is lost by 'its escape in the form of vapor products of distillation burned. generally pure black the middle color. since the heat of decomposition in developed in the retorts in consequence the sides of the ovens. this metal may be used for determining the commencement of the end of distillation. as a rule. The low- est layer is tar. but. and is quite turbid. purpose the thermometer is removed from the pipe previously mentioned. and a small crucible containing a piece of antimony is lowered by means of a wire into the pipe. the fire under about 1J hours the retort may be allowed to go out entirely. sharply separated one from the other. a thick fluid of a dark. through these leaky places and being to becoTne greater. yellow. distillation may be considered finished and the retort be at once lifted from the oven. but swims upon it like flakes. observed is of volume the When gas of end the before distillation. this tarry mass is present in such small quantities that it even does not cover the entire surface. fire-place. and When allowed to refinally nearly black. but which runs off during distilation is at first waxon oecornes of a darker color. the tar thereby separating more completely from . It is advisable to allow the distillates to repose for a consid- erable time.286 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. which comprises the greater quantity. Since in this stage of the process the retorts are hottest and their bottoms not seldom red hot.. and possesses the properties of tar. the evolution of charcoal.7 F. Since antimony melts at 809. and is of a red yellow or red brown color. from that with radiating conjunction the When the finish suffices to temperature in the operation. For this When the antimony is melted. there is danger of the riveted places becoming leaky. is wood vinegar. The upper layer is again of a dark color. products of distillation ceases almost suddenly and the retorts now contain only black retorts rises to 806 F. red brown. layer. or perhaps more correctly into pose it separates into two fluid later The three layers.

the upperfloats most being almost oleaginous. Experience has shown that it is of advantage to allow the to repose for tar also to repose as long as possible. 287 the wood vinegar.DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF WOOD. 281. but also tar commences to run off through the pipe R. tar are to be worked further in the factory the appara- tuses intended for this purpose should be of such dimensions that the quantity of wood vinegar produced daily can be worked up at one time. and arranging twelve such vats as shown in Fig. The quantity of tar being wood vinegar. Fig. which can be manufactured into acetic acid with greater facility than wood vinegar mixed with larger quantities of tar. and the larger quantity of pure tar thus obtained is then worked up at one time. described on products of distillation are caught in boxes p. 79 and 80. the operation may be so arranged that the distillate is allowed to run uniterruptedly into the first box until it is filled with tar to such an extent that not only wood vinegar. On the bottom of the reservoir tar of a very viscous gritty nature collects. a permanent separation of the products according to their specific gravitie& takes place. 78. When the empty it in order wood vinegar and itself. which is of such thick consistency that it can scarcely be raised by a pump. Figs. it having been observed that if kept for some time in special reservoirs. The higher layers of the tarry mass are of thinner consistency. The tar is then allowed some time. giving the vats intended for the reception of the distillate such a size that one vat is filled by the distillate obtained in By one day. 78 the contents of the vat filled first can be allowed to repose for 11 days before the manufacturer to is forced to make room for fresh distillate. and the latter is obtained as an entirely clear red brown fluid. whereby it still better separates from wood adhering vinegar. operation. and upon them a layer of . bly smaller than that of ervoir H. it is collected of it considerain the res- and larger quantities are worked in one When the liquid sunk in the ground.

a quantity suitable. namely. it is necessary to weigh the wood worked during a certain time. The quantity of each kind of wood submitted to destructive distillation was one pound.-288 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. to ascertain in a sample of the wood vinegar re- sulting from each distillation the quantity of acetic acid and wood alcohol. it would be possible to obtain reliable data regarding the quantities of products of distillation which may be obtained from a given variety of wood. From the results of such a series of tests and from the quantities of pure acetic acid and wood alcohol furnished by the factory itself. its content of water. The woods were large same time of the year (towards the end of January) and only those of nearly the same growth were the all collected at chosen. to determine its content of water. it is evident that there must be considerable differences in the statements regarding the quantities of products of distillation. Stolze has published experiments made with the greatest care to show the amount and strength of the products obtained from the distillation of several kinds of wood. and finally to accurately ascertain the volume of vinegar. From Stoltze's table -varieties of most important the following figures for the wood have been calculated : .alcohol In order to obtain accurate data regarding the quantities of wood vinegar and tar which can be obtained from a variety of wood when working on a large scale. to form a precedent for the manufacture on a scale. in most cases. because by careless manipulation a large quantity of the acetic &cid present in wood vinegar is lost. The quantities of wood vinegar and tar Yield of Products. on the kind of wood. . wood vinegar. and especially the quantities of acetic anhydride and wood which can be obtained from crude wood vinegar. and the manner in which distillation itself has been conducted. which are obtained from a given quantity of wood depends on several factors. which can from time to time be taken off and worked together with that drawn from the vats. Since these three factors vary very much.

expressed in per cents. of tar.. Technologie der Holzverkohlung.DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF WOOD. 40 pounds of wood vinegar of 25 per cent. of red charcoal suitable for the manufac- ture of powder. by weight. with heating for 48 hours. the trunk-wood of birch from 60 to 80 years old and grown upon a high dry soil with a limestone sub-soil surpasses the best red beech in the yield of acetic acid. He obtained from 100 pounds of this kind of wood dried at 140 to 158 F.. 1910. 19 . figures refer to anhydrous wood of 100 per cent. at a temperature not exceeding 750 F. also 2 or 3 per cent. 289 The results obtained by Assmus in manufacturing on a : large scale are as follows According to Roth's experience. and 30 per * cent. acetic anhydride.. Klar The gives the following yields obtained with retorts.

but it reumatic odor which makes poses. CHAPTER XXIV. It is also not wood vinegar from these tar products simply by distillation. By repeated rectification highly concentrated acetic acid remaining almost colorless in the air is to be its sure finally obtained. however. but also. TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. Wood vinegar in the state it is obtained from wood finds but a limited application. the production of absolutely pure acetic acid suitable for comestible purposes.290 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. . it has always a more or less empyunavailable for comestible pur- 'The acetic acid can. what is perhaps of still greater importance. and upon this is based not only the preparation on a large scale of the various acetates. because a portion of the tar products impart to it a penetrating empyreumatic odor rendering possible to free the use for other purposes impossible. Without further treatment it can in a crude state be used only for impregnating wood or for the preparation of ferric acetate (red liquor). be separated in a perfectly pure state from the wood vinegar.

and besides. be prepared in this manner. for instance. result of this treatment the vat. a portion of the readily volatile wood spirit . By allowing it to stand quietly in a tall vessel a quite thick layer of tar separates on the bottom.. When it be employed for the production of acetates where a slight empyreumatic odor is not detrimental.is evaporated. 291 No matter how the wood-vinegar is importance Freshly prepared wood-vinegar is a turbid red-brown fluid. While nearly all salts of the organic acids are decomposed at a comparatively low temperature. As in the further treatment of the wood-vinegar the presence of tar causes many disturbances. Crude lead acetate can. over which stands the perfectly clear wood-vinegar. this being effected by allowing the products of distillation to stand in the the longer the better. some salts of. oleaginous layer of light tar to separate it as' much to be used. it is of great as possible from the tar- products also floats sometimes upon the surface of the vinegar. care must be taken to separate it as much as possible by mechanical means. acetic acid can without suffering decomposition be heated to almost 750 F. of some acetates in the heat is made use of to obtain from them chemically pure acetic acid. and work is to the latter into acetates. the is less favorable than that obtained by allowing the products of distillation to stand for a long time. wood-vinegar should be directly used for the of the various acetates. the behavior of the oxidation of the tar-products. and thus effect a more complete sepaBut independent of the expense. it is best to prepare from the crude wood-vinegar distilled wood-vinegar. salts would be obtained preparation which on exposure to the air would turn brown in consequence If the distilled However. There are several ways by which concentrated acetic acid can be obtained from crude wood-vinegar. But at this temperature . by heating too much. a thin. vats for several days It has been proposed to heat the wood vinegar by placing a copper coil in tion of vinegar and tar.TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. the one to be selected* depending on what the acetic acid is to be used for.

woodspirit. it Since crude wood is vinegar always contains tar in solution it absolutely necessary to get rid of before neutralizing the vinegar and preparing calcium ace" " tate. High-grade grey acetate can only be produced from " wood vinegar freed from tar. Proceeding from this point of view. better to first neutralize the distilled wood vinegar with milk of lime.292 all MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. i. calcium acetate the tar This separation is effected by distillation. are removed mechanically by allowing the clear vinegar to stand. The mixture of vapors . aldehyde. small of volatile oils. For this tillation in a simple purpose the crude wood vinegar is subjected to disstill heated by steam. acetic acid can then be made. the tar products adhering to the salt are completely volatilized or destroyed. Klar has devised the so-called "three still system". e. whereby about 7 The distillate. Besides acetic acid the clear vinegar contains wood spirit. a mixture of methyl alcohol. i. It is. This method is obviously inexpedient in so far that distillation takes place twice. contains still quantities They vinegar. taining at the utmost 67 per cent. so that by recrystallizing the heated mass. acetone and allyl-alcohol. salts are and chemically pure Distilled obtained which are free from empyreumatic substances. methyl acetate. or the latter is other in the manner separated in vats arranged one after the of Florence flasks. The heat used for the first distillation wood vinegar is therefore lost. M.appearing in the first distillation of the crude wood vinegar is at once conducted of the crude . whereby the methyl acetate. e. The crude wood spirit is then subjected to rectification and the solution of calcium acetate is evaporated and allowed to crystallize. wood vinegar. otherwise brown acetate" conis obtained. and can be separated from it by repeated fractional distillation. whereby the greater portion of the methyl acetate is saponified. however. of tar remains in the still. thus causing losses of acetic therefore. split into calcium acetate and methyl alcohol. called clear per cent. and then distil it. passes over into the acid. remaining in the still.

It is based upon the fact that all fluids under a decreased airHence if vapors with pressure boil at a lower temperature. the is wood the solution of calcium acetate spirit is separated and A solution concentrated. steam and space effected by F. of calcium acetate of 20 to 35 per cent. Freshly-prepared distilled wood vinegar is a colorless. On exposure to the air it acquires a brown coloration in consequence of the oxi- Although a number of expedients have been suggested for freeing the distilled wood vinegar from the empyreumatic odor and taste. . The vapors pass finally Since the into a cooler where the wood spirit is condensed. very acid fluid with an empyreumatic odor. wood spirit.TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. H. The cooler may therefore be previously disengaged and the vapors be allowed to escape or be used for other purposes. the crude be renewed before it is wood vinegar is freed from tar. When working according to this method three advantages are consequently gained in one operation. tillate and a dis- with about 10 per cent. where with milk filled of lime into a still any acetic acid pass which has been carried along is fixed. none of them dation of the empyreumatic bodies. Moreover the milk of lime in the second and third stills gets to boiling whereby the solution of calcium acetate is at the same time concentrated. is obtained. The milk of lime in the still has of course to completely saturated with acetic acid. 193. a lower temperature than the boiling point of the fluid to be evaporated are at disposal for heating purposes. into milk of lime 293 where calcium acetate which remains in The vapors again solution is formed from the acetic acid. the former does not pass over up to the end of the operation.382) of distilling the crude wood vinegar in multiple evaporators in vacuum. special A advantage of this method is the complete utilization of the latent heat of the vapors coming from the first still. boiling point of wood spirit is lower than that of acetic acid. Meyer's system (German patent. they may be used for distillation by correspondingly decreasing the airpressure over the fluid to be evaporated. is A great saving in fuel.

whereby the greater portion of the tar separates in 24 hours. ever. in the preparation of lead When it is desired to obtain a acetate. fied According to Tereil and Chateau. according to its more or less dark color. this process. directly used for technical purposes. tediousness and the necessarily large consumpthough frequently modified. etc. almost entirely abandoned. be discolored coal. By distilling the decanted acid it is obtained almost colorless. keeping it at nearly a boiling heat for 6 hours. far as to have answered the purpose so the vinegar for comestible purposes. by a small consumption of animal charfor the purification of Rothe employs a peculiar method . of the total quantity of vinegar which can be obtained has passed over. has been tion of fuel. and by saturation with soda a howslightly colored salt is obtained which can. copper acetate. the wood-vinegar is puriby compounding it. several methods for the purification of wood vinegar.294 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. though by direct conversion of the distilled vinegar. and finally distilling off to its account of But on dryness in a shallow cast-iron still. table vinegar could be pro- found in the none duced at a very distilled low price. be pure preparation. however. then digesting it in the same manner with 40 pounds of freshly glowed charcoal pulverized and sifted while hot. for instance. The wood vinegar may. precaution should be taken to change the receiver of the apparatus in which the crude wood vinegar is distilled when about 80 to 85 per cent. of concentrated sulphuric acid. with 10 or 5 per cent. the most simple and cheapest being to add 5 pounds of finely pulverized pyrolusite to every 100 quarts of Stolze has proposed vinegar. is make it possible to The surest proof of fact that use the inexpediency of these methods of them has been adopted in practice. but it darkens somewhat on exposure to the air. experience having shown that the last portions of the distilled vinegar are far richer in empyreumatic substances than those passing over first.

from which paratus. but strongly empyreumatic. The very slight empyreumatic odor disappears by forcing the product through a pipe free filled from lime. while in the space between the bottom and the grate a slow current of air heated to 104 F.. the temperature in the interior of the column of 122 F. The acetic acid running off through an S-shaped pipe on the botof a pure acid taste. and suitable for the preparation of all the acetates as well as of acetic acid. The pale yellow watery woodis and the itself. the standing. The pipe is protected from The products of the oxi- dation of the empyreumatic oils are partially of a resinous nature and adhere to the coke. and over. suitable for The vinegar thus obtained table use.122 cubic inch in size. distillate is pumped it considerable height.TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. which rest upon a heavily tinned iron grate placed about 1J about 26 feet above the bottom of the pipe. is constantly blown in through a nozzle. and partially volatile. spirit caught by succeeding clear. The empyreumatic oils mixed with the wood-vine- gar are oxidized coke rises to by the oxygen of the warm air. necessitating a frequent renewal of the charge of coke. other pipe filled Experiments have shown that the method above described cannot be recommended for practice. and with pieces of coke about 0. 295 The greater portion of tar being separated by wood-vinegar. because by the resinous oxidation-products deposits are soon formed upon the pieces of coke which obstruct the free passage of the current of fluid and air. is filled into a vat. tom of the pipe is clear. Over this column of coke the wood-vinegar is poured in an uninterrupted fine spray. in consequence. Though a quantity with pieces of animal charcoal is claimed to be of acetic acid is carried off in the form of vapor air. placed at a runs into a purifying ap- The It is latter consists of a cylindrical pipe of stout tin- feet high and 1J feet in diameter. this loss by the warm dry current of can be prevented by passing the air through anwith calcined soda or lime. cooling off by a thick layer of felt. wood-vinegar with an addition of charcoal is rectified from a copper still. and. plate. .

lime stone and can with ease displace carbonic acid from i. e. For the neutralization of the crude wood vinegar freed distillation from wood spirit. strongly heat the resulting salts so that all tar substances are volatilized or decomposed. and the latter for that of wood vinegar In many absolutely pure acetic acid fit for comestible use. and to separate from the salts thus purified acetic acid by distillation with strong acids. tion Production of pure acetic acid the chemically pure prepara- from wood vinegar. however. Besides working special up the calcium acetate consideration. according to the object in view. the crude wood spirit is distilled off from the wood vinegar and the residue in the still used for the preparation of crude calcium acetate. The basic bodies employed in the practice to fix the acids contained in are.296 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The limestone must. though as acetic acid Preparation of calcium is a strong acid salts. the former being used for the preparation of acetic acid suitable for technical purposes. of the weight of the wood used. rendering it for this reason alone unfit for table use. for acetone has also to be taken into Since calcium acetate aiid sodium acetate are the technically most important salts of acetic acid their preparation will be somewhat fully described. either lime or sodium. be quite pure. According to this acetic acid process crystallized can finally be prepared. Besides a portion of the oxidation-products remains dissolved in the vinegar itself. the weight of the crude wood spirit and that of the crude calcium acetate being very likely scarcely 10 per cent. carbonate of lime may also be employed for the purpose. these two raw products being sold to chemical factories. . acetate. This course is of advantage where the charges for transporting the chemicals are very high. The only way wood vinegar is to prepare perfectly pure acetic acid from the to fix the acetic acid to strong bases. by burnt and slaked lime is generally used. plants not equipped with the apparatus required for the production of pure acetic acid.

highly concentrated solution of the salt commences. The tarry substances which separate during evaporation in the form of pitch-like masses are carefully removed. Overheating of the mass in drying is indicated by the . acid The clear calcium acetate solution is evaporated in shallow iron pans. as previously mentioned. 297 especially as free as possible from organic substances. evaporation and drying can be effected in one a stirrer vessel. and' neutralization has to be effected in large vessels.116 or 15 Be. It is collected and worked by itself for creosote. which may be heated by the fire gases escaping from the retort ovens. the boiling hot. a circular pan in in which case. as the calcium acetate solution foams very much in consequence of the escaping carbonic acid lime. The mass which thereby separates on the surface consist chiefly of those substances in which creosote occurs. . When this has been done the solution is mixed with 1 J to 1 J per cent. the fire gases escaping from the retort ovens are utilized for heating the evaporating pans. there is no danger of the decomposition of the calcium acetate slide the fire gases by overheating of the salt mass. It is of importance only just neutralize the wood vinegar with lime and not use lime in excess. These crusts are removed and completely dried in smaller pans. whilst being constantly stirred. In plants having power 'at their disposal. Evaporationis is continued till gravity of the hot fluid = the specific 1. to separate crusts of salt.TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. When this point has been reached. since by simply pushing a can be immediately given another direction. by volume of crude hydrochloric and allowed to rest. moves uninterruptedly being used this When. because then a portion of the acid tarto products passes already into the layer of tar collecting on the surface and can be separated together with it from the calcium acetate solution. this drawback is avoided with the use of burnt The neutralized fluid should be allowed to stand several days so that the tarry substances contained in the wood vinegar can collect on the surface and be removed. on being further evaporated.

dry substance and then transferred to the open pans mentioned -above. Besides. previously referred In this apparatus the solution is brought to 30 to 35 per cent. ' characteristic odor of acetone. since the acetate burning to the pans can be more readily removed from copper.298 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. F.. and to effect the complete drying of this mass upon iron plates forming the bottom of a flat arch and heated by The temperathe fire gases escaping from the retort ovens. which besides is accompanied by the danger of acetate. advisable for the evaporation of solutions already concenFor dilute solutions it is better to first concentrate in multiple evaporators in them tem. Meyer's to. The use of such pans is.e. vacuum. ture in the arches should be so regulated as to never exceed 302 F.382. the process comabout 302 F.. sys- German patent 193. These pans have a double bottom into which steam is conducted. M. acetone being evolved lime remaining behind. because but the crude salt should be exposed for several hours by long-continued heating at a lower temperature a great many more tarry substances are destroyed and volatilized than by stronger heating for a shorter tim. decomposing a portion of the calcium In heating the evaporating pans by a direct fire there is always danger of overheating. to this temperature. Copper pans are preferable to iron ones. which renders the transmission of the heat very difficult. For this reason round or square pans heated by steam are as a rule used in large modern plants. H. Klar has devised a continuously-working apparatus. com posed at between 426 of at and carbonate mences already It is most expedient to evaporate the calcium acetate solution only to a doughy mass which can be lifted out with a shovel. only trated. however. of completely evaporating and drying the calcium acetate in pans. revolving hollow iron cylinder heated inside by steam or To avoid the tedious and disagreeable work . It consists of a. the pans soon become covered with a crust of calcium acetate. While calcium acetate is deand 428 F.

and also serves for the preparation of acetone. The crude gray acetate thus obtained forms a gray odorless mass. light on the drying process only far enough to This is dried in -obtain a product which is no longer sticky. Since. calcium acetate and is a commercial article. which dries quickly and is removed by scrapers. calcium acetate solution and becomes coated with a thin layer of it. this apparatus is obtained in the form of a fine. a closed band heated by warm air. etc. the heated cylinder dips into the waste gases. With gray acetate with 80 per cent. differ from each other only in a certain stage of the operation. Calcium acetate is largely used in print works and in dyeing. Enough soda should be added to the wood vinegar for the fluid to contain a very small excess of sodium carbonate. can be obtained according to several methods which. as otherwise the escaping carbonic acid causes strong foaming and the fluid would run over even with the use of a very tall vessel. however. Neutralization is effected by adding gradually the sodium carbonate to the wood vinegar. but is suitable for most technical uses. the acetate carries powder. bonate is preferably used. Sodium acetate in a pure state Preparation of Sodium Acetate. in consequence of its content of water of crystallization. and at the same time however. propionic acid. It consists of about 80 per cent. because the sodium acetate crystallizes with greater ease from a slightly alkaline fluid than from a perfectly neutral one. In addition to calcium acetate it contains calcium butyrate and propionate. can be prepared from acetate solution in one uninterrupted operation. as well as certain empyreumatic bodies. . and the acetic acid prepared from it Hence this also contains butyric acid. entails high charges for transport. 299 In revolving. Klar granulated.TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. the latter beginning always with the neutralization of the wood For this purpose sodium carvinegar freed from wood spirit. acetic acid cannot be directly used for comestible purposes. as crystallized soda.

after the sodium acetate. which ing the latter. To separate the crystals as completely as possible from may be adopted. or by means of a centrifugal. When the vat is filled with the mass of crystals. The latter is returned to the evaporating pans. namely. The mother-lye is at the ordinary temperature a saturated of solution of sodium acetate. When the contents of the crystallizing vessels have cooled to the ordinary temperalye. they form a dark-colored paste of crystals which holds the entire quantity of mother-lye. over an Evaporation is continued until the hot fluid open shows a specific gravity of 1. draining and washing. mixed. a granular crystal mass is no longer formed. After adding the soda the fluid is allowed to rest for one and after removday for the separation of the tarry substances. remains the separation of the crystals of crude mother-lye. whereby a great portion of the mother-lye runs off and is returned to the The mass of evaporating pans. water is poured in. however. is evaporated in shallow pans. but a soft paste is separated.300 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. entirely removed and treated as In this case the fluid in the pans has to be will be described later on. When these mother-lyes are continually returned to the evaporating pans. The water dissolves a certain . According to the first method the crystallizing pans are placed in a slanting position. the quantity of sodium butyrate and sodium propionate finally accumulates to such an extent that in cooling the fluid evaporated to specific gravity 1. ture. below which is mother-lye one of two methods a discharge pipe. The fluid is then emptied into the crystallizing boxes.23. It is of great importance as regards the purification of the crude crystals to cool the evaporated fluid very rapidly in order to obtain small crystals which retain but little mother- For this purpose oblong sheet-iron crystallizing pans with slightly inclined sides are used.23 = 27 Be. crystals is brought into a vat with a false bottom. with the bulk sodium butyrate and sodium propionate contained in the wood vinegar used. in which. the fluid are heated by the fire gases escaping from the retort ovens or fire.

301 quantity of sodium acetate. charged with fresh last animal charcoal and placed as the in the battery. as this method requires considerable time and leaves the salt in a wet state. even certain. many manufacturing To obtain pure sodium acetate. of sodium butyrate . four to six of such filters are arranged in a battery. and steam circulates in the space between the two cylinders. it is preferable to free the salt from the mother-lye by means of a centrifugal. In distilling this salt with sulphuric acid. and this solution in sinking down displaces the mother-lye. C. closed in a somewhat larger iron cylin- which can be heated. a salt of a quite pale brown color remaining behind. The filter. the salt purified in this manner adhere though only very small quantities. However. To avoid the necessity of charging a filter in too short a time with fresh animal charcoal. pass in commerce as pure so- However. When the first filter becomes ineffectual. 10 to 13 feet high. which is then filtered in a hot state through animal charcoal in a filter Fig. to having been freed from mother-lye by and dried. The inner cylinder is filled granulated animal charcoal. This fluid when rapidly cooled deposits small colorless crystals which after means dium of a centrifugal acetate. is obtained. enwith Fig. consists of an iron cylinder. but which can be directly used for purposes. Filtration of the hot solution should progress only with such rapidity that a colorless fluid runs off from the last filter.TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. 81. 81 der C. it being then obtained perfectly dry. an acid is obtained which to be sure is still empyreumatic. the crude salt is dissolved in water by means of steam so that a nearly boiling solution of 15 Be. it is emptied.

By rubbing such impure acetic of the the acid upon hand. so that finally a crumbly yellow-brown . a different course ha& be adopted which to be sure is somewhat more troublesome than the previously described process but surely accomplishes Fig. and the acetic acid prepared from it contains the corresponding quantities of butyric and propionic acids. The salt at first melts very rapidly in its water of crystallization. the disagreeable odor of palm that its butyric acid becomes conspicuous as soon as the acetic acid has evaporated. however. the latter yielding with heavy foaming. 82. It is based upon the fact that sodium acebe heated to nearly 752 F. 82. It is melted in a cast-iron boiler. and sodium propionate. Fig. tate The salt obtained from the first crystallization purified by washing or by means of a centrifugal is used for this purpose. so penetrating presence in the acetic acid can be immediately detected by the sense of smell. equipped with a stirrer furnished with two curved blades. more volatile as is to Hence for the preparation of perfectly pure acetic acid such demanded for comestible purposes. about 5 feet in diameter and about 8 inches deep.302 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The odor of butyric acid is. the object in view. without may suffering decomposition. while sodium butyrate and sodium propionate are decomposed and the tarry substances volatilized at a considerably lower temperature.

Since it is next to impossible to heat every portion of the melting mass exactly so long until all the coloring matters have been destroyed. When when brought color. 303 mass remains behind which constantly emits tar vapors. When heated the salt With an becomes much solubility greater melts at 172. acetone being and soda remaining behind. The melted mass is lifted from the kettle with shallow shovels and poured upon sheetiron plates where it congeals to a gray-white cake full of small blisters.2 F. and the saturated solution. At the ordinary temperature the salt dissolves in H about three times its quantity by weight of water. yields its water of crystallization. carbonaceous matter. and then quickly cooled in order to obtain small crystals which after treatment in a centrifugal should be perfectly colorless. which is colored dark by suspended particles of" evolved . the operation above described has been correctly carried on. It may sometimes that the whole mass takes fire the latter is extinhappen guished by throwing crude crystals upon it. and. a is also decomposed. it yields a solution of a very If the heat has been raised too high. the congealed melt contains sodium acetate. pale yellow portion of the sodium acetate into water. which effloresce on exposure to the air. The boiling hot solution. . contains for 100 parts of water 208 parts of the salt. boiling at 255. its increasing temperature..4 F. carbonaceous matter and such a small quantity of tarry substances that.TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. of a yellow color yielding yellow crystals are sometimes obBy redissolving these yellow crystals in boiling water and passing the solution through an animal charcoal filter entirely colorless crystals are also obtained.. The sodium acetate thus obtained forms colorless crystals of the composition NaC 2 3 2 -f 3H 2 O. The fire under the kettle is kept up uniformly for about one hour and is only sufficiently increased for the mass to melt when no more vapors rise from the latter. solutionstained. The melted mass is dissolved in boiling water. is filtered through a filter filled with sand and heated by steam.

remains in to effect The sulphate (gypsum) therefore far better however. for instance. sists of crude acetic. not entirely insoluble and it is transposition with the use of sodium carbonate whereby calcium carbonate dissolving with greater difficulty is formed.2 F. animal charcoal better results. butyric and propionic ethers besides small quantities of formic. the acid of which forms with the calcium an insoluble combination. a solution of calcium acetate with one of sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt). perature in the course of time accumulate in no longer crystallize are evaporated to the finally In a few weeks they consistency of syrup and stored in vats. of sodium carbonate finally leaves a residue consisting it by weight of sulphuric acid are gradually added. insoluble calcium sulphate solution. most plants this is done by evaporating the lye to dry ness and incinerating the residue whereby calcium carbonate mixed with coal remains behind.. By mixing. The mother-lyes which the pan and evolves acetone. When 100 parts of the strongly inspissated lye are mixed with 20 parts by weight of strong alcohol and 70 parts by and and coal. In are separated from the crude salt and further worked.. valeric and capric ethers and from these raw products all the mentioned acids can be prepared in a pure The state. It MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. a black. sodium acetate by filtration through seldom practised. is formed calcium and sodium acetate is. oily This layer conlayer separates on the surface of the fluid.304 congeals. then melts again only at 606. withWhen heated above this temout suffering decomposition. . which is again used for the neutralization of wood vinegar. becomes readily ignited in the air. the melting process being more simple to manipulate and yielding purification of the is at present only Sodium acetate can also be prepared from calcium acetate by transposition with a soluble sodium salt. and in a melted state can be heated to between 716 and 752 F.

tion of acetic acid in a free state the calcium acetate is decomposed by an acid and the acetic acid separated by distillation. to be worked. As previously mentioned. which are 20 . this process being preferable because. acetate is effected This product being far more impure is for that reason not suitable for decomposition with sulphuric acid. The further manipulation of the acetic acid is then effected in a distilling column which renders it possible to prepare at once from the crude acid. acetate furnishes a better and purer raw material. Hydrochloric Acid Process. perfectly pure acetid acid and also glacial acetic acid. in because the resinous and tarry substances which are present abundance exert a reducing action upon the sulphuric acid. The quantity to a vat of calcium acetate to be treated is brought in- pouring the requisite quantity of hydrochloric acid over it. it being now in use only where brown acetate with about 67 per cent. The decomposition aqueous. but the latter is now almost exclusively used. on the other. Hydrochloric acid was formerly generally used for the purpose it ? having the advantage of forming with the calcium. the apparatus required for it has been greatly improved and. During this time it liquifies and These substances tarry substances separate on the surface. have to be carefully removed before bringing the contents of the vat into a still. on the one hand. as well as of the cal- cium acetate may be by by gaseous hydrochloric acid.TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. the hydrochloric acid process has been generally abandoned. 305 For the preparaPreparation of acetic acid from the acetates. the gray acetate with 80 to 82 per cent. calcium chloride which is readily soluble in water and in distilling presents fewer obstacles than the calcium sulphate (gypsum) formed by the decomposition of the acetate with sulphuric acid. The quantity of hydrochloric acid required for the decom- position of the calcium acetate could ver}^ readily be accurately determined if the combinations contained in the salt. the mass is thoroughly stirred and then after and allowed to rest for 24 hours.

in the practice this trouble- some work is generally avoided and the required quantity of hydrochloric acid is determined by pulverizing a portion of the calcium acetate and. If rectification of the acetic acid is effected over potassium dichromate instead of over calcium acetate.306 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. hydrochloric acid is A suitable for cess of content of hydrochloric acid renders the acetic acid unmany purposes. hence. an acid is obtained from the calcium acetate which contains between 47 and 50 per cent of acetic anhydride. With the use of crude hydrochloric acid of 1. distilling the mass still. The worm may be made of lead and should below be furnished with a U-shaped piece immediately filled which. after adding to every 100 grammes of salt 90 or 95 grammes of hydrochloric acid. presence hydrochloric acid by the addition of solution of nitrate of If after a short time the fluid commences to opalesce silver. an acid is to be sure obtained which contains no hydrochloric acid and is . the acetic acid then calcium acetate obtained contains only traces of hydrochloric acid. and. freed Distillation is effected in a copper still which is protected from the direct action of the fire by an iron shell. this can only be learned from a complete analysis of a sample of the calcium acetate. When the operation is and conducted too carefully especially rapid distillation connected with squirting of the mass avoided. and can be from them by rectification over some calcium acetate. when distillation begins. is formed in it. of in a small glass The distillate is tested for the or a caseous precipitate present. But decomposed by hydrochloric acid. By thoroughly washing it the worm with water after each distillation these is not attacked by the acetic acid. or only so slightly that the quantity of lead which by means reaches the acetic acid is insignificant in a product intended for technical purposes.16 specific gravity. and possesses a yellowish color and a slightly empyreumatic odor and taste. However. the use of a small ex- is advisable. becomes with acetic acid and prevents the entrance of air into the worm. were exactly known.

hydrochloric acid. 1 to 1J Ibs. . is connected with difficulties. In order to attain complete decomposition the mass has to be thoroughly shaken. is conducted through the retorts and the escaping vapors of acetic acid are condensed. and finally separated which forms a viscid. of acid.TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. Gypsum is a bad conductor of heat. as previously mentioned. be also effected with gaseous hydrochloric acid. is The operation is carried on by bringing a sufficient quantity of finely pulverized calcium acetate into Gaseous vertical retorts which can be heated from the outside. far For this reason the work with the use of a vacuum and better yields and a purer acid being thereby obtained. to obtain the last remnants of acetic acid which are tenaciously held by the gypsum. obtained However. more modern steam processes for heating. is quite expensive. but a heavy reduction of sulphuric acid then also takes place. especially towards the end of the operation when the greater portion of the calcium acetate has already been decomposed. 307 colorless. since the resulting acetic acid. pasty becomes solid. At present the decomposition of the Sulphuric acid process. and although heat is liberated during the progress of the reaction itself whereby a portion of the acetic acid evaporates. The decomposition of the acetate can. insoluble calcium sulphate being mass. With the use of higher temperatures than attainable with direct firing the mass can to be sure be so far heated that all the acetic acid finally passes over. the crude acetic acid is very much contaminated with hydrochloric acid. but has still a very perceptible empyreumatic taste. Since potassium dichromate. a work which requires considerable expenditure of power. previously heated. calcium acetate is. as previously mentioned. almost exclusively effected with sulphuric acid. of which -has to be used for every 100 Ibs. its use for the preparation of acetic acid from calcium acetate cannot be its recommended. the advantage of this process being that concentrated acetic acid at once obtained. cannot be used for comestible purposes. on account of empyreumatic taste. with the use of this process.

. 83 a to d. h may be of enameled cast iron and is with a heating provided is jacket. equipped and the covers of which are furnished with manFrom the liole. rectifi- For this purpose acid is allowed to run from the reservoir d into the still. The -apparatuses used at the present time at once furnish a product of 09 per cent. with the addition of potassium chromate. The movement of the fluid d. and L . and more. and after the addition of water is rectified. For 100 parts of calcium acetate with stirrers. concentrated sulphuric acid is allowed to run in through a lead pipe conduit. present distils over. Below a description of an older plant arranged according to Biihler for the sulphuric acid process will first be given. In the illustration. Decomposition is effected in shallow cast-iron pans a. which serves also as a measuring vessel for one charge. Decompoand about J of the acetic acid sition at first progresses by Slight heating then becomes necessary. such as sulphurous of traces acid. e is the column. sulphuretted hydrogen. reservoir I.308 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. etc. pipe condenser with return pipe. . effected by means of -compressed air and the munte-jus m. rule. : From the lime kiln the roasted calcium acetate is directly 'thrown through the funnel o into the storage receptacle p. exhaust pipe. as a through c into a storage-reservoir d of clay ials would in a short time be destroyed. The acetic 'The stirrers must be kept constantly in operation. and run itself GO parts of sulphuric acid are. which by its par- The crude decomposition the sulphuric acid has yielded together with the tar of the crude acid besides it contains resinous and tarry tial . a perfectly clear product without detrimental odor obtained from the The still being clay condenser i. /a acid-. and g a condenser for the For the preparation of vinegar for comestible purposes the acid is again rectified in the still h. allowed. IFig. acid vapors pass from a into a clay condenser c?. safety valve and inlet for acid. substances and coloring matter which are removed by cation over potassium chromate. all other mater- acid still contains impurities.

Lime Kiln . 6. 3. 5. 83. Fire passage. FIG.TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. of glacial acetic acid is effected by decomthe sodium salt by means of posing sulphuric acid. Storage- for calcium acetate . Lime kiln. By the introduction of sodium sulphate (Glauber's into the calrsalt) The preparation . 2. Boiler-house. 4. 309^ 1. Engine-house .

crystallized. kets from It is it then allowed to which the mother-lye again runs into the boilers. dium sulphate crystallizing out is brought into perforated baslixiviated until exhausted. tar oils of various kinds. The solution is drawn off from the sediment and the latter Concentration to a specific gravity The excess of soof 1. H. They are by purified again dissolving them. concentrating the solution and crystal- The crystals are then melted in an iron boiler in the lizing. is stituents. adhere with great tenacity to all the products of distillation. Meyer.ar and other consodium acetate off. saturation being attained when a clear filtered sample no longer yields a precipitate of calcium sulphate on the further addition of sodium sulphate. consists of cast . is generally employed. The apparatus used for this purpose as constructed by the firm of it form of crystals.310 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAE. of the In coolers or crystallizing vessels the greater portion is deposited in three to five days. At the present time the vacuum process J. on cooling. even the crystals first obtained being not perfectly pure. red heat in order to obtain melting to remove the tar. raw materials which have become insoluble. tarry admixtures. settle and clarify for 8 to 10 hours when The sediment consists of admixtures of the is drawn of. the latter is cium converted into sodium ace- tate solution. For 92 parts salt 98 acid are used. It is then decomposed by concentrated sulphuric acid in glass retorts in a sand bath. The salt is now anhydrous and is required to prevent it from burning. yielding at once a highly concentrated acetic acid. again concentrated.3 is effected in directly heated boilers. t. sodium carbonate. water of crystallization and. acetate solution. or heated to the sodium acetate thus obtained The being separated from the coal by dissolving in water. heated until melted the second time. great care From in the parts sulphuric the distillate the glacial acetic acid separates. at Hanover-Hainholz. and is frequently The mother-lye is directly sold. after evaporating the latter. and so on until The residue is then evaporated and heated to a the crude salt drawn exhausted. Germany.

but a head apparatus and worm of silver to prevent contamination by copper acetate. the gray acetate is uniformly distributed in the boiler. with 80 per cent. quantities For the preparation of acid intended for technical purposes only. of the highest concentration. of acetic acid. the crude acetic acid is further purified by subjecting it once more to distillation in more simple copper stills generally For the preparation provided with a worm silvered inside.005 to 0. of crude acetic acid normal conditions obtained. 311 iron boilers which according to the size of the plant. the crude acetic acid is decom- posed in a column apparatus. of calcium acetate. of sulphuric acid. the distillate is further treated with potassium permanganate for the oxidation of contaminating admixtures ". and then distilled from the " fine acid This apparatus has a still of copper. of acetate and 132 Ibs. 0. still present. the calculated quantity of sulphuric acid is allowed to run in. applied and distillation carried on to the end. so much vacuum Ibs. through an aperture in the bottom through which the gypsum can be pushed out by the stirrer. the bottom of the boiler being at the same time heated by steam. Glacial acetic acid. The charge is introduced through a manhole in the cover and the boiler is emptied. From 220 Ibs. first and last runnings only are removed. of high-graded.) from that fraction which contains 96 to 98. as a rule. entirely pure acid and of vinegar essence suitable for comestible purposes. have Each a capacity of from 240 to 3300 Ibs. acidum aceticum glaciale. can also be prepared as follows Freshly dehydrated sodium acetate is distilled with concentrated sulphuric Generally the : . When heat being thereby liberated that a large portion of the acetic acid distils over without the use of a vacuum. the middle running being perfectly pure acetic acid. In order to finally prepare chemically pure vinegar (99 to 100 per cent. 165 is Decomposition then commences.05 per cent.TREATMENT OF THE WOOD VINEGAR. boiler is equipped with a stirrer.5 per cent. When distillation slackens. acid are under The crude acid contains small of sulphurous acid.

The calcium chloride containing water which remains hind is be- dehydrated by heating in shallow vessels and then heated to red hot fusion. Heat is applied only after the introduction of the total quantity of are caught sulphuric acid. withdrawn from high-graded acetic acid by rectifying it over fused calcium chloride. because the last portion of it has an empyreumatic odor. Anhydrous acetic anhydride dissolves lemon oil . cial acetic acid thus obtained contains considerable quantities of hydrochloric acid. case 9J parts by weight of sulphuric acid are of sodium acetate free slowly poured upon 100 parts by weight In the first from water to prevent the escape.312 acid. precaution taken not to cool the worm too much as otherwise the acetic acid might crystallize in it. It is freed from it by rectification over a still with a silver head and worm sodium acetate. while the first portions contain only sul- phurous acid which is removed by rectifying the acid over process glacial acetic acid potassium dichromate. the greater portion of the fluid congeal- The position of the pots is ing thereby to a crystalline mass. It consists in the acetic acid together with bringing lemon oil. or water is MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. anhydrous and the being used. of a portion of the acetic acid vapors' evolving with great vigor. without being condensed. if feasible. be undertaken in the cool season of the year. According to the second may even be prepared from 50 per cent. and the first four-fifths of the distillate by themselves. then changed so that the portion which has remained fluid can run off this is added to the next rectification over calcium . chloride. By placing acetic acid is the pots in a heated room the anhydrous melted and then filled in bottles. this being necessary for the destruction of all organic substances present. The preparation of glacial acetic acid should. acetic acid by distilling The glathe latter with fused (anhydrous) calcium chloride. The distillate running from the condenser is collected in stone-ware pots which are covered and exposed to a low temperature. Glacial acetic acid thus prepared will stand the test usually applied in commerce.

barium. separated. This is done by comthe acid with potassium permanganate. acetic Another commercial test consists in compounding the acid as well as the glacial acetic acid and the diluted acid. The solutions of the acetates are precipitated by nitrate of silver . aluminium and iron are extenacetates. sively used in the industries By the addition of sulphuric acid the acetic acid is liberated without perceptible evolution of gas. rapidly. 313- but in the presence of even a very small solubility quantity of water decreases in a high degree. an acid free from empyreumatic substances. allowing it acid. while t-he if em- pyreumatic substances are present. pure acid remains permanently red. the precipitate . ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. and after standing for some time a white precipitate isSuch acid should again be rectified. All the acetates are more or less readily soluble in water. if present. It is. therefore. until discolored solution . Calcium acetate and sodium acetate are as previously explained initial products for the preparation of acetic acid and acetone. The and are produced in large quantities. sodium. but containing sulphurous acid. advisable before to test the making the test for empyreumatic substances- pounding to stand acid for sulphurous acid. the fluid is rendered turbid by barium chloride. potassium. copper. CHAPTER XXV.. particularly those of calcium. red color disappears- However. lead. may also exert a discoloring effect upon the potassium permanganate solution.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. in every proportion. and then adding barium chloride has now been changed sulphurous to sulphuric acid. with solution of potassium permanganate till it appears rasp- berry red . for which barium acetate may also be used.

not very heavy. When heated with arsenic the very peculiar and disagreeable odor of cacodyl is evolved. slightly pungent salty taste. Potassium acetate. and on cooling congeals to a mass. hydrochloric . characteristic its by color. when subjected distilled with when and marsh-gas to destructive caustic potash. Boiling water dissolves times the of its eight quantity weight of potassium acetate. without suffering decomposition. potassium at acetate melts. pulverulent mass. The dry salt when triturated with iodine yields a blue mixture. the latter giving with water a brown solution. By heating the By adding solution to boiling a red precipitate of basic ferric acetate is separated. It turns red litmus paper slightly blue. after incineration. and its odor is not acid.. the supernatant liquid becoming colorless. When mixed with equal parts of alcohol and double the recognized Ferric chloride imparts to the very dilute aqueous solution ether is evolved. liquid of a blood-red color is obtained which besides potassium chloride contains ferric acetate. quesces. which is an intense bright-red From other similar combinations the acetates are distin- guished by yielding acetone distillation. but does not redden phenol- phthalein.. such a solution boiling at 329 F. KC 2 3 O r H Dry potassium acetate forms a snow-white. ferric chloride solution to potassium acetate a solution. acetic acid escapes and. radiated crystalline 557. acetic fruit-like odor. laminate or It has a warming. foliated crystalline.314 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. potassium carbonate colored gray by coal remains behind.3 F. weight of sulphuric acid. somewhat lustrous. When heated. provided sufficient potassium acetate was present and the ferric chloride solution did not contain too much acid. On heating to 780 F. It rapidly absorbs moisture from the air and deliit At the ordinary temperature is soluble in about J part of water or 1 J parts of alcohol. is of acetate of silver crystalline and soluble in 100 parts of water.

To obtain a pure product the decanted with after liquid is treated separating sulphuretted hydrogen. To detect the presence of lead it should be tested with sulphuretted hydrogen. then evaporated being constantly stirred with a porcelain a steam-bath or better over is spatula during this operation. The resulting dust-dry. the mass has acquired a butwithdrawn and the salt allowed Another method of producing potassium acetate is by decomposing normal acetate of lead (sugar of lead) with pure carbonate or sulphate of potassium. from the precipitate and adding a small quantity of acetic acid. product water of crystallization. the tarry substances ap- When the pearing during this operation being removed. The Solution has finally to be assisted by heating. Chemically pure potassium acetate is prepared by bringing 400 parts of 30 per cent. filtered and further worked.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. till the solution clarified is neutralized is when it is allowed to The solution then evaporated todryness in an iron pan. The liquid foams. an open fire. which in the presence of this metal produces a slightly brown precipitate. When yraceous appearance. and. solution is then acetified with acetic acid and evaporated to a small volume on is Some till it acetic acid is next added and the mass dust-dr}'. and the tarry substances that separate on The the surface are removed by means of a perforated ladle. in the melted salt is and the is the fire increased dry. the fire is to cool. Potassium acetate is 315 prepared by bringing into a vat or boiler purified wood vinegar and adding potash in small quantities. . crumbly powder is brought into dry hot vessels. When cold the melt is again dissolved in water. which are immediately closed with corks and the latter are coated with paraffine. otherwise it would change to potassium carbonate. addition of potash is continued settle. is evaporated in a stone-ware vessel. acetic acid into an acid-proof enameled boiler and gradually introducing 138 parts of pure potassium carbonate or 200 parts of potassium bicarbonate until the solution is finally neutral or shows but a slight alkaline reaction.

flat2 .. water.316 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. . prisms. after a immediately fragment of dry or crystallized sodium acetate is thrown into it. and in medicine. F. supersaturated solution which crystallizes. Sodium scribed. regains them a liquid. in a moist atmosphere. salt by dissolving carbonate of soda in acetic acid. otherwise decompositiontakes place. 3 2 -This substance obtained by neutralizing acetic acid with . Ammonium acetate. Sodium acetate is acetic ether. Their composition NaC H oblique rhombic -f 3H 2 they are The taste of to sodium acetate is cooling and saline. KC 2 3 2 C 2 H 4 formed by evaporating a solution of the neutral salt in excess of acetic acid it crystallizes by slow evaporation in long. 2 3 2 soluble in 3 parts of cold. Too strong heating should be avoided. Pure potassium acetate should dissolve in two parts of water and the solution must not redden phenol phthalein. and setting the liquid aside to crys- The crystals form large. H 2 potassium tallize. It is very deliquescent and decomposes at 392 giving off crystallizable acetic acid. salt in the NaC2 3 The manner of preparing this manufacture of wood vinegar has already been deIt can be obtained in a manner similar to that of the acetate. otherwise it is contaminated with sulphate. cent. is neutral acetate of ammonia. turbid or colored aqueous solution should not be rendered (presence of metals) by hydrogen sulphide. It has also been recommended for the preservation of animal and vegetable tissues. it being used in the form of a powder in place of common salt. After being melted it is It becomes deliquescent and takes up 7 equivalents of water. H tened prisms. is Potassium acid acetate or potassium diacetate. . and not altered by barium nitrate after the addition of dilute nitric acid. in a less quantity of boiling. and in 5 of alcohol. used for the preparation of acetic acid. evaporating the solution. . NH C H 4 8 . with evolution of heat. acetone being formed. When but exposed dry air it loses its three equivalents of water. is colorless. otherwise A 5 per it contains more than traces of potassium carbonate.

Barium acetate. and leaves a residue barium carbonate which can again be used for the preparation of the acetate. while a mixture of carbonates remains behind. A mixture of this salt and of potassium oxalate gives. indigo-blue. propylene they have a (C 3 6 ). a white crystalline body which is also formed. By destructive distillation of equal equivalents of acetate and benzoate of calcium. ammonium acetate has long been used as a The preparation of calcium Calcium acetate. especially in the preparation of acetone. escapes first. in water and in al- bitter. (C 2 H 3 2)2 Ba+l J H 0. and it appears to be very difficult to ascertain the precise condition under which the transformation takes place. or better. It is very difficult to obtain in the crystalline form on account of its aqueous solution giving off ammonia when salt. there ammonia in a closed vessel to about 266 F. By heating the latter with zinc-dust and sodaEmmerling and Engler claim to have obtained artificial 3 ). chiefly acetamide (C 2 H 5 NO). by saturating glacial acetic acid with dry ammonia gas. evaporated. H which cohol .ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. thus becoming converted into to dry distillation ammonia gas is formed. while the residue from calcium carbonate is of no value. The crystals of the pure salt form white acicular prisms . But the quantity of the latter thus obtained is always very small. besides water. Barium acetate is prepared from the mineral witheritefin a manner similar to calcium acetate. 317 carbonate of ammonia. the only difference being as . 2 finds at present exten- sive application in the industries. In medicine diaphoretic. effloresce in the air and are soluble taste. which by treatment with nitric acid is converted into nitro-acetophenone H H (C8 H N0 7 lime. on heating acetic ether with liquid the acid When subjected above 330 F. acetophenone (C 8 8 0) is obtained. Ca (C 2 3 2 ) 2 acetate has already been described under wood vinegar. besides alcohol. on heating. as it is decomposed at a lower temperature than calcium acetate. salty They are decomposed by heat into acetone and calcium carbonate.

care being taken not to let it boil up for this reason . is more advantageous . as it used can be kept quite full. If they contain too many foreign .318 to MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. but best by a small addition of sulphuric acid. after the mothercrystallization. is whether the witherite In the first der. it by conducting gaseous through the Provisions must of course be made for carrying off the carbonic acid that is evolved. Purification is effected diately by recrystallization. The use of witherite in the form of powder instead of in but as the powder. case the used in lumps or in the form of powwood vinegar is allowed to act for it some time upon the witherite by allowing witherite. It is passed through a filter press and then evaporated in the usual manner. if not colored too dark (by empyreumatic substances). whereby barium sulphate is formed which falls to the bottom. are once more The mother-lyes are utilized by adding them to the purified. in consespecific gravity has a tendency to settle on the quence bottom. can be immeused. lumps. The barium acetate solution obtained by either method may be neutral but should never show an acid reaction. separated and the crystals. the customary manner and. it is advisable to effect evaporation in a vacuum. lye is solutions first obtained. carrying with it the empyreumatic substances. bottom tion of carbonic acid is by no means tumultuous the vessels erite must be sifted the acetic acid. which drop to the and As the evoluare dissolved only with difficulty. by treatment with animal charcoal. china clay or bole. After the clear is drawn off or settling the mixture is passed liquor The clear solution is evaporated in through a filter-press. Crystallization is effected in the customary manner. a powerful mixing and stirring apparatus has to be When used in the form of a fine powder the withprovided. dis- solving the crystals in water. to run over the with the acetic acid mineral. of its own upon the surface of the fluid containing readily forms lumps. or after filling several vessels (a battery) dissolving vessels. if necessary. The resulting crystals are freed from the mother-lye and.

On heatfirst of their water and then ing they yield crystallization tain 5 equivalents of water detonate. With strontium nitrate it gives a double salt forming beautiful crystals which contain 3 equivalents of water. recry stall zed from pure water. Magnesium acetate is prepared by dissolving magnesia alba .ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. a beautiful purple flame being formed. and in 67 parts of boiling. Strontium acetate. substances. alcohol. barium chloride and soFor this purpose the ade- quate quantity of barium chloride is dissolved in water so that. The salt is soluble in 1. con- and those at 59 F. On exposure to the air the crystals effloresce and the solutions show an alkaline reaction. and the solution drawn off from the sediment is crystallized. and to this solution. During this reaction the contents of the boiler must constantly be kept boiling vigorously.1 parts of boiling water. lye always contains common salt and is again utilized for dissolving the barium chloride. they are evaporated to dry ness. 319' and According to another method barium acetate is prepared by allowing equivalent quantities of dium acetate to act upon each other. The last crystals are then separated from the mother-lye and the remnants of the latter removed either by suction or by means of a centrifugal. possesses 3 molecules of water and is amorphous with The crystallized barium lead acetate. When decomposition is complete. dried. The prepared in a manner similar crystals obtained at 32 F. whilst boiling vigorously. if i acetate obtained at the ordinary tem1 contains of water. ignited used for solution in acetic acid. and. if feasible. Decomposition progresses quite rapidly. and in 100 parts of cold. sodium acetate in finecrystals is gradually added. and 1. This salt is to that of the preceding. while that crystallized molecule perature at 32 F.5 parts of cold. The sodium chloride which is separated is removed and the progress of reaction watched by taking samples. 1 equivalent. the crystals being at the same time washed with water The motherrequired. the contents of the boiler are allowed to settle. an oversaturated solution is obtained.

-aluminium sulphate or ordinary alum being generally decomposed by means of a carbonate. The basic aluminium f acetate. it is decomposed to basicIn boiling the solution inacetates of different compositions. Aluminium acetate. Large quantities of aluminium acetate -are used under the name of red mordant in dyeing. When of acetic acid. namely. soluble basic aluminium acetate is separated.. especially acetic acid. or usta in acetic acid. while By de- magnesia remains behind. or by dissolving aluminium hydrate in the calculated quantity It is only known in a liquid form. Only a very small readily soluble in solution is decomposed portion of the structive distillation it yields acetic by ammonia. A] 2 (CH 3 C0 2 ) 6 is obtained by decomposing aluminium sulphate with barium acetate. A1 2 (OH 4 )(CH 3 C0 2 ) 2 separates or evaporating the solutions of the abovementioned combinations. it is reduced to a hornlike mass which gives a clear solution with water. as well as for water-proofing tissues. lead acetate or calcium acetate. The aluminium hydrate thus obtained is then dissolved in -acetic acid. normal f aluminium acetate. A1 2 (OH 2 )(CH 3 C0 2 ) 4 is obtained by dissolving aluminium hydrate in the calculated quantity of acetic acid.. The bade aluminium J on heating acetate. . It crystallizes with difficulty and is water and spirits of wine. insoluble basic alum- By heating above 100 is inium acetate separated. By evaporating the solution at below 100 F.320 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and two basic acetates which according to their content of acetic acid it is aluminium acetates. if the latter has been acidulated* with F. evaporated even at below 100 F. Three combinations of aluminium with acetic acid are known. customary to distinguish as f and The normal or f aluminium acetate. aluminium hydrate is seldom used as the initial material. the composition of which is not yet accurately known. acid. For the preparation of aluminium acetate in larger quantities.

be dried and sold as gypsum otherwise they can be utilized as fertilizer. in the frame of the filter-press may. which is of great importance as regards the use of aluminium acetate in Turkey red dyeing (for alazaririe colors) as iron imparts a brown tinge to the red.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. it is accelerated after that time by again running the stirrer for six hours. The whiting should be intimately stirred together with 'the water and in order to retain admixed impurities such as sand. heating of any kind is excluded. triturated with 20 parts by weight Decomposition does not proceed as smoothly as would appear from the chemical equation it must be effected so that . 13 parts by weight of whiting of water. Into this bonate .041 specific gravity).. When poured in small quantities through a fine-mesh all the whiting has been introduced the stirrer is kept running for 5 or 6 hours longer. The press-cakes are thoroughly washed and the wash. In place of whiting some manufacturers use sodium bicar667 parts by weight of aluminium sulphate are dissolved in 15000 parts by weight of warm water. when the mixture is brought into a filter-press and the heavy solution collected by itself. sieve. used for dissolving . and introducing into this mixture. By reason of the evolution of carbonic acid the decomposition-vessel must be of such a size that it is filled only twothirds full. It should be furnished with a stirrer to keep the de- heavy whiting suspended. generally prepared by dissolving 30 parts by weight of aluminium sulphate in 80 parts of cold acetate is Aluminium water. acetic acid (of 1. and thus cause uniformity of composition. 21 .water is The cakes remaining fresh portions of aluminium sulphate. Since decomposition is not completely finished in 24 hours. straw. it being from iron. if pure white. etc. whilst stirring constantly. 321 Aluminium sulphate cheaper and can is as a rule preferred to also be obtained free alum. then adding 36 parts by weight of 30 per cent. and the mass is then allowed to stand quietly.

or even a rather less quantity of the latter. It is Alumina in a gelatinous allowed to settle.322 solution MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and pressed by of. stirring the mixture well at times during cooling. add slowly 10 pounds of crystallized carbonate of soda. The aluminium sulphate is added to dissolved in boiling water. Dissolve 100 pounds of aluminium sulphate in 50 gallons of boiling water. and then stir in 50 pounds . About one-tenth of crystallized carbon- ate of soda. precipitated. the bicarstirring. III. of crystallized of acetate of lead. in powder. aluminium sulphate found advantageous solution to is more In practice it is employ equal parts of aluminium sulphate and acetate of lead. as before. first. 504 parts by weight bonate product of the manufacture of ammonia-soda being suitable for the purpose. or a little combine with the carbonate of lime. the decomposition of the perfect. to a weight of 1750 parts. and add 10 pounds of acetate of lead in fine powder. is added to the alum free acid. and likewise several II. form is washed free from salt 200 parts by weight of in 150 parts liter of the gelatinous aluminium hydrate are dissolved weight of 50 per cent. One the mordant thus obtained contains 35.6 part by weight of parts by weight of soda.3 grammes of alumina. proportion of aluminium sulphate Many manufacturers prefer to effect the decomposition of the aluminium sulphate with lead acetate instead of with Since lead sulphate is insoluble whiting or sodium carbonate. Dissolve 100 gallons of boiling water. sodium bicarbonate. ammonia-soda 1 may In place be used in the to 3. The three following receipts : serve to indicate the proportions employed I. acetic acid. are introduced very slowly and whilst constantly of sodium bicarbonate. pounds of aluminium sulphate in 50 and add in small portions 6 pounds carbonate of soda. Dissolve 100 pounds of aluminium sulphate in 50 gallons of boiling water. and then stir in 50 pounds of acetate of lead in powder. and the powdered lead acetate to the solution.

and the other with ammonium If in one or the other case oxalate or sulphuric acid for lime. This substance is pre- . a larger quantity of calcium carbonate. etc. acid. are not suitable for fertilizing purposes by adding air-slaked lime and ashes the)7 may be utilized for repairing roads. a small quantity of the fluid is filtered in the vat in a small glass cylinder. this calculation is avoided by having always on hand clear solutions of both salts and. one of which tested with barium chlor- ide solution for sulphuric acid. and this quantity has previously to be accurately determined in order to calculate In practice the quantity of aluminium sulphate required. contents of the precipitation-vat are passed through a The cakes of gypsum filter-press and the residue is washed. the vat should not be kept too full. 323 acetate is The cheapest method of preparing aluminium from calcium acetate and aluminium sulphate. so that a pure the by aluminium acetate solution results. in sufficient water to obtain solutions of 5 to 6 As The solutions are filtered and after bringing the separate solu- tions into the vessels located over the precipitation vat. the principal condition being not to use a too tarry gray acetate as otherwise the final product turns out too dark and can be decolor- Calcium acetate contains. correcting it addition of one or the other solution. aluminium acetate solution then contains only slight traces of calcium acetate or aluminium sulphate. ized only with difficulty. . preOn account of the evolution of carbonic cipitation is effected.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. salt is when an excess of one or the other found in the aluminium acetate solution. When and a determined quantity of fluid has been consumed evolution of gas has ceased. a white precipitate is formed enough of one or the other clear solution previously mentioned is added until after taking other samples no precipitate or turbidity is formed in them the . The Manganese acetate. itself. each by Be. as a rule. Mn(C 2 H 3 2)2 . the filtrate diis vided into two halves. a rule 100 parts by weight of calcium acetate and 70 parts by weight of aluminium sulphate are dissolved.

agitating the solution. filtered. uncrystallizable liquid. The best acetate of manganese is made by adding to 4 parts of manganous sulphate dissolved in 3 parts of water.324 MANUFACTURE OP VINEGAK. and are of importance for dyeing and calico-printing. 7 parts of crystallized acetate of lead dissolved in 3 parts of water. Acetate of manganese is used in dyeing and calico-printing Its principle of action degive a brown color to fabrics. Both salts dissolve freely in water. very prone to Oxidation. soluble in alcohol. weight of water. The residue is dissolved in water. evaporating (MnC0 3 ) rhombic prisms. Acetic acid combines with ferrous (FeO) as well as with oxide (Fe2 3 ). For dyeing Manganons sulphate is prepared by mixing the dioxide (pyrolusite) with half weight of concentrated sulphuric acid and heating in a Hessian crucible until no more vapors escape. manufncturedby precipitating a * -solution of manganous sulphate by one of lime acetate and . brownish ferric red. and in this case a concentrated solution of acetate of lead is employed towards the end of the process to effect complete decomposition. Ferrous * its acetate. carbonate pared by dissolving freshly precipitated mangauous the solution and acetic heated in acid. The mixed precipitate of sulphate of lime and lead is filtered off. It sometimes happens that a portion of the manganese salt is not acted upon by the acetate of lime. posed with crystallized soda gives a precipitate of manganous carbonate. but only the ferrous acetate crystallizes in small greenish-white needles. while ferric acetate is a dark.agitating the liquor to decompose the whole of the manganese a large scale this salt is On salt. The crystals are . and allowed to crystallize at an The solution of the salt when decomordinary temperature. oxide pends upon the further oxidation of the manganese. of powerful and astringent taste. Black mordant. . to and drawing off the clear liquor for use. Fe(C 2 H 3 2)2 . Iron acetate. and occasioncolor they are permanent in ally in plates of an amethystine the air. and the filtrate evaporated and crystallized. and in about three times their crystallizing.

the empyreumatic substances contained in the wood vinegar rendering the conair. or 14 salt is The solution thus obtained shows 13 Be. purposes this in salt is 325 prepared by dissolving wronght-iron wood-vinegar. a solution of the calcium acetate of specific gravity 1. in which is hung a bag containing a quantity of iron turnings. crude calcium acetate instead of wood-vinegar is to be used in the preparation of this salt. The pure obtained by dissolving iron in acetic acid or by double decomposition from ferrous sulphate (14 parts) and and cheaper. on exposure to the This gradually partly converted into the ferric salt. : quantity of iron turnings. In some factories the ferrous acetate is manufactured by de- composing the carbonate of iron (FeCOJ with lead acetate.08 is mixed with half its weight of ferrous On agitatsulphate dissolved in 2J times its weight of water. During the solution of the iron much tarry matter separates. ing the mixture. The iron is freed from the oxide formed by sifting and can be again used. is frequently agitated to free it as much as possible from. the decomposition is rendered complete. from lead acetate (19 parts) . it is taken from the vat and the tar ignited. It is kept from ox- . the clear liquor which is siphoned off after the subsidence of the It is kept in a closed barrel sulphate of lime showing 13 Be.: lead carbonate precipitates. care being had that some iron turnings remains undissolved. freed by distillation from wood-spirit. being entirely coated with tar so that it can not be again attacked by the wood-vinegar. is poured upon them. and hot crude wood. which is skimmed off. as otherwise the salt. hoops. is The pure salt oxidizes with great For commercial purposes this compound is manurapidity. oxidation proceeds. and the blackish supernatant liquor is the acetate of iron in a very pure state.. factured as follows Into a large wooden vat or into barrels a version rather difficult. however. tar. the The iron* After 24 hours the solution is drawn off. but slowly. or nails are introduced. but less pure. and the solution.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION..vinegar. ferrous sulphate If and calcium acetate.

by dissolving ferric hydrate or ferric carbonate obtained by precipitation.10 B. for inof great value as a reducing agent. sesquiacetate of iron. an amorphous salt soluble in water and alcohol remains. which is. in strong acetic acid.042 specific gravity. the iron is for some time left to the action of the oxygen of the air. a quite concentrated solution of dark red brown. wrought-iron in wood-vinegar so that dize in the air. of from nitrobenzole aniline in the used stance. . it by dissolving has a chance to oxiis For this purpose wood-vinegar after poured over iron turnings in a vat. For technical use this combination is obtained Fe(C 2 H 3 2)3 .320 idizing by MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. for staining wood and leather and in the manufacture of ink. compound. It is also produced. The commercial article generally shows a specific gravity of 1. precipitating the solution with ammonia and dissolving the washed ferric hydrate in 10 parts of acetic acid of 1. Neutral ferric acetate may be obtained in the pure state by decomposing a solution of lead acetate by adding ferric sulIn the course of 24 hours the excess phate in slight excess. Neutral ferric acetate.). immersing in it some bright iron filings. It quickly oxidizes. Solution of ferrous acetate is used as a mordant by dyers. The lead salt formed repays the cost of the manufacture of the acetate. preparation On account of the it is and for similar reducing processes. By and evaporating the solution at between 140 and 17G F. Heat must nearly black color is in a short time obtained. This method occupies more time. not be employed in the preparation of this it salt. but affords better guarantees for the purity of the of ferric sulphate precipitates as a basic salt. and by pouring back the solution and several times repeating the drawing off and pouring back. oxygen. as in such case readily decomposes. however. (12 avidity with which ferrous acetate absorbs It is. not as it contains only two instead of 3 neutral. dissolving one part of nitric acid or aqua regia. and drawing off the solution in a few days. though more slowly.

By adding the slightest quantity of a sulphate or of concentrated nitric or hydrochloric acid. formed. . if boiling be con- tinued. light. however. it dissolving in concentrated hydrochloric acid only by long-continued digestion or boiling. of red color. produc- The salt has nevertheless become more ing a precipitate. produce a similar 'precipitate. the fluid seen A trace of sulphuric sulphocyanide augment its red color. By heating.e. If a solution of ferric acetate is heated in a closed ves- by reflected light and It has also lost its metallic appears opaque opalescent.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. however. acetic acid or dilute nitric acid it dissolves. lustrous. By amorphous salt in acetic acid and exposing the dark red solution On to a low temperature. which. acid or any alkaline salt suffices to precipitate the whole of the iron in solution as ferric hydrate. redissolves on diluting the fluid with water. however. however. The properties of this hydrate differ. however. the dilute solution of the pure acetate to boiling. which is totally insoluble in all acids at an ordinary temperature dilute min. and is In scarcely attacked by boiling concentrated sulphuric acid. however. it disengages acetic acid and separates a basic salt. It is remarkable that this ferric hydrate dissolves in water to a dark red fluid which can be again precipitated by concentrated acids or alkaline salts (Pean de St. to a red transparent to transmitted. taste and no longer shows the other reactions of ferric salts. also loses its acid so that ferric hydrate remains behind. heating the strongly diluted solution of this salt to nearly the boiling point its color becomes more intense and it evolves a distinct odor of acetic acid without. from those of ordinary ferric hydrate. the neutral salt crysout in hydrated. a granular precipitate is fluid. eral acids do not. Giles). dark red laminse. for a few hours. sulphuric acid immediately precipitates the whole of the iron as insoluble basic ferrous sulphate.. i. and an addition of any soluble sulphate or even of free basic. but opaque to reflected. addition of ferrocyanide produces no precipitate nor does the sel to 212 F. equivalents of acetic acid for dissolving this tallizes 1 327 equivalent of ferric oxide. which.

light. 2 Fe(C H 3 2 2 N0 3 + acids being disengaged. as well as . to a violet-red fluid because the hydrate is The ammonium acetate. the solution of which double ) salt. oxide (O 2 3 ). From the iron acetates the iron is precipitated as black fer- rous sulphide by sulphuretted hydrogen. therefore. forms small red crystals. Cobalt solution of ing.with chromic. green in a reflected. ammonia soluble in precipitate. and quickly oxidize to a greater degree on exposure to the air. is Hence. but not in alcohol. It is which not decomposed by boiling. the succeeding salt being formed. and on evaporating. acetate . redissolves. on boiling. however. A neutral salt is known and there are very Chromic acetate. a green powder soluble in water remains behind. Chromium acetates. is prepared by mixing Chromous acetate. The salts are not used in the industries and are only of scientific interest.MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. With ferric nitrate. but by ammonia. has described a Ordway purple busic salt. obtained by dissolving chromic hydrate in heated acetic acid. nitric and acetic decomposes the acetate and ferric between exists A similar combination chloride. (C 2 3 2 ) 2 Cr 2 0. be used as sympathetic ink. Acetic acid enters into combination with chromous (CrO). If the solution of the neutral salt is for some time digested with chromic hydrate. a solution of the salt acidulated with acetic acid not precipitated by ammonia. the acid reaction disappears. There are also known crystallized combinations of this salt with chromic chloride and sulphate and nitrate of chromium. The salt a solution of chromous chloride with sodium acetate. on adding in excess. it acquires a darker color. forms a red fluid. likely several basic ones. Nickel acetate forms small green crystals soluble in water. is The solution of the neutral salt. lustrous red crystals which are sparingly soluble in water and alcohol. the concentrated which turns blue on heating but again red on cooland can. ferric acetate yields a crystallizable 3H 2 0. and red in a transmitted. H +H separates out in small.

drawing the clear liquid off tocrystallize. zinc oxide or zinc carbonate in acetic acid. Ca (C 2 2 H 3 2)2 . which are decomposed by water into yellow cuprous hydrate and cupric acetate. and this solution can eventually Sulphate of soda remains dissolved in the be utilized for the . as otherwise cuprous- from chloride formed which dissolves with difficulty. acetic acid forms a normal and several Neutral cupric acetate. The normal cupric acetate may be prepared by dissolving pure cupric oxide or cupric hydrate in pure acetic acid or by employing. foreign substances. hydrated basic carbonis ate of copper can be prepared by precipitating sulphate of copper with soda. Cuprous acetate. instead of the pure oxide.is washed to remove ing. mixing the solutions. agitating. Zinc acetate. With cupric oxide basic salts. If copper scales cannot be obtained. 329 Zn(C 2 H 3 2) 2 . The salt crystallizes in flexible. This salt may be prepared by dissolving metallic zinc. and after the sulphate of lead has deposited. six-sided tables which is effloresce slightly in the air. Cu(C 2 H 3 2)2 . and. or by the decomposition of zinc sulphate by acetates of The acetate lime or lead similar to the acetate of manganese. subjecting crystallized verdigris to distillation. is in the first three instances simply obtained by evaporation. water. opal- escent. dissolving in acetic acid. filtering and evaporating the filtrate. after washing and pressing.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. sul- Technically the best receipt to dissolve 4 parts of the phate of zinc and 7J parts of acetate of lead each in 3 partsof hot water. cupric oxide entirely free is The conversion of the cuprous oxide into especially essential when the acetic acid is not hydrochloric acid. crystallized verdigris. copper scales whose content of metallic copper and of cuprous oxide is converted into cupric oxide by moistening with nitric acid and gentle glowThe cupric oxide thus obtained . after agitating the mixture. and in the latter. Copper It is a acetates. This salt is- dry produced by white substance crystallizing in fine needles.

is required. By this process the object is quickly accomplished. The method by double decomposition may be recommended for preparing the neutral acetate on a small scale. expensive.330 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and normal lead acetate (190 dilute. In case the sulphate of copper contains iron. Hence strong evaporation . The calcium sulphate is repeatedly washed with small portions of water. Instead conversion of crude calcium acetate into sodium salt. somewhat smaller than be theoretically might expected. but not for manufacturing purposes. The disadvantage of substituting calcium acetate for the lead ace. This method is. in acetic acid. the sulphate not dissolving entirely in ammonia in excess. with the use of lead acetate some of the newly-formed lead sulphate is obtained in solution but the lead cannot be separated with sulphuretted hydrogen because the latter would also decompose the copper salt. for the decomposition of soda. The neutral acetate can also be prepared by dissolving the basic salt. parts) decompose completely only in acetic acid is lost. a mixture of calcium sulphate and By adding acetic acid the cupric hydrate being precipitated. the latter is re- moved by digesting the solution for several days with basic The presence of iron is recognized by carbonate of copper. verdigris (described below). but leaving behind a red-brown residue (ferric hydrate). milk of lime can also be used of the sulphate of copper. because the sulphate of cop- The yield per is not entirely insoluble in sodium sulphate solution. however. but not in concentrated. whereby Further. Sulphate of copper (125 parts) and sodium acetate (136 parts) decompose each other. calcium the while latter is redissolved sulphate remains susWhen the latter has settled the solution is drawn off pended. and for this reason is decidedly to be preferred to the following Sulphate : of copper (125 parts) solutions. however. and evaporated. The solution is filtered and evaporated until a crystalline film is formed. while sodium sulphate remains in solution. and the wash-waters are used for dissolving fresh quantities of sulphate of copper. neutral cupric acetate crystalizing out. is.

8. calcium and sodium. in fact it always varies slightly in nal criterion of purity If a small excess of calcium salt has been used. The crystals turn somewhat preponderates and the solution is cooled very slowly. The salt forms dark green * rhombic prisms of a nauseous metallic taste. still of the solution of cupric acetate obtained methods is effected in a copper boiler over better. crystallizes out as double salt (see below). or. It is recommended to close the boiler so that the escaping vapors of water and acetic acid are condensed in a worm. and are also soluble in alcohol.1. On heating. it would seem more rational to directly use this acetic acid for dissolving the cupric oxide. The evaporation by any of the above an open fire.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. are formed. composition. Since these acetates create difficulties. Independently of the fact that by these means the escaping acetic acid is regained and can be used for other purposes. anhydrous acetic acid 51. At 95 F. and as each of them must first be prepared by the manufacturer by means of acetic acid. by steam. Crystallization is which dip a number of slender wooden placed in a days. together with the the latter. Neutral cupric acetate contains in 100 parts: Cupric oxide 39. Heated in the air the crystals burn with a green flame. . calcium sulphate is filtered off and the not remain in the mother lye. water 9. water. however. the dilute solution of the neutral salt yields is * There also another salt of a beautiful blue color. Crystallization is finished in about 14 out especially beautiful when the acid warm room. whereby no by-products of little value. tate is 331 that it is not crystallized and hence furnishes no exter. but does solution evaporated. o equivalents of water (VVohler). which dissolve in 14 parts of cold. and 5 parts of boiling. which contains. a great advantage is that the air of the workroom is thereby not contaminated by flying particles of salt. generally effected in stoneware pots into The pots are rods. after the copper salt. such as sulphate of lead. it passes into the ordinary green salt. It is prepared by exposing a solution of the salt mixed with free acetic acid to a low temperature.

This compound is obtained pure by gradually adding ammonia to a boiling concentrated solution of the nor- H CuO-f. but give off 9 per cent. whereby the indigo oxidized before itself can exert any action on the cloth. normal cupric acetate gives double salts of a vivid blue color. is As the liquor cools the new salt then crystallizes out in beautiful blue-green scales. normal cupric acetate in the arts is in making pigments and for resisting the blue color which the indigo would communicate in the indigo bath of the calico chief use of printer. etc. .332 acetic acid MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. crystals With the acetates of potassuch as sugar. sodium. mal acetate until the precipitate. Basic cupric acetates. of their water..6H 2 0.8 per cent. acetic acid being given off and the black oxide of copper precipitated. . Sesquibasic cupric acetate (Cu(C 2 3 2 ) 2 ). The In the latter case its mode of action depends on the readiness with is which it it parts with oxygen. cupric acetate. posed by boiling. honey. By destructive distillation cupric acetate yields strong is acetic acid which contains acetone and contaminated with copper. . soluble copper salts. sium. and deposits a basic salt hence the use of strongly diluted acetic acid or even distilled vinegar is not suitable for By long-continued the dilute solution charcoal with freshly glowed digestion latter the hence vinegar to of copper yields its entire content containing copper can be purified in this manner (2 or 3 per The crystals of normal cent. is at first formed. Crystallized verdigris is occasionally employed as a transparent green water color or wash for tinting maps. lose 10. which form fine crystals. of charcoal being sufficient). lose more water at 212 and F. like all application. and calcium. being reduced to the state of acetate of suboxide of copper. which at 212 F. In medicine it is used for external It is poisonous. the preparation of crystallized verdigris. which redissolved. Cuprous oxide (Cu 2 0) is obtained in red octahedral when the neutral salt is heated with organic substances. after drying in vacuo. Their aqueous solution is decom. of their water between 230 284 F. starch.

on withdrawing . is placed in casks until acetous fermentation takes The casks or vessels are covered with matting to proplace. blue. Under the name acetates are found in of verdigris two varieties of basic cupric commerce: French verdigris which occurs in globular. at a higher temperature it decomposes and . of water tribasic dibasic. crystalline needles and scales. Germany crystalline structure. is By repeated exhaustion with water the resolved into the insoluble tribasic. At the end of two or three days the fertect them from dirt. Tribasic cupric acetate. is. which H when ground form a fine blue powder. constitutes It forms the greater part of the blue variety of verdigris.45 per cent. This salt yields all its the last as a bright green powder. menting materials are removed to other vessels in order to check the process. and English verdigris of a pure green color and which and Sweden. cornIt is prepared by boiling the aqueous solution of the neutral acetate. by heating it with alcohol. in the form of a bluish powder composed of needles and scales. a mixture composed of the neutral and F. beautiful. to prevent putrefaction. evolves acetic acid. salt. Cu(C H 3 ) 2 2CuO+3H 2 pound is the most stable of all of the acetates of copper. The limit to which fermentation should be carried is known by introducing a testsheet of copper into the mass for 24 hours. 333 Dibasic cupric acetate. sic acetate into a brown mixture Boiling water decomposes the solid tribaof the same salt with cupric oxide. This 0. by digesting its aqueous solution with cupric hydrate. they lose 23. France. bluish-green. water at 352 F. or by exhausting blue verdigris with The first methods yield the salt water as above mentioned. acetates. however. after the extraction Montpellier. Cu(C 2 3 2 ) 2 CuO-|-6H 2 0. delicate. if. also manufactured in variety is chiefly manufactured in the region around The refuse of grapes. and a solu2 2 tion of the normal and sesquibasic cupric acetates. crystalline masses. When heated to 140 and become transformed into a beautiful green. first The of the juice. but also in amorphous masses.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION.

which are detached from the remainder of the sheets by a copper knife. Sheets of copper are prepared by hammering bars of the of an inch (the more commetal to the thickness of about and the they are then cut into better). Sometimes old pieces of 6 or 8 inches long by ^ ship-sheathing is used and cut into pieces of the required size. the copper sheets are laid on a horizontal vat. middle of a 200 In this state they are put into large stoneware jars with alternate layers of the fermenting grape lees the vessels . At the end of two or three days they are moistened with water and again placed to The with dry. The salt into a consistent paste by kneading with a in this state is packed into leathern bags which are placed in the sun to dry until the mass hardens and forms the tough substance which constitutes the commercial article. end of that time.334 it MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The sheets are immersed in a concentrated solution of verdegris and allowed to dry. pan of on the bottom of which which heats them to about burning charcoal. it is found covered with a uniform of fermentation has been green coating. are covered with straw to mats and left at rest. When the materials are all found to be in proper condition. or woollen cloths moistened with the above solu- . The scraped scraped off little is plates are submitted to a fresh treatment is till the whole of the copper made converted into verdigris. At the end of 10 20 days they are opened to ascertain if the operation is If the upper layer of the lees complete. and In England. pact the copper sheets 3 to 4 broad. This treatment causes the sheets to swell and become incrusted with increased coatings of the copper salt. one against the other. wooden grating is in the placed a F. appears whitish and the whole has worked favorably. the sheets will be covered with silky crystals of a green color. the proper degree at the reached. Germany and Sweden copper sheets are moistened with a solution of verdigris in vinegar and placed in a warm room. water. water is moistening continued at regular intervals of a week for six or eight times. The sheets are then taken from the jars and placed upright in a cellar.

now more thoroughly saturated than before. which are placed alternately with the copper sheets in a square wooden box. but with a weakei cloths. but not in direct contact with the woollen disks of copper or small pieces of wood being The woollen cloths are placed between each cloth and sheet. like solution of neutral cupric acetate. when small crystals commence to form on the sheets.. With plumbic oxide acetic acid gives a solution. because less will have to be evaporated and the loss of acetic acid be consequently hence. H and after a further addition of acetic acid until a slightly acid reaction takes place. best to use strong acetic acid. lead is obtained. The woollen cloths are moistened with the solution every three days for 12 or 15 days. 6 to 8 weeks are required before the verdigris can be scraped off. Pb(C 2 3 2 ) 2 +3HO. it is . Neutral Acetate of Lead (Sugar of Lead). The product is not identical with that obtained by the French method. and a basic salt The most important of known in commerce means of which white by salt. Lead Acetates. permits of the evaporation of acetic acid in boiling and. as well as several basic. a solution of basic obtained. but almost pure green. 335 tion are used. salts. Solution of sugar of lead. small With a temperature of from 54 to 59 F. which is later on converted into neutral salt acid. filtered or decanted. it being somewhat poorer in acetic acid. neutral. these combinations are the neutral as sugar of lead.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. acetic acid prepared from wood-vinegar and rectified over potassium dichromate is saturated with litharge. evaporated to the crystallizing point. . because the litharge dissolves with greater ease in solution of sugar of lead than in acetic acid. and hence its color is not bluish-green. By salt is saturating acetic acid with litharge. The re- sheets are then drawn every six days through water and placed in the box. According to Volkel's method. by the addition of acetic This is more suitable than using only as much litharge as the acetic acid requires for the formation of the neutral salt.

it is recommended to have a preparatory heating pan for each evaporating pan. troduced. To recogwith 100 Ibs. as otherwise large losses of acetic acid are unavoidable and the solution readily acquires a yellow coloration. they are 6J feet long. the bottom and sides of which are brought in contact with a few bright sheets of lead (to prevent the copper from being attacked). still better. while the depth of the preparatory heating pans is from 24 to 28 inches. of litharge are required for the larger quantity is. and from 12 to 14 inches deep. By gravity. in the addition of of neutralization the nize subsequent point A paper is used. which does acetic acid. so that a basic salt is formed. or in a lead pan over an open fire. MANUFACTUKE OF VINEGAR. being used for the solution of the litharge in acetic acid. 100 taking. the point of the lead time testing neutralization test is better is reached the moment turbidity ceases. From the latter. than with litmus. solution with this reagent. however.057 specific Ibs.). This required to solution of sugar of lead showing a slight. or. the preparatory heating pan. discharged. dilute solution of corrosive sublimate (1 part of corrosive sublimate in 100 of not change the neutral salt. Lead pans.336 smaller.. . or in a wooden vat into which steam is ineffected either in a The and is solution of litharge in acetic acid is promoted by heat. as described in the preparation of calcium acetate. through a stop-cock just above the bottom. which is heated by the escaping gases. for formation of the neutral salt. into the evaporating pans. If this is to be done over an open fire. but perceptible acid reaction. a mixture of neutral and basic salts. acetic acid of 1. litmus Hence. which stand at a higher level. if used. Evaporation should be effected at a moderate heat. or. but produces water). considerable experience being hit the right point with the latter on account of copper pan. should rest upon The dimensions of the pans strong cast-iron plates. vary very much. The clear solution is evaporated. 4 According to Assmus. by from time to turbidity in the basic (Buchner). actual boiling must be strictly avoided. of it 82 Ibs. the clear solution is feet wide. for instance. taken (from 100 to 180 Ibs.

only the acetic acid is retained. distilling apparatus. consisting of a still. of thick lead provided with fine perforations. sheet-copper. At first the water condenses in the receiver and the volume of the fluid containing the litharge increases. The vats are provided with lids of sheet-copper lined with lead. is Upon the lead bottoms first flannel. Stein recommends the conducting of the vapors of acetic acid or of vinegar into litharge mixed with a very small quanThis method is in general use in Germany.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. either the vapors must be somewhat expanded or several condensing one after the other. serve to conduct the vinegar vapors in the vat to and fro in the interspaces between the lead bottoms. lined with lead. vessels be placed d. From the lid of the last vat a pipe leads to a worm surrounded with cold 22 . Short lead soldered into these bottoms and pipes. To prevent the litharge from packing. To obtain neutral salt. c. With a perfectly pure solution the first method is the best. The mother-lye. distinct crystals are obtained or only a radiated crystalline mass. into the wooden vat. of The a. however. after being again acetified. or to 46 B. or more) of the sugar of lead solution. but when the boiling point is reached in the condensing vessels. since crystals bring a better price. But tity of water. vapors pass through a copper pipe. In this vat are four bottoms. especially if beer had been added to the liquid used in the preparation of the vinegar. it is mixed with an equal volume of pebbles. arranged as shown in the figure. and about 35 inches in diameter and (>7 inches deep. and next a layer of litharge 2 placed a layer of linen or of to 4 inches deep. as the extract remaining iri-the still retains a considerable quantity of acetic acid. 84 shows the Fig. about the size of a pea. 337 According to the degree of evaporation (to 36 B. 5. while the litharge is first converted into sexbasic and then into tribasic acetate. it is advisable to increase the boiling point of the latter by the addition of one- third of its weight of common or rock salt. For each still at least three of such vats are connected with each other. is once more evaporated and acetified and yields more crystals.

how- For the good only for non-volatile impurities. production be purified. holds Furthermore. since the impurities ever. this taethod does not require the use of pure remain in the still. of colorless the woodfrom crude acetic acid salt. so as to prevent the . basic. it is acetiacetic acid. with the idea of vinegar must necessarily rendering the metal more electro-negative. by potassium chromate and sulphuric acid. acetic acid.338 water. which is effected (with discharge of the collected of at the use of acetic acid) when it shows a specific gravity at least 36 Be. because the evaporation omitted and the entirely or almost entirely of lead. to which is soldered a strip of lead down the sides and across the bottom. This method of the solution air of the is is decidedly the best. workroom is not contaminated by particles of sugar which is very injurious "to the health of the workmen. FIG. fied with strong solution being. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The the bottoms of the vats permit the stop-cocks on lead solution. The crystallizing pans are either of stone-ware or of wood lined with lead or thin copper. as above mentioned. and brought into the crystallizing The vessels. however. This. 84.

not exceeding 75 F. Crystallization being comthe plete. acetic acid 339 from acting on it. which are not very distinct. the first crystals. 85. 85 and 8G. are also used. of sheet-lead to drain off. in the When . and from G to 8 Indies Shallow. The wooden crystallizing pans are about 4 feet long by 2 feet wide. with a diameter of 29J inches at the bottom and 31 J inches at the top. are again dissolved in the water obtained by the condensation of the vapors escaping from the still. slightly conical deep. In some factories the heated air of a stove. The solution being evaporated to the proper density is again allowed to crystallize.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. placed outside the drying-house. at other places steam heat is employed for this purpose. after sufficient drainage. sloping inwards at the edges. FIG. If especially beautiful crystals are to be obtained. are placed upon linen spread over wooden hurdles and dried at a moderate heat. which is much to be preferred. FIG. The stone-ware pans are placed upon a slightly inclined level covered with lead. copper vessels. The crystals. while from 48 to 72 hours are required with the use of the larger wooden vessels. working on a large scale a centrifugal is advantageously employed for the separation of the mother-lye. 6 inches deep. In these small pans crystallization is complete in 24 hours. is conveyed through pipes passing round the interior. and the vessels are placed upon a wooden frame over a gutter as shown in Figs. 86. mother-lye is removed. on account of its being more easily regulated.

Sugar of lead can also be prepared from metallic lead. vessel a second time and carries off the acetate After passing through the whole series the of lead formed. the tailings in the white lead manufacture. it can be worked for silver. are dipped into the solution. The acid causes the is filled lead to absorb oxygen so rapidly from the air as to become hot. solution is so strong that it may be evaporated at once so as to crystallize. are put in several vessels. of sugar of lead. the copper separating upon them in the form of a dark slime. and frequently contains over 10 per cent. The into oxide the of lead solution and colors cupric passes sugar ties. of pure than litharge.5 Ibs. The upper one with acetic acid. clay. after another half hour into the third. Furthermore. because 103. metallic lead. it To separate the copper. one above the other. recommended for the preparation of sodium Litharge being a quite impure lead oxide never dissolves entirely. etc. red lead or minium (Pb 3 4 ). bright sheets of lead slightly blue. so that the liquid may be run from one to the other.5 Ibs. it is thrown on the uppermost. and after half an hour let off into the second. and so on to the last or eighth vessel. a considerable of quantity of acetic acid being lost by tage . upon by Runge steps.. When the acid runs off from the lowest. this process has the disadvanlitharge. Apparently this method has a considerable advantage over that with litharge.340 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. commercial lead is always purer On the other hand. traces of silver. as otherwise they lose their effect. while the same quantity is only obtained from 111. of impuriconsisting of sand.5 Ibs. cupric and ferric oxides. Granulated lead. as same manner acetate. the process having been recommended first by Berard. The sheets of lead must be fre- quently cleansed (scraped). metallic lead being cheaper and producing more sugar of lead (entirely free from copper) than litharge. of pure lead yield 189. and is said to yield a good product with great economy. say eight. When there is a large accumulation of litharge residue.

disturbing crystallization by constant stirring during cooling. the brown acetate of lead an- swering requirements. barium sulphate (permanent white) being thereby precipitated. to greater Sugar of lead is further formed by boiling lead sulphate with a very concentrated solution of barium acetate. Sulphate of lead is obtained in large as a quantities by-product in the preparation of aluminium acetate. which causes considerable loss. and the loss of salt. the brown smeary The substances rising to the surface during evaporation being constantly removed. it 341 The manufacture combined having to pass through several of sugar of lead is most suitably with that of white lead. For 100 parts of lead sulphate 84 parts of anhydrous or 100 of crystallized barium acetate are required. The addition of animal charcoal vantage. Finally evaporation is carried to the crystallizing point. into distilled wood vinegar in a vat until red litmus paper is colored blue. i. and. until a few drops congeal when allowed to fall upon a cold metal plate. it being thus possible to advantage than. and is evaporated to about two-thirds its volume. stirring constantly. By again diluting and slightly acidulating the concentrated fluid a further portion of the foreign substances can be removed. as is frethem done. which is much liked by many con- By .. For many purposes of dyeing and printing the use of pure sugar of lead all is not necessary. etc. impurities separating on the surface are removed and the clear fluid is then transferred to a copper pan equipped with strips of lead. e. a basic salt is formed. For its preparation ground litharge is introduced in small portions. is obtained. a nearly amorphous mass. always utilize the tailings. the yield being 125 parts of sugar of lead.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. little effect for the The coloration purpose of discoloration is of no adis not completely removed. by melting quently together and remelting.. hence. evaporation on account of vessels. which . is produced is attained at a considerable absorbed by the animal charcoal. having the appearance of yellow wax.

and slowly their water by heating the entirely dephlegmated . the crystallized mass being then for some time allowed to stand in a moderately warm room.2 100. the sugar of but if evaporation lead crystallizes in clusters of fine needles . The crystals are permanent in the atmosphere. therebe quickly and well packed. be conducted slowly the crystals are truncated and flattened. .9 26. is soluble in 1 J parts of water and in 8 parts of ordinary alcohol. a slight coating of yellow. which occur chiefly in the mother-lye. After cooling it must.342 sutners. empyreumatic substances). as it ignites from the slightest spark and burns like tinder. the crystals of acetate of lead melt. gradually rise up between the crystals. in order to protect it from the moisture and the carbonic acid of the air. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The sugar of lead solution may.00 solution of sugar of lead slightly reddens litmusshows an alkaline reaction upon turmeric. or brown. smeary substance being finally formed upon the mass of crystals. which can be readily removed. In consequence of capillarity. acetic acid 14. ing At 167 yield up F. brownbut paper. the temperature ranges between 70 and 100 F. The linen upon which the crystals are dried must be carefully protected from fire. Aqueous it. Anhydrous Water . quadrangular and hexahedral prisms derived from a right Acetate of lead has a sweet astringent taste. the impurities. salt. If the hot solution be set aside to cool rapidly. however. The product thus obtained is not always a neutral but sometimes a mixture of neutral and basic salts (be- sides fore. also be evaporated only so far that some mother-lye remains after cooling. but are apt to effloresce and become anhydrous if rhombic prism. Acetate of lead consists of: Plumbic oxide 58.9 . .

The particles of metallic lead are so small that. colorfluid and decomposes above this temperature. however. Sugar of lead is chiefly used for the preparation of alum- . come into such intimate contact with oxygen molethem that ignition is effected from the rapidity with which lead oxide formed. Solution of calcium chloride at once produces a yellow precipitate. iodine produces scarcely any effect. sexbasic acetate of lead is gradually separated on boiling. slight decomposition occurs when the neutral salt is exposed to an atmosphere of carbonic acid. while a residue of metallic lead in a very minute state of division. as well as the basic lead be men- tioned further on. When this distillation is conducted in a glass tube closed at one end and having the other drawn out for convenience of sealing at the end of the operation. Cold solution of sugar of lead is not immediately changed by ammonia by adding. Sugar of lead containing considerable copper has a bluish If the content of copper is small. a large excess of it. The introduction of chlorine gas into a solution of sugar of lead produces in a short time a brown precipitate of plumbic dioxide. copper. cules is when thrown into the air. the wellknown lead pyrophorous is made. oil-like. of its Bromine acts in a similar manner.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. still better. to a clear. which gradually becomes brown. A tects the remainder from further change. is left behind. it is recognized appearance. evolving all the compounds usually obtained in the destructive distillation of the acetates of the heavy metals. or. with some charcoal. yellow-red . by the solution acquiring with ammonia a blue coloration. possesses poisonous properties. by mixing the solution of sugar of lead with an excess of solution of Glauber's salt and testing the filtrate with potassium. crystalline lead oxide is precipitated. A dark-red precipitate salts to indicates Sugar of lead. . but on account insolubility. carbonate of lead being formed the portion of acetic acid thus liberated pro. ferrocyanide. salt less 343 more strongly it fuses at 536 F.

and an acid solution remains The soluble salt prepared by of water with as lead vinegar or extract of lead is digesting 2 parts of sugar of lead dissolved in 5 known The propor1 of finely powdered litharge. The litharge dissolves very readily in the sugar of lead solution. etc. . for quantities of instance. Upon the cloth-fibre (especially wool) chrome yellow and chrome orange are produced by means of sugar of lead. it inium as well as of other acetates. of neutral and basic lead chromate. Neutral lead acetate gives crystallizable double salts with potassium acetate and sodium acetate as well as with lead nitrate. lead bromide. as well as in different and other places factories. is white lead (basic carbonate of lead). while. when the operation at a suitable moment interrupted. and 3 equivalents of lead oxide to 1 equivalent show a strong alkaline reacand with carbonic acid the solutions tion. lead chloride. however. particularly with the brown variety are .344 MANUFACTURE OP VINEGAK. In this ing to the so-called at Clichy manner white lead is manufactured accordFrench method (of Thenard and Hoard) in France. the introduction of carbonic acid be continued until no precipitate is formed. abundant precipitates of Those with 2 of acetic acid are soluble in water. tional quantities of sugar of lead. and. acetate. Several of these compounds are known. also. chrome orange. chrome yellow. behind. is neutral.20 to 1. Considerable consumed in the manufacture of colors. German If however. more which. Basic lead acetates. litharge and water prescribed by the Pharmacopoeias of the different countries vary very the compositions and specific gravities (from 1. a part also of the lead of the neutral salt is precipitated as carbonate. neutral salt remains in solution. which is obtained by the joint precipitation of chrome yellow and Berlin blue. yield at once and in every degree of concentration. the latter product being also very suitable for the production of the so-called chrome green.36) of the solutions of lead prepared in accordance with them. in fact with greater ease than in much. and chrome red. consequently.

plumbic dioxide possesses the further property of decomposing solution of potassium iodide. which evolves in the form of gas. Very remarkable is the behavior of the tribasic acetate towards hydrogen dioxide plumbic dioxide But in first formed.5 Ibs. alcohol . very solu* Schoenbein in Wagner's Jahresbericht. For the manufacture on a large scale.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. its Sesquibasic acetate is soluble in both water and solutions are alkaline. porous mass this is redissolved in water and set aside to . a short time exerts a decomthis being influence the which may be dioxide posing upon hydrogen present in excess. and especially with greater rapidity if the sugar of lead solution be heated in a silver dish to the boiling point and the litharge gradually introduced. 1862. It is insoluble in alcohol.. and in a short time an abundance of the The salt presents itself under the form of long needles. volumes of boiling water are poured 100 volumes of . The vessel is then tribasic acetate crystallizes out. so that both dioxides' now lose one-half of their oxygen. Triplumbic Tetracetate. into 100 of sugar of lead to 4 Ibs. according to Payen. 345 acetic acid. together with paper coated with paste prepared with potassium iodide. Lead Sesquibasic This salt is Acetate. immediately closed. obtained by heating the diacetate until it becomes a white. .. as freshly precipitated . the sugar of lead solution and the litharge may be brought into a barrel revolving around its axis. of plumbic oxide (pure) or 3 Ibs. If the operation is to be conducted at the ordinary temperature. of litharge or. and afterwards a mixture of pure water at 140 F. of sugar of lead with 223 Ibs. as the most sensitive reagent for hydro- gen dioxide. the barrel must be closed to prevent the access of the carbonic acid of the air. with 20 volumes of ammonia liquor free from carbonate. crystallize. and water and plumbic oxide are formed.* Now. aqueous solution of sugar of lead saturated at 86 F. Schoenbein recommends tribasic acetate of lead. Tribasic acetate of lead is prepared by digesting 189.

decomposed by the carbonic acid. The salt separates in small. ing part in the manufacture of white lead by the Clichy process. being itself at the same time converted into lead In the Dutch process the formation of lead carbondiacetate. in turn. Tribasic acetate is It takes a leadthe most stable of all the subacetates of lead. which. and partly showing magnificent dichroism (Wertheim and Weselsky). colorless needles. . * prepared by dissolving stannous hydrate in heated strong acetic acid. Bismuth nitrate prepared by gradually introducing pulverized metallic bismuth into cold dilute nitric acid is mixed with pure concentrated sugar of lead solution. appears in two It is remarkable for giving. which have a strong metallic in taste and readily decompose azo-dyestuffs in calico printing. decomposed in point of fact. solution being alkaline. Sexbasic Acetate of Lead. and gives rise to the carbon- ate of lead. a solution of this salt. acetate Mercurous can be prepared by dissolving pure mer- *The hydrate is obtained by precipitating stannous chloride with soda lye and washing the precipitate. Uranium Acetate. its MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. of a beautiful color. its which is. also due to the formation of tri- basic acetate on the surface of the sheets of lead. well crystallizing salts. ate is. from which it crystallizes out in silky needles which consist of two equivalents powder combined with three equivalents of water.346 ble in water. acetic acid combines to a dark green crystallizable salt. It is. Tin acetate is colorless needles. With uranous oxide. which is by the carbonic acid. This body is prepared of with lead oxide. according to Pelouze. The salt is used to discharge Bismuth Acetate. and with uranic oxide to a yellow basic salt. It the salts ing any preceding by is digest- a white slightly soluble in boiling water. combined with water. or by mixing stannous chloride It forms small (SnCl 2 ) with acetate of sodium or calcium. with different forms of crystals. the air. of the salt many other acetates.

75 at 66. solidifying to a granular mass. This salt is obtained by precipitating a concentrated solution of silver nitrate with a concentrated solution . in 2. When by the second obtained by the first process it is a white saline mass it forms crystalline scales. dried in the dark at a gentle heat. silvery scales. It generally contains. trated acetic acid at a gentle heat and evaporate to dry ness. dissolved in 8 parts hot water conThe salt. when sepataining a little free acid. allowed to cool. is washed with a little cold water.. Or. and kept from the light in covered bottles. Silver Acetate. crystallized.ACETATES AND THEIR PREPARATION. or by mingling hot solutions of mercurous nitrate and acetate of sodium or of The pure mercurous carbonate is heated to boiling potassium. It dissolves with difficulty in cold water. requiring 33 parts at the ordinary temperature. with 8 parts of water. fusi- ble without decomposition. and by the third. but the point of decomposition of the latter is near that of fusion. four-sided plates. or by spontaneous evaporation. anhydrous. It dissolves in and partly decomposed. easily decomposed by light. parts of sodium or potassium.2 it F. . of a nauseous metallic taste. acidulated nitrate is diluted with 6 to 8 and mixed with one equivalent of acetate heated of water. except when carefully some mercurous oxide. curous oxide or its 347 carbonate in acetic acid. both oxides and metallic mercury. With free fers the latter change and contains a basic salt. Dissolve red oxide of mercury in concenMercuric Acetate. acetic acid it is in 1 at 4 parts of water at 50 212. partly pearly and translucent. but by boiling F. Even in the air its solution sufred oxide being separated. or partially to crystallization. tially It is parsalts of decomposed by boiling water into acid and basic It is used in pharmacy. and concentrated acetic acid added until the hot. with a nauseous metallic taste. salt.. One hundred this solution parts of alco- hol dissolve 5f of this and behaves like the aqueous one. rated. which are partly transparent. It crystallizes in fine. is not decomposed. and cooled. filtered liquid free from oxide being all is dissolved . white. flexible and unc- tuous to the touch.

acetone and similar combinations. acetylene and hydrogen appear. but readily in hot. It sodium dissolves in about forms a white crystalline precipitate.348 of ft MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. carbonic acid and anhy- drous acetic acid are formed (Broughton).. Wood spirit for denaturing purposes is produced from the . e. The crude wood-spirit of commerce contains besides the above-mentioned constituents. according to their method of production. of It is clear as water to dark brown and can be methyl alcohol. acetic acid. metallic silver behind. a mixture that besides methyl } alcohol contains other combinations such as aldehyde. from 9 to 10 per cent. some metallic silver and coal remain behind. wood are subjected to repeated distillation and rectification over milk of lime to fix the acetic acid spirit. lively decomposition takes place. acquires a dark color. it yields acetic acid. i. On treating the dry salt with iodine. water. wood spirit is produced. mixed in every proportion with water without becoming turbid. silver sulphide. amines. tions collected during the distillation of the wood vinegar contain. methylacetic ether. AND OF ACETONE. being partially reduced. acetate. higher alcohols. and only sparingly in On exposure to light it On heating. 75 per cent. whereby silver iodide. With iodine a solution of this salt yields acetic acid. CHAPTER XXVI. alcohol. 100 parts of cold. The crude wood-spirit soluPreparation of Wood Spirit. etc. They In this manner present and to saponify the methyl acetate. silver iodide and iodate of silver (Birnbaum). PREPARATION OF PURE WOOD SPIRIT OR METHYL ALCOHOL. remaining If the salt be heated with disulphide of carbon in a closed glass tube to 329 F. AND WORKING THE WOOD TAR. while methyl oxide.

among which methyl alcohol.01 to 0. The into condensed in b runs back through a narrower pipe In the rectifying vessel or rather dephlegmator.. The vapors pass out through the wide pipe in the cover. and while the higher alcohols and the acetone have been removed. methyl acetate. and of the formation of calcium acetate and methyl alcohol from the methyl acetic ether. . consisting of a series of Pistorius's basins into the uppermost of which a moderate current of water is conducted d is the condenser. still fluid soon becomes strongly heated in consequence of the free acids combining with the lime. what less volatile From this it is evident that the the basin cooled by water. aldehyde. the rising vapors are forced to pass around a copper disk placed in each basin. methyl alcohol. spirit contains 98 to 99.5 per cent. a represents the copper b an ellipsoidal or egg-shaped vessel which serves as a receiver. and still . 87. bodies are condensed in the basins and run back and from there into a. 349 by further rectification. After having rested for several hours the fluid to distillation. The rectification of the crude wood-spirit solutions collected during the distillation of the wood vinegar is effected in a into the The crude wood-spirit solution is brought and. small quantities of ammonia being also evolved. contains only very small quantities of acetone It does not discolor bromide solution and when mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid acquires an only slightly yellower color. are still present.PREPARATION OF PURE WOOD crude wood spirit SPIRIT.5 per cent. a has a capacity of 1000 to 1200 quarts the steam pipe placed in it is 2 inches in diameter and 32 feet long. and c the rectifying apparatus. preponderates so that they are almost entirely pure. is subjected still. wood-spirit constituents. Such pure Pure wood wood spirit 0. etc. after adding slaked lime. however. In Fig. into b while the more volatile vapors . After the addition of the lime the columnar still. the fluid is allowed to rest for several hours. and thus to come in contact with the surface of is a. It contains 95 per cent.

methyl amine. this rectified wood-spirit is diluted it shows a specific gravity of 0. a product of 0. aldehyde.934. being rendered turbid by water which of the previously mentioned hydrocarbons. many It is. purposes. acetate. The clear fluid is now again rectified with an addition of 2 to . depends on the quantity (and temperature) of the water running into the rectifying vessel. and is then allowed to rest a few days. methyl- production of aniline For further with water until purification. for use in the ammonia.350 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. each 1. and is not lit colors. pass through the swan-neck and are condensed in d. Much. FIG.816 specific gravity is obtained by one operation from crude wood spirit of 0. for instance however. not entirely pure. This product can be used for in the preparation of varnishes. With a rectifying vessel consisting of seven basins. and with a correctly conducted inflow of water.64 feet in diameter. 87.965 specific gravity. is it due to a content further contains some acetone. of course. when the greater portion of the hydrocarbons lias separated as an oily layer on the top.

" The third fraction treated in the same manner but The fourth fracplace of soda lye. and containing 7 to 10 per 3. For the preparation of wood spirit suitable for denaturing purposes. Allyl alcohol-like after runnings below 90 percent. 351 3 per cent. sulphuric acid is added. of lime whereby a distillate is obtained which does not become turbid with water. to saponify resinify the aldehyde. givcent. not giving bright mixtures with water. whereby the following fractions are obtained 1. water in the proportion of 1:2 is also added and then 1 to 3 per cent. but in time turns yellow. of soda least lye. is to fix the phenoland the esters like body. ing bright mixtures with water. the crude wood spirit is diluted with water to from 20. of it and has a specific gravity of 90 Tralles. The latter are is removed and the rectified. compounded with milk of lime liters of spirit stills for : every 1000 rectified from large columnar and carefully and slowly several days. again products which may also . If the liters of of these fractions be diluted with water distillate 100 water to 200 kilogrammes of and acidu- lated with fixing still lined inside with lead. intermediate running.1 per The object of the addition of soda lye cent. tion is so far diluted with water that the dissolved oils are separated. High per cent. For the further treatment of fraction 2.30 30 to 40 per liters to cent. acetone. After runnings contain- ing oil. cent. somewhat more sulphuric acid than required for the bases and again distilled from an iron or copper used which are miscible with water without becoming turbid and are so rich in acetone that the mixture finally contains at 30 per cent. with 60 to 80 per 2.. acetone are caught by themselves and designated is " pure in methyl. High per cent. after add- ing sulphuric acid. First runnings containing acetone. During rectification the fractions that possess less than 0.PREPARATION OF PURE WOOD SPIRIT. intermediate runnings. a product suitable for denaturing For this purpose all the fractions are purposes is obtained. first 5. 4. of acetone. residue.

calcium butyrate and propionate.. and hence the use of uniform and very high temperatures is indisat pensable for the production of acetone. 88.. The decomposition and a man-hole perature for for of the calcium acetate is as a rule effected in a cast-iron pan. is The residue in the retorts consists of calcium carbonate.. The decomposition of the calcium acetate to acetone and calcium carbonate proceeds according (CH 3 . Acetone a clear. The homologues mentioned are of course also decomposed in a manner similar to the calcium acetate. provision must be made for abundant cooling and it is best to use ice water for feeding the cooling apparatus. mobile. ethereal- smelling liquid. Fig. = CaCO 3 -f 2CH3 .. and again used for the preparation of calcium Since acetone boils at a very low temperature. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. yield the so-called acetone oils. and is . and may in round numbers be given as about 44 Ibs. of acetone.CH 3 This decomposition commences already in a slight degree 302 F. The theoretical yield from 200 Ibs. but higher ketones are then formed which in the purification of the crude acetone.797 at 59 F. of calcium acetate (gray acetate) amounts in round numbers to 66 Ibs. for instance.CO. cooler. Since the gray acetate contains besides calcium acetate other combinations. of acetone (dimethylketone). the yield may be materially less. from the acetate.352 partially serve as thus obtained. furnished with a powerful stirrer charging the calcium acetate. but takes place completely only at 752 F. boiling at 134 F. The calcium acetate used for the purpose must be pure and should be brought into the retorts in a perfectly dry and pulverized It is then slowly heated until no more fluid runs off state. wood spirit for denaturing purposes being is Preparation of Acetone. decomposition should not exceed 752 The temF. and of specific gravity It is prepared by heating calcium acetate in 0.COO) 2 Ca to the following equation: . retorts which are connected with a cooling apparatus.

The crude distillate is rectified. and from there are conducted to the condenser which terminates in the collecting vessel F. where they liquefy. This first distillate is diluted to one-half with J volume of water and again rectified. The last distillation is effected with the addition of potassium liters of distillate permanganate. and then all that boils between 122 and 136. The first two or three FIG.4 F. are caught by themselves. 89 shows the arrangement of a plant for the production of acetone. 353 by a pyrometer.PREPARATION OF PURE WOOD controlled SPIRIT. The pipes conducting the first a common enter vapors collecting pipe. whereby a product with 90 per cent. The vapors evolved pass first through a dust-separator and then through a pipe into a condenser. It contains several decomposing apparatuses for the production of crude acetone. Fig. acetone is obtained. the quantity of fluid in it being indicated by 23 .

besides. The pure acetone is caught by itself in the vessel G. above which is a broad the This pipe also serves for conducting vapors. of acetate of barium. mixed with air explosive. the back with the use of calcium acetate consists in that man) and clog the is contaminated with empyreumatic substances. is the purpose of cleaning the dust collector. notwithstanding its apparent simplicity. the latter being similar in arrangement to an FIG. and. strontium or is The use place of calcium acetate tarry substances pass over distillate is magnesium in more advantageous. The decomposing apparatuses . From the collecting vessel the crude acetone pumped into the rectifier M. and requires the use of perfectly separating columnar stills and experience. for the rea- The preparation son that the admixtures of the acetone have nearly the same The acetone vapors are inflammable and when boiling points. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The drawpipes. 89. wall from the condenser and rectifier side are separated by a the fireplaces are out- the working room. apparatus for rectifying alcohol. . The with a dust collector equipped T-pipe for decomposing apparatus is T. of pure acetone not very easy.354 the float H.

ually as fuel in the destructive distillation of wood. however. The wood tar is subjected being best effected in a horizontal still of the shape of a steam boiler and so bricked-in as to be slightly inclined towards one side. is SPIRIT. German patent 134. and event- contains without doubt concannot be produced on a large scale at a price to compete with that of the product obtained from crude The tar obtained from resinous woods contains petroleum. are obtained in the purification of crude acetone are decomposed to The two groups. Wood tar contains a large quantity of combinations of which. as previously mentioned. which comprises the and to yellow ace- oil boiling between 466' and 502 F. of calcium acetate in 24 hours. Meyer's system. tar. These oils are used in the celluloid industry and as additions to wood alcohol intended for denaturing purposes. acetone oils which. manufactured by spreading the gray acetate in layers 2 to 4 centimeters deep upon sheets or sieves. . the acetone has been distilled off and the last remnants blown out with steam. the truck is removed from the muffle and is replaced by another previously charged with calcium acetate. oil of turpentine and can be worked to greater advantage than that from hard wood. it While beech siderable paraffin. 355 H. this oils. only the mixture found in commerce under the name of creosote can be separated to advantage. Preparation of creosote and tar to distillation.978. tone Working the wood tar. for instance. By itself wood tar may be utilized as a preserva- tive coating for wood. They are heated by a direct fire. namely fractions boiling at to white acetone from 167 to 466 oil F. which rest upon trucks and are pushed into the distilling muffles. These muffles are capable of working up 4400 Ibs. as well as for obtaining soot..PREPARATION OF PURE WOOD According pure acetone to F. a uniform distribution of the heat and the same heating of the charge being secured at all points When by proper regulation of the fire. On the lowest part of the still is a larger aperture which can be closed by a cover and clamp.

with dry be shaped from the mass thus obtained. combined with the tar taken from the condensing and the mass thus obtained is subjected to distillation. and when cold. heavy. this residue. Next the light. of this arrangement is to facilitate The object the quick removal of the pitch-like or asphalt-like mass which remains behind in the still after the volatile products have been distilled off. separately caught by themselves from the heavy oils of upward of 1. and later on the wood-vinegar). manner in which destructive distillation has Hard woods give on an average a tar which Vincent : by distillation yields. By mixing hot sand. like asphalt blocks. The on quantities of the separate products of distillation depend the nature of the wood from which the tar has been ob- tained and on the been conducted. blocks may which may be used for paving. If the residue cannot be utilized in any other manner. At the commencement of distillation crude wood-spirit first passes over. and in neutralizing with lime or soda. Mixed with culm it yields a dough-like mass which may be utilized for the manufacture of briquettes. and which. allowed to become cold. are vessels. adheres so firmly to the still that it can be detached only with great diffi- All the tarry substances. the distillates are only separated in such a manner products up and worked to specific gravity 0.356 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. so that the distillates resulting at certain temperatures are distillate fractionated caught by themselves and the that only the light oleaginous but. which separate in distilling woodspirit from wood vinegar. a pitch-like residue remaining in the still. according to . it may be allowed to run upon iron plates. is broken up into small pieces and used as fuel together with coal.010 specific gravity. while still in a liquid state. The latter might be conducted .980 are further. if sides of the culty. as a rule. which is followed by quite a quantity of acetic acid (distilled oils pass over.

357 (wood spirit. and is again changed when the temperature rises above 482 F. being immediately taken for the purpose of accurately distillates. and the watery fluid is drawn off from the supernatant layer of hydrocarbons.021 .966 to 0. are caught in a sample. The hydrocarbons distilling over at below 302 and above 482 F. . the other some time boiled in an to still open pan expel any hydrocarbons present. been superseded by the cheaper coal-tar creosote (carbolic acid). but their preparation is not remunerative.). solution necessary for neutralization tillate. The determining the quantity of soda required for neutralizing the The quantity of concentrated soda total quantity of fluid. The 482 distillate which has passed over between 302 F. The oils remaining after neutralizing the light and heavy distillates are combined and subjected to careful rectification. The watery fluid is then allowed to run off and is brought into one of the vats in which crude wood-vinegar is caught. As a disinfecting agent it has. which is The watery fluid is for is used for medicinal purposes. .977 1. separately distillate. 0. which together form wood-creosote. . the whole thoroughly mixed. combined with. contains phenol. 1 quart of the fresh vats. heavy " " . which oil.014 to 1.. is then added to the dis- and the fluid allowed to repose until two sharply separated layers are formed. " 10 to 15 " 15 Pitch 50 to 62 " according to their specific gravities. and is then saturated with sulphuric acid and allowed to repose. The receiver is changed as soon as it is ascertained by the thermometer that the temperature has risen above 302 F. for instance. acetic acid) . sp. the upper one of which is of an oleaginous nature. however. The fluid of a penetrating odor separated thereby is creosote. might be used as solvents and for illuminating purposes. Oleaginous light " distillate. cresol and phlorol. 10 to 20 per cent. and F. gr. The oleaginous layer is worked further by distillation.PREPARATION OF PURE WOOD Watery distillate SPIRIT. The distillate is intimately mixed with the assistance of a stirring apparatus with highly concentrated soda lye (36 Be.

The small yield of creosote and its limited use make its profitable manufacture rather doubtful. obtain the creosote prepared according to this process To permanently colorless. or the solution is evaporated to dryness and ignited with the admittance of air to regain the soda. of to 1 per cent. The oleaginous layer collecting upon the surface consists of a mixture of the above-mentioned acids which are soluble with diffirectifying the mixture at the temperatures the boiling points of the various acids. is The solution formed after treatment with soda solution to the crude wood-vinegar. The heavy oils are worked up in the same manner.358 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. butyric. and the resulting fluid diluted with water. by itself. whereby the odoriferous ethers of the various acids are formed. potassium dichromate and allowed to repose for 24 hours and again distilled. and in consequence of this are of value. the corresponding latter are obtained in an almost pure state. slightly oversaturated with sulphuric acid. If the acids are to be prepared. as it contains but the sodium salts of the fatty preparation of these acids. In the northern parts of Sweden and Finland considerable quantities of birch-tar oil are prepared. culty in water. By to It is still more suitable to distil the mass previously evaporated to the consistency of syrup with alcohol and sulphuric acid. chinery. and do not gurn in the pose air. such as propionic. except where sulphuric acid and soda can be procured at cheap rates. which can then be separated by fractional distillation. Since the heavy tar oils are entirely free from acid. the solution is evaporated to the consistency of syrup. may be used as formerly much sought they lubricants for maafter for that pur- but at present they have been largely superseded by less petroleum products. but treated not added scarcely any sodium acetate. and were . This lye is used either for the valeric and caproic acids. of sulphuric acid. it is mixed with J to J per cent. and below are given . acids with higher boiling points.

212 to 284 F.046 2 3 . 212 . . 392to437F. 3 . 482 F. was a dark black mass. to 226 F. . of the 1 distillate..887 1. 4 and 5 darker and more viscous..020 2. . 284 to 392 F. Limits of boiling points. . . it is suddenly decomposed. 1 formed a red-yellow.. . - ...114 1. 359 the results of a series of experiments regarding the products which were obtained in the distillation of a sample of Finland birch-tar No.039 . 1. 2 was of a darker color and agreeable odor of birch tar.: No. Limits of boiling points. Nos.-. . 437 to 4 5 ':. By heating the residue in the still to above 644 F. i. By distilling the tar oil with caustic soda quite a series of oleaginous distillates are obtained. -'. . and becoming hard only at a lower temF. very viscous mass.. 4. ... F. . ... 1. heavy vapors being evolved and a lustrous. ' . 1. 356 to 437 to ..171 ... The residue remaining in the still at above ... 1 to 3 were pale.. of a less agreeable odor. . F. 3 represented a dark brown. very mobile oil of a not disNo. soft and flexible at the ordinary temperature.-. while No. red-yellow oils Nos. .:'.. . . distillate.PREPARATION OF PURE WOOD * SPIRIT. 482 to 734 F. of the 1 oil.058 1.. Specific gravity. Specific gravity. ' . . 0. 588 644 No. very porous coal remaining behind. 734 perature.

in order to make the product from such fruits resemble the standard wine made from grapes. and fruits. there are to and. and an astringent. are capable . etc. "water employed in the manufacture should be pure and Ripening of In order to form a clear idea of the which takes process place during the growth. cherries. an acid. But. elderberries. According to this definition. replace the extractive matter. final decomposition of a fruit. in THE consequence of their content of sugar. and elderberry or whortleberry juice for instance. raspberries. ripening. coloring. to Tartaric acid is. FRUIT-WINES. dates. strawberries. currants. CIDERS. spices. term wine in general is applied to alcoholic fluids which are formed by the fermentation of fruit juices. INTRODUCTION. used as an acid addition. as a rule. it is necessary to refer to the fruit at its first constituents which are found in an unripe appearance. gooseberries. The soft. ETC. as. mulberries. and serve as beverages. Among these may be named. oranges. pine-apples. as coloring matter. of vinous fermentation pear. CHAPTER XXVII. (360) . various ingredients have to be added. there may be as actually many kinds of wine as there are fruits whose juices. in fact.PART MANUFACTURE OF II. besides the apple and fruits which are likewise applicable other many wine-making.

the characteristic constituent of unripe fruits. and is converted into pectine. It is insoluble in water. and then depends on the inThis fluence of the vegetable acid present upon the pectose. in long threads. uble constituents. The juice thus obtained contains scarcely a trace of pectine. tannin. gum. combining with The formation of pectine commences as soon as the fruits are exposed to the action of heat. spirits of wine. In regard to starch. by boiling fluid. the quantity of which varies between 90 and 45 per cent. which is readily soluble in water. It is behavior. the consequence of the formation of pectine. but its also in certain roots. to which It forms the initial point the term pectose has been applied. Brought into and without it is contact with alkalies or alkaline earths. and others. and ether. while the remaining insoluble portion consists chiefly of cellulose. acquires a viscous quality. soluble in water. etc. and from more concentrated solution. acids. Pectine. a gum-like body. like the juice obtained from ripe fruits. salts. but.. requires a somewhat closer ex- amination. beets. can be shown by expressing the pulp of an unripe apple. dilute solution its effect upon vegetable colors. in it for a few minutes with the pulp of the fruit. induced by the acids and heat.. especially in carrots. such as sugar. which will be described later on. Under the influence of a peculiar ferment called pectase. but during the ripening of the fruit it undergoes a change. pectose approaches cellulose and chiefly found in the pulp of unripe fruits. fruits To pectose are due the hardness of unripe and also the property of many fruits and roots of boil- ing hard in water containing lime. non-crystallizable. for the phenomena observed during the growth and ripening of fruits. the pectose the lime. nearly pure.INTRODUCTION. - 361 Besides water. and further. From its by alcohol separated as a jelly. a few inorganic substances. and. fruits contain partly soluble and partly insoluble The juice obtained by pressure contains the solsubstances. starch. therefore. is white. pectine is . pectine is transformed into pectic acid.

it occurs in a soluble as well as in- Roots such as carrots. becomes covered with mold-formations. brought into contact with bases it is also transformed into It differs from pectine and parapectine in that pectic acid. which was at first soluble in water. insoluble in water. insoluble in alcohol. except that it is not precipitated by neutral lead acetate. Metapectine soluble in water. Pectase is an amorphous substance.362 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. It is not accompanied by an evolution of gas. By in contact with water tor a few days. boiling a solution of pectine in water for a few hours. like pectine and parapectine. When treated with dilute acids the parapectine is transformed into metapectine. and. and loses its action as a ferment. which precipiOn being tates it from its solutions in the form of a jelly. and by dilute acids into metapectic acid. the solution obtained by precipitating the juice of young carrots with alcohol.. is precipitated by barium chloride. which shows the same behavior as pectine. allowing it to stand decomposes. as shows a decidedly acid reaction and colors litmus paper is strongly red. which may be compared with lactic acid fermentation. it partially loses its viscous condition and separates a substance By called parapectine. whereby the pectose. etc. the Pectase. a its temperature of 86 F. without. This phenomenon is the pectous fermentation. non-crystallizable. peculiar ferment previously referred to. becomes insoluble. being most favorable for progress. beets. is simIt can be ilar in its mode of action to diastase and emulsion. and may take place with the air excluded. it In the vegetable organism soluble state. it which might be called metapectous acid. this action being also destroyed by continued boiling. contain soluble pectase . its effect upon the is By adding pectase to a solution of pectine. however. transformed into pectosic acid. losing pectous substances. the latter im- mediately converted into a jelly-like body.

yield pectosic acid. On boiling in hot water. Alkalies decompose apectic acid. boiling it. it which is very rapidly. Pectosic acid . after cooling. By insoluble in cold. soluble in water. but non-crystallizable.INTRODUCTION. by pectase. it disappears entirely. transformed into pectic acid by long boiling in water. lime and strontium water. however. and is constantly replacing the water lost by evaporation. the final result being metsoluble in water. as previously mentioned. and with difficulty dissolves in water. soda. which. by an excess is of alcohol. the latter being present in them in a modified insoluble form and accompanying the insoluble portion of the pulp. in consequence of the formation of It is therefore due to the presence pectosic and pectic acids. Its formation in the above-described manner is pre- ceded by that of pectosic acid. is the result of the first effect of the pectase upon pectine it being. of these acids that many ripe fruits are so easily converted into jellies. is converted by the same agents into pectic acid. and is converted into a new acid. however. for a certain time in water. adding the pulp of unripe apples to a pectine solution it On gel- atinizes in a short time. a Pectic acid further possesses the special property of dissolving in a large number of alkaline salts and forming with them . while the juice of apples and other acid fruits produces no effect upon pectine. the solution forms. tic pectase to act for some time upon pectine. pecthe same conversion taking place almost instantaneously by dilute solution of potash. and scarcely soluble in hot. ammonia or alkaline carbonates in contact with pectine. In gelatinous. ter is The lattreated with acids. 363 and their juice added to a fluid containing pectine in solution immediately induces pectous fermentation. In all these cases salts are formed which. alkaline carbonates. as well as by barium. soda. when the presence of acids or It is quickly it is entirely insoluble. also formed by bringing dilute solutions of potash. ammonia. By allowing acid formed . Pectic acid water.

is transformed into parapectine by boiling its solution for several hours. crystallize. and hence all have the same qualitative and quantiits This may. with . and compositions. With an excess of bases the salts acquire a yellow Metapectic acid coloration. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. It is noncrystallizable. is formed in various ways. An aqueous solution of parapectic acid rapidly con- verted into metapectic acid. By long-continued action of pectase upon pectine. aqueous 3. 4. yields parapectic acid. 6. the latter is transformed into a parapectous salt which. and tative constituents (carbon. perhaps. All these bodies are derived from pectose. Pectic acid is by boiling water transformed into parais pectic acid. which through all these transformations has not even suffered a change in the proportion of weight of oxygen). It is precipitated by barium water in excess. boiling for a few hours a solution of a pectous salt. shows a strong acid reaction. and on cooling form consistent jellies. but numerous chemistry presents analogies for such cases. It is insoluble in does not and salts with all soluble water. is converted into metapectine. 7. which always show a decidedly acid reaction. They are : precipitated by basic lead acetate. pectic acid is formed. gives bases.364 true double salts. but also by the action of the lime contained in the cell-tissues of roots and fruits upon pectose. Parapectine. when treated at a boiling heat with dilute acids. dissolve in water. has been said in the preceding the influence of heat may be briefly conis densed as follows By upon pectose pectine formed. hence the term isomeric has been applied to bodies which. 2. and forms with alkalies soluble salts. Pectine Pectase converts pectine into pectic acid. 5. sound odd. hydrogen. What 1. among others an solution of aqueous by leaving parapectic acid to itself for some time. when de- By composed by a dilute acid.

The quantity of water contained in the pulp of a fruit it varying between 45 and 90 per cent. same season of same fruit. In is considerable : . the 365 different same quantitative composition. 2. rotting. as a rule. acid and alkalies. have of course been artificially effected The changes by chemical means. The solid constituents in the between 10 and 25 per cent. and alkalies and bases are conducted to them from the soil and hence in fruit in a normal state of development none of the chemical agents are wanting which . by the action a peculiar ferment. They resemble. exhibit very chemical properties. and even to its decomposition. and the influences and conditions growth which fruits are exposed in nature are sufficiently similar to those artificially induced.INTRODUCTION. researches are briefly as follows 1. but. the development of a fruit from to dependent on chemical its first formation complete ripeness. somewhat Fruits of the same kind examined at the the year always contain the same quantity of water the holding good as regards the various parts of the pulp of a . motes the development and ripening of Fruits contain pectose and acids. that their action may be reasonably supposed to be the same. greater in the commencement. not only from what has been said in the preceding. If the transformation of substances under the influence of other substances be considered as processes. howto ever. is a chemical process in the widest sense of the word. They pulp of fruits amount to consist of soluble substances . the chemist uses for the production of derivatives of pectose. This is evident. 3. and putrefaction. and the resulting combinations mentioned above. so closely the state of fruits in the course of their and ripening. We know from daily experience that heat profruit. pectose undergoes by the influence of heat. many fruits the content of water remains unchanged during it is the different periods of ripening. but has also been plainly shown by special chemical researches into the changes fruits undergo during The results of these their development and perfection.

is actually a disease. Under the influence of nitrogenous substances. this gum-like substance is is modified and transformed into actual gum. fruits. such as plums. which act as a ferment. forming a firm coating upon the exterior of the 6. The bodies which become soluble are starch. and a gum-like substance capable of being converted into gum. all ripe fruits contain pectine. pectose. The quantity of soluble substances always increases with increasing ripeness. which dissolved in the water from the juice of the fruits and of insoluble bodies which compose the membranes of the cells. . On this modification of the solid portion of the pulp of a fruit depend also the changes a fruit undergoes in regard to hardness and transparency during ripening. and its com- plete disappearance at the time of ripeness. other indifferent substances. In fruits becoming thus covered with a gum. starch in The sugar occurring in ripe fruits is evidently derived The occurrence of a large quantity of many unripe fruits. when it occurs very abundantly.. and which. throws some light upon the separation of gum as it appears in many trees.366 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. 4. which then converted into sugar in the interior of the pulp of the fruit an excess of this gum-like substance being secreted and . leaves a gum-like This phenomenon substance upon the exterior of the fruit. in consequence of the evaporation of the water. in the juice of a fruit are formed at the expense of the insoluble portion of the pulp. cherries. Various acid pectose. etc. such as gum. while the weight of the insoluble decreases and hence it may be said that the soluble substances contained . are fre- quently observed to secrete a neutral juice which. from various sources. According to the mode of action of the pectase and acids upon the 5. a transparent. allow of no other explanation than that the sugar occurring in fruits is formed by the conversion of the starch under the influence of the acids present . especially in apples. neutral substance insoluble in water occurs stored in the cells of the pulp. fruit. and perhaps also of acids. vegetable .

which may be designated fruit remains green. 367 mucus. in the second period. whilst the stage. tions the reverse is. when it fairly begins to ripen. for it absorbs carbonic acid and evolves oxygen. or taken from the But . at this stage. replaced by a yellow. its relation to the atmosphere appears the same as that of leaves. malic acids. which occurs in all unripe. If. and the water. fruits. are converted into To entertain such an opinion it would have to be supposed that the molecules of these acids. nothing justifies the supposition that the acids in such as tartaric. that it dis- An of ripeness by suffering actual combusexamination of these various theories leads to the is moment conclusion that the acid neither neutralized nor covered by it the sugar or the mucous substances. is neutralized by the bases conducted to it through the juice appears at the tion. which are far more simple than those of fruit-sugar. Even tannin. as that of growth. as a rule. has been attempted to explain in various ways the very remarkable phenomenon of the gradual disappearance of the 7. in this etc. actually under- During the stages of development and ripening. During this epoch it increases rapidly in size. and are converted into sugar. undergoing similar transformations and yielding certain portion of sugar. It It might not be impossible that the acid in ripening fruits. it soon commences to wither and decay. and receives through the stem the inorganic substances. . become more complex fruit sugar. the molecules always endeavoring to become the more simple the farther they withdraw from organized structures. a fruit passes through two different stages sharply separated from In the first each other by definite chemical phenomena. indispensable for its development.. generally the case. but that goes slow combustion. or that it is covered by the sugar or the . its green color is. mucous substances formed in the juice or. but not in ripe. acid of a fruit. Thus fruits. In such natural transformahowever. it is tree.INTRODUCTION. finally. brown-red. citric. can be changed by manner a acids and ferments far so as to form sugar.

00 4. German prunes Gooseberries 6.80 c. yield a product which has at least only a very doubtful claim to the name of " wine..37 . on account of the nature of their juices.. The following table from Fresenius gives the average percentage of sugar in in different varieties of fruit : I. and hence here only such fruits will be considered as. and if the fruit be kept longer. 10 p. Oxygen is now absorbed from the air and carbonic acid evolved.' 1. .73 ..15 7.79 14. For making fruit-wine. not only the fruits culti- vated in our gardens and orchards on account of their fine flavor are used. 1.25 7.45 " Plums Keine Claudes 2. ...12 Pears Greengages Raspberries Blackberries Strawberries . will yield with rational treatment a beverage of a sufficiently agreeable taste to be liked. 8.5. but sometimes also others which do not by any means possess an agreeable taste. is undoubtedly the most important constituent of the fruit.77 9. the preparation of fruit-wines. whilst the starch and cellulose are converted into sugar under the influence of the vegetable acids.." The utilization of such material for wine-making can only be explained by special fancy. the oxidation takes the form of ordinary decay. When the sugar has reached the maximum the ripening is completed.58 4. is MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and the fruit becomes sweet.. Currants 6.44 Apples Sour cherries Mulberries 8. .368 red.78 Grapes " . Sweet cherries 10..12 " " " " " '* 3. FRUITS AND THEIR COMPOSITION. 3.. c.5. CHAPTER FOR XXVIII. Peaches Apricots.57 p. sugar not only by itself but also its proportion to the free acid present.. and whose juices.93 Whortleberries.19 . after fer- mentation.

.48 1.00 3.62 Blackberries Sour cherries 1. soluble and insoluble substances. c.31 Whortleberries Strawberries .10 Greengages Sour cherries .09 German prunes Keine Claudes Apricots " " " " Gooseberries 1. 3.30 1.37 " Grapes Apples 0. 1 1 1 11. 11.35 .14 6. . 369 free Table according to average percentage of expressed in malic acid II.96 0. gum.40 IV. .58 u 0. . .07 Easpberries .60 44. Mulberries . .67 " " " Plums Whortleberries Strawberries 1.34 2. 1.07 p.74 0.34 1. 0... etc.28 " 0.41 . . . .86 . .85 7.19 p. .20 6. 1 1.75 0.04 III..18 94.08 0.. 1 1 1 German prunes Sweet cherries .37 4.83 1...45 Kaspberries Mulberries Currants. 1 1 4. pectine.. .43 Keine Claudes Blackberries . Acid.73 4..91 1.92 1. 0.. " " " " " " 2. . : acid Pears Greengages Sweet cherries Peaches 0...03 Grapes Pears .16 5.03 1. . . Peaches Currants. . .43 4. Table according to the proportion between acid. 1 1 20. 9. 24 . .93 0.65 2. Plums Apricots 1 1. 1..94 6.. 3. Sugar.60 2.63 gum. Table according to the proportion between water.70 1 1 1 11.21 3.89 0.76 Gooseberries . c.35 etc.FRUITS AND THEIR COMPOSITION. sugar. Pectine.94 0.. 1 1 4.

Composition of the juice according to the content of sugar. V. pectine. in 100 parts : . etc.370 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.

it occurring in most kinds throughout of sweet fruits. Tartar for its of cold in solution 240 water alcoholic requires parts . of cold water it requires. and VI. about in every proportion It crystallizes from aqueous solution for solution. however. Acids. are chiefly of interest. which pass into the must. and Grape-sugar is much less sweet than cane-sugar. and it will be necessary to consider them somewhat more closely. represent the proportion in which the soluble constituents of the fruit are found in the juice or must obtained from them. the vegetable kingdom. On a large It is also formed by dissolving cane-sugar in wine. deposit from the wines them cannot deand. in apples. etc. to tartaric acid. and from which the wine is formed. 1J. Artificially it can be readily obtained by heating a solution of cane-sugar with a dilute acid. found as a crystalline in Fruit-musts contain no tartaric acid.parts with one molecule of water. in cauliflower-like masses and from . anhydrous needles.FRUITS AND THEIR COMPOSITION. it is sparingly soluble in hot water it dissolves . consequently. 371 Tables V. but one of anhydrous grape-sugar to the left. tallized grape sugar turns the plane of polarization to the right. and hence it is . In alcohol of 90 per Tr. malic acid and partly to grapes in currants acid. only the soluble substances. paration of fruit wines tables. This sugar is widely diffused Grape-sugar or Glucose. wine casks. malic The presence of potassium in grape-must gives rise to the formation of potassium bitartrate of crude tartar. citric and partly due to also as in the case of is As a rule all these acids are present . prepared fluids it is less soluble. -in honey.. starch with it dilute is scale very sulphuric prepared by boiling acid for several hours. A solution of cryshot alcohol in warty. neutralizing the liquid with chalk evaporating the solution. The acid reaction of fruit juices citric acid. etc. In the practical execution of the prewe will have occasion to refer to these For the preparation of wine. acid predominates.

They . Under the heading " Ripening of fruits. and the little which possibly may pass through the filter is by no means clear. contact with the smallest quantity of gumarabic remains permanently turbid and cannot be clarified by Wine brought in long standing. plum. filtering or . but merely swells up to a gelatinous mass. Gum-arabic." the pectous substances have been sufficiently discussed. Closely related to gum-arabic is bassorine. Albuminous substances. though it may occur dissolved in the must. is an exudation from certain species It is generally of acacia and consists essentially of arabin.372 posit tartar. The salts formed by malic and citric acids with potassium being readily soluble and even deliquescent form no deposit in the wine. fibrin. Pectous substances. the gum which exudes from the cherry. so great. and the from each other them tinguishing on the one hand. almond. . From this behavior of gum it may be concluded that. are scarcely ever wanting in a fruit juice. endeavoring to filter a supposed somewhat concentrated solution not a drop will be found to run off. at the same time. but being insoluble in alcoholic fluids they are entirely separated with the yeast. and glue. and hence are not present in fruit-wines. quantities of these substances in the different musts are. is. By this general term are designated several nitrogenous vegetable substances which have the same composition The they being vegetable albumen. It does not give a slime with water. that it is difficulty of accurately dis- For the preparation of wine these bodies are of importance they furnishing the material for the development of the yeastfungus during fermentation. and apricot trees. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Gum and Vegetable Mucilage. in but on be soluble to water. to scarcely possible definitely determine the kind Most likely all are present actually present in the fruit juice. which may be studied as a '' representative of this class. it is not present in the wine. so small. Our knowledge as regards gum is still limited. on the other.

quantity in nut-galls. cannot be . Attention may here be called to an easy method of distinguishing be- tween solution of gum-arabic and of dextrin. Several kinds of tannin occur in plants. and whether they occur in wine.: however. however. 373 various kinds of vegetable mucilage have also not yet been accurately examined it only being known that there are It is. only the gallic acid obtained from pathological tannin yields pyrogallic acid by Physiological tannin It destructive distillation. over an open fire without scorching. while the latter can be completely boiled down without fear of burning. Besides. Tannin. logical pathoThe first occurs in large physiological tannin. Hence. viz.FRUITS AND THEIR COMPOSITION. The first cannot be heated. such as linseed and quince-seed. however. but it is not suitable for the conversion of the animal skin into technically serviceable leather which acid will withstand putrefaction. likely that only a quite a number of them. even for a minute. and per- haps more so. Though the muci- lage of certain seeds. which can. also in sumach (the twigs of Rhus coriaria) and in many other plants. because it is it threads. yet on filtering a perfectly clear fluid drawing will be found that what passes through contains scarcely a trace of mucilaginous substance. chiefly found in materials used for split by dilute acids or fermentation. an exception. acid. but pyrocatechin or oxyphenic It converts the animal skin into perfect leather. is tanning. as it forms with water a perfectly clear fluid. The . it completely precipitates glue from its solutions. may be considered to be as soluble in water as gum-arabic. which can be filtered. it is doubtful whether mucilages exist which are actually soluble in water. few of them are actually soluble in water. Furthermore. Artificial dextrin is. especially in the Chinese variety. does not yield gallic acid. be finally reduced to two modifications. and the product of destructive distillation is not pyrogallic acid. and Pathological tannin is characterized by splitting under the influence of dilute acids as well as by fermentation into gallic and grape-sugar.

and that from time to time require a certain consequently amount of manure in order to return to the soil what has been taken from it. as it is readily decomposed. reason why wine containing tannin is considered more durable. There can be but little doubt that physiological tannin is the variety found in fruits and fruit-juices. products of fermentation vary according to the nature of the . Unfortunately sufficient quantity occur there are no accurate statements regarding the amount of these substances which is withdrawn from the soil by the crop of one no doubt that it is very large.desirable of tannin a content ing. but there can be fruit trees always caused by the presence of a ferment or a substance in a Although to induce fermenpeculiar state of decomposition. Under such circumstances a small addition of tannin to the wine may be of advantage. tation the presence of a ferment is necessary. Fermentation is a chemical process which is year. lime. and sulphuric and phosphoric acids. namely. potash. this cannot be said of potash and phosphoric acid. Moreover. it does not take The part in the decomposition of the fermenting substance. Though lime and sulphuric acid in almost everywhere in the soil. they being uncommonly rich in tannin. when wine an excess of albumin" effect the contains vantageous ous substances which the tannin removes by entering This may be the into insoluble combinations with them. because if it contained albuminous substances in large quantity it would be still more readily subjected to changes. they varying only in the proportions towards one another and in the total quantity of all the substances. though instead of tannin it is advisable to use an alcoholic extract of grape-stones.374 MANUFACTURE OF VI^GAR. Inorganic constituents. The inorganic constituents of the different varieties of fruit are very likely the same. magnesia. Fermentation. Generally speakin wine is not exactly a. It can only have an adfeature. being of interest only in regard to the exhaustion of the soil. their is too small to exert an influence quantity upon the quality of the wine to be produced.

no conclusion can be arrived at from the content of sugar in the must as to the quantity of It is. By form of cellulose by the yeast and the simultaneous formation of these different secondary products about 5. alcohol corresponding to theory in the finished wine. In contact with air and water yeast soon undergoes putrefaction. portion of the sugar. another glucose. Vinous fermentation proceeds most rapidly at 77 to 86 F.5 per cent. about 2. and it is nearly always accompanied by the development of certain living bodies (bacteria or fungi).6 to 0. as well as according to the nature of the ferment itself. and die as soon as they have reached their highest state of development. as a rule. It consists of one of the members and under of the vegetable kingdom (Torula cerewsise)^ the microscope is seen to be made up of little oval transparent globules. into transformed glycerin and 0. supposed that the sugar yields one-half its weight . the cause being that this sugar must first be converted into inverted sugar before fermentation can commence. having a diameter of not more than 0. while if the liquid has a faint acid reaction. chief products of vinous fermentation are alcohol and carbon dioxide a small quantity of the sugar being at the The ..1 millimeter and often adhering in clusters and strings. same time converted into other products. about one per cent.5 per cent. yeast which is formed in the fermentation of the juice of grape and other kinds of fruit is produced from soluble albu- The minous bodies contained in lowest fruit. .7 per cent. 375 fermenting body. and does not take or above 95 F. The presence of a large place below 32 quantity of acids or alkalies prevents fermentation. vinous fermentation speedily sets in whilst a solution of cane-sugar undergoes fermentation but slowly. of sugar is lost As they are not always formed in the formation of alcohol. They are propagated by budding.FRUITS AND THEIR COMPOSITION. in equally large quantities. Each peculiar kind of fermentation requires a certain temperature. into being A further succinic acid..When yeast is added to a dilute solution of dextrose or .5 to 6. is assimilated in the separated. fermentation proceeds best.

and 0. the weaker the development of yeast and the less nourishment offered to the latter. i. It absorbs moisture is miscible with water in all proporthe mixture tions. Its taste is not very sour. the quantity of glycerin in wine is in a definite proportion to the succinic acid formed. and adheres for some time to the less of it is more succinic tongue hence its presence can scarcely be expected to give an agreeable taste to the wine. and when it is cooled down to 148 F. MANUFACTURE OP VINEGAR. non-luminous flame. the formed during fermentation. Pure glycerin is a colorless. more glycerin would be produced with slow fermentation and in an acid fluid. is a very mobile fluid. its influence upon the quality of the wine. alcohol entirely free from water. but does not solidify.. Glycerin being found in grape-wines. hence. burns with a blue. It boils at 173 F. No accurate researches made which more or cording to Pasteur. In red wines Pasteur found 4 to 7 per cent. and consequently also in wine. there can scarcely be any doubt of its formation under the same conditions in .376 of alcohol. and. Sucdnic add.79367. According to Pasteur.27. clear as water and almost odorless. very viscid liquid having a specific gravity of 1. 0. and fluid have as yet been in regard to the quantity of this acid in wine. fruit wines. but disagreeable. Glycerin. of glycerin. Acacid is formed the slower fermentation progresses. is sufficiently correct for all practical pur- Absolute alcohol. it becomes Its specific gravity at 32 F. It can be mixed with water and alcohol in all proportions and possesses a very sweet taste.. Succinic acid is quite readily soluble in a mixture of alcohol and water. and the conditions under have already been previously given. is viscid. It is . evolving heat and undergoing contraction. It is very inflammable.80625. e. which poses. In acid fluid more succinic acid is formed than in neutral. in which it is formed from the sugar by fermentation. The methods for determining the content of alcohol in a with great avidity. at and 59 F.

The tem- perature of cellars generally increases. the car- bonic acid developed in a number of them should be conducted by means of tubes secured air-tight in the bungs to a zinc pipe which passes through a suitable aperture into the open Alkaloid in wine. the mixture shows a taste different from that of alcohol alone. the fine aroma and taste.FRUITS AND THEIR COMPOSITION. which causes anew a slight development of car- bonic acid in consequence of which the wine again becomes The presence of carbonic acid is of advantage only in turbid. If fermentation is carried on in barrels. as its protects it from the direct action of the air by forming a layer upon the surface. has frequently been asserted that an alkaloid exists in young wine. To injurious consequences. In old wines it conceals. but a certain portion remains dissolved in the wine as long as the temperature of the latter is not raised. same proportion. formed by fermentation escapes as a gaseous body during the process. the predominant taste of the latter being decreased by the glycerin and that of the mixture becoming milder. provision should be made for a thorough ventilation of the cellar by means of windows and doors. it deserves attention on account of avoid all its deleterious influence upon the workmen. however. It air. Though it cannot be said that carbonic acid plays an essential part in the preparation of wine. 377 is many ripe wines due solution of 7 parts of glycerin in 1000 of water (the proportion in which Pasteur found glycerin in wine) does not possess a sweet taste and differs from water only in being more insipid. A By adding to such a solution 100 parts of alcohol. towards the end of spring. The greater portion of the carbonic acid Carbonic acid. which not being contained in the must or the yeast must have been formed from the nitrogenous constituents of the yeast or of the fluid during fermen- . very likely that the mild sweet taste of to a certain content of glycerin. however. making them appear younger than they actually are. Hence a certain importance has to be asdiluted in the cribed to the glycerin. young wine.

378 tation. and finer in their surfaces. Mr. pair close together This consisted of a pair of coarsely corto a rugated iron cylinders from which the apples second through finely 1852. THE first step in the preparation of fruit-wines is to obtain the juice or must from the fruit. this manner of reduction is not only difficult. The apples were first broken by the action of a coarsely-fluted roller which revolved against a table under the hopper. MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. Stamping or grinding and of the subsequent expressing paste thus formed by means of strong pressure suffice in most cases for berries and other small fruits. and after passing between the cylinders. The earliest appliance known was simply a trough in which the apples were reduced to an imperfect pomace by rolling them with a heavy cylindrical stone or by pounding them as in a mortar. one at a higher velocity than the other. and passed mashed to the pomace vessel underneath. CHAPTER XXIX. W. It has not it been found in old wine. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and it is therefore concluded that be confirmed. of Harrisburg. it in time decomposes. but also connected with considerable loss caused by larger and smaller pieces jumping from the trough. In This machine was capable of grinding 100 bushels of apples Numerous modifications have been made in the per day.. Hickock. invented a portable cider-mill which consisted of a pair of small horizontal cylinders armed with small spirally arranged teeth or spikes revolving close together. . etc. Should this observation would explain the difference in the effects of the very intoxicating young wines and of old wines. the apples were not only bruised but also grated into the required pomace. Pa.. An improvement was the production fell of the English cider-mill. With apples. 0.

91. excellent points in Figs. 91) representing A hopper. Hickock's mill. some being simply spiked cylinders against which the apples were carried and held till grated by reciprocating plungers. has grooves planed in to receive the knives. A. shown in the illustration is a heavy machine weighing 340 Ibs. six in number. Larger and stronger mills are used when the quantity of apples seems to require them. 92 shows Davis's star apple-grinder. which are finely made and Each knife furnished is made of steel-plated iron. The cylinder is 12 inches in diameter and 12 inches long. apples. Two men operate by means of cranks. B C (Fig. and in that case horse-power is applied.MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. receives the the crushing-mill shown the cylinders FIG. of which possess are worthy of commendation. into the receiver this mill F placed underneath. is turned and carefully balanced. An excel- many lent apparatus for crushing apples is and provided with teeth. which pass between the cylinders. tempered. where they are crushed and fall FIG 90. . the steel being very thin and having a back of iron there . The limits of this work will not permit of a notice of all the various styles of portable mills before the public or the multitude of graters or apple grinders. 90 and 91. The grinder Fig. 379 plan of Mr.

380 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The hopper can be gauged to grind readily removed to to adjust knives. about six horse-power.screws. pieces etc. generally not required. at. as in the case when the concave is fast to the hopper.. so of iron. For obtaining the a press . Power bushels per minute. they can swing back at the bottom to allow stone. or at least only a slight pressure the greater portion of it running out from the must by placing . etc. and all parts are adjustable and easy to get This machine can be from 200 required to grind six 400 bushels per hour. The shaft is of steel and runs in anti-friction metal. is no danger of breaking. The end of the cylinder is banded with wrought-iron bands and the knives are set with set. and as the concaves zen apples. although made very hard. Presses. The concaves are held to their places by a bolt which allows the concave to be set as close as desired to the cylinder. and is held to its place by coil-springs which will give enough to allow stones to pass and yet hold rigid in grinding even froThe frame is one casting. are fast to the frame they cannot get out of line or be displaced. The concaves are hung at top. to pass through without injuring the knives. is many horse-power as desired to grind bushels per juice from berries. say about as minute.

and leverage. with a width between . were found no more than sufficient to In order to operate these separate the cider from the pomace. screws a long heavy wooden lever became necessary. is possible with the strongest is. provement upon the wooden screw was made by the substitution of But the iron screw and iron nut. as a rule. cider-press. An imcould be accomplished. etc. In modern presses this difficulty has been entirely overcome. which. 93 shows the inch high. and not unfrequently into requisition the strength of a yoke of oxen was called before the work Fig. in a and set three four. the objectionable feature of hav- ing to handle heavy and cumber- some levers still remained. wedges. an important auxiliary. For obtaining the juice from apple pomace. ease and com- presses before the a public." It is 7 feet 1 " Farmer's Fig. which required the united services of four or five men to handle. is very sour and has to be diluted with water. Before the introduction of screws the method of extracting the juice of the apple was by the use of heavy weights.MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. strong framefrequently in some work of double timbers. mak- ing labor irksome and expensive. 381 the latter upon a cloth spread over a perforated bottom in a vat. a good press however. Of the many two are found in the market. and the juice is extracted from the pomace with great pleteness. can be extracted with the latter more completely than press. Until within a late period a large wooden screw was used and is even now employed screws two and Of these sections of the country. 93. hand-press a-nd a powerpress are here illustrated presses of all sizes between these . The juice retained by the lees.

MANUFACTURE OP VINEGAR. . It will hold 15 to 16 bushels of apples at a pressing and is especially designed for individual It is also admirably adapted for squeezing the use. juice from small fruits. avoiding the necessity of conveying the pomace from one end of the press between the rods." with revolvfeet ing platform. The press is always loaded in one place. etc. " Extra Fig. berries. It gives a pressure of 250 tons. and consequently the grater can be located immediately over the middle of the cheese. 94. the rods of 3 feet If inches. 94 shows the power cider-press. 4 inches wide and has a platform 13 feet 3 inches long. 6 FIG. It is 13 feet 4 inches high.

The grinder can be directly over the quickly revolve it. The pomace being dropped in the centre of the pomace. The single racks are made of some light and tough wood strips about JXJ bass-wood or spruce seems best cut into inch and placed about J inch apart. 2. It is so geared that one man can easily and 3. D. (7. thus avoiding all the labor of shoveling 4. C. : centre of the cheese. for which the following advantages are claimed 1. the cheese. to spread it with equal density over the entire surface.to receive the cider from platforms. to the platform to hold guide-pieces for racks. 383 a pressing of 12 This press can easily barrels of cider each hour. for the cider to pass off into the tank below. thus building a cheese that is not liable to tilt or slide. D are rack guides. C are four posts fastened per tube encasing the rods. A is and has an the copper basin. B is a cop- C.MANUFACTURE OF to the other. outlet through the bottom. CIDER. it is an easy matter. Fig. with . Improved Racks. about 6 inches in diam- eter. 95 make shows the revolving platform belonging to the above press. Both ends of the platform are loaded and unloaded in the same place. The cider runs into a copper basin in The basin the centre of the platform between the two cheeses. is so arranged that it receives the cider while the platform is being revolved as well as while the press is working.

Four wide slats are put at the outer edges. To each end. so as to bring each rack directly above the other. Over this box spread the cloth. Another rack is placed on the cheese continued until there the press. The slats on one side are laid directly across the slats on the other side. either single or double. more elm strips. so as to hold them up. on single up a cheese with the improved rack. then these are all fastened together by steel wire nails or staples. The slats are rounded on the edges. another cloth placed on the box. with the aid of 2 retaining bars. which are fastened to the rack by 3 or more bronze hinges. five. In laying up a cheese comPlain racks. and nailed to the narrow slats. Steel wire nails or wire staples are used of sufficient length to clinch. A the right number of layers in rack should be placed on the top of the last layer. is guide should be used in laying up the cheese. A These are made. commence on the platform of the press and lay a rack then turn up the wings on each side of the rack and place the retaining bars on lay .- . These racks have the advantage of having an even surface on each side. or MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. so as not to injure the press-cloth. but in the place of wings and retaining bars.. the retaining bars placed in position to hold up the wings. fill the box evenly full of pomace. Double racks are made by using slats -ft- Xf inch. make the box to form the pomace in. These wings. 2 inches wide about f inch thick. The 2-inch slats placed across extend beyond the narrow ones on each side about 4 inches. The just wings to fall made. This is to support the wings. The press-cloth will last much longer than when used racks. the cloth being of sufficient size to cover it. of slats of the same description and dimensions as are used in the improved racks. etc. and this operation is retaining bars are then removed.384 four. a form square in size and 4 inches deep is used to form the sides of a box for the pomace. where it is strained over 4 to 9 elm slats. with the hooks on the outside of the wings. then turn in the sides and ends of the cloth over the pomace. allowing the in place.

the convenience of having the mill so arranged that apples may be brought from any part by a perfect working elevator and carrier. as described with the other style of rack.MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. It will require one cloth less than the are number of racks used for a cheese. Place another rack on the layer just formed. and remove the form. cheese is complete. 25 . and put the form on that and proceed as before until the . Fig. as they The best way to avoid the liability to slide or tilt is to lay the racks alternately the length and breadth of the press. Care must be exercised in laying a cheese to have the racks liable to tilt if they overhang. 385 mence by placing a rack on the platform. come evenly. and upon this place the form. The scrapers are of wood. In the equipment of a first-class modern cider mill nothing gives better satisfaction for the money expended than an The expense is a small matter compared with apple elevator. FIG. spread a cloth over the form and fill even up with pomace then fold the ends and sides of the cloth over onto the pomace. 96 shows a section of an elevator. 96. The chain runs over and is operated by a sprocket gear at the head with fast and loose pulleys.

and By opening a slide a quantity of pulp just sufficient for one layer is allowed to run from the leads to the press-room. The latter is furnished with a wooden tube E which can be closed. 97 shows the arrangement of a plant for making cider on a large scale. 3 inches wide and 11 J inches long. the finely ground pulp falling into the receptacle D. as described by Paul Hassack. It works at an inclination or carries on the level. which is divided into not too It is not advisable to pile the apples large compartments. when the weather is FIG. more than 3 to 4J feet high. Fig. browning or the formation of acetic acid set in. as otherwise. which conveys the apples to the grinder 0. When run at from 50 to 70 revolutions per minute it will elevate from 5 to 10 bushels per minute. 97. the entire pile may become heated. * ' ' Garungs-Essig. unfavorable.386 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. underneath the roof of the press-room the elevator B. bolted to lugs or projections on the chain.* The apples are shoveled direct from the vehicle in which they are brought to the plant into the shed A." . Alongside the shed runs up to. and rotting.

In the meanwhile the next cheese is prepared. the fruit-must To tity. of must with about 5 grammes is required. According to the size of the press to twelve made into a cheese. In the commencement of the operation pressing has to be done carefully and not too suddenly to form avoid bursting the press cloths.MANUFACTURE OF tube. each layer enclosed in a press cloth and a F is rack between each layer. With the exception of the grape but few varieties of fruit contain acid and sugar in such proportions and in such quantity (genTesting the Must as to its acid and too little sugar) in that the must obthem will yield. exceeds 1 per cent. compound a determined quanabout 50 cubic centimetres. CIDER. of alcohol of time. it is necessary to find ways and means by which the object can be accomplished in a manner most conformable to nature. Content of Acid and Sugar. when subjected to fermentation. find the quantity of acid. Now as all fruit cannot be kept for any length wines may be called artificial and a natural product has consequently to be improved in order to make it more agreeable and wholesome. purified *Bone-black which is first boiled with solution of sodium carbonate for is some again time.* boil the mixture about five and after cooling replace the exact quantity of water minutes. After shaking bring the whole upon a lost by evaporation. is too sour to the taste. For this purpose a knowledge of the content of acid and sugar in wines. layer upon layer. and then after washing and extracting with hydrochloric acid washed and dried. Wine whose content of acid a drinkable and durable wine. a more powerful pressure being applied only towards the end of the process when the juice runs off more slowly. and one containing erally too much tained from less than 5 per cent. . 387 a press-platform equipped with wheels and running on a track. The platsuch are layers eight is then pushed under the press G. Upon this the pulp is uniformly spread. which is put in action by the motor M. of animal charcoal.

as previously mentioned. allow to run or drop in from a TV cubic centimeters and filled liquid ammonia until the last drop no longer changes the graduated in to the 0-mark. and consists in multiplying the acid per thousand parts present by 100 and dividing with the content of acid the wine is to have.= 276. 18 parts per thousand of acid have been found in currant-must and the wine is only to show 6J . some succinic acid.. 277 parts by measure of water have to be added to every 100 parts by measure of must. . direction. then 1QO X 18 with a determined quantity of acid. of acid per thousand. and read off the quantity of ammonia consumed. and hence must be diluted to such a degree as to reduce the content of acid to 6 or at the utmost to 8 parts per thousand. after fermentation. in round num6J bers 277. The content of acid in the must thus forms the initial point for the dilution in order to obtain. If. decinormal and the place where the drop falls appears Now prevent a further as if made clear by a drop of water.7 cubic centimeters into a small beaker. being formed and perhaps also . flow of the ammonia by closing the pipette with the index finger of the right hand. e.388 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. for instance. While holding the beaker in the left hand and constantly moving it slowly in a horizontal pipette. the entire is volume containing the desired acid per thousand being thus obtained. wine parts per thousand. and color red with 5 to 10 drops of litmus tincture. The must examined contains as many thousandths color of the fluid. clear and generally colorless filtrate bring 6. To be sure the content of acid is sometimes increased by fermentation. The calculation for this dilution very simple. Of the coarse paper-filter in a glass funnel and let it run off. of malic acid as cubic centimeters of liquid required to color the fluid blue.923. ammonia were Now than 8 if the examination shows that a must contains more parts. it is evidently too sour for the preparation of a palatable and wholesome fruit wine. add sufficient distilled water to form a layer of fluid 2 to 3 centimeters deep. i.

and deduct from the quotient the per cent. of sugar. rich in alcohol. the wines being thereby almost absolutely from protected spoiling. Numerous analyses have shown that there is scarcely any grape wine which contains less than 7 per cent. magnesia). can readily be remedied by a suitable addition of which is. of sugar the must is to contain. too it tartaric acid. multiply by the difference the per cent. 389 decreases. of sugar are to be changed into must with 15 per cent. since. weight per cent. For this purpose deduct from the weight of the must (which for the sake of simplicity we will consider equal to its volume) the weight of the sugar contained therein. divide w ill be the product by 100 less the per cent. best shown by the following example Suppose 135 liters of must which contains 4 per cent. of sugar. of sugar. while in more generous wines the content rises to 12 Fruit-wines in order to possess good should never show less than 7 per cent. by weight of alcohol. The determination of the sugar in must presents less difficulty and has already been fully described. hence there remains only the question how much sugar has to be added to the must in order to obtain a durable wine. not the case when it contains much free acid. however. which for the Sometimes. is CIDER. while they improve in aroma and the kinds of ether being only formed in wine various taste. however. and more. by keeping properties of but there is no reason why they should not alcohol. acid in the must. best not to have too much (lime. The manner to be added r to the of calculating the quantity of sugar which has must to give the wine the desired content : of alcohol. of sugar already present in the must. The advantage of the latter evident. . of : sugar are to be changed into must with 15 per cent. the content of acid very likely partially due to the water used must containing earthy carbonates It is. For instance 135 liters of must with 4 per cent.MANUFACTURE OF some acetic acid. therefore. if the finished wine should be lacking dilution of the in acid. contain as content is much as 10 per cent.

and be replaced either by commercial grape-sugar article Glucose. which multiplied by 15=1944.4 to exe- 39 kilogrammes of sugar. of sugar.4 kilogrammes of sugar. For 325 liters of must with 3J per cent. 135 = would be as follows : (325 100 01 q ftOK D 11. instead of the 117.4 liters MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. an hence has to upon pure.4. are contained 6. of changed must with 22 per sugar : _l 36 = 117. of sugar to be changed into must with 20 per cent. this number 15 85 gives 22. Glucose. containing as a (glucose) or cane-sugar. liters of must with 6 per cent.390 In 135 5.03 kilogrammes of sugar to cent. be added. According to this. being equal to 180 parts by weight of anhydrous grape-sugar.95. its use for sweetening fruit-juices intended for the .375 = 67.4.73 kilogrammes of cane-sugar will have to be used.406 11. 1 J times the quantity calculated above must be used. divided by 100 and there remain 17. of anhydrous grape-sugar. The above examples will suffice to enable any one cute the calculations as required. of sugar the calculation = 129. thus in the last ex- ample 176 kilogrammes instead the proportion is With cane-sugar the reverse. anhydrous which does not exist in commerce. Pure glucose being identical with the sugar in sweet fruits. The above calculations are based grape sugar. hence the per cent.625 X 20 = ~8QT ^p 600 into = 78.. Deduct from this 5.375)20 20 = 313. of anhydrous grape-sugar calculated accor- ding to the above method must be multiplied by the fraction TyT or the factor 0. rule only 67 per cent. of sugar are to be .6.4 kilogrammes of grape-sugar in the last example.87. 111. 171 parts by weight of cane-sugar of 117. however.47 kilogrammes of sugar which have to be added to the must to give it 15 per cent.

glucose to be suitable for the preparation of wine. with cane-sugar which occurs in sugar-cane. Independently of the content of sugar. in sugar-maple. etc. drous fruit-sugar varies between 62 and 67 per cent. The frequently done. On heating it becomes smeary less and has a faint sweet taste. Its content of anhyand. is required for obtaining accurate results by chemical In consideration of this. Anthon of Prague has devised tables which are based upon the varying specific gravity of different saturated solutions of glucose. about 18 per cent. since cane-sugar before fermenting resolved into a mixture of dextrose (glucose) and levulose. besides about 15 percent. and besides a certain connected with some amount of skill tests. of water. should show no odor or by-taste. the wine. is water of crystallization. or have a more or less dark color. whether with glucose when it fails of forming sugar in abundance. as it contains. in commerce packed in boxes into which it is poured while in It is odora fluid state and gradually congeals to a hard mass. possesses the same properties whether it be formed from fruit-sugar or from glucose. of which about 6 per cent.MANUFACTURE OF preparation of wine still CIDER. provided the latter must might be sweetened. or rather . The accurate determination is of the content of pure sugar in But few manufacdifficulty. and a disagreeable odor and taste. is Commercial glucose never pure. of dextrin or similar subIt has a white color. and is found stances. Inferior qualities contain either less sugar. But with the use of glucose in beet root. and that neither wine one or the other can be injurious tion in to health in the state of dilu- which it presents itself in be used in moderation. With the it is dispute carried on with honest weapons. finally melts to a yellowish syrup. and some gypsum. to assist nature permissible to succeed in its labor since we know that the principal product alcohol or spirits of and almost the only one which passes into the wine by the fermentation of sugar. as is we is first are one step in advance. glucose turers are provided with the necessary materials for making the analysis with Fehling's solution. we have here nothing to do. 391 is perfectly justifiable.

392 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Cider from Apples." and similar champagne wines. sparkling liquor far It is quite a favorite article of home superior to many wines. or imitations " way into the city markets. its upon solubility in water.224 parts of it Hence portion in water. . : allowed to expressed juice from well-selected apples. of. and from this the content of dissolve in every proa saturated solution of glucose will anhydrous grape-sugar or glucose for in the solution. The production." substitutes for. but a certain quantity of the glucose to be examined is rubbed in a mortar with one-half its weight of water at 53.. making his barrel of cider for use through the winter. While 1 part of anhydrous grapewater at 53. nearly every farmer in regions where apples are grown. In preparing a solution of starch-sugar examination care must be had that it is completely saturated. Heat must not be used for effecting the solution. but a large amount finds considerable quantity cider. and after is pouring the thickish. properly prepared. forms a lively.6 F. is its also champagne cider.. -A consumed in the shape of bottled "sparkling cider. sugar the foreign admixtures accompanying requires for its solution 1. turbid fluid into a tall beaker it Anthon's table is as follows stand until clear.6 F. show a greater specific gravity the more foreign substances In Anthon's tables is found the specific gravity it contains.

in of Paris deduces from analyses different parts of France the following as : England. : . published by M. and Herefordshire and Devonshire. though it is there. per liter. by volume Extract. The Municipal Laboratory of pure ciders from a type of composition for pure ciders Alcohol. and show the necessity for the examination of large numbers of samples from various parts of the country Other analyses of pure ciders. have shown great variations from this type. G.00 2. Analyses of Ciders by the United States Agricultural DepartThe samples for the investigation were purchased in the city in the same manner as samples of wine and beer ment. as here. 393 In England and France considerable quantities of cider find way into the markets. Lechtartier.MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. per cent. at 212 F. 30. 5. Certain parts of those countheir tries are famous for the quality of their ciders. notably Nor- mandy. in France. for the establishment of a proper standard of analysis. . largely an article of home consumption.66 .80 Ash from different parts of France.

of the varieties of apples is of great importance in the manufacture of cider. 1 A siderable doubt 2 Determinations of the carbonic acid in three different bottles gave the following results: . . . which were made by an assistant. even if it is equally well handled. It is not always the best flavored apple or the best tasting juice that will Indeed. such as the crabBut it is a pretty general rule that the apple and the russet. All apple juice will not make The choice equally good cider.394 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. as a rule.482. circumstance arising after the samples had been thrown away seemed to throw conupon the determinations of sugar. the best cider is made from apples which are inferior for table use.728. This astrin- . and the entire set had to be thrown out.654. make most astringent apple will make the best cider. the best cider.

apple. for a kept long while. which serves clarified and to render the cider more easily and thoroughly to make it keep better. as well as the pulp in the cells of which the fluid constituents the juice are enclosed.08 should be determined. necessary to use a mixture of different varieties. The albuminous substances. According to these directions. however. . Generally speaking. the apples are mixed in the following proportions f bitter-sweet and J: If a sweet cider is wanted not intended to be sweet apples. From the greater or smaller quantity of this precipitate a conclusion can be drawn as to the quantity of tannin present. 3 to 7 per cent. The solid insoluble constituents consist chiefly of cellulose. 93 to 97 per cent. The greater the specific gravity of the juice the better the respective variety of apple is for making cider. according to the nature of the soil. pectose. seeds. J bitter-sweet and f sweet apples are used. The average proportion between solid and insoluble substances and juice is of course subject to wide fluctuations. not sufficient to detect the tannin in apples.05 and 1. The solid constituents are the skin. mucilage and other less insoluble substances. the fol- lowing will serve as a reliable test: Express the juice of a few apples and add a few drops of isinglass. 395 gency is due to an excess of tannin. which may vary between 1. for a quality of cider which will keep well. though in most cases it will be In France. season of the year and degree of ripeness. core. While a portion of this tannin is changed to sweetness. . a considerable portion remains. consists of solid and fluid constituents. . . the raw material should be selected. which combines with the tannin and forms a precipitate. like every other fruit. .MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. . the composition of the apple average be given as follows : may on an Solid substance (pulp) Juice . The tongue alone being. The specific gravity of the juice.

of acid has an insipid taste. however. little specks covering the skin. as well as that of the malic consists of acid.2 to 0. The acid of the apple.. which is recognized by their color.396 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The apples intended for the preparation of cider should be allowed to attain complete maturity. for thus the conversion of the starch into sugar is best and their keeping better secured than by storing. is never present. They are then placed in piles and effected allowed to sweat. In fact they should be allowed to remain on the trees as long as vegetation is active or until frosts are apprehended.6 per cent. 0. thereby improving the flavor as well as the quality and strength of the cider in consequence . juice constituents contain about : The Water Sugar Acid . should be gathered by the hand to prevent bruising and They coming in contact with dirt. in must is a mixture of the different kinds of sugar sugar varying greatly in proportion. 80 to 88 per cent. pectin bodies 4 to 4. and consists of dextrose.6 to 1. and by the sharp and agreeable ethereal odor emanating from them. On and sweetening with sugar. The extractive substances of apple-must consist of tannin 0. even up to 24 per cent. tions of citric acid lose and . 9 to 18. the dark hue of the pips. various soluble mineral substances and a series of gums thus far undetermined. and frequently also of small fracpear.8 percent. . . when the must contains too much acid. tartaric acid.3 to 3 per cent. .5 per cent. and consequently an addition of artificial malic or citric acid has to be made to musts augmented with water in order to less the other hand. 1. The juice pressed from apples is called must or cider. albuminous substances and mucilof water age. laevuThe sucrose. but should be reduced by the addition improve the taste. the latter cannot be fixed with calcium or potassium carbonate.. Must with than 5 per cent. Extractive substance . the fruit and make This sweating process has a tendency to ripen it uniform.

are now brought into the grinder and reduced to an impalpable pulp. a certain quantity of water by evaporation. mixed in the desired proportions. in its aqueous solution. as is frequently done and even advocated by Mellow or decaysome. The strongest cider is made from apples containing the smallest" percentage of juice. By this operation the numerous infinitesimal cells of the apple should be thoroughly broken up so as to permit the free escape of the juice when under this pressure. article of cider. and. and the machine which accomplishes is most If the cells are not the best for the purpose. for cider of superior quality it is . Bergot. but under no cir- or is cumstances should the apples be placed upon the bare ground upon straw. in a sack much that otherwise would escape.MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. if necessary. the largest If the weather be fine. and. and a large portion of their sugar. while others consider them as rendering the cider more alcoholic and making it keep better. cannot be too strongly condemned. and the ing apples have lost almost all their perfume. As regards the crushing of the seeds there is a diversity of opinion. After sweating and before being ground the apples should be wiped with a cloth to free them from exudation and adhering particles of dirt. According to M. effectually thoroughly torn asunder. the proportion of saccharine matter. 397 of the apples having parted with six or eight per cent. which prevents the cider from clarifying and accelerates its acetification. as it were. sound fruit is the should be thrown out. sorted. rotten they only basis for a good practice of mixing rotten apples with the sound. some holding that they communicate to the cider a disagreeable bitterness and acidity. of water. their tendency is to restrain and hold. as they contract an earthy or musty taste which afterwards found in the cider. piles may is this be exposed in the open air upon clean sod or where wanting upon boards or linen cloths. Rotten apples yield a watery liquid of an abominable taste. and if any are found bruised or Ripe. The apples being wiped.

Where the consumer prefers a pale-yellow color the pulp must at once be pressed. The racks have already been described. however. and also to serve as a means of exit for the An improvement was in the substitution of hair-cloths. and the edges secured by laps of straw. With a good press about 65 to 75 per cent. because their essential oil helps to give to the cider the bouquet which it For cider intended to be converted into otherwise lacks. while for a darker color it is allowed to stand 12 to 18 hours. seeds will. thus alternating straw and pomace until the pile was complete. third' every day. upon which a quantity of pomace was placed. on the other hand.398 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The next step in the operation is pressing. The use of straw cider. be crushed. The press-cloth is woven from yarn made expressly for the purpose and is of equal strength in warp and filling. of juice will be obtained. . The grinder with water hot should be cleansed every evening. cheese was to lay upon the platform of -the press a quantity of straw. in laying up the cheese should be entirely discarded. The object of using the straw was to hold the mass together while it was being sub- mitted to pressure. The various kinds of presses. as the slightest mustiness imparts an unpleasant odor^to the cider. the essential preferable not to crush the seeds. and manner of laying up the cheese have The primitive custom of laying the already been described. racks. be of advantage. because the diffused odor of oil would undoubtedly injure the fine taste of cer- For ordinary cider the crushing of the tain notable products. The pressure applied to the cheese should be slow at starting and then gradually increased until finally the full force is The juice as it comes from the press runs through a applied. or at least brandy the seeds must. to The treatment which the pulp obtained by grinding is subjected varies according to the color the cider is to have. fine hair-sieve into a receiver. and within the past few years the adoption of the cotton presscloth and racks to hold the pomace in laying up the cheese for the press.

" Unfermented Apple-juice. 12 litres of water for every hectoliter of apples used. to under pressure and a quantity of juice extracted equivalent the amount of water added." . 399 After the cider has been extracted and the cheese removed from the press the pomace may be utilized for the manufacture In France it is. of vinegar. has also been applied to extract the soluble constituents of the apple. used for the manufacture of the small cider. and that it is a sim* U. carbonating. quality of cider is nearly equal to that obtained by three pressures. S. and after adding pressing. also be applied to apples. or the addition The The objections urged against pasteurizing of preservatives. Gore. and the juice obtained is almost as rich as that The yielded by the press. however. follows: The method is as After the extraction of the pure cider by the first the pomace is taken from the press. care being had to stir Then this pulp is put a second time every two or three hours. Bulletin No. 118. freshly-expressed apple-juice is either sold as sweet Fermentation in sweet cider or subjected to fermentation. Bureau of Chemistry. tin and glass containers have been made by H. Successful experiments in expressing the juice of the grape by means of the centrifugal would indicate that the same method might . develop a method for sterilizing apple-juice in wooden. which gives such excellent results in the extraction of sugar-beets. and that it is impracticable to hold the Experiments to juice sterile for more than a limited period. " or sterilizing fresh apple-juice are that a "cooked taste is added to the juice.MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. C. Department of Agriculture. Extraction of the juice by diffusion. the mass is allowed to macerate 15 to 20 hours. retarded cider is by pasteurizing. Diffusion. In practice this method might be suitable for persons having no cider press and only a small quantity of apples to handle. as previously described.* and his demonstrate that only a slight cooked taste is investigations produced by the heat treatment required.

(158 best treatment for sterilizing in glass was found (3) to consist in heating for one hour at 149 F. and acceptable as a summer drink. should be made. up to the temperature of 149 F. while a poorly flavored apple-juice yielded an process conditions mentioned were not quite thorough enough to sterilize all of the varieties canned. The : C. the product re- A : months under actual observawhich must be taken to insure this are precautions First paraffin the containers on the outside. (65 C. and fill with juices heated to between 149 maining sound for at least six tion. (65 to 70 .400 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. demonstrated that apple-juice can be successfully using the type of tin can sealed by the mechanical process. The juice so prepared was found to be palatable. pie matter to protect the juice from inoculation after sterilizsummary of these investigations is here given ing. showing no loss due to fermentation of the juice. or for one-half F. cessfully stood a severe shipping test. Heating for one hour at 158 did not produce marked deterioration in flavor. tained much of their distinctive apple flavor.) in " any The hour at 158 F. (2) " It is sterilized in tin containers.) These juices posfor a half hour. It was found that from finely flavored apple-juice a first-class sterile product could be made. taking measures to relieve the vacuum the contraction of the juice on cooling by filterproduced by the air ing through cotton. A slight increase in the temperature or time of processing. a half hour being allowed in all cases for the juice to obtain the temperature of the water-bath. or inferior product. " The experiments show conclusively that it is possible (1) to sterilize apple-juice in wooden containers. then as follows and 158 sterilize. excluding all metals from contact with the juice except the tin of the can.) seal. and then allowed to cool. to exceed 70 C. the temperature not case. sessed only a slight cooked taste due to the heating and reone-half. The both. . Twenty-four 10-gallon kegs suc- F. Where lacquered cans are used the contamination with tin was reduced about Apple juices were canned and sterilized by heating in a hot water-bath..

while it isms to develop checks the alcoholic fermentation. added to retard fermentation. * U.* and the summary of the results of these investigations is here given " Ciders prepared from apples free from decay chilled (1) rapidly to the freezing-point immediately after pressing. onetenth of 1 per cent. H. carbonated sterile juice will resemble fresh and unapple-juice more closely. Gore has also investigated the cold storage of apple cider.) remained without noticeable fermentation for a period of from thirty-six to fiftyseven days." 26 . and : C. allows other organnotably the acetic acid ferment whereby the palatability of the product as a beverage is destroyed.. however. Circular No. juice opinion improved the charge of carbon dioxid and by the consequent dilution. (32 then held in cold storage at F. "The Department of Agriculture. 48.15 per cent. S. of a others rich was both by heavy. Carbonating by the addition of water charged with carbon dioxid was considered by some to injure the flavor. being tolerated by regulation in the United States. Cold-Storage Apple Cider. Bureau of Chemistry. Gore's investigations demonstrated that benzoate of soda in quantities varying from 0. In the lessening the characteristic fruit flavor by dilution." When apple-juice is sold in bulk a small amount of benzoate of soda is. an average of fifty days for the Tolrnan.MANUFACTURE OF (4) CIDER. C. thus adding a sparkle to the product. flavor A foreign to fresh apple-juice is also added.03 to 0. 401 was shown that the great bulk of the insoluble material naturally contained in apple-juice can be removed by means of a milk separator. H." These investigations extended also to " It carbonating fresh apple-juice and the conclusions arrived at are as follows: " It is possible to carbonate the juice slightly before canning or bottling. as a rule. C. Experiments indicated that the danger of contamination by mold growths was lessened by maintaining an atmosphere of carbon dioxid above the surface of the juice after opening. Winesap.

therefore. a immediate use may be produced from it. For this purthe next step in the operation is fermentation. If less than 10 per cent. Roxbury Russet. good quality of juice will generally range from 10 to 14 per cent. In many places the fermentation-casks are of a filled by means power pump which delivers the juice to the receptacles . and new being less ones must be freed by steaming or washing with hot water from all extractive substances. otherwise the cider will acquire a disagreeable taste and dark color. and of eighty-three days in the case of the Golden Russet. Rails." be considered as becoming hard " The ciders were found to have suffered no deteriora(3) for the last three. and retains the carbonic acid better with the use of larger casks." The apple-juice to be fermented should be tested with a must-spindle or densimeter as to its content of sugar. smaller containers are preif ferable. the latter it may be said that. be recommended. before " tion (with the exception of the Tolman). the juice ferments more uniformly and more steadily. if found wanting in saccharine strength. beverage When the juice has been tested and. but rather had be- come more palatable during storage. However. Yellow Newtown. Regarding the size of pose the juice is brought into casks. For the production on a large scale of cider of first-rate quality the use of large casks can. though it develops somewhat more slowly than in smaller containers. danger of the cider becoming mouldy The casks should be scrupulously clean. as a rule. an average of ninety-nine days five to for the first six varieties and of one hundred and twenty- they fermented sufficiently days " or " sour. if the flavor in other respects for is all A right. and perhaps be directly drawn from the yeast. " These ciders were held for a period of from ninety to (2) one hundred and nineteen days. the juice will not make a cider that will keep. the cider is to be used for daily consumption. and Baldwin varieties. there or sour. corrected by the method previously given. and Kentucky Red.402 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Gilpin. though.

ural cane sugar. filling plished by gravity. must be used for all metal fittings. stifled and readily suppressed. The in contact with the air after it leaves the comes less the juice press the less liable it is to be contaminated with various unThe pumps and pipes must be kept desirable organisms. is fermented with great difficulty by the organism normally present on the fruit. apple juice ferments completely only with This appears to be due to the fact that the natdifficulty. which quantities in apple is frequently present in considerable juices. generally speaking. In Germany all which are obtained the important factories employ these in small flasks from the Royal Pomological School at Geisenheim. press-room is over the fermentation room. tation is still collecting vat K. scrupulously clean. cultures. is It is a well-known fact that. This box located above the having been brought into the casks. and to assure the ascendancy of the true yeasts and thus give them the control of the entire process of fermentation. but brass or copper 403 When is the accom- Hose-pipes are largely used for this work. With the use of pure . 386 the juice running off from the press is freed from the principal particles of through the pipe H pulp in the box J. 97 p. which is fitted with two or three wireis sieves of different fineness. fermenin many places to the organisms normally present on the fruit and those which may at the time of grinding and pressing enter the juice from contact with the air. the practice of sowing the juices with pure cultures of yeast has been intro- and pear duced. the machinery and the vessels. placed in adjacent rooms or in another building. palatable and durable cider. The fresh juice left being generally represented only in very small quantities.MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. The various races of yeast present on the apple possess but little fermenting power and the elliptic wine yeast (saccharomyces ellipsoidus) which has to be taken chiefly into account. Fermentation in this case does not always progress as and favorably as required norn^lly for the production of a sound. In Fig.

fermenting in casks is The casks are fillea about three-quarters full and preferable. to allow the escape of the excess of carbonic acid and prevent the The best protection of the must is the carentrance of air. orously developed i't is added to the juice to be fermented. this method being generally preferred with juice not previously strained. on the one hand. though the air. or tumultuous fermentation of the apple juice is in effected in made with open vats.404 . and then cooled to previously in the sterile fluid is most vigWhen fermentation it culture of yeast sterile juice is best to 68 F. is a simple device for controlling It is generally made of pottery or porcelain. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the must has been purified by straining or filtering over thoroughly washed sand. however. remedied by the addition of 20 grammes of trate or ammonium . the exciters of these decompositions cannot develop in an atmosphere of carbonic acid. The fermentation funnel . bonic acid developed during fermentation. namely. on the other. Such an addition should also be the use of pure culture of yeast. neither mould or acetic acid formation can appear for want of oxygen. an atmosphere of carbonic acid always lies over the cider in the or ventilating funnel. be taken that until fermentation is finished and the cask has been entirely filled and bunged. When. and. equipped with a ventilating bung to prevent the entrance of germ-laden air. Another cause of the difficult fermentation of apple juice is the frequent want of nitrogenous combinations required for This may be the nutriment and propagation of the yeast. There are various constructions of ventilating bungs but the principle is in all cases the same. so as to be able to remove during fermentation the insoluble constituents of the must which are forced to the surface. empty space of the cask. tar- ammonium chloride per hectoliter of juice of it the same quantity by weight of ammonium in place phosphate or ammonium The first some places carbonate may also be used. Fig. therefore. 98 which is largely used in Germany. add it to a smaller quantity of heated to 140 F. Care should. because.

accorto four weeks. forces back the water at o and escapes at e from the open portion of the funnel. and a cup-like vessel b. the entrance of air being on the other hand prevented by the water. The higher it is the more energetic. two parts. ally fermentation sets in and the more rapidly it runs its course. 405 It consists of can also be constructed of metal. most of them have now arrived at the conclusion that as energetic a course as possible of the first fermentation is the best guarantee for a good product. normal conditions.MANUFACTURE OF it CIDER. aluminium. The acid carbonic escaping from the cask passes through the pipe pipe which half-full cup b. is secured air-tight in the bung-hole and is filled with water. in two the temperature being under otherwise. for instance. and the temperature for the first stage of fermentation should be at least between 59 and 68 F. While formerly a not too tumultuous course of the first fermentation was not desired by many manufacturers and the temperature was kept relatively low. When the first fermentation has run its course. which is recognized by the cessation of the hissing sound made by the carbonic . the most important factor. temperature and other conditions. into the The ing to first or tumultuous fermentation runs its course. which is placed over the elongated portion of the pipe of the funnel. the actual funnel c with the tapering d.

This quantity is dissolved in 1 allowed being a moderate of over cider fire. in a bucketful of hot water and. the cider is generally clarified by dissolving 2 ozs. may be commenced after eight days.406 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. the cider drawn off from the sediment into clean. and vice versa. In France. and the cider becomes more or less clear. off one method this poured with constant agitation into the cask. of it for each cask. of catechu in 1 quart of cider and adding the solution to 100 The tannin thus added quarts of cider. there is but a slight evolution of carbonic acid. into the cider. and in the temperature carefully avoided and variations abrupt Generally speaking. fermentation. strainer is generally somewhat turbid. better Drawing in- A method of clarification. is acid gas. the remainder of the sugar is decomposed. which at the same time : For each creases the purity of taste of the cider. the more quietly the second fermentation will progress. and the solution when pint cording to cold. the more energetically provided against. furnished with a ventilating bung. . and. Ac- done with isinglass. and then draw off the latter through a fine strainer into the The cider first passing through the actual storage barrel. 1J ozs. Now dissolve about 2 drachms of alum press out thoroughly. the cider is drawn off into other casks is and fined. and the cider is left to the second or after casks should be constantly kept full. The casks are placed in a cellar or a cool room having a temperature of 40 to 50 F. When the second fermentation has progressed to the desired degree. After 6 to 8 hours take the latter from the alum water before. with constant stirring. pour the solution upon the bran. after washing it twice in hot water to remove all soluble substances. and press as The bran is best used before the cider Stir it is racked off for the third and last time.. The the first fermentation has run its course. By the second fermentation. take 4 Ibs. the yeast as as well as the albuminous substances in the must settle on the bottom. is as follows barrel of 30 gallons. and must be poured back until it runs off clear. unsulphured casks. of fresh wheat bran.

MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. J oz. pressing Sometimes. tion of tannin in the form of an alcoholic-aqueous solution previous to the addition of the clarifying agent can be recommended. such as bag filters. which is generally done by adding sufficient French brandy to increase its content of alcohol 2 per cent. For shipping to tropical countries experiments might be made with salicylic acid. and what might be considered an improvement by one would be A favorite method of improvedeclared a defect by another. However. the cheapest brands (waste. 407 precipitates the albuminous matters. and for bottled beer. There are several methods of improving the taste of cider. J Ib. because tastes differ. but they are rather questionable. The is reason for this the liquor. if used for the production of cider. is adding it in the same proportion as to beer. Washing the apples in washing machines of special construction previous to grinding and is of great advantage for the production of fine must and cider. ters of various types. Fairly good products can be obtained from dried American apples. of sugar for every 2 quarts of juice is added during fermentation. also. ment is as follows For 45 gallons of cider measure off 3 quarts : . Filtering cider appears to made be a process much more difficult than filtering wine from grapes and should be avoided if possible. filtering will ha^ to be resorted to. cellulose filters and asbestos filters are in use for this purpose. as a perfectly bright product is not always Filobtained by fining. It is to always advisable before fining large quantities of cider make a clarifying experiment on a small scale. cores) of which can be used for the purpose. the result being a clear cider which will not blacken in the air. for 100 quarts. the content of tannin in the fluid being frequently so small that the clariIn such cases a small addifying agent added is ineffectual. yield a product poor in aroma. parings. the presence of mucilaginous substances in Pared apples. Cider intended for export must be made somewhat richer in alcohol. which for beer sent in barrels f oz.

clarify it or the whites of a dozen eggs. of sugar is added to every quart fruit-wines. and finally 3J drachms of catechu. which is sometimes desired. of juice. 1 oz. or. skimmed milk clarification. 6 Ibs.7 drachm of bitter almonds. and boil as long as scum is formed then strain through a fine hairsieve and allow to cool. 2 Ibs. add to every 2 quarts of juice. 27 Ibs. use If drachms of powdered cochineal in place of the catechu. is prepared as follows Boil for 2 hours 50 quarts of apple juice. Red apple wine. of comminuted Let the fluid completely red beets." Dr. previously dissolved in water. catechu cannot be isinglass or white of egg. pour a mixture of 1 quart of French brandy and about 1 drachm each of pulverized cinnamon and ginger into the barrel. When fermentation is finished. stir thoroughly. is entirely completed and . of isinglass is tapped. Ibs. It should never be bottled before In his treatise on " : the tumultuous stage of fermentation the liquid clarified. After three months clarify the wine and rack off. and the latter is allowed to completely ferment in the same manner as grape wine. If the off clear when color of the cider and instead of be used for remain pale yellow. of honey. of brown sugar. let the whole ferment three weeks. For a reddish color. is to it then not run to oz. and should with 1 J used. 0. and after . of tartar. : ferment. clarifying rack off into bottles. According to another direction. red wine from cider.408 of MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Now add a small quantity of yeast. of white sugar. all finely French brandy and mix it with the following substances? powdered 0. as it is frequently called. and if no apple juice is on hand to fill up the barrel during this process. Denis-Dumont gives the folfor directions bottling cider The cider is to be bottled lowing at three distinct periods. and 3. Cider.7 drachm of mace. Pour this mixture into the cider and shake the barrel frequently during : the next 14 days. Sometimes cider is prepared in the same manner as other In this case J Ib. Then allow it to rest three or four months. use solution of sugar. and 7J drachms of mustard-seed.

flavor and is fit to drink much sooner than the preceding. as otherwise the cider would cease to be sparkling. the cider still contains considerable sugar. better in quart bottles. bottles should. and the corks. however. In the island of Jersey. in every instance. champagne bottles should be selected. a great deal less of carbonic acid being developed than in the preceding cases. is complete or almost so. It keeps for a long time. it being good to This cider has to be kept drink only when old. in order Third period. bottle of sparkling cider. and has a fine flavor. strong. for a number of years. Without this precaution. of the 409 At the termination tumultuous fermen- tation. and best in few moments before opening a jars holding two quarts. The bottles are left in an This cider has a good upright position for a few weeks only. Second period. be well corked. it bottles are strong liberating less carbonic acid than the preceding. Fermentation continues in the bottle and produces in a few weeks a large quantity of carbonic acid.MANUFACTURE OF First period. The cider is very good The in small bottles. and care taken to have them stand upright until the development is considerably reduced. the juice as it comes from . most of the cider As soon might be thrown up to the ceiling. is allowed to blow out in the same the cork sufficiently weak. six weeks or when fermentation is more advanced. be used. it is. The bottles should be laid down immediately after filling. it is advisable to provide a minute when kept A opening fine for the escape of the gas by piercing the cork with a as the tension of the gas has become punch. tied. where the manufacture of cider is carried on in a very rational manner. lively. CIDER. Mineral water enough to hold this cider. manner as with champagne. This cider is not sparkling . when fermentation any quality of bottles may to retain the carbonic acid which will still be developed. In order to prevent the bottles from being broken by the pressure. about two months after the first period. The bottles are then laid on their side. for the sake of safety.

fermentation is over. The cider strained then drawn if this is off into clean casks to stop the fermentation. The manufacture of this beverage has Champagne-cider. when thoroughly ripe are allowed to undergo the sweating process before grinding. This transfer from one is another perceptible. i. but If this be not satisfactorily acthe cider becomes very fine. become quite important it resembling the ordinary but more and in a proper condition for expensive champagne-wine. and being frequently sold as such. manner and where It is it is then pressed in the usual a hair-sieve into hogsheads. in which fermentation continues slowly. is Prepared in this manner the cider will keep perfectly good for several years. and when the development of carbonic gas has off in barrels. it is repeated until fermentation is completely checked and the cider is in a quiet state drinking and bottling. Since the devastation of the vineyards by the phylloxera. and in about four or five days. The liquid is then drawn and sulphured. continued until no escape of gas until fermentation is quite complete. complished by the first operation. This completely stops fermentation in that quantity and usually checks it in the other In a few weeks portion with which the cask is then filled up. Devonshire cider is made from a mixture of one-third of These being gathered bitter-sweet apples with a mild sour.410 the press is MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. e. through remains for two or three days previous to fermenting.. These barrels are not entirely filled. and stand transportation by sea without any difficulty. allowed to ferment in large open vats placed in a cellar having a uniform temperature of from 53 to 59 F. the liquid is drawn off into other barrels sulphured like the set of barrels to first. thoroughly cleansed proceeded so far that the flame of a lighted candle introduced by the bung-hole is extinguished. a . On account of the large surface presented to the air. thoroughly agitated. tumultuous fermentation soon sets in. very strong only two or three gallons are first put in. and after burning cotton or linen rags saturated with sulphur in the cask. or at the utmost a week.

each bottle receiving a drachm of bicarbonate of soda. The champagne is now ready and is racked off into bottles. into each of which a small piece of white sugar is thrown. Cork and wire. and clarify with 2 quarts of skimmed milk. and 2J drachms of acetic ether. prepared from cider mixed class hotels. of white sugar. 1 pint of recjpint of yeast and 1 oz. J quart of rectified alcohol and 2 ozs. Cider serves frequently as a basis for genuine Burgundy. It is prepared as follows gallons of apple-juice add 12 quarts of brandy and 14 Ibs. and laid in a cool cellar. The bottles must be thorcorked and in wired the same manner as genuine oughly champagne.MANUFACTURE OF large trade in the spurious CIDER. Clarification with isinglass. sherry or port-wine. Another process consists in bringing into a vat 40 quarts of France. Mix the whole thoroughly. and the corks of which are wired. This champagne-cider : tified alcohol. ture is drawn off into bottles. with suitable substances. of sugar or honey. artificial wines. and allow it to ferment for one month in a cool place. of tartar. but fermentation must not be completely finished. 40 quarts of fermented applejuice are mixed with 2 quarts of solution of sugar. No more rising of bubbles of gas should be observed. it being entirely a matter of observation when the most suitable time for racking off has arrived. white of egg or skimmed milk must. of course. apple-juice. precede the drawing off into bottles. however. and 4 drachms of pulverized tartar. being frequently served even in firstNothing could be said against these beverages if they were sold under their proper names. because they consist . 5 Ibs. According to another process. The duration of fermentation has been stated as one month. Then add about 4 drachms of orange-blossom water. J Ib. 411 champagne-wine is carried on in if sold under its right name an To 50 is excellent beverage. Shortly before fermentation is finished the mixeach of which has previously been provided with a small piece of sugar. It may. The mixture is allowed to stand 24 hours and then racked off into bottles. last a few days more or less.

filling con- Malaga Wine. or elderberry juice for . and 2 drachms. . causes inflammation of the intestines by the When in large amount of malic and acetic acid it contains. . quarts. 1 quart of bilberry juice Allow the whole to ferment. Then clarify with isinglass. though of a sweet taste and a piquant and agreeable flavor. rectified Apple juice. of bruised raisins. . juice. 10 Ibs. the same as for Burgundy. is liable to produce serious disorders.412 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. 1 quart. Sherry Wine. says Dr. 1 oz. Ibs. otherwise the process is the same as given Burgundy. Decaisne. being heavy and indigestible. crushed raisins. 2 quarts drachms. Bring into a barrel 40 quarts of apple Ib. and after a few weeks draw off into bottles. 2 quarts. 10 pounds. Diseases of Cider. 2 ounces and 4 quarts juice. Ciders are subject to diseases which may be due to the bad quality of the apples used. of and 3 sugar. Apple juice. 1 oz. a faulty method of manufacture. inflates the intestines and produces diarrhoea the second. but excites the nervous system and produces flatulency the third. 3 quarts. The further process is Claret Wine. acetic ether. 50 quarts rectified alcohol. especially such as has merely passed through the stage of tumultuous fermentation. does not quench the thirst. . they being only too frequently adulterated with substances injurious to health. elderberry flowers. Burgundy. 4 black currant tartar. crushed raisins. Ibs. add about stantly up with cider. The process is the same as for Burgundy. or has been acidified by contact with the air. genuine wines. about 2 drachms tartar 2 ozs. Color with bilberry juice. 40 quarts . alcohol. which cannot always be said of the of harmless substances. . . hol. acetic ether. Apple juice. or bad management in the cellar. . which is really spoiled cider. and 4 drachms rectified alco. orange-flower water. and 2 drachms. 50 quarts. The desired coloration is effected by the addition of bilberry 2 sugar solution. E. Badly fermented cider. 1 oz. The first.. 5 of tartar. of essence of bitter almonds.

It must. 413 the production of cider. becomes a peroxide and brown color. per 22 gallons. which. or by hermetically closing the bungs. By mixing such cider with 12 drachms of powdered oak bark per 22 gallons. on coming in contact with air. however. water containing organic matter has been used. The acidity will. the products of which impart some very deleterious properties to the cider. This defect is difficult to remedy. add to every In order to 228 of catechu pint of alcohol or 2 grammes dissolved in 3 quarts of water. Cider may be prevented from turning viscous by the addition of sugar to the juice when it comes from the press. viscous and greasy. In both these cases the acidity may be neutralized by adding to the apple-juice 3 ounces and 8 drachms of potassium tartrate due Sometimes there is an excess of acetic acid. gives the beverage a . a quantity of tannin is introduced which combines with the iron to an insoluble product that settles on the bottom of the barrel. and finally to defective fermentation. putrid fermentation is produced in the mass. in mixing the apples. to the oxidation of the alcohol by long contact with the air. and is due to too great an abundance of gummy substances in the fruit. fermentation being thereby promoted.MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. too large a proportion of sour apples has been taken. or by fruit grown on ferruginous soil. or when. The cause of cider turning black is an excess of oxide of iron. The oxide of iron may have been introduced into the cider either by the water used in making it. disappear by putting in the bottles a pinch of bicarbonate of soda. check this malady from quarts of the cider 1 its first appearance. Tartaric acid may also be used. may be due either to an excess of malic acid Some ciders contain too much malic acid when manufac- tured from apples not sufficiently ripe. as previously mentioned. Acidity in cider or of acetic acid. be done immediately on Viscosity or greasy appearance of cider is recognized by the cider becoming stringy. of tannin. a lack detecting the defect. however. It might have been prevented by means of a thin coat of olive oil.

in 3. The use is of lead salt.00 grammes per liter 18 00 1. fre- very dangerous. per cent. of sugar in 1 gallon This sugar beof water to every 132 gallons of the liquid. formerly much in vogue in Normandy. During seasons in which abrupt changes of temperature take place. generally enumerates under each article of food a of every conceivable adulteration that has ever been found who or supposed to have been used in such food. in France where. a yellow precipitate of iodide of lead will be formed. the other hand. comes converted into alcohol and renders the cider limpid. When the cider remains turbid after the first racking off. on food. In rainy seasons the apples ripen imperfectly and contain but little sugar. add a solution of 2 Ibs. Cider prepared from such fruit generally remains turbid. fermentation does not progress well.414 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and clarification is imperfect. Turbidity or lack of clarification of cider is caused by too small a quantity of sugar in the juice. Adulteration of Cider. list is but little According to most of the authorities Even Hassubject to adulteration. . The following is considered On in the Paris Municipal Laboratory as a position of pure cider : minimum for the com- Alcohol. . its adulteration is by no means uncommon. and of the use of antacids for the correction of the acidity of spoiled cider. An admixture of lead salt is readily recognized. which prequently sent all the symptoms of lead colic and may even prove fatal. only speaks of the addition of water. or by imperfect fermentation. feel Persons drinking cider thus treated sharp pains in the abdominal region.7 Ash . the consumption of cider is quite large. as previously mentioned. of burnt sugar as a coloring matter. Add to the suspected cider solution of potassium iodide if lead salt be present. by volume Extracts. and also when cold weather sets in very early. cider sall.

and in but one case was any test obtained for sulphites. This is 415 In sweet ciders for a completely fermented cider. however. those containing the most alcohol. e. while the dose of sulphites added was open in the laboratory all so large that a bottle stood through summer without souring.. which was an embodiment in itself of nearly all the adulterations which have been enumerated as possible in cider. for no salicylic acid was found. Brandy is a mixture of water and alcohol produced by the distillation of a fermented liquor. None of the samples fell below the standard proposed by the French chemists.MANUFACTURE OF CIDER. to which it should be calculated. 4927 in the table of analyses. This supposition failed to be confirmed. probably a varying each bottle. There was. and brings a very low price. . In the samples of American ciders investigated by the United States Agricultural Department (see pp. It was handsomely put up in neatlyand was of a clear. No. In Normandy the heavy ciders only are distilled. In years when there is an abundant crop of apples. The cider yielded by them does not keep well. 394. It owes its aroma to the essential oil peculiar to the substance subjected to distillation. Its tremendous bottles. 393-4). i. bright color. however. and no metallic or other adulteration was discovered. especially when there is a large product from late apples. given above. p. capped " " head of gas when uncorked gave rise at once to the suspicion that it had received some addition to produce an artificial pressure of gas. with the amount of ash and a variable content together large of carbonic acid in different bottles. the content of sugar should exceed the limit sufficiently to make up for the deficiency of alcohol. it will generally be found of advantage to distil the cider made from fallen fruit and also from early apples. Manufacture of brandy from cider. The low content of free acid. a single exception. established the fact that bicarbonate of soda quantity to the had been added. it was fully expected to find a number preserved with antiseptics.

. abundant crop of apples and barrels are scarce. also one or two thousandths of sulphuric acid. Fermentation being finished. during it has been December and January. i. the juice as it comes from the press is brought into large open vats in which fermentation progresses rapidly. makes bad brandy. the mass is subjected to distilIn order to prevent this mass from adhering to the still and scorching.416 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Sometimes the whole of the pulpy mass obtained by grind- In order to acceling the apples is submitted to distillation. erate fermentation a small quantity of hot water containing some sugar in solution is added to the mass. they being better utilized manufacture of vinegar. Cider from early apples generally ferments than that from late apples and can be distilled towards the end of December. Spoiled cider. e. i. They ferment more slowly than wild . Different qualities of cider should be distilled separately. are also subjected to distillation and produce good brandy. Plums. skilled distiller can classify them by the taste. as possible and a small quantity of straw placed upon the bottom of the still.. a piece of cloth to prevent direct contact of the mass with the heating surface. i. better. etc. and separates A them in order to obtain brandy of first and second qualities. damsons. e. from six weeks to two months after made. distillation must be conducted as slowly lation.. as a rule. The cider is distilled when it is completely fermented. is ready for distillation three months later. or four When there is an Preparation of the juice for distillation. when the largest possible quantity of sugar has been converted into faster alcohol. but in this case some beer yeast previously mixed with a small quantity of cider is added to each vat and the temperature must be maintained between 59 and 68 F. e. in March or April. Cider made from late apples. Under these conditions the juice ferments very promptly and may be distilled eight or ten days later.. or. for the Sour ciders should not be distilled. the latter regulating the progress of fermentation.

Heating should be done slowly. and especially to avoid sudden ebullition. can be converted either into brandy or vinegar.MANUFACTURE OF cherries tion CIDER. an ordinary still answering all Cider is distilled like wine. empyreumatic The first arid last runs of the still being of inferior quality are is which collected separately filling for the and poured back into the still when renext operation. would pass through the worm and become mixed with the liquor already distilled. This would prevent the often noticed in apple-brandy. which can be ascertained by the use of the It is unnecessary to say that alcoholometer or by the taste. may here be called to the distillation of wild plums. is refilled for a The would be desirable taste if this second distillation or rectification could be effected by means of steam. whereby a It liquor richer in alcohol and of a better taste is produced. about { full and after placing the head in position the joints are carefully luted by pasting strips of cloth or even paper over them. which should be gathered in the fall when the leaves begin to drop. liquid produced by successive distillations is mixed together and brought into the still a second time. and after thorough cleansing second operation. Distillation being finished. For distilling cider on a small scale no expensive apparatus is necessary. Some that from cherries. The still is filled requirements. no fruit containing sugar should it go to waste. care must be had to constantly renew and keep cold the water in the tub holding the worm. in order to vaporize as little water as possible. Calculations have been made to establish by means of figures 27 . as the boiling liquid. the boiler is emptied. 417 Atten- which produce the well-known cherry-bounce. getting into the head. In such an event it would be necessary is operation to begin distillation anew. connoisseurs consider brandy made from plums equal to On a farm. The continued until the liquid produced contains hardly any alcohol. as Distillation. The tub holding the worm is tilled with cold water and the fire started. condense in the The vapors escaping from the boiling liquid worm and run into the receiver.

They must be ripe. though still greater care must be exercised The pears must have a in the choice of the raw material. however.418 the MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. it will best. howIf. the distillation of cider. as for apple-cider." the taste of which is very much praised. of pear-cider is very limited. the of alcohol of his cider and. and washes to use a portion of them for the manufacdisposal little it is and how appreciated there ture of a beverage should add to the pear-must one-quarter its quantity of must of bitter-sweet apples or a few quarts of black currant juice. producer knows the content other. sufficient content of sugar. Hence the use of fine table pears for the preparation of cider would be simply a waste of material. which. the wild pear longer disagreeable to the palate. for the purpose are those which The only varieties when eaten from the suitable tree pro- duce a long-continued sharp heat in the throat and lie half a day undigested in the stomach. are frequently very deceptive. as even when most carefully prepared it is far inferior to apple-cider and other fruit-wines. grown in hedges is generally used for the purpose. which will improve the taste of the cider and The mode of preparation is the same its keeping qualities. as otherwise the cider would not be sufficiently rich in alcohol and at the same time they must contain a bitter substance to prevent the cider from turning sour as soon as the conversion of the sugar is effected. the cider. Its The manufacture preparation is best understood in is England. The process consists in heating 50 Ibs. of must . shown by the fact that three-fourths of the quantity manufactured is consumed by the But any one who has large pear crops at his farm-laborers. and no great future can be promised for it. but not soft or mellow. immense advantage offered in a financial point of view by These theoretical calculations. on the one hand. ever. become sweet by long storing and lose enough of their acerbity to be no In England. on the market value of the alcohol and of the be easy for him to decide which product will pay him Pear-cider. In the northern part of France pear-must is sometimes used " for the preparation of port wine.

to 419 and 185 F. white sugar in the proportion of 1J Ibs. This can. Now pour hot water over the quinces thus prepared and boil them slowly over a moderate fire until soft.PREPARATION OF FRUIT WINES. which is then allowed to ferment for 14 days. of a knife or in fruits. however. of Allow the whole to ferment in a cool room and from Clarification cider. and adding 5 pounds of raisins. When in the course of a day the must is cooled to 59 or 68 F. PREPARATION OF FRUIT WINES. A saving of sugar can be further effected without injury . Then press out the juice and add remove the down. The wine is then drawn off into stone jugs which are well corked and sealed. time to time add some sugar-water during the process. of obtaining the juice and appliances for that purpose have already been described in the previous chapter. From small fruits. makes the beverage poorer in alcohol.46 drachms less sugar can be added to the must. 5. which are generally put in a bag. of course. which. to every 20 Ibs. By increasing the dose to 8. are taken from the barrel and after bruising returned (but not inclosed in the bag) to the must. THE manner a. the raisins. A very spicy wine can be prepared from Quince Wine. At this degree of heat must and raisins are brought into a barrel which is tightly bunged and placed in a cool place.. between 176 quinces in the following simple manner Place the quinces for a few moments in hot water and then rub them with a : cloth to Next remove the cores by means any suitable manner. and racking off is effected in the same manner as with CHAPTER XXX.64 drachms of salicylic acid to every 100 quarts. One is wines from small fruits of the principal objections to that they easily turn. be overcome by adding. after fermentation is finished.

and large field for experimenting only a few hints will here be given. by itself than any other juice to J its from small its but by the addition of J weight or of strawberry-juice the aroma of the wine is greatly improved. however. 3 ounces and 5 drachms of cassia. juices. A few other mixtures of juices may be mentioned. Thus a is opened to all. the peels of 10 lemons. The latter can also be effected by bringing 2 ounces Blackberry- and 3 drachms juice is of tartar into the barrel during fermentation. ities of The flavor improving the and keeping qual- fruit-wine are also improved by throwing a couple of handfuls of crushed hazel-nuts or walnuts into the barrel. and later on treating the wine with salicylic acid. be reduced one-half by mixing with a juice containing some bitter principle. or of By working. raspberries by themselves. and a few handfuls of bruised wild plums. better adapted to ferment fruits. it being especially suitable for improvthe ing keeping quality of fruit-wine. while the juice of ded gooseberries is suitable for mixing with that of mulberries. recommended ants. Raspberry -juice should be mixed with one-quarter its volume of blackberryjuice and in the preparation of currant-wine it is especially . which can. the to use four-fifths of red to one-fifth of black curfar wine obtained being qualities. more spicy and possessing black for better keeping Moreover. The juice of rhubarb stems may be added to that of elderberries. currants used within limits are an excellent material flavor of almost all fruit-wines. about 1 pound per quart. while its keeping quality is at the same time improved. Strawberry -juice is least suitable for fermentation by itself. the juices of currant. addition of J of the volume of the juice of the Siberian crab-apple (Pyrus baccata) can be highly recommen- The for the purpose. wine by a suitable mixing of to the keeping quality of the for instance. and also by the addition of 2 ounces and 8 drachms of bitter al- monds. By these means wine with a moderate content of alcohol acquires a strong taste. .420 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. has to be made. a considerable addition of sugar. and should be mixed with must containing a bitter volume principle.

etc. however. raspberry. piece of iron.PREPARATION OF FRUIT WINES. is used. Fermentation should take place in a room having a uniform temperature of from 59 to 64 F. and strawberry -juice. 421 Moreover. an excellent wine being. In the receipts for the different varieties given below. though not and must be freed from adhering dirt by washing in over-ripe. In order to avoid repetition. but also from stone-fruits. retained.. which hold good not only for the preparation of wine from small fruits. a combination of several juices may also be used. which is kneaded and squeezed until no more juice runs out. After 6 months the wine can be drawn off into bottles. but be used should be sound and ripe. Large quantities are best expressed by means of a press. for instance. and bring the whole into a thoroughly cleansed barrel previously rinsed out with salicylated water. the for customary addition of sugar of salicylic acid is unmixed fermentation and the omission it may be repeated that with the assistance of these means the cost may be reduced one-half. with an addition of walnuts as given above. Over the residue pour as much hot water as juice is obtained. of sugar to 1 quart of water. which prevents the access of foreign substances to the must. Now add sugar in the proportion of one pound to a quart of juice. of isinglass slowly dissolved over a moderate to the it fire in 1 pint of wine. bung the barrel tightly and after 14 days draw off the contents into another barrel placed in the same room. warm water. being. As soon as the "hissing" in the barrel ceases. Whatever fining ring. and after allowing it to stand for two hours press again and mix the juice obtained with the first. 8 days previously clarified with the whites of a dozen eggs or 1 oz. currant. add it If salicylic acid is to be used. while for small quantities a bag of coarse linen is sufficient. wine with constant stiris best done in the man- . the following general rules are here given. fruit to The During this process lay a piece hole and secure it by means of a of gauze upon the open bungstone. prepared from equal parts of blackberry. Every other day the barrel is filled up to the bung-hole with sugarwater prepared in the proportion of J Ib.

the juice allowed to ferment. The proportion between these two principal constituents is very unfavorable for the manufacture of wine. salicylated water and closed with corks previously soaked for a few hours in hot salicylated water. ner described for cider degree of ripeness. the bottles must be recorked. and comparatively little sugar.. According to an anthus the wine alysis by Fresenius. shake each bottle. when the wine has acquired the The bottles should be rinsed with desired but in order to be sure that the corks fit closely. Now examine given. about 6 per cent. Sugar and acid having been brought is to the right proportion. with the right hand left under the cork. the juice content of acid and if necessary dilute further with Then calculate the sugar in the manner previously to the first. Currant wine is frequently prepared as a sweet liqueur-wine. prepared showed after two : years the following composition : . holding the with the neck downwards. may be supplemented by : the following receipts Currant Wine. about 2 per cent. The corked bottles are laid in the cellar. To the residue add twice or three times as much water as juice obtained and after again pressing add the juice obtained as to its water. Sealing the bottles is not necessary. Among all varieties of berries the currant contains the largest quantity of free acid. according to which all kinds of wine fruits can be prepared. water 200. as carelessness in this respect may cause a portion of the supply of wine to spoil. If the slightest moisture is observed. The currant juice fer- mented by that name. itself would yield a product which does not deserve Free the thoroughly ripe currants from the stems and after crushing press out the juice. from small This general method. the following directions being much used for the purpose Juice 100 parts.422 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. sugar 100.

then strain it . a solution of 12 Ibs. gradually brought into a bag of coarse linen. after adding 7 quarts of water. of for sugar every quart. vessel and. when it drawn another barrel or into Ib. After cover- ing the bung-hole with a piece of gauze. the whole is allowed to ferment in a room having a temperature of from 59 to 64 is F. 17 J Ibs. and then again pressed in the above manner.PREPARATION OF FRUIT WINES. through a hair-sieve and after adding 1 Ib.94 77. bottles. allow it to ferment. is then allowed to further ferment for six months in cellar having a temperature of from 54 off into to 59 F. According to another receipt the currants separated from .. Alcohol Free acid 10. tained is The paste thus ob- which is laid upon an oblique board.01 . thoroughly worked with a pestle. 423 0. When the principal fermentation is over. and bung up the barrel two days later. of thoroughly ripe currants freed from the stems are bruised in a wooden vessel with the addition of 3J quarts of water. By adding to the fermenting juice J of comminuted raisin stems a pro- duct closely resembling Tokay-wine is obtained.26 Water 100. the barrel The wine a is entirely filled with water and closed with a cotton bung. and pressed out by means of a The press-residues are returned to the wooden rolling-pin. juice thus obtained is brought into a barrel having a capacity of 34f quarts. of sugar in 14 quarts of water is then added.00 According to another receipt. add French brandy in the proportion of 1 quart to 40 quarts of the juice. The wine is ripe in four months.79 Sugar 11. A very strong beverage is obtained by adding to the expressed juice of currants twice the quantity of water and stirring in 2 Allow the juice to ferment for 2 days tablespoonfuls of yeast. When fermentation is nearly finished. and finally sufficient water to fill The up the barrel to within 3 inches of the bung.

then off and bottle. Excellent strawberry wine is also obtained according to the following directions Press out 10 Ibs. whereby neither the content of acid nor that of sugar is taken into consideration. strawberries should be selected. then place it in a cool cellar. until fairly Ihe gallon worked. allow the berries to ferment with the juice.5 per cent. strain the juice through berries float. mixed with an equal quaneach gallon of liquid 2J Ibs. fine with isinglass. juice the strawberry requires special treatment. a liqueur-wine is obtained which. of the stems. For the preparation of wine very fragrant Strawberry-wine. it up. and when it is done working.. with the same weight of pulverized sugar and allowing the mixture to stand in a glass or stoneware vessel in a cool place until all the sugar is dissolved to a clear syrup in which the shrunk and tasteless To separate the latter. and pour it on the expressed with 1 quart of alcohol. and subject the whole to fermentamanner at a temperature of from 50 to 59 F. a woolen cloth previously rinsed with some lemon-juice or tartaric acid. 2 ozs. sugar. Another method is to express all the juice possible. are pressed and the juice tity of water. then add 4 Ibs. This treatment consists in mixing the sound. of rock-candy. cannot be surpassed. of Then add to cream of tartar. with the bung out. dilute with the same quantity of water. The aroma of the strawberry is so delicate that it appears entirely. of pulverized nutmegs. but the wine obtained is somewhat harsh and not as delicate. squeeze out as much as there and mix. is Let it stand for 2 hours. bring tion in the usual the acid to 0.424 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. of brown sugar to each of mixture let it stand for 3 or 4 weeks. Allow the whole to ferment. bung of juice . then take an equal amount of boiling water. draw fruit. readily undergoes a change and soon disHence to secure it and transfer it into the without previous crushing or bruising. and is especially liked by ladies. and 1 oz. ripe berries. of different varieties of : . Some By finally adding to the finished wine from 4 to 5 per cent. as regards aroma.

The proportion between sugar and acid Gooseberry-wine. which give about 2J Pour water over the residue and press again. of sugar. and treat the resulting wine in the usual manner.PREPARATION OF FRUIT WINES. so as to obtain about 3 quarts more Next dissolve 4 pounds quarts." 40 quarts of strawberries and 41 quarts of water. cold water. cellar of juice or a total of 5J of rock candy in 5 quarts of Weinzeitung. though content of acid.oil are allowed to ferment and the resulting wine i& According to a receipt in the " treated in the usual manner. so that each of juice receives an addition of 1 volume of as the mixed juice has to be tested as to itswater. as regards sugar and acid. into a small cask. is somewhat more favorable in the gooseberry than in thecurrant. quarts of juice. they alone having a distinctly vinous taste . together with the 5J quarts of juice. bring the solution. It is of a beautiful pale and color an excellent possesses yellow bouquet. the berries being bruised. of sugar. in peel accordance with the rules previously given. the direction in regard to the addition of volume . and if made furnishes an excellent sparkling beverage. but not sufficiently so as that the pure juice would Hence the juice must be yield a good wine by fermentation. 3J ozs. 425 small and large cultivated strawberries. Then add to every quart of juice 1 Ib. Another method is to pour 1 quart of hot water upon 1 quart of crushed strawberries and pressing out after allowing the mass to stand for 2 days. converted into suitable must. and to every 40 quarts of juice the grated and juice of 2 lemons and 2 oranges and 4 quarts of French brandy. of tartar. the wine obtained from the red and green varieties being somewhat insipid. The juice is obtained in the same manner as from currants. The yellow varieties are preferable. with an addition of 12 Ibs. and a gallon of whiskey free from fusel . Allow the whole to ferment. In four weeks the wine is ready for drawing off into bottles. the juice allowed to run off and the residue washed several times with water. and allow the whole to ferment in a having a temperature of 61 F.

and they alone can serve as a basis for the rational preparation of gooseberry wine as well as of all artificial wines. because the fermentation of goosegenerally carried on in the warmer season of all or the greater portion of the sugar fer- ments and the wine.426 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. on account of the quantity of alcohol formed. There are a number of receipts for the preparation of gooseberry-wine. so that cent. In such wines the proportions between alcohol and free acid are well known and within such narrow limits that they cannot be essentially exceeded on either side. though for a quicker process of fermentation it is better io add the desired quantity of sugar to the fermented wine. and to be either sweet or not sweet.. will keep for an almost indefinite time. like currant-wine being liked sweet. which frequently deceives even con7 noisseurs. Thus it is also with the addition of sugar . as every one manages it according to his own taste or according to that of those who buy and drink the wine. If the must has been made quite sweet. With the aroma or bouquet which is to be imparted to such wine it is. Gooseberrywine made from must rich in sugar generall} acquires by age an odor of Madeira-wine. but no special directions are required. but when more closely examined the products prepared according to them will be found either more or less rich in alcohol. Gooseberry-wine. one likes a sweet wine. a larger quantity of sugar may be added to the must from the ^tart. principal The and the third one to prepare a wine to insure its . The must may contain ivater need not be accurately followed. aim is which contains the necessary quantity of alcohol without any sugar. so that. or to contain more or less free acid. so that a wine rich in alcohol is formed. -as much as 30 per berry-must is the year. no fear need be had of the wine fermenting anew on account of the addition of sugar. nothing is for all artificial wines gained thereby as regards quality.the proportion can evidently be It is further evident that -changed in any manner desired. of course. because the type is grape wine obtained in a good season. the other one less sweet. different .

is . which are then The wine is then hermetically corked and tied with twine. When all the yeast is precipitated to the neck of the bottle. sembles that of genuine champagne. the cork. towards which the mouth of the bottle is held during the operation. In most oases the natural conditions are of great use in this respect. and sometimes complete not wanting in alcohol. while the clear wine impregnated with carbonic acid remains behind. In France a light wine which does not contain too many fermentable substances is used. and the power of resistance against decomposing influences. will keep for an almost indefinite time and may be exposed to the access of air and a high temperature without the appearance of the formation of acetic acid. The wine thus impregnated with carbonic however. Such wine. whereby the quantity of fermentable substances is also relatively decreased. the sediment is carefully removed degorgie as it is termed by first raising the string securing the cork and then the latter. To prevent the unavoidable loss of wine. Somewhat less than 2 per cent. and from which the greater portion of the fermentable substances is removed by fermentation. The cork being no longer held by the string is forced out together with the deposit of yeast. acid. There are several modes of its production. When fermentation is finished. of sugar. the bottles are brought into a cool cellar and placed first horizontally and then gradually bottom uppermost so that the yeast may collect on the cork and the wine become clear. or about 15 grammes to a bottle of 800 cubic centimeters' capacity. if even such an extent that they do not fermentation of the sugar. is dissolved in the wine and the latter drawn off into strong champagne bottles. allowed to ferment in a room having a temperature of from 77 to 99 F. to suffice for the The taste of this beverage closely reGooseberry Champagne. together with the yeast and wine forced out. the bottle being held in a horizontal position.PREPARATION OF FRUIT WINES. is collected in an upright barrel with a large aperture. 427 keeping properly. for in order to decrease the content of free acid it becomes necessary to dilute the fruit juices.

The wine is sweetened and clarified in the same manner as in the impregnating method and then drawn off into bottles. and after clarifying the solution by filtering through paper pulp in a bag. The wine is then saturated under a pressure of 4J to 5 atmospheres with the desired quantity of carbonic acid and at once drawn off into bottles. long experience being required before the workman possesses the necessary skill. add first to each bottle 11 drachms of pure crystallized bicarbonate of potash and immediately afterwards 1 oz. Then close the bottle with the cork and secure the latter by tying or wiring it crosswise. Each is a cork which secured with twine or wire. of pure crystallized tartaric acid in pieces.428 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. not yet champagne it only becoming so after the addition of a solution of fine rock-candy in brandy with which the bottle is filled bottle after receiving the necessary quantity of the solution. the content of the latter may be not yield as fine a product. which are corked and wired as above. or. The potash and acid are now brought to solution by gently swinging the bottle to and fro. or liqueur as it is termed. which is also called the impregnating method. it is taken to the impregnating apparatus. The following method is the most simple of all. increased by 10 per cent. if necessary. After having filled the bottles about 1.52 cubic inches less than generally. of this last named method consists in the rapidity with which champagne can be made. In case the wine is not rich enough in alcohol. the contents becoming at the same time turbid by the separation of bitar- . but does Each bottle is finished by itself and no special apparatus is required. is Removing the deposit of yeast the most difficult portion of this operation. with some isinglass. one similar to that used for mineral water answering the purpose. 30 to 36 months being required for the first method before the champagne is The advantage ready for transportation. According to another method. . the sugar required for sweetening is dissolved in the wine. is at once closed with up.

trate of potash. separated tartar



collected as

placing the bottle bottom upwards, the much as possible upon the

in the

lower surface of the cork, and after the wine is clear, removed same manner as described in the first method. It is

not absolutely necessary to remove all the tartar, as it settles on the bottom and the champagne will pour out clear. According to any of these methods all fruit wines can be

converted into champagne or sparkling wines. Semler gives the following directions for the preparation of Pour 20 quarts of warm water over gooseberry champagne.

20 quarts of crushed gooseberries and add 6 Ibs. of sugar, 4| of honey, 1 oz. of pulverized tartar, J oz. of dried lemon After standing for two peel, and f oz. of dried orange peel.

days strain the mixture through a hair-sieve into a barrel and add 2 quarts of French brandy. When the " hissing " in the
barrel ceases, clarify the wine and after a few days draw it off into bottles, securing the corks with wire. Before filling the bottles throw a piece of sugar and J drachm of bicarbonate of

soda into each.
Raspberry Wine.
refreshing taste

and odor

Raspberries have such an agreeable and that, while they are not very sweet

and the proportion

of acid to sugar is not very favorable, they are great favorites. Their aroma passes into the wine and would be even too predominant if for the preparation of wine

the juice had not to be strongly diluted with water in order to decrease the acid.


the weather, and

in all other fruit, the quality of the raspberry depends on when this is favorable during the time of the

development and maturing of the fruit, the latter is sweet and No palatable, but in cold and wet seasons, sour and harsh. other fruit suffers as much from such conditions as the raspberry.

wild raspsmaller than the cultivated but possesses a stronger berry aroma, but unfortunately is too frequently infested with the larva of many insects to render it always palatable. The culis

We have the wild


-cultivated raspberry.


tivated raspberry


considerably larger, and




by worms, but possesses

aroma and


frequently even

watery. To obtain the juice for the preparation of wine the thoroughly ripe raspberries are crushed to a paste in a wooden tub by

means of a wooden pestle. To separate the grains, the paste is forced through a fine wire sieve, which, in order to protect it from the acid is best provided with a coat of asphalt or shellac
It is, however, no disadvantage to allow the grains ferment with the pulp, some tannin being thereby intro-

duced into the wine, which under certain circumstances
be even desirable.


The content

of acid in the raspberry varying considerably in

different years, a test of the juice in this respect becomes absolutely necessary in order to enable one to dilute it in. the correct proportion

with water.


this purpose press out a small

quantity of the crushed raspberries and determine the acid in the manner previously given. The sugar contained in the raspberry need not be taken into consideration, since by dilution it

reduced to 1 per cent, and still less. The must is simply brought up to 25 per cent, of fruit-sugar and allowed to fer-


in the usual


The treatment

of the




the same as for other fruit wanes.

Blackberry wine is prepared in the same manner as raspberry Of the numerous directions for its preparation we give wine.
the following Gather the berries on a dry day, crush them with the hand into a kettle, and add just enough hot water to

cover the mass.

Then add

a handful of bruised raisins and a

handful of strawberry leaves, from the heart of the mother plant, or, still better, from the suckers, and allow the mass to
stand for four days, when a crust of yeast will have formed on the surface. The mass is now pressed out and sugar in the

Fermentation proportion of 1 pound to every 4 quarts added. is allowed to go on for two weeks, when the barrel is bunged up and* the wine drawn off after six months. During fermentation,



and especially in the beginning of it, care must be had up the barrel.



To make from blackberries a beverage resembling port-wine the following method is recommended Press out the juice and allow it to stand for 36 hours. While fermenting during this

time remove


scum from the



add of water,

one-fourth the quantity of juice, and 3 pounds of brown sugar to every 4 quarts of fluid and filter after 32 hours. Fermentation, which requires but a few days, being finished, bung up the barrel tightly and after six months draw off the wine.


improves by age. Mulberry Wine. Press the juice from the


fruit, dilute


the same quantity of water, add 1 pound of sugar for every Then add for quart of liquid, and boil the whole j- hour.

every 100 quarts, 3 quarts of alcohol, 6J ounces of tartar, 1 ounce of cassia, and J ounce of bruised bitter almonds, and
allow the whole to ferment.


further treatment of the



the same as for other fruit-wines.

Boil equal quantities of berries and water Elderberry Wine. one-half hour, pour the whole into a hair-sieve, press the pulpy portion of the berries gently through with the hand and remove the residue. Compound the strained juice with sugar
in the proportion of { As soon as cool bring


to 1 quart, and boil 20 minutes. into a barrel to ferment. Fermenta-

stiff brown paper over the bungand after weeks draw off the wine in bottles. hole, eight Another method is to boil 50 quarts of water, 10 quarts of

tion being finished, paste

elderberries, 40 pounds of sugar, 5 ounces of pulverized ginger^ and 2J ounces of cloves for 1 hour, with constant skimming. Then bring the liquid together with 4 pounds of crushed raisins into a barrel and allow it to ferment. At the termination of the fermentation it will yield a wine similar to the Cyprus^

or Greek-wine.

70 quarts of water, 35 pounds of crushed 10 quarts of juniperberries, 4 ounces of tartar, 1 quart of French brandy, and a handful of fresh marjoram leaves
Juniperberry Wine.

are brought into a barrel ment for 12 hours.

and the mixture


allowed to fer-



every 5 pounds of the thinly-sliced stalks 2 \ quarts of soft water and bring the whole into a clean wooden vessel. Cover the latter and stir the contents with a

Rhubarb Wine.


one week. Then pass the a wide-meshed sieve and add to every 3 quarts, fluid through 4 pounds of white sugar, the juice of 2 lemons, and the peel


stick three times daily for

lemon rubbed upon sugar. Allow the mixture to ferment and after clarifying, draw the wine off into bottles in March. The variety of rhubarb known as Victoria is best adapted for the preparation of wine, which can also be effected according to the following directions Cut up the stalks and express To every gallon of juice add 1 gallon of soft water the juice. and 7 pounds of brown sugar. Bring the mixture into a barrel and allow it to ferment until clear, with the bung out, keeping the barrel filled with sweetened water as it works over then bung the barrel tightly or draw the wine off into bottles. It makes an agreeable and healthful wine affording a good profit, as nearly 1800 gallons of wine may be obtained from
of 1
in a barrel,
: ;

each acre of well-cultivated plants. The stalks will furnish about three-fourths their weight in juice.

Tomato Wine.
to each

quart of


Press out the juice from ripe tomatoes, add 1 pound of brown sugar, and allow the


to ferment.

After three months the wine can be drawn

off into bottles.

Cut 12 pounds of parsnips into thin pieces, Parsnip Wine. add 15 quarts of water and boil until soft. Then press out the juice and after straining through a hair-sieve sweeten with After again boiling for j hour it j pound of sugar per quart. is brought, when cold, into a barrel and a tablespoonful of
Stir the juice daily for 10 days, then bung up yeast is added. the barrel tightly and after six months draw off the wine into

In the same manner wine


be prepared from carrots,

clover heads, corn stalks, etc. It is, however, recommended to add to the juice some aromatic substance such as a handful



of marjoram, almonds, plum kernels, currants, walnuts, ginger, or still better a few quarts of black currant juice.


Stone sweet cherries Cherry Wine. the to a crushing pulp paste allow it to ferment in stoneware pots for 12 hours. Then press out the juice, which is returned to the pots and allowed to stand until yeast fungi


Stone Fruits.


of sugar to every 3 quarts of must, bring the latter into a barrel and allow it to ferment 8 days. Then rack the wine into bottles and keep in a cool place. The preceding is the method followed in Engrise

to the surface.





land where pure cherry wine




remarked that

it is




may, however, be mixture of the juice

of cherries with that of the raspberry or currant can, however, be highly recommended, it yielding a beverage similar to port


It is

an American receipt and


preferable to the

Press the freshly gathered cherries, black or red, English. but selecting those with the softest pulp, without crushing the

the juice obtained add one-eighth of its quantity each of raspberry and black currant juice, and sweeten with


lump sugar in the proportion of 1 pound to 2J quarts The whole is then brought into a barrel to ferment.
rest for three

of juice.


finished close the barrel tight
clarify to drink in six weeks.

It is


and allow the wine and draw


it off

into bottles.

Morello Wine.

the stones,


Press 60 pounds of morellos so as to crush the juice obtained with 20 quarts of sherry

wine and the same quantity of warm water, and bring the whole into a barrel to ferment. Suspend in the barrel a bag containing 1J ounces each of cinnamon, powdered nutmeg and mace, allowing it to remain until drawing off the wine. The latter is very palatable in two months after fermentation


plums are suitable for the preparation of wine, but the Heine Claude and Mirabelle can be highly recommended, the latter especially making as spicy and agreeable wine as any variety of fruit. With the almost
all varieties







varieties of


it is

are suitable for the preparation of wine
varieties only should

not possible to say which and which are not. It

can only be determined by experiment, though right sweet be chosen. In this country the small

sweet variety known as the wheat plum, etc., is frequently The process is as follows Stone the used for the purpose.

plums, then bruise the pulp, and add to every 8 pounds of the latter 3 quarts of hot water. After 2 days press out the juice
to every two quarts of it one pound of sugar. Now into a the barrel in a cool room and add the juice bring of the stones. Allow the whole to fercrushed kernels of

and add


ment completely. After 12 months the wine is clarified and drawn off into bottles, each of which receives a small piece of
which improves the keeping qualities of .the wine. Both these varieties of fruit are Apricot and Peach Wines. used when nearly ripe. Remove the stones and crush the pulp to a paste. For every 8 pounds of the latter add 1 quart of Then fresh soft water, and let the mass stand 24 hours. press out the juice, add for every 2 quarts of it 1 pound of During fermentation it is recsugar, and allow it to ferment. ommended to throw a handful of the crushed stones into the barrel, which gives to the product a more spicy flavor. This beverage is not to be deSloe or Wild Plum Wine.

prepared in the manner given for plum wine. The must, however, remain on the bushes until after the first which sweetens them.









THE use of hermetically closed tin cans for preserving fruit has become of great commercial importance. Before discussing

the various ways which have proved

more or

less satis-

factory for


household purposes will be briefly mentioned. following rules apply, however, to all methods



must be gathered in dry weather and when


from dew.

be kept as free from dust as possible. sound fruit, not over-ripe, should only be Absolutely
It is to





should be preserved immediately after gather-


The utensils used must be kept scrupulously clean. The preserving vessels should not be placed directly

upon the


good quality of white sugar only should be used

brown sugar injuring the taste and color of the fruit. 7. Copper or enameled pans alone should be used

for boil-



in glass.

ing, if the latter is not effected

The spoons should

be of wood or of bone.
jars or cans should be thoroughly rinsed, best with salicylated water, and if corks are to be used they should be


perfectly sound and scalded in hot water to cylic acid has been added.

which some


Small jars or cans are preferable to large ones, and they should be kept in a dark, cool, dry place. Bottled fruits should always be sterilized for 10 minutes, from the time the boiling-point is reached, in the case of J-bottles, 12 minutes for J-bottles, and 15 minutes for fullsized bottles.


in the case of halved apricots

and peaches

and similar





should a few

minutes extra be allowed.
heated, for instance,

Fruits that change color


white .pears, peaches and gooseberries should be separated after sterilizing in order to accelerate
cooling. First

may be mentioned the old French method, known as au Baine-Marie, which on account of its simplicity, is still much used. Berries require no preparation, but peaches,
apricots and plums must be stoned and halved, and cherries and small plums stoned. Apples arid pears are peeled and quartered and immediately thrown into boiling water for 4


to bleach,


are then laid a few minutes

upon a

sieve to dry, and brought, like other fruit, by means of a spoon into wide-necked glass jars which are rilled to within 2 inches In placing the fruit in the jar press it well toof the edge.


The empty space




composed of 2 parts of sugar and 1 part of after heating them somewhat upon a stove, are placed in boiling water for 8 minutes for kernel fruit and for 10 minutes for
stone-fruit or berries.

up with hot syrup water, and the jars,


jars are then

immediately corked



According to another French method, the flesh of the fruit Stone-fruits and berries only is preserved without boiling. can be used. The fruit is pressed through a, hair-sieve and

the pulp


mixed with an equal weight of pulverized sugar. The mixture is then brought into glass bottles, which are



through the winter, or

fruit-pulp keeps, however, only kept in a cold place or in a refrig-

The following method

gives better satisfaction




such as cherries, berries, plums, peaches, apricots, etc., is, without the addition of water, brought into wide-necked glass
jars in such a manner that a layer of fruit alternates with a layer of sugar, the top layer being sugar. The jars are then

up with salicylated parchment paper, placed in a waterbath, and the water kept boiling for 15 to 30 minutes, according to the variety of

small fruit requiring


time than

The jars are then large, and berries only about 1G minutes. For closing jars with narrow stored in a cool, dark place. mouths corks are preferable. They are soaked in hot salicylated water and sealed.
Fruit thus preserved retains its fresh, natural appearance and keeps for a considerable time. If appearance is, however, of secondary consideration, it is better to boil the fruit, as is

done with kernel


melons, and

preparation for this method the fruit. Apples and pears must be peeled, and, if not too large, only cored, otherwise they have to be halved or quartered.

The large varieties. varies according to the nature of

Melons are peeled and cut into


Quinces are

steamed until

and the cores removed.

then peeled as clean as possible, quartered, After this preparation the fruit is

brought into the preserving kettle and as much water as is necessary for boiling added. Boiling should be done very
slowly and continued until the fruit commences to get soft. It should not be boiled too soft, but only sufficiently so to




the fruit

absorb the sugar-liquor. When this is the case from taken the fire and strained, and with the liquor

a syrup of the following composition is prepared For each fruit of of take one and in soak it pound pound J pint sugar of the liquor. It is then placed upon the fire and the resulting

syrup skimmed.




boils the fruit


introduced and

slowly boiled, or rather simmered, because pieces, for five to ten minutes, according to
jars, in

must not
softer or

fall to









which no vacuum must remain.
to the cork, or if bladder or

then brought into the Hence they must be


for closing

able to

parchment paper is used, them up to the rim. In the latter case it is advisplace upon the surface a close-fitting piece of paper,

previously saturated with a concentrated solution of salicylic acid in rum. Currants, blackberries and grapes are sometimes They are first washed in preserved in their natural clusters.
fresh water, then slowly boiled soft, and strained. With the liquor a syrup of the previously mentioned composition is

prepared, which fruit in the jars.



and skimmed and poured upon the

Fine table pears are sometimes preserved in the following

Eight large pears are placed in a syrup prepared from 6 ounces of sugar, 3 ounces each of cloves and allspice, J pint of water, and J pint of port wine or other sweet red In this syrup they are boiled very slowly as much as wine.


until soft, and, while still warm, are brought towith the syrup into jars, which are treated in the gether

3 hours

manner previously described. By taking equal parts of pears and of fine plums a very beautiful product is obtained. The boiling down of fruit in large stoneware pots is frequently accompanied by mishaps, and is more and more superseded by other methods. It consists in dissolving J to f pound of sugar in water and boiling the resulting syrup together with
the fruit until the whole forms a jelly-like mass. While still warm the pots, which must be full, are tied up with bladder.
piece of salicylated paper should be placed of the fruit before tying up the pots.


upon the


This method, as previously Preserving in Air-Tight Cans. The has become of commercial mentioned, importance. great number of factories, briefly termed canneries, has largely increased,

and not a few of them employ 1,000 hands during the



do not limit themselves to the would have to cease operacanning tions during the winter months, but that branch of the busifactories

Of course these

of fruit, as otherwise they

ness preponderates over all others.
suitable material

The search after other more extended, and the tradeconstantly

of a large English factory


contains 200 different

a portion of which returned in this to the tropics. state is, singularly enough, The American trade-lists embrace, as a rule, three groups, viz








pears, peaches, apricots,



raspberries, blackberries, currants, cranberries, whortleberries,

nectarines, grapes, cherries,


cocoanuts, pineapples,


green walnuts. Peas, beans, beans with pork, corn, tomatoes, asparagus,

pickles, cauliflower, horseradish, mushrooms, catchups, succotash, plum-pudding, sweet potatoes. 3. All kinds of poultry, venison, salmon, lobster, crawfish,
carrots, onions,

oysters, crabs, beef,
pig's feet,

mutton, pork, eels, salt-water fish, ham, beef tongue, lamb's tongue, frog legs, mussels, etc. All the varieties of fruit named in the first group being not

-equally well adapted for canning, the less suitable kinds are only used in small quantities. Plums and cherries are preferably stoned, as well as peaches and apricots. Heart-cherries,

black raspberries and whortleberries are the best suitable

varieties of fruit for canning, as they loose their agreeable by steaming. Strawberries also become somewhat insip-

but red raspberries are excellent provided they are canned as soon as possible after being gathered. Blackberries are not

quite so good


when plucked, they
have too many


brought into the can immediately an agreeable dish. Currants and are better used for jelly. Black

currants are well suited




by bakers for


canning, and in this state are Gooseberries canned before
the smaller stone fruit

entirely ripe are very good.


the Mazard cherry has few superiors, as if carefully canned it retains its shape, color, and aroma as on the tree. Most plums



are suitable for canning, provided they are stoned. Among the kernel fruits the quince occupies the first rank, as it is the only variety of fruit which gains by steaming. Pears are very
suitable for canning, and even the inferior qualities can be used for the purpose. Apples, however, must be carefully selected, and only sweet varieties with firm flesh should be

The Siberian crabapple can be highly recommended
a general rule fruit for canning should have a firm flesh aroma, these conditions being found in all the vari-

for the purpose.



eties preferred

States, whose canned goods can be found in every large city of the world. Next to the variety of fruit, the cans are of the greatest imMuch has been said and written in regard to them, portance. and the discussion pro and con will very likely be continued. Glass jars have some advantages. They are comparatively an allow of of their contents and the ready cheap, inspection of a and are not attacked leak, recognition by the vegetable acid. But, nevertheless, they have not been introduced into

by the packers in the United

general use because they are liable to break, and, being heavy, increase the cost of transportation, and, finally, it is difficult to The sealing of a bottle with a narrow close them air-tight.


is quite a different thing from sealing one with an aperture three inches in diameter. It may do for pickles, marmalade

or jelly, but for preserved fruits which are to be transported long distances it cannot be depended on. The same objections may be made to stoneware jars, which possess the further disdifficult to discover.

advantage .that their contents cannot be inspected and a leak is Nevertheless, they are used by some large
English factories for the reason, it is claimed, of keeping their To faciliproducts free from influences deleterious to health.

tate sealing, the jars are generally small

of about one pound but their use is very Tin cans have many defects, capacity. are almost extensive, and in the United States they exclusively

employed. Complaint has been frequently made that the use of tin cans is deleterious to health because the tin contains lead,

To completely overcome all complaints against solder. For preparing the composition mix the soluble with the insoluble silicate. not limited to this department alone. cans are coating consists of silicate of lirne or glass-powder previously treated with hydrofluoric acid. but it cannot be denied that the solder to health may readily become injurious and in cases of poison investigated United States and England it could in every case be shown that the respective cans were soldered on the inside.* In the canneries in the United States the cans are manufactured in a special department. or a dilute solution with any other suitable acid. The insoluble constituent of this in the tin. as well as against a content of lead manufactured which are provided inside with a thin coating whereby the contents are protected from contact with the metal. tin of contain lead. This far. shrimps. The time will is very likely not very distant when such soldering be entirely done away with. but is the supreme law in the entire establishment. the cans with parchment paper. while the soluble constituent is silicate of metals alkali soda or of potash. line is cut by a * In this country some packers of lobsters. The fixed or is removed by means of a bath containing a dilute solution of hydrofluosilicic acid.. and that only in an infinitesimal qualities T quantity in the . tin plates are of a brush.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. which remains fixed no matter how the plates may be handled and worked. or dipped in a The The plates thus acquire a glass-like coating. . In the same department the solder etc. and the division of labor is carried so far that every can passes through eight hands before it is finished and only with such a system is it possible to turn out large quantities in an incredibly short time. however. or a precipitated gelatinous silicate. coated with this mixture by means bath of it and then dried by heat. which is 441 dissolved by the vegetable acid and transferred to the In reply it has been said that only the inferior fruit-s} rup. Any silicate of earthy bases or may be used. reaching division of labor is.

who place them upon small trucks running upon rails and transport them to the depart- ment where the filling in takes place. and hence In most factories the very carefully skimmed in boiling. over to the peelers and stoners. pieces. The filling of the cans with the fruit and syrup. cations for the different varieties of All manufacturers agree. which are handed over to boys. and off-bearers removing and sorting the waste. In the same department the syrup of sugar and water is prepared. so that each can has exactly the weight upon which the selling price is. and that the syrup must be perfectly clear.442 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. vided with a hole the size of The caps. The workmen are paid by the piece.000. of consists of syrup sugar water. is effected with the assistance of scales. the partially -and even the stones are utilized. as they are sold either to Other workmen are nurserymen or to chemical factories. are then soldered . machine into small three-cornered leaky cans do not exceed 5 in 1. previously proa small pea. occupied in placing the peeled and stoned fruit in the cans. and the pair. the waste being used in manufacture of jelly and partially in distilling. the latter being generally kept warm. Nothing is thrown away. In regard to this point every which also extend to modififruit. so that those which prove leaky may be returned to him for reBy this system there is no waste of material. but if the proportion of composition were asked a different answer would be received in every cannery. with which he is expected to solder a certain number of -cans. and each solderer has a number which is stamped in every can he solders. manufacturer has his own ideas. and light-brown sugar for dark- colored. Each workman receives a certain quantity by weight of solder and of charcoal. in 1 pint of 1 dissolved used Ib. based. however. and the sound turned . In another department the fruit is carefully inspected on long tables the unsound being thrown out. that the best quality of white sugar should be used for light-colored fruits. who of course work with the most improved machines. There are carriers bringing uninterruptedly fresh fruit.

being filled. the cap sinks if but it is elastic and jumps back the can is down. according to the variety of the fruit Berries 15 minutes.000 cans per retort day. so that is rails leading into Eight such trucks can be introduced at one time. Another apparatus which can be highly recommended for small factories consists of a round iron plate resting upon a brick base about one foot high. 443 upon the cans. the succeeding process. The hole in the cap serves for the escape of the air during. in a bath of soda water and then rinsed off with cold fresh water. The perfect cans are labeled and packed and are now ready for market. The cans remain in the retort from 15 to 30 minutes. quinces and tomatoes 30. apples : The and pears 25. slowly what is called a "swellhead. They are then transferred to the store room. If everything is in order.000 to 40. stone-fruits 20. where they remain standing quietly for one week. A pipe communicating . is It is used which resembles in shape a ship's steam boiler. The door is then opened.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. The cans to the number of from 400 to 600 are placed upon trucks which run upon the retort. may be required. is possible to steam from 30." and is returned to the tin-shop for repairs and is then again steamed. Different kinds of apparatus are used for the expulsion of In large factories a steam retort the air by heating the cans. and is divided in the center so that as it can be filled either half or entirely with steam. where the cap holes are soldered up. and the cylinder is then drawn down and screwed air-tight to the plate. To cleanse the cans and make them shiny they are next put. and after the steam has somewhat dispersed the trucks are quickly pushed to the tin-shop. Two round iron rods run up to each from the other opposite edge of this plate and serve as a support for a movable iron cylinder open at the bottom and closed on top. Upon the iron plate the cans are placed in the form of a pyramid. when they are tested by striking the cap of each a short sharp blow with a wooden hammer. provided with a door closing air-tight. the door is closed and the pipe communicating with the steam boiler opened.

above. perature to should take about two hours to bring the tem212 F.444 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. After they have been boiled for about ten minutes. are not A workman watches perforated. later on under described meat canning "Preservation of Meat. in boiling water. and are then covered with water in the vessels. glass vessels being generally used. the further treatment of which is the same as given certain time. in lightly corked and boiled in a bath of concentrated which they are stood upright as fully immersed as The bath is heated very slowly to avoid cracking possible. Fish and Eggs" is frequently used for the more expensive kinds of vegetables. The canning is of tomatoes.. and as soon as the latter is connected with the plate steam is admitted. the cylinder pushed up. the bath is allowed to cool to about 140 F. according to the For this purpose the cans old method. In this case the caps. After a which corresponds with that previously given. with or without a little of asparagus. the steam is shut off. the cans while they remain in the water and by tool removes those from which small bubbles arise. which is again soldered up after the escape of the heated air. The vegeetc.. Sticks vessels The brine. In some factories the cans are still heated. asparagus and other vegetables that no syrup is used. and the corks are driven in . tables are first cleaned and trimmed. but soldered down air-tight. are salt. whereupon the contents of the glasses will also boil. with the steam-boiler enters the cylinder. are stood on end. The rest after being heated are also brought to the tin-shop. such as asparagus. where the caps are perforated with a hole the size of a small pea. 100 at a time are placed upon an iron plate attached to a steam-crane and submerged for 15 to 20 minutes in boiling water in a large shallow kettle. effected in a similar manner except The Appert process for green peas. The brine is then brought to the boil. and the cans removed. or whole beans. It now the glass. means of a Such cans being not air-tight are returned to the tin-shop for repairs.

and when the bath is quite cold.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. The . Our ancestors had no idea that this small red berry. The top of the cork should be rough so that it may adhere better to the paraffin. Starr. become of and form one of our most important articles of is mammoth food. Fused paraffin is for all fined cork ferments in them have been destroyed. The paraffin should come flush with the edge of the jar. the next thing is the erection of the buildings these are generally one story in height and as large and roomy as the capital will warrant. the canning of tomatoes may serve as a type for all other vegetables a description of the process. for such was about its size. and should be tied over with vegetable parchment to prevent it from cracking and flaking off. tightly. next step is to secure the requisite supply of fruit. and for years the industry infancy until the breaking-out of the War of the Rebellion caused a demand that rapidly grew into gigantic proportions. and for . would ever. The vegetables will then keep for as long as the vessels are unopened. the glasses are taken out. Having made up mind to engage in it on an average scale. the packer will find a suitable plot of ground. J. But such The exact time when the now great industry of canning this vegetable commenced cannot be established with any certainty. of Salem. It was known as the loveapple and considered a curiosity. while of labor millions of dollars are invested in the payment and may have a clear idea of the busi- we will commence with the beginning. N. 445 then poured over them. tomato seems struggled in to be its an acquired one. The taste for the actually the case to-day. first if possible. on a navigable stream. for which we are in- As debted to Mr. and to-day finds the tomato-canning industry employing an army of men. In order that our readers ness his women and children. The tomato was for many years found only in hot-houses and conservatories of the rich. is here given. Having secured this. the erection of plants. even size under careful cultivation. and the paraprevents any more from getting access to them. Richard T.

complete. done with a load of tomatoes is. of course. the land which is to be planted is heavily manured and plowed and carefully worked until it becomes mellow. and in which none of the to be The arrangement The first thing help are obliged to interfere with one another. ing in all kinds of weather Tomatoes arrivand conditions must. a matter most but the of taste. having by this time grown to the phates. or the latter part of a bright day. height of 6 or 8 inches. After being weighed the tomatoes are handed over to the scalder. and then hills about four feet apart are made. the cradle is then raised and the to clean and scald them dumped A tomatoes are poured into kettles receive them. first and as soon as the sun drives the frost from the ground the farmer prepares his beds and sows his seed. With a favorable season the farmer should commence delivering to the factory about the middle of August. or else to take many tons. into with this purpose the farmers are drawn on and contracts entered them in which the packer agrees to take the entire so marketable product of a certain number of acres.446 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. While the latter is growing. is one where everything moves in a straight line. not only be washed but scalded. who . set in front of the scalder to . is called the " scalder. in our opinion. are taken from the beds. and on a cloudy day. to weigh them. transplanted and tended about as other growing crops." they are few seconds suffice into the boiling water beneath. of course. and at the command of the man at the rope. so as to thoroughly loosen the skin from the pulp. and for this purpose platform scales are built at an end door and the wagons driven on them. and into each one is put a small quantity of compost of phosThe tomato plants. and to do this quickly and properly. a heavy box of white pine is fitted with both steam and water pipes. On the back of this is placed a box. and as the farmer hands off his baskets they are emptied into this box. of a canning factory is. of course. and attached to it is an iron cradle swinging on hinges and raised and lowered by a wheel and pulley suspended above. These contracts are generally made about the of the year.

447" While this has been going on a group of women and girls have been filing into the factory and seating themselves along the trays that are to receive the tomatoes from the scalder. Some are very good. and provided at their own expense with a neat water-proof apron. files. The tomatoes aredumped from the kettles in front of them. and everything he uses before him. This leads to a drain.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. Taking the tray. every man thinks his the best. which are then set on the filling table "and receive " the fruit is cleared away in words them or other off. wiped dry The with sponges. irons. and cappers each one has his own fire-pot. 40 it 60 buckets a day. which carries it to the creek or wherever else it is to go. and all have the plunger which forces the fruit into the cans the treadles of some of them are moved by hand and some by steam. and the cap placed over the opening. he rapidly applies by table. They are then placed in trayseach holding either 10 or 12 cans and removed to the " wiping where everything is cleared from the top. and they remove rapidly the already loosened skins and cores and deposit the prepared fruit in a bucket sitting beside them. breadth and depth. These trays are of different construction. and as they receive 4 cents per bucket will be seen they make fair wages. the various ways of getting rid of the water and juice." . there being so many shapes and many makes. and so it goes but in one respect they all agree they have a hopper into which the fruit is poured* from the buckets. each of them furnished by the packer with a bowl and knife. but are similar as regards length. the only difference being in. At each tray are from ten to twelve women. some very poor. " " stand directly in front of the wiping table. from the top of the can so that the solder used in capping: them will not become chilled. Standing just beyond to 1 women are the machines which fill the cans. They become so efficient that a smart. active woman will frequently skin from. To describethem would be impossible. Thisis generally done by making a slat frame fit in the bottom and> over a trough fastened under the tray. The machines rapidly fill can after " can. : ." top the .

and improved machinery are used. and nailed up. the same. when it This is taken by the boxer. mended. but all the way from 30 to 50 minutes is required. In the foregoing an outline of the packing process has been of course. brush. one girl sitting on one side of the table with paste-pan. are -constructed similarly to the scalder. detect . and two smart boys will place the cans on the girl labels a can she pushes it from her. and then with the iron melts means The can is then vented the solder and puts it in the groove. of a small brush the acid or flux necessary to make the solder flow freely around the cap. The cans are now ready for the next thing. but which often reThe best method is sult in much confusion and poor work. put in the box. and as the gang will label from As a 700 to 900 cases in a day the work progresses rapidly. table. it is ." The baths. The cans are placed in wire or iron crates. to divide the help into parties of five. where the air can pass through them.448 MANUFACTURE OP VINEGAJR. and when " they are cold are tested. and they do not affect the mode not thought necessary to enter into any description of them. The table is of course alongside the pile of cans. thrown will paste the ends of the labels as fast as the other four can put them on the cans. The testers become so expert that they can instantly by the sound an imperfect or leaking can these are out." generally by striking them with an awl. and put back in the pile. In result many is. lowered into the boiling water. but as the of packing. and a thin cedar cover over each one. Labeling is done in different ways. re-pressed. They are then taken from the bath and placed on a slat-floor. which is labeling. mode is simple and effective. and some canners with an idea of saving labor employ devices which are not only hard on the young girls who do the work. irons. and labels and the The one girl. if quick and active. except in size. fits the different factories. and allowed to remain as long The time of working varies in as necessary to cook them. and is ready for the "bath. capping of the larger factories patent processing kettles. other four opposite her.

day after day. but nothing has been said of the many trials and vexaIf everything went always smoothly.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. It would be an impossibility to correctly state the amount The canner . will early in the season employ his hands and commence in a small way. He may start and run only two or three hours. 29 . help got together. rapidly matures. and the preparation of which has become of some importance. 449 given. though it has also been introduced on the continent of Europe and in the tropics. The work must go on. and at last the agony is over. and machinery breaks. Then. . each owned by an impatient farmer standing in the street waiting his turn to unload. which is used as a condiment with meat. and he finds the products of 400 or 500 acres of perishable fruit at his doors. soil late falls and the being particularly well adapted for raising it In connection with the canning of tomatoes may be of interest to our readers to give the preparation of Under the name of catchup or catsup a thicklyCatchups. fluid sauce comes into commerce. and immense quantities of them are manufactured in the American canning establishments. Maryland and Delaware pack a large proportion of the goods. Everywhere where Anglo-Saxons reside catchup is found. the nature of the tomatoes. itable "glut" commences. and for that length of time boilers will have to be fired up. and from early morning until way into the night. The varieties most liked are tomato and walnut catchups. and at the close the factory cleaned the same as if he had run the day out. tions of a canner's life. but it does not. as the crop work becomes and at last the inevheavier. The States of New Jersey. as be as it would pleasant any other business. and the crop coming in again gradually gives a little relief to the overworked people. the week goes on help succumbs. of capital invested or the number of persons employed in the industry. That is the time he has need of nerve help must be secured. everything and everybody pushed to their utmost endurance. maybe 50 wagons. but the factory must move in storm and in sunshine.

receipt can be given that will suit all in regard to the amount of the different condiments to be used as each person No has ideas of his own. the trimmings are made into catchup. The receipts for making this favorite catchup are innumerable. while in others the pulp made is into the pulping from raw tomatoes. but all catchup should be made hotter than desired.450 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and should those of every packer and housewife in the land be taken and put together they would make a good-sized volume. so simple that it can be introduced Tomato Catchup. all decayed The trimmings are sometimes run portions being rejected. and there is a possibility of spoilage to begin with and consequently of some If the pulp is to be stored at all. thus checking any fermentation that might result due to the storing of the pulp in the same vat throughout the day's run. of the original volume by boiling or the gravity method. is The mode of preparation into every kitchen. is makes little difference which method used. to a chopper before going to the pulping machine. a set injury to the product. after bottling while others find it unnecessary. such as chili sauce. The best of spices and vinegar should . In this way the pulp is run with some that may have been in the vat for several hours. in making catchup is generally concentrated to about 50 or 25 per cent. so that each vat as it is emptied can be cleaned out before a new lot is run in. The pulp obtained from the fruit. so there no material delay between the time of pulping and the using of At some places the pulp is run as fast as made the pulp. as it will undoubtedly lose some of its strength when it becomes cold. In some factories where the tomatoes are peeled and either canned or made into some whole tomato product. In some plants the stock It is cooked before running is it machine. into a single vat and drawn out from the same during the day as needed. the latter being employed by the majority of the plants making trimming At some plants it is customary to process the catchup pulp. of smaller vats is preferable.

then pass all through a fine sieve and when cold put which must be immediately sealed. Walnut Catchup. Cut up perfectly ripe tomatoes and place them upon the fire until they fire. and after crushing pour over take dozen soft. The pepper and allspice must be ground fine and the whole boiled slowly 3 to 4 hours. and boil for one hour. 2 them quarts of 'wine-vinegar. Crush about 10 dozen of young. Then take them and when cool rub them with the hand through a hair-sieve and season according to the following proportions For each quart of sauce add 1 teaspoonful of ground allspice. 8 red peppers. Below a few receipts for making catchup on a small scale are given. sugar. 1 J 40 cloves. when the walnuts are still10 of them. of boil the nutmeg. of Fill in bottles and shake once every day for a week.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. ground 2 tablespoonfuls of black pepper. I. and : oz. II. stirring constantly. the catchup will improve with age. 451 be used and every vessel into which it is put should be scrupSeal the ulously clean and free from any mold or dust. with gether. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 1 tablespoonful of salt. In June. salt. J oz. add the following spices. from the commence to bubble. whole When cold strain through a i hour. to a thick paste. it in bottles. 4 tablespoonfuls of black gar. and 3 teaspoonfuls of mustard. replace upon constant stirring. it the fire. III. 1 teaspoonful of ground cloves. of ginger. Boil 4 quarts of tomatoes together with 2 quarts of vine2 tablespoonfuls of red pepper. bottles carefully. : Stir the whole thoroughly toquart of wine-vinegar. hair-sieve and put the catchup in bottles. 4 tablespoonand allspice. When cool put the catchup in bottles and 1 and seal I. all immediately. of mace. J oz. Take 15 quarts fuls each of black pepper. 1 tablespoonful of cloves. Strain through a coarsemeshed sieve and sweeten the sauce obtained with J Ib. and 1 ground nutmeg. and if you have them thoroughly air-tight. sprinkle . pepper. soft walnuts. II. of thoroughly ripe tomatoes.

however. wide-mouthed bottles. with constant pressing with the hand. before turnThis ing yellow are peeled and grated upon a coarse grater. constant stirring. manner of closing Currant Catchup. all ground : 1} oz. are rilled j full. They are packed in small. putting the grated mass in a colander and straining through a hair-sieve being. and bottle. catchup has the taste and odor of fresh is and used as a condiment with meat. \ oz. and strain again through the bag. let it stand over night. and kept in a cool place. closed with corks over which is tied strong colored paper. which Cucumber Catchup. is brought into a colander to allow the juice to run off. quart in the same manner as tomato catchup. and provided with Some English factories use small earthgaily-colored labels. paste then pressed through a coarse hair-sieve to remove the seeds. J oz. 4 them is not Heat nearly Ibs. wide-mouthed bottles. cloves. sealed. with with 1J Ibs. \ oz. ginger. of sugar. as for the preceding. . to the boiling point. The .452 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and finally brought into small. through a hair-sieve and 40 cloves. Let the whole stand six weeks. of sugar over them. of pots are very good. sealed. of mace. not necessary. { lb. of black pepper. of boil J hour. Before cucumbers. stirring frequently. The mode of preparation is the same Horseradish Catchup. namon. but the the corks should be sealed. Then of nutmeg. salt. Both varieties of catchup must be immediately corked. enware pots of a cream color. Then add thoroughly ripe currants together 1 tablespoonful each of cin- and pepper all finely pulverized and 1 the mixture one hour and then treat Boil of vinegar. bringing it to the table it is seasoned to taste with salt and pepper. Combine the fluid with that previously obtained and season with the following spices. The remaining space is filled up with good This wine-vinegar. and have become an article of export. Then strain through a bag. and then add 1 quart of vinegar. strain Thoroughly ripe cucumbers. Pour 1 pint of vinegar over the residue. Within the last few years both have been prepared on a large scale in the United States and England.

are brought into a . with few exceptions. which are immediately corked and sealed. The catchup is not strained. is effected as follows : Fill the boiler two-thirds full with the juice of sweet and bitter-sweet apples in about the same proportion as given for the manufacture of cider. cloves and cinnamon. ripe or unripe as may be desired. and it only necessary to take one of the above receipts as a type. The bottles should be kept in a cool place. which may serve as a type of that of all other fruit-butters. When these have acquired the necessary degree of softness. When to fall mence boiler and the mixture boiled.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. and after and scattering 5 Ibs. It is advisable before closing the bottles to lay a closely-fitting piece of salicylated paper upon the surface of the catchup. and carefully remove the steins and pistils. but from all varieties of fruit. 453 This product also comes into commerce Gooseberry CatcJiup. The same quantity of fresh slices of apples juice is then brought into the juice and boiled in the same manner as the preceding. under the name of " spiced gooseberries. of pulverized sugar some water pouring 'over them. more of sugar and tablespoonful each of allspice. Take 6 quarts of gooseberries. those given are the only catchups prepared on a large scale and brought into commerce. but brought at once and while warm into wide-mouthed bottles or pots." It is an excellent condiment with roast fowl. The other third of the boiler is filled up with slices of ripe. together with the slices of apples previously boiled. Another subject which may be with the preservation of fruit Fruit-butter. But. care being had to allow the to run off. ring. with frequent stirthe slices of apples are so soft that they comto pieces. they are carefully removed from the by means of a skimmer. juicy apples. is referred to in connection the preparation of Marmalade and Jelly Fruit-butter. the entire contents of the kettle. boil for 1J hours. It need scarcely be remarked that catchup can be prepared is not only from the above. Then bring them into a kettle. After boiling 1J hours add 4 1 Ibs. The manufacture of apple-butter.

boiling In the is To prevent scorching. though butter of quinces. might also form an excellent material for this product. pears. always the boiling liquor. in and stoneware jars. Green gages can. In the foregoing only the varieties are mentioned which are manufactured on a trol large scale by American and English factories that chiefly conthe trade in fruit-butters. be highly recommended for the purpose. blackberries. cinnamon. and a closely fitting round piece of paper previously saturated with concentrated solution of salicylic acid in whiskey is laid on top of the butter. The same product is sometimes called mar- A . until it has acquired the consistency of soft The mass soap. fruit-butter can be prepared from all varieties of fruit. for instance. nutmeg. it can at the same time be seasoned with etc. Tin cans holding 2 Ibs. large lable occupying the space between the lower and upper hoops finishes the packing. pear or apple juice forming. cherries. stoneware pot and allowed to stand covered for 12 hours. The excellent product brought from France under the name of raisine is prepared in the into commerce above manner by and in sliced unfermented grapeslowly boiling apples pears juice. but they are not liked. are capacity also sometimes used. Whortleberries.454 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. but these do not by any means exhaust the list. the second effected in vessels same manner standing in boiling water. Marmalade. Apple and peach butters are commercially of the greatest importance. The buckets are filled up to the edge. with constant stirring. is packed in wooden buckets of 5 or 10 Ibs. construction. The buckets are slightly conical towards the top and are provided with a wire handle. however. is then replaced upon the fire and boiled. which grow in enormous quantities in some parts of the country. plums and cranberries is also manu- factured on a large scale. If desired. Resinous wood should not be used in their as it would impart an odor to the fruit-butter. Fruit-butter The tight-fitting lid is placed upon the bucket without being sealed or otherwise closed.

while the Englishman brings the same product into commerce as jam or as marmalade. For the manufacture of marmalade on a large scale all the rules and receipts can be condensed as follows The fruit must : be of excellent quality.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. entirely free from blemishes and quartered and washed perfectly clean. and this has led to a confusion of terms which sometimes extends even to jelly. however. Rhubarb should not be washed but rubbed with a moist cloth and be then cut into small pieces. it deing derived from marmelo. The by taking a small sample with a wooden or bone spoon nothing else should be used and if it draws threads between the fingers the boiler is removed . soak it in water. freed from the cores . and other stone-fruit is only stoned and halved. The mass passing through the sieve is combined with the sugar and replaced upon the fire. peaches are also peeled. The French prepare only marmalade. Kernel fruit is peeled. stoned . boil and skim carefully. halved. Melons and pump- kins are peeled and cut into small pieces. weigh off as many pounds of white sugar fruit. lade was originally applied to a jam prepared from quinces. while berries are carefully freed from the stems. Being thus prepared the brought into a copper kettle and as much is is the fruit as there While required for boiling. boiling. a wide distinction Marmalade or jam is from the of fruit and prepared pulp jelly from the juice. and the German is not much better. as above indicated. The term was gradually given to all jams in order to give them a more distinguished character.added. The whole is then boiled with constant latter is tested stirring. the Portuguese word for quince. and when perfectly soft is allowed to cool off somewhat and then rubbed through a widefruit meshed hair-sieve. to the required consistency. just as it may suit him The term marmabest. is a blending of both with the : omission of sugar. 455 malade and sometimes jam. tated by previously placing Tomatoes are them fruit is is to be peeled which is facilifor one minute in hot water. while fruit-butter. There is. water as The should be boiled quickly.

Marmalade should not be made. It may be laid down as a rule that in all fruit boiling no more sugar than is absolutely necessary should be used. then brought into straight jars. } Ib. The quantity rule. The durability of the product are they use as little sugar rendered not only need not necessarily suffer if due care is exercised in its preparation. ucts of The secret of the great reputation the prodthe principal American factories enjoy in all portions of is the world as simply due to the the fact that products possible. cinnamon. Fruit not over-ripe and freshly gathered should be used and the boiling finished as quickly as By then rinsing the jars with salicylated water and possible. on account of its sweetness. but they retain their natural fruit taste. In fact there is frequently a perfect waste as regards the addition of sugar. and nutmeg according to taste. covering the marmalade with a piece of paper saturated with concentrated solution of salicylic acid or with alcohol. is The marmalade that in the last stage of boiling the flavored. of fruit will be ample. the jars are iied up with white parchment paper or sometimes It may be remarked covered with a glass cover and labeled. from fruit which has been gathered for several days and shows signs of decay. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.456 from the fire. as it is only too frequently done. and after laying a piece of salicylated paper on top. some adding even 1J Ibs. marmalade is sometimes which is generally effected by stirring in lemon juice. whereby the taste of fruit is entirely lost and the product. with sweet . of fruit. a method which can be highly recommended. but added in the form of powder. of sugar has above been given in the proporThough this is the customary many manufacturers use only j Ib. tion of 1 Ib. to many becomes repugnant. and that is what the consumer desires. and not a sugary paste having only the color of the preserved fruit. and even J Ib. to 1 Ib. Frequently the sugar is not treated as stated above. whereby cheaper. of it to the pound. of sugar to 1 Ib. of sugar. The liquor obtained by boiling crushed kernels of plums or peaches is also often at the same time added as flavoring.

When the fruit-pulp is hot the tins are out in taken succession and filled up boiling being soldered on at once. Some manufacturers It is made by filling the steam-pan full of good cooking turning on the steam. It is advisable to put some heavy weight on the cover of the steam-pan before turning on the steam to prevent it from being blown off. may be stored in tins holding up to 50 Ibs. Independently of the saving of sugar. The pulp is then ready for immediate use or apples and. so that the small amount of imto the top. Sterilizing in tins Lower grade fruit-pulp. etc. In some factories apple pulp is used as foundation for cheap jams. Some think it cheapens the bulk and causes it to congeal. which are soldered top and bottom. while others claim that it causes the preserve to be heavy. the proportion of it employed varying according to what fruit is available. raspberries. as follows The tins. use glucose in large quantities in making jams and marmalades. When boiling is finished take off the cover. which large quantities are made for stock. boiling them for 20 to 30 minutes. and large quantities of pulp can thus be prepared for storage in a short time. such marmalade will give better satisfaction than an article twice as sweet. Fill the jars to the top and close at once. From France a very fine perfumed apple marmalade is- . fruits 457 such as pears. after storage. the lids prisoned air is compelled to rise through the boiling hot pulp. The tins are then stood on their heads. cool place. and will keep well in a dark.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. syrupy and stringy. and with a long paddle crush any apple that may have remained whole against the sides of theThen replace the cover and steam for about ten steam-pan. have a two-inch hole in the lid and are alters the color of berry fruit-pulp. minutes more. and is thus rendered innocuous. All berry fruit-pulp will keep best when poured boiling hot into glass jars that have been rinsed out with boiling water. This method is perfectly reliable. of : stood in a vessel of boiling water.

The orange pulp sometimes mixed with weight of apple pulp. The flesh can be easily squeezed away from the rind. or at the utmost f pound. a few at a time. English orange marmalade is made from bitter oranges. Then add the pulp and rind and boil the whole to a finish. pression that they require too much sugar but this is an error. quarter the rind and cut into thin slices. the slices and mix thoroughly. It is brought into commerce. unfortunately. This product is. As the name implies. throw into boiling water. apple-juice immediately after it comes from the press. it is of Italian origin. It is a golden-yellow color and be filled hot into the pots and fastened is down when half its cold. pound or even 1J pounds. because in France. they use only f pound. In the meantime dissolve 54 parts of refined sugar and 6 of syrup and heat till they ball. as the raw material. Many housekeepers do not like to prepare jellies under the imJelly. of sugar to the . Moreover. often made expensive and at the same time spoiled by too large an addition of sugar. A moderate ternaddition of sugar. Heat the flesh to boiling with a sufficient quantity of water and pulp it in a mill. Cut the fruit into halves without injuring the core. and parts of the United States. boil for several minutes and then cool them quickly. The composition is made according to taste and the fruits at disposal. The marmalade should have perfectly clear. instead of 1 customary in England. Calvilles prepared from equal parts of and Pippins. the apple-jelly which is made in the United States and sent to all parts of the world is made without any pound of fruit.458 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Next weigh out 30 parts of the pulp and 10 of it this purpose. a special machine being used for Blanch the slices until soft and lay them aside in a sieve. The term tutti-frutti is applied to marmalade prepared from a mixture of different kinds of fruit. as is Germany. and after boiling is sprinkled with rose- water or violet essence. Instead of apples. is . in factories as well as in households. must be perfectly sweet and treated which used.

especially currants. except it be mixed with a considerable quantity of sugar. if the juice ferment and it does very rapidly in warm weather the keeping quality of the jelly is injured. the juice. perature is 459 commences to absolutely necessary for success. By this operation the jelly is clarified. and appears in a few minutes as a thick scum upon the surface. for. is filter- ing process of the juice of sugar-cane and beets by lime. The similar to the defecation It is then filled cooling to be the proper point for perfect jelly. and if it rises to above 66 F. from which it is carefully removed with a skimmer. but in no case is the same weight of juice and sugar required. which is found on direct from the not required. into which in the are treated tumblers. it must show from 30 to 32.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. pan same manner as marmalade jars. is considered the most suitable. The juice runs directly from the press into the boiler. so much Pear and mulberry jellies are prepared in exactly the same manner as above. the manufacture is at once stopped. It is the only reliable guide for the addition of sugar. it If this result is can the be reached without the addition of sugar. The juice is now boiled to the consistency of 30 or 32 B. and all the albuminous substances contained in is it being removed by the chalk. Other fruits containing more acid require an addition of sugar. A temperature of 41 F. which next to apples and pears are most used for jelly. under which a strong fire is kept because the starchy matters contained in the juice are only converted into sugar if the boiling down is quickly boil effected. for if the product is to be protected from spoiling better.. it is When it clarified. and the acid the juice commences to contains neutralized by the addition of one teaspoonful of elutriated chalk to each quart of The chalk weighed off in this proportion is mixed with juice. Successful jelly boiling on a large scale is impossible without the use of the saccharometer. For this reason shallow pans offering a large surface to the fire are used. To prepare jelly from berries and other small fruits. pour hot .

To every pound of juice } pound of sugar is added. as previously mentioned. and boiled with a small quantity of water until enough to be pressed in a filter-bag.. as some receipts have it. beautiful jelly of an agreeable glasses. taste will be obtained. A quite small pieces and then treated in the same manner. in pulverized sugar. When thoroughly soft is pressed out and f pound of sugar added to each The mass is sharply boiled for 20 minutes. it water over the fruit in order to free from adhering dirt and is to facilitate the separation of the juice. elderberries and whortleberries. and not. when the In France. the juice with a small quanpressed out and f pound it added for every pound. a perfumed jelly is also prepared. given. and stir after in the chalk in the proportion previously allowing the juice to boil not longer than 15 minutes. The sugar being added. J or J pound of violet biossoft . If. Quinces are Rhubarb is cut into peeled and then treated like stone-fruit. and is then slowly steamed of sugar the juice with a very small quanity of water. good jelly provided it is prepared allowed to become completely ripe. and f pound or at the utmost f pound for curstir Then rants.460 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. is boiled slowly over a weak and the result will be a turbid product which has Stone-fruit tity of is lost its fruity taste. which is considered best for the purpose. From the same material. boiled. for f hour. It should be boiled quickly. the quantity of which varies according to the variety of fruit. quart. For raspberries. take it from the fire and strain it at once into the In this manner a clear. on the other hand. When the water cool take the berries out. but cut into slices. can from also be the medlar. result will be a clear jelly. and blackberries J pound of sugar to the pound of juice will be sufficient. and bring the latter immediately into a copper or brass kettle over a lively fire. perfumed marmalade is prepared from equal parts of Calvilles and Pippins. after boiling is water until soft. The apples are not peeled. strawberries. express the juice. barberries. the juice fire. and five minutes before the saccharometer indicates 30 B.

generally added to improve the color. the apples are thoroughly cleansed from all earthy or extraneous matter. Two pounds of berries are then brought into the kettle and carefully mixed with the sugar so as to avoid crushing. is tact. is when strained through a hair-sieve into wide-mouthed which are corked and sealed. tight in its lower half and slatted. in which the berries remain infinished. The process consists in dissolving 2 pounds of white sugar in water and boiling until thickly fluid. where. first story.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. as a saw-mill. Such is the friction caused by the concus- . into a large trough half submerged in the pond. and at the lower end is a gate through which the fruit is discharged. when wanted. so as to permit the escape of water and impurities. The floor in each of these bins has a sharp pitch or inclination towards the water. a few drops of cochineal The jelly. are arranged eight large bins holding from 500 to 1000 bushels each. The kettle is then taken from the fire and allowed to stand covered for 15 minutes. while in the upper fall half. A jelly is made from raspberries. Upon hoisting a gate in the lower end of this trough conis caused. it is replaced on the is fire The product kept in jars well corked and the sugar boiled and description of the process of manufacturing apple jelly in one of the largest plants for that purpose may here be A given. is occusary power. 461 being soms stirred into the juice. and passes into the basement of the mill. and the water carries the fruit a distance of from 30 to 100 feet. sealed.into which the apples are delivered from the teams. The factory is located on a creek which affords the neces- A portion of the main floor. when up once more. Just above the mill. tumbling down a four-foot perpendicular siderable current into a tank. along the bank of the pond and with one end projecting over the water. the slabs furnishing fuel for the boiler pied furnace connected with the evaporating department. . bottles. and sometimes also from strawberries and blackberries.

when heated. it is As At each end of this pan is placed a copper tube 3 feet wide. which act as manifolds. All portions of pomace and other minute particles of foreign matter. inches in diameter and closed at both ends. whence by gravity they descend to The press is wholly of iron all its motion. cheese is built up with layers inclosed in strong cotton which displaces the straw used in olden times and serves expressed from the press tank the juice passes to a storage tank and thence to the defecator. Trap-valves are provided for the escape of water formed by condensation within the pipes. The apple-juice comes from the storage tank in a continuous stream about f inch in diameter. per inch. Steam is introduced to the large or manifold tubes. the rolling and rubbing of the apples together. and the pouring of the water. the smaller being paralwith each other and 1J inch apart. object of the defecator is to remove all imand purities perfectly clarify the liquid passing through it. penetrating the larger tubes at equal distances from their upper and under surfaces. supplying the smaller with steam. rest upon the bottom of the pan. An ingeniously contrived float- The primary . When placed in position the larger tubes. Lying between and connecting these two are twelve tubes also of copper. being actuated by the water. permitting drainage and escape of water. to the turning of the screws. The cloth. to an upper story of the mill. This defecator is a copper pan 11 feet long and about 3 feet also to strain the juice. even the grater. less From and the rotten pulp passes away with otHer imthis tank the apples are hoisted upon an end- chain elevator.462 sion of the fall. and thus lel the smaller pipes have a space of } inch underneath their outer surfaces. and from them distributed through the smaller ones at a pressure of from 25 to 30 Ibs. that decayed sections of the fruit are ground off purities. with buckets in the form of a rake-head with iron teeth. MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. expand and float in the form of scum upon the surface of the juice. power. 1 J inch in diameter.

Each is connected by an iron supply-pipe. and emerges from the last tube. both ends. which is located upon the same framework and just below the defecator. passing in a gentle flow through that. pressure. terminating in a slightly inclined plane. over the edge of which the scum is pushed by the rake facilitate this To into a trough and carried away. which is found later. Steam being let on at from 25 to 30 Ibs. delivered into a funnel connected with the next tube beThe low. and are arranged upon the frame so as to have a very slight inclination downward in the direction of the current. fitted an iron pipe of 4 inches internal diamwith steam-tight collars so as to leave half an inch The latter are open at space surrounding the copper tubes. and that by other pipes with a steam boiler of 30 horse-power capacity. is curved point just mencing gently outward and upward. some three minutes B.PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. is A secondary purpose served by the defecator that of reducing the juice by evaporation to a partial syrup of the When of this consistency the specific gravity of about 20 B. liquid is drawn from the bottom and the less agitated portion of the defecator by a syphon and thence carried to the evaporator. which removes any impurity possibly remaining. into the it is upper evaporator tube. each 12 feet long and 3 inches in diameter. one side of the pan. permitting the admission and egress of the syrup and the escape of the steam caused by evaporation therefrom. The evaporator jacketed. a at below the surface of the juice. the stream of syrup is received from the defecator through a strainer. or inclosed in eter. having a steamgauge or indicator attached.. consists of a separate system of six copper These are tubes. compan. with a large manifold. and each nearly underneath its predecessor in regular succession. This .. syrup enters the evaporator at a consistency of from 20 to 23 B. ing rake drags off this scum and delivers it 463 over the side of the removal. and so back and forth through the whole system. at a consistency of from 30 to 32 on cooling to be the proper point for perfect jelly.

faucets. To guard .. fruit ripening late in the season being more productive than other varieties. no cheese -or allowed to stand over night. fruit crabbed natural Crab-apples produce the finest jelly. with each grater. a large water tank is located upon the roof and filled by a force-pump. : through the defecator. sauces. The least fermentation occasions the necessity is for a lower reduction. Hot water instead of juice is sometimes sent this. evaporator. or any little delay in expressing the juice from the cheese. etc. sour makes the best-looking article. If the saccharometer shows too great or two little reduction. tank. vat. the matter is easily regulated by varying the steam pressure in the evaporator by means of a valve in the supply pipe. no pomace left in the grater and further to provide against vat. through packages in which it is shipped to market. Each bushel of fruit will produce from 4 to 5 pounds of jelly. pipe. decay of the same. point is found to vary one or two degrees. holding 5 and 10 pounds respectively. or it can be protubes. according to the fermentation consequent upon bruises in handling the fruit. of two sizes. favorite form of package for family use is a nicely turned little wooden bucket with cover and bail. and by mixing a little therein any slight variations in reduction or in the sweetness or sour- ness of the fruit used are equalized.. and by means of hose connected press. no juice in the tank fermentation. The smaller packages are A shipped in cases for convenience in handling. or other article of machinery used can be thoroughly washed -and cleansed. and a . etc. it is drawn off from one of the upper evaporator . If boiled cider instead of jelly is wanted for making pies. according to the consistency desired cured at the end of the process by simply reducing the steam pressure. trough. From this it is drawn while into the various hot. .464 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR.a As the jelly emerges from the evaporator it is transferred to tub holding some 50 gallons. until all are thoroughly scalded and purified. against this.

. CHAPTER XXXII. Since then it has spread from California. for preserving fruit for The vessels. and the apple seeds becoming disengaged drop to the bottom into still water while the pulp floats away upon the stream. dried in the sun. and thence drops into large troughs through a succession of which a considerable stream of water is flowing. the superiority of evaporated fruit has caused a large demand it. em rea- ployed any son for this can be readily given The process does not require it excels in cheapness because neither great technical skill : . EVAPORATION OF FRUIT. mixture of all varieties gives most satisfactory flavor and general quality. Like all other new inventions. some years were required before its merits became thoroughly under- for though at the Paris Exposition of 1878 the first prize was unanimously awarded to the fruit dried by that process. retains its and by many is considered healthier and more agreeable than fruit still the product natural flavor. all A succes- sion of troughs serves to remove nearly the seeds. sugar nor other auxiliaries are required possesses excellent keeping qualities. where it was first 30 stood. . and aside from the consumption in this country.EVAPORATION OF FRUIT. Here it is occasionally agitated by raking from the lower to the upper end of the trough. and large quantities of it are marketed. The Alden patent for evaporating fruit was granted about 40 years ago. While much fruit is preserved by any other method. large amounts are shipped abroad. EVAPORATION is one of the most important methods length of time. the finished cheese it is again ground under a toothed cylinder. as the current carries it downward. 465 results as to As the pomace is shoveled from Saving of the Apple Seeds.

A few days of warm sunshine produce sufficient sugar in . the richer portions and more durable the its taste oxygen of the it air is and the more completely excluded during this process. but also to retain the properties for which it is valued. and slow drying gives The more quickly the watery a flavor calling to mind decay.4G6 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. when brought into a high temperature. from are removed thoroughly ripe fruit. : Starch is hold good in drying fruit.. the more will be . Rapidity of the drying prosometimes increases the content of sugar by 25 per cent. This The can only be reached by withdrawing the content of water. one who has boiled down the juice of the maple. they are all based upon At first only kernel and stone-fruits were the same principle. introduced. throughout the entire country. the content of starch of the The chemical process by which fruit. is converted into sugar. only it takes place more rapidly. and same time converting a portion of the starch into sugar in as short a time as possible without boiling the fruit. always provided. and alcohol into acetic acid. the fruit does not suffer injury from the heat. the change of substance must be constantly kept in view converted into sugar (in this case very largely already in the plant). but at present the list includes almost every and vegetable. the content of sugar being then converted into acid. and this increase is in an exact proportion to the quicker or retain slower evaporation of the content of water. and though many types of evaporators are now in use. Before entering upon a description of the apparatus and its use. is similar to that during the ripening process on the tree. an explanation of the principle upon which it is based and the theory of evaporating fruit will be given. or sugar beet knows that with slow Any evaporation sugar is not formed. however. sugar into alThis experience must also cohol. evaporated. sugar-cane. The at the latter would injure the taste of the fruit. fruit known object to be attained is not only to make the fruit keep. perfectly will cess its color. sorghum. Now.

that air apparatus of the temperature of the freezing point absorbs I-J-Q part of its weight of moisture. provided the fruit be not before it has reached perfection in a natural man- must be remembered that 212 F. Of no less im: portance is another point The surface of the fruit to be dried must be kept moist and soft. F. so that the internal moisture may can readily and quickly escape. with every 15 (27 ^ ^ ^ i part. but set it in motion with a velocity of 880 feet per minute. and the cause of the rapid drying. in which the proper degree still of heat is maintained. * 467 gooseberries and grapes to change the sour unpalatable fruits to a refreshing article of food. The apprehension is that fruit cannot be dried in a hot moist refuted by the well-known scientific fact. its own weight which is nearly equal to one pound of water to every \ cubic foot of The fruit would evidently never become dry if the air loaded with such moisture remained stationary. 167 F. the temperature is 59 F.EVAPORATION OF FRUIT. 194 air. is the boiling point. C. and a strong hot current of air must uninterruptedly pass over the fruit to carry off the escaping moisture. 50 pounds of which have been withdrawn from the fruit. Hence. which is equal to 20 miles per hour. while the remaining 10 pounds were contained in the air prior to its entrance into the apparatus. can produce a placed in ner. and 221 F. part. and that its capacity for absorption doubles Thus. according to the above statement. in other Now if words. of the withdrawal of water. part. few hours in an evaporating A apparatus. we figure to ourselves an apparatus of 225 cubic feet content. 81 F. the air heated in it to 212 F. It it greater change. 140 F. and above find a way by which it air saturated the latter an aperture must be provided for the escape of the with moisture. cannot restore the taste lost in such a temperature. if F. no matter how careful. i part. becomes apparent. 60 pounds of water. . part. 113 F. cold air must under no circumstances have access to drying fruit. contains.. or. and that subsequent treatment.) of higher temperature. it absorbs ^V parts of its weight of water.

From the preceding it will also be readily understood why sults. With empty the apparatus every 20 minutes 150 pounds of water will each hour be carried away from a Hence. is sometimes formed in such abundance as to appear in small congealed drops upon the surface. Thus in the drying apparatus also it is rather the current of air which dries than the heat. but. Besides. which in sweet fruits. days. the fruit is frequently selected as a breeding place by insects.468 because its MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. and causes the color and aroma of the fresh fruit to be retained. rapidity of the process prevents decay. During boiled tastes as if it had been preserved after the appearance of decay. of course. The greater The advantage of this rapidity consists. supposed to be 62.5 sufficient circulation to in 5 hours. and when shipped to a distance resembles on Such arrival at its place of destination a heap of maggots. cases are not rare. the time generally required for apples. in consequence of which it soon spoils. drying in the sun or in the oven must yield unsatisfactory reEven with favorable weather the process lasts about 14 this long time a fermentation sets in which parthe content of sugar. Drying in the oven has the disadvantage that the dry heat immediately closes the pores of the fruit. reference to a drying apparatus is not required to Is it not prove that heat alone does not suffice for drying. however. during this process. thereby rendering the escape of the internal moisture very difficult. 750 pounds of moisture could be removed if present. If the heat is . such as peaches. temperature is F. quantity of fruit supposed to amount to 800 pounds. both must work in conjunction. and essentially changes the tially destroys Such fruit when color and taste in an unfavorable direction. especially if the dried fruit is shipped to tropical countries. Moreover. in the conversion of a considerable quantity of starch into sugar. the wind which dries up the puddles after a rain more quickly than the hottest rays of the sun? The sun alone would effect nothing else but envelop the moist earth in a dense mantle of vapor destructive to both men and animals.

22 Cellulose 10. which it to spoil. is only found in the second column. is due to dry heat.EVAPORATION OF FRUIT. ... and a third column the result of 100 parts of the same parcel reduced by evaporation. Water Starch Protein (free and fixed).42 16. more A the tough shriveling of the surface. 4. 18.43 0..22 Pectine *.10 Mineral constituents Chlorophyl Dextrin .35 6.' .'. .15 9.95 0. as well as the presence of a larger .33 3. the appearance of the fruit suffers by or less.00 100.08 . . 411.75 0.85 i .00 100.54 30. is injured All these disadvantages are avoided by the modern evaporating process.00 the formation of which Attention must especially be drawn to the fact that dextrin.78 .62 10.75 traces 18. . 10.95 29. 4. Dried in Fresh.60 32. the oven..35 7.15 0.70 0. . . > 0. . A chemical analysis of a parcel of Baldwin apples shows best the changes effected in the composition of fruit by drying in the oven and by evaporation.75 6. 469 causes izes not very strong the fruit remains moist in the interior."'. Evaporated. Grape sugar Volatile oils.12 2. .76 0. '. and how the results with these two methods compare with each other. parcel of apples after being reduced to 100 parts (loss of 400 parts of water) by drying in the oven.. .. . which may be called a preservation of the fruit in its own juice with the assistance of steam.80 11.88 Gum Fruit acids .15 23.75 12. The absence of this substance in evaporated fruit.. . . . and with a strong heat the surface carbon- portion of the sweetness is lost by being converted into caramel. 12. and the taste by carbonization. The first col- umn gives the composition of 500 parts of fresh Baldwin The second column gives the composition of the same apples. ...87 0. . and must be considered as an essential disadvantage of drying in the oven.88 0..75 500.

into the drying-tower is impossible. As previously mentioned. the keeping the pipes clean. only moderately heated and pipe. A is the air-furnace which FlG> is the ash-box formed by the fire-box D. The cold air comes first in contact with the lower. By always be can which conveniently done. It is thus gradually heated. D lt and the doubled hori- the zontal pipes G. pipe surrounded by an airwith apertures. smoke of heating than by radiapipes are of cast-iron. is considered a better of The formerly used. quantity of water (chemically fixed). a fruit on very large scale. according to size of the apparatus. some of them being small box-like structures of such a they can be placed on top of an ordinary others* while have a sufficient capacity for handcook-stove. ling size that Fig. is to be ascribed to the influence of moisture during evaporation. and escape through the smokeat the back of the apparatus. which tion.470 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. The parallel to each other. many types of evaporators are now in use. and an escape mode . each 4 inches in diameter. space provided at Similar apertures to permit the entrance of cold air are provided on the The fire-box is M side near the foot of the brick casing. and the pipes lying close together. belongs to the type known "' as tower evaporators. then rises to the second. of which. like the Williams evaporator to be described later on. there are from 3 to 6. products of combustion pass through them in the direction of the and running arrows. each atom of air comes in contact with them. 99 shows an improved Aid en evaporator which. finally to the third and hottest series of pipes.

as well as the draught-pipes d and c and the jacket of the smoke-pipe 0. This also accelerates the current of air in the tower and prevents the condensation of the moisture.000 cubic feet of air per hour are required. is surrounded by a wooden jacket. The draught-pipe c is provided. They hold from 20 to 60 and when charged are pushed through the door over the air-furnace into the tower. for the of purpose uniformly distributing the heat in the tower. into the fire-box. already heated. so that the fruit smoke-pipe completely dries off in a short time. and is forced to enter the tower below the dischargedoor. a saving of fuel is effected by the introduction of air. and ascends immediately into the drying-tower without the possibility of super-heating. where they rest upon of fruit each. as will be readily seen. is placed in the interior of the tower and the scale on the outside. The by evaporation. which by its power of absorption also increases the current of air. The branch-pipe/con- nects the opening of the tower with the smoke-pipe. and the tower. leaving a small intermediate space in which the heat radiating from the pipe collects. and consequently a very quick current of air over the trays of fruit in the tower an absolute requirement fruit for attaining great perfection in the art of drying Besides. Ibs. whereby cold air would enter. tilation is sufficiently the exit of the drying-tower The importance of this ven- shown by the statement that for combustion 25. The bulb of the thermometer. which are introduced from the neighborhood of the opening of the tower through the pipe d into the fire-box. so that the temperature can be read off without opening a door. heat passes 471 rapidly through their walls. The draught-pipe d connects with the fire-box of the furnace. . which must be avoided. The air-furnace is constructed of brick. The removal of such a considerable quantity of air produces a vacuum in the upper portion of the tower. of double boards.EVAPORATION OF FRUIT. with which the apparatus is provided. The hurdles or trays for the fruit consist of wooden frames with galvanized iron-wire bottoms.

so that they touch alternately the front and back wall. then placed in position. perfect product only by these means. Every 50 Ibs. When the fruit arrives at the discharge-door it A is cool and as soft as fresh fruit. After six to ten minutes. with deflectors at intervals of two feet projecting from each side of said pipes to . while in the other direction there is an interThe first tray is pushed tight against space of two inches. are raised by the endless chain and the fresh trays pushed in.472 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. of each yield When the tray position arrives at the discharge-door it for about five hours. By considering the construction of the tower it will be seen which that the fruit during its ascent remains in a uniform moisture and heat. around which the trays of fruit revolve. pins of an endless chain set in motion by a wheel. the back wall. its very be obtained can uniform. steam radiators located at the base of the vertical tower and has vertical radiating pipes up the center of the vertical tower. It is heated by Fig. evaporated and sold all in one day. which ascends as vapor. the tray is raised five inches by means of the endless chain the second tray is . as seen in The trays sit close to the walls on two sides the illustration. so that up to the moment it is taken from the apparatus. but so that the above-mentioned intermediate space is at the back wall. At regular intervals the trays. the mentioned. according to the variety of fruit. the current of air being thus forced to ascend in a zigzag. fruit can be gathered. when placed in position. When the tower is filled with trays it contains from 1200 to 3000 Ibs. 100 shows the Williams evaporator. taking apples as an example of fruit. interspace thus remaining in front of the door. the heat can act to center. on the other hand. of the tower. and its contents have been converted into evaporated fruit placed in has been in the tower first Thus will keep for many years. of water. its content of water can escape through the opened pores and. which by surrounding the fruit with a moist mantle prevents its burning and keeps the pores open. from 40 to 45 Ibs.


under the trays of fruit as they revolve around (The trays and hanger are left out in the illustraThese tion to show the interior arrangement of the pipes. and on descending are exposed from the other. which causes the fruit to dry uniformly. the thermometer should indicate 194 to 212 F. when drying cores and skins. apparatus a very strong heat can be had throughout the entire length of the tower. of too much cold air into the air furnace As a rule an aperture two feet square of the trays must be effected at regular long these intervals are to be. depending on the content of water in the The following fruit and on the temperature of the tower. however. The trays of fruit in passing up the tower are exposed from one side to the pipes. without incurring any risk of fire from from the trays. as with the hot-air furnace the pipes. Berries and stone fruit are to be kept somewhat cooler. suffices. . serve as a guide : .) the tower from bottom to top pipes or radiators extending up produce a uniform heat the entire length of the tower. The upward motion How table may. of the apparatus is also increased in proportion to the increase of the heat and the draught through the tower. which produces a more rapid circulation than when the heat is all and the capacity at the bottom. which is always placed directly the falling under the tower. The introduction must be avoided. The tower being In this vertical the heat is utilized until it reaches the top. cannot be it definitely stated. The manner The maintenance of operating the Alden apparatus is as follows of a uniform temperature in the tower : being essential.474 direct the heat MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. on hot-air furnace. intervals. Several sizes of this evaporator are manusiftings factured. and increase the draught by increasing the heat at the top.

and in rising upwards meets a some- what more moderate heat. for which it may be from 41 As previously stated. Then fill the box with fruit. provided the tower. As a is rule. most advantageous. Sliced evaporated apples are packed as follows : Line the . the contents even with the edge of the box a After pressing. and it is best to keep it at that degree except for berries and stoned fruit.EVAPORATION OF FRUIT. Kernel fruit is piled up about one inch above the edge of the box. and put on the label.. because the fruit remains too short a time in it. Apples interval 6 to 10 minutes. fold weight. where it remains for a few hours to dry off previous to packing. however. or. Care must be had that during this fruit. and to prevent windows and air-holes should be provided with screens. while stone fruit is not put in piled so high. it boxes as follows To press down being subsequently not subjected to pressure. or the fruit covered with mosquito netting. it may be said that as high a temperature as possible boiling be avoided. nail down the lid. This will. 475 supposed that the temperature directly above the airfurnace is 212 F. to 50 It is that the fruit should not boil. it is an essential condition less. the ends of the paper over the fruit. still better. is spread out in an airy room. The evaporated when taken from time it does not this the come in contact with insects. not be the case at the temperature mentioned. a press is used. for is The : fruit when Line the box ready packing with colored paper with the ends projecting above the edge.

Department of Agriculture. Washington. Farmer's Bulletin 291. so far is as the preparation of the fruit well regulated. the details of the arrangement of the appliances are endlessly varied. S. and after A general pressing down the box is nailed up and labeled. and for various minor reasons a kiln of this size is a desirable 'unit ' in the construction of evaporators of this type. so that the fruit will dry uniformly. " In constructing kilns the same general principles are followed. The is Such control inflow of cold air can thus be reguspecially desirable in windy weather. rule as regards weight has not been introduced. T. concerned . by the kiln evaporator. the heat can be made sufficiently intense for the purpose de- and evenly distributed. 1907. one piece on the bottom and four pie on the sides long enough to fold over. take off the bottom. whether the evaporator is a small one with only a single kiln or an extensive establishment having several of them. satisfactory size of a kiln. "A The floor is usually built the furnace room. The most about 20 feet square.476 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Sufficient fruit to make up the required weight is then piled in. is This is a convenient size to fill. sired. especially for evaporating apples. Gould* as follows " While the : principles of construction of the different evaporators of this type are similar in all cases. Then nail down the lid. - box with white paper. all things considered. *U. In recent years tower evaporators have been largely superseded. though in California all varieties of evaporated fruit are packed in boxes holding 50 pounds net. kiln consists essentially of a floor made of slats and placed over a furnace room or over a system of steam pipes. lated. . This type is described by H. and commence packing by placing one layer of slices in the manner of roof-tiles. from 10 to 12 feet above the floor of Provision should be made for regulating the heat by means of small openings in the base of the walls communicating with the outside which can be opened or closed as desired.

because of the intense heat generated within them. as in an ordinary windowblind. "If the walls. are double. or a cupola-like ventilator be built. the sides of which should consist of slats placed so that they overlap one another. space between them wider on the under side than on the upper. and fruit. feet is which square and extending 8 or 10 feet above the sufficiently bigh to cause more or less draft. seven-eighths of an inch thick. constructed of strips especially designed Such floors are generally made of poplar or is basswood strips. which may otherwise be great. thus best conserving the heat and increasing the efficiency of the plant The height of the walls of the kiln above the drying floor should be sufficient to permit an attendant to work on the floor conveniently and with comfort. the insulation will be more perfect than if they are solid or of only a single thickness. " Some means for the escape of the air laden with moisture from the fruit is necessary. with an air-space between the two sides. made " If the evaporator is a frame building. hence augments the circulation of hot air through the The kiln floor for the purpose. one inch wide side. at least the portion below the kiln floor. it is an important point to have such openings. Another form of ventilator is in the form of a tower about 3 roof. This may be provided for by means of an opening may in the roof. 477 While many evaporators are constructed without special provision of this kind. particularly if the walls are brick or otherwise very tight. so that there is but little circulation of air. to drop through without clogging the "Satisfactory results are so dependent upon the heating apparatus that this becomes one of the most important features . the walls of the furnace room may be well plastered or covered with asbestos paper to lessen the danger from fire. on the top surface and one-half inch wide on the under In laying the floor these strips are placed one-eighth to oneThis makes the fourth inch apart on the upper surface. thus allowing the small particles of fruit which work down between them intervening spaces.EVAPORATION OF FRUIT.

signed for the purpose and are provided with relatively large fire-pots. is The greater length. " In some cases the heat less used than the is nace that the floor fruit dries more rapidly ' so intense directly over the furin the center of the than about the sides. " is attached to the Open grates. In a kiln 20 It feet square. correspondingly large ash-pits. the size of the grate is made with this end in view. ordinary of an evaporator. the grate surface is usually about 3 feet in diameter. however.' consisting of a piece of sheet iron or tin several feet square. is placed in the center the pipe from each flange is then extended to the side of the room . but these have largely gone out of use. at a distance of 2 or 3 feet from it. which in effect are furnaces with all parts . some 65 or 70 is feet are thus required. furnace and chimney. containing from 5 to 7 square feet. floor directly above the furnace. 2 or 3 feet apart. " As to the most satisfactory length of pipe connecting the feet of surface. In the larger kiln evaporators. extending in opposite directions. and from this point the two sections. floor of the kiln. Ten-inch pipe is placed about 3 feet below the kiln floor. were cast-iron stoves formerly used considerably. to the chimney. : Perhaps the most common method of piping is as follows The furnace. a " common Some size to use for this purpose.478 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. -In their stead large furThese are specially denaces are now most commonly used. under the entire thus requiring 200 frequently feet or more instead of the shorter length above suggested. with two flanges for attaching the pipe. and large radiating As it is necessary to burn a relatively large quantity of fuel in a given time. smaller. follow the wall. two or more of them being frequently required to heat a single kiln. To regulate this and make the drying as uniform as possible. a deflector. For a kiln floor 20 feet square. obtained if operators think that a better distribution of heat is the pipes extend back and forth. or 400 square surfaces. opposite the chimney. opinions differ.

479' above the grates removed. No very definite data are available in regard to the amount necessary to supply the requisite heat. In. " " return". however. which are said to work admirably have about 600 running for every 100 square feet of floor space. Several kilns. except a small space in the center horsepower gasoline engine for is located. where a 5which furnishes power running the parers. " Other large establishments have the kilns arranged in a . riser. The paring table is on the opposite side of the building. possito the larger cost of installing such a system. venient after the fruit has been sliced. from which the fruit is taken by a carrier and elevated to a platform which is on the same level as the two bleachers between the evaporThis carrier discharges the fruit ator and the paring shed. On the other hand so much dust rises from them that they are not used in " method bly due is the most satisfactory of heating." the other half One feet of pipe half of this is "A convenient arrangement for an evaporator having four : or five kilps is as follows The kilns are built of brick and bin built of the apples are pared in an adjacent building. kiln evaporators the pipes are generally placed in as close making the best grade of In some respects a steam system fruit. proximity to the floor of the drying room as is convenient within a foot or even closer. That every steam pipe nearest the floor may supply the greatest amount of heat it should. but it is comparatively little used. and will dry the fruit in a shorter space of time. slicers and other machinery. are used occasionally and are recom- mended by some because they to firing. into trays which are then placed by hand into one of the bleachers from this they are taken to the slicer. One inch pipe is generally used for such systems. located in a compartment just within the brick portion of the structure and with which all the kilns communicate.EVAPORATION OF FRUIT. less attention. require less fuel. have its own return to the main return of the system. slats for containing the apples in bulk extends the entire length A of the building. thus making it con.

by means of a platform extending from this floor along the sides of the kilns and on the same level as the kiln floor of . for instance. struction consists of a To make meet the requirements. where it is bleached and sliced. Clapp's Favorite. The attendant puts an apple on one of the forks while one on another fork is being peeled. The fruit is pared on the first an adjoining structure centrally located then elevated to the second floor which is on the same level as the kiln Communication is floors. certain favorites. Northern Spy. and large enough in cross section to admit the boxes or crates in which the fruit is handled. worm-holes. The Attachment applied The fruit is apples are cored in the same operation by an to the paring . floors. the Bartlett. the fruit as white as possible it is usually bleached by subjecting it to the fumes of burning sulphur by means of The simplest form of cona contrivance called a bleacher. Apples are pared with a machine. more recent patterns have two or even three forks for holding the apples while they are being pared." For commercial purposes the selection of the varieties of be evaporated must be carefully made. Bellflower. end to end. Pippin. who cut out with a straight-back sharp-pointed knife. of apples. placed horizontally. decayed parts and other blemishes. automatically forced from the fork and drops to it is the table where next taken in hand by the trimmers. high grade can be made from any sort which has a firm texture and bleaches to a satisfactory degree of whiteness. box sufficiently long to . the Baldwin. like the canning establishments. So many different styles of apple parers for operating either by hand or power are in The the market that it is difficult to say which is the best.480 series situated MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. Many fruit to evaporating plants have. Rollers are placed in the bottom. a product of plies especially to apples and pears. This apAs a rule. on which the crates rest. had with the kilns not adjacent to the floor on which the fruit is sliced.machine for this purpose. of pears.

It then rolls from one inclined plane to another to the bottom. this being largely a matter of Some operators consider 150 F. where there is The sulphur to the necessary opening. a suitable temexperience. The crates are entered at one end of the bleacher. In the kiln-evaporator the sliced fruit is evenly spread on the floor to the depth of from 4 to 6 inches. to No perature when the fruit to is first put into the drying compartF. In general. which permit them viously put to 481 be moved along with but little friction.EVAPORATION OF FRUIT. sloping in opposite directions to prevent the fruit from dropping to the bottom in a compact mass. about 125 The fruit while drying in the kiln has to be occasionally 31 . A short piece of stovepipe is placed at the opposite end for the escape of the fumes after they have passed through the bleacher. The sulphur is burned beneath the lowest inclined plane. for removing the fruit when it is bleached. the fruit slicer. of consists is sliced in a machine called a which there are various styles. as the drying process nears ment. dropping completion. the interior of which is fitted with a series of inclined planes following ones. Sometimes a mixture of equal parts of tallow and boiled linseed oil is used for this purpose. After bleaching. It is a common that are carried over slices when the apples arm they are cut -into practice to treat the floor of the kilns occasionally with tallow to prevent the fruit from sticking to it. The fruit is usually admitted at the top directly from the paring table. those prein being pushed along is to make room for the usually burned immediately below the point where the fruit is put into the bleacher. a slicer of a table in which a series of knives is so arranged them by a revolving about J inch in thickness. definite rules can be given regarding the temperature be maintained in the kiln. with means for closing it tightly to prevent the escape of the sulphur fumes. Another simple bleacher in which the fruit is handled in bulk (not in crates) consists essentially of a large square box.

but the inferior raisins are picked from the stalks before packing. the less drying they need.The well-known Malaga raisins are obtained by allowing the bunches of grapes to dry in the air. but only in one layer. it turned to prevent floor. and the trace of oil that adheres to them gives a characteristic luster. edge upward. They are then spread out upon hurdles and packed Quartered or halved perfectly dry. it being impossible to use a temperaraisins ture exceeding 167 F. They are dipped and as quickly as possible. until perhaps may require turning every half-hour when nearly When freed drying in the tower evaporator the trays or racks fruit. For this purpose brown sugar is dissolved in an equal quantity of hot water. Grapes are but seldom converted into in the evaporating apparatus. . five or six so.482 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. removed Tomatoes to be evaporated in the tower evaporator are . as well as sliced apples. The richer the grapes are in sugar. to sterilize They are dipped for an instant them and then dried on straw in in boiling water the sun. Hence it is considered more advan- tageous to dry grapes in the sun. Sliced when Of berries. layers deep may they must be covered with tissue paper. In Spain the bunches are dipped into a boiling lye of wood ashes on which a little oil is floating. the best are packed in the original bunches. must not be too heavily loaded with Stone-fruit not from the stones is placed close together with the stem ends upwards. an inch be but made. When the grapes have shrunk to a third or half of their original volume. and the prunes in a wire basket are submerged in the bath for half an hour. stoned-fruit. because the process would require 40 hours. For the first hours or two every dry. Plums after evaporating are generally brought into a bath of sugar-water to give them a lustrous and uniformly dark appearance. until the bottom of the tray is covered. it from burning and from sticking to the hours it is generally turned and more frequently as it becomes drier. are placed close together. several pears are arranged in a similar manner.

their flour. The corn is packed 20 and 50 Ibs. Pumpkins are peeled and cut in pieces two or three inches thick. not to steam them too much. each. being sufficient. but not deep layers at too high a temperature. The following must also be steamed before evaporating Green peas and beans. constantly pouring in. of onions are reduced to 12 Ibs. care being had. lettuce. can run off The potatoes are then placed in trays. The loosened peels are then rubbed off with the hand. however. They are packed in tin boxes holding 50 Ibs. brought into the boiler. and after 35 minutes the potatoes are taken out. beets. steaming apparatus. Potatoes must be thoroughly washed. The to in boxes holding 10. When dry they are rubbed and passed through a fanning-mill Green corn is first minutes. in a cradle. asparagus. Vegetables are cut up with a cabbagecutter. By evaporation. the This is best effected which is provided with wide perforations so that the water. bottom of four to six of the latter. placing the latter in the steaming apparatus. apparatus. each. and from quickly. flour serving as a substitute for chicory. 483 peeled but not sliced. which are placed in a wooden box. 185 to 194 F. and roots in slices like apples. cabbage and parsnips. 100 Ibs. which serves as a substitute for rice Sweet potatoes are treated in a similar manner. Onions are first freed from their external red or yellow peel and then cut into slices one-fourth inch thick with a cabbageThe slices are steamed for five minutes with a suitable cutter. as otherwise they become of no value for the evaporating process. For several years a flour has been made from the dried pieces. and placed close together in one layer in the trays. and immediately after the abovementioned time in the evaporator. carrots. which is best effected by spreading the : slices in a two-inch-deep layer in the trays. according to the size of the steaming Steam is then admitted. steamed on the ear for not more than five grains are then picked off. and the peeled pota- .EVAPORATION OP FRUIT. placed in two-inchin the trays and thoroughly evaporated. remove the hulls loosened by rubbing.

verted into paste. The apparThe board walls. They are lined inside with tin. Success depends on the rapidity and regularity from the commencement to the end of the process. atus is constructed of boards and window-glass. 101. for catching the rays of the sun. so that the entire coarsely crushed through the bottom. are . as is readily seen. the bottom of which consists of a perforated wooden plate or of woven wires. each. paratus two or three rows. drawn which may to a sun-drying apparatus shown be recommended to those who do not wish to employ artificial heat. The lid must fit tight into the interior walls of the press. are potatoes placed in layers two or three inches deep in the trays and leveled with an instrument made by driving small nails into a board so that their points project falls mass of potatoes The crushed one-half inch.484 toes MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. each consisting of twelve trays. to dry them through. are then evaporated at not too high a is prevent scorching. project above the panes of glass and serve. the entrance of each tray being According to the size of the apflap. It is of the utmost importance to select only perfectly sound potatoes and remove all which sour or are injured in any other way during the process. however. covered by a wooden are pushed in from the back. such canisters are placed in a wooden box and are then ready for shipment. and the same may be said of those which have been steamed too long they are con. The trays containing the fruit coming reflectors. thus be- The side door serves as an entrance to the when the apparatus panes of glass are to be cleansed or repairs are to be made in the interior. holding 28 and 56 Ibs. which are somewhat inclined outwardly. and the resulting flour temperature sufficient to Two packed in zinc canisters. taking care. All potatoes which become cold before being brought into the evaporating apparatus are worthless. and are forced to give the preference to as cheap an apparatus as possible. They 185 F. brought into a press. The evaporated mass is coarsely ground in a suitable mill. Attention may be in Fig.

485 Above the uppermost entrances placed alongside each other. as a as is not of obtained product good quality evaporated incomparably superior to that produced by the primitive method of drying in the open air or in the oven. The prunes having been sorted by a machine into three qualities are placed upon trays and exposed to the sun until the skin commences to shrivel. are laid over the panes of glass. and we describe the French method. The apparatus stands upon which are hinged. They . which can be opened or closed according to whether the heat in the interior is to be increased or moderated. In conclusion it remains to say a few words about drying fruit in the oven. The time required for drying fruit in this apparatus cannot FIG. and protects the fruit from dew. reflectors. hot summer day. The apples pared by a machine can be dried in eight hours. so that the front can from morning to evening be exposed to the full rays of When the latter no longer reach the apparatus the the sun. as proved by the prunes brought into market from that country. which prevents the radiation of heat. which fruit. be definitely stated. for the trays are slides.EVAPORATION OF FRUIT. a turn-table. 101. it is but is decidedly the best. but on an unclouded.

be exposed to the steam for not longer than five minutes. tion of a crust heated to prevent the rapid closing of the pores and the formaupon the surface. but submerged in boiling water for five minutes. in the oven for 12 hours. and boiled : as in They are then placed in a sugar syrup for five minutes. which must sufficiently dried. are then placed in a bake-oven previously used for baking If no bread is to be baked. allowed to cool off. until still The French method can be recommended. without being allowed to cool. the French bring into the market dried pears. the oven is very moderately bread. together with a dish full of must now be still hotter than before. . but it would be better if it wer executed in the improved manner pracand there in central ticed here England and in the New England States. After 12 hours oven. They are allowed to remain when they are taken out. which must. The prunes when taken from the oven are submerged for a short time in a bath of sugar-water. and water. Besides prunes. however. longer than five minutes. The process is Fine table-pears are pared. and must then as quickly as possible be brought It into a moderately hot oven. moderately warm oven. and when alum water and replaced in the moistened with perfectly cold. not be continued The fruit is not gradually heated. It will be seen that this process is quite tedious. follows which have also become celebrated. quartered. This improvement consists in the previous boiling of the fruit. Steaming instead of boiling the fruit is still bet- should. oven. which must now be somewhat hotter. and. brought at once into a moderately hot oven. and replaced for the third and last time. and are then packed in boxes. in the oven. which the product is not so good as that obtained by evaporation. they are again taken out. and replaced in the . where they remain for 12 hours they are then taken out. now be hotter than the first time.486 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. moistened with alum water. ter.

to completely They are then laid upon fruit hurdles dry in the air. the manufacturers generally employing wine-vinegar. Stone pots. 24. Fruit-vinegar. Pickles for immediate use are soaked in hot brine. are more exposed to the air than is good for them. which is smaller in the American bottles. thus contributing to its keeping quality. mixed pickles and walnut pickles. and the bottles immediately corked. are too expensive for commercial purposes. which have the advantage of entirely excluding the light from the product. The bottles are always provided with neat with tin-foil. . Pickles. which are no doubt best for family use. and. Both the French and Americans use glass bottles. PREPARATION OF PICKLES AND MUSTARDS. Strong vinegar must be used. The latter style is to be preferred. but as a commercial article they must be treated with cold brine only. but also on account of their weight. also answers very well.PREPARATION OF PICKLES AND MUSTARDS. The interspaces are then filled up with hot-spiced vinegar. when cold. when fre- quently opened. known in commerce as No. some of the oldest and largest English factories still adhering to stoneware pots. lables. and placed for some time. and the corks generally covered following general rules apply to the preparation of The best quality of fruit must be gathered at the right washed in fresh cold well-water. sealed. pickles : The time in strong brine. because in the former the pickles. which increases the cost of transportation. clarified and spiced and evaporated to three-fourths its volume. and finally brought into the bottles. the chief difference being in the diameter of the mouth. 487 CHAPTER XXXIII. which must be nearly filled. The most remarkable varieties are piccalilli or Indian pickles. Enormous quantities of pickles are brought into commerce. especially by American and English factories. The packing is always the same. not only as regards the first cost.

Place the pot for three days near and then pour the contents be avoided. and tie flannel cloth. and add to the mixture in a stoneware pot. 1 ounce of ginger. and for walnuts. The spiced vinegar is prepared latter. the vinegar as well as the brine dissolving copper. and the softest are most advantageously pickled by pouring cold The same may be said of red beets spiced vinegar over them. Moreover. The method of some manufacturers. as follows : To 1 quart of vinegar add 2J ounces of salt. up the pot with a bladder. Soft and delicate fruits must. J ounce of Let the mixture boil black pepper. or in once twice an iron enameled up pot. over the fruit. not re- main as long in the brine as hard and coarse-fibred ones . hot or cold. and becoming thereby poisonous. as a rule. An essential condition for success is to treat the fruits immediately after being gathered. to previously boil the powdered spice in a small portion of the vinegar. In the preparation of pickles the use of metallic vessels must shaking fruits by allowing it several times. hot brine must not be used for vegetables of a soft and juicy nature such as cabbage and cauliflower and besides. are best for the brass. the fire. . pickles as much Moreover.488 MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. but it is better and more economical to bring it powdered into the vinegar while heating the or if the vinegar is to be used cold. air and light must be kept away from the as possible. which can be heated in a water-bath or upon a stove. Sometimes the spice put whole into the bottle. and J drachm of cayenne pepper. is and other roots which are cut into strips. purpose. and zinc. Stoneware pots. who add verdigris to the pickles or boil the vinegar in a copper boiler until it is suffi- . upon the it to run through a filtering cloth. Ordinary earthen pots should also be mistrusted. 1 pint of vinegar. 1 ounce of eschalots. filter through a and pour the liquid. and 2J ounces of ginger. cold or only slightly heated vinegar should be poured over such articles. and when cold add it to the rest. and they should be touched only with wooden or bone spoons. For a more strongly spiced vinegar reduce in a mortar 2 ounces of black pepper.

and after drying brought . and finally treated with hot dried vinegar. and after being made hot is poured back over the cucumbers. and after pouring cold vinegar upon them. placed in a brine for 12 hours. which are placed in brine. and then boiling vinegar Elderberry Flowers. poured over them. The berries are gathered before they are ripe : and washed with Beans. The next boiling a are the cucumbers dried sieve.PREPARATION OP PICKLES AND MUSTARDS. previously soaked in cold water. which acquires thereby a green coloration and communicates it later on to the pickles. That this crime against the health of the consumer is unfortunately committed to a considerable extent is conclusively proved by numerous chemical examinations made in the large cities of Europe and the United States. The vinegar is added cold. next brought into bottles. strips. Young cucumbers are placed in salt water for one week. The brine is then poured off. The heads are broken up into small pieces. at once sealed up. Cold vinegar is poured over the young pods. means necessary to The following list comprises the fruits and vegetables which are chiefly used for the preparation of pickles in factories Barberries. and treated in the same manner as cauliflower. it being a handful of spinach or grape leaves in only put the boiling vinegar. Young elder shoots are freed from the English Bamboo. then upon hurdles for twelve hours. and undertaken with the laudable purpose of "greenish" to bringing the adulterators of food to justice. Many of the pickles in the market and most of the imported canned peas contain copper. The umbels are gathered just before is bark. ciently 489 1 communicate its color to the product. These pickles are much liked in England. which are placed in a strong brine for two days. and this notwithstanding the fact that there are very innocent for coloring pickles green. slightly rubbed day upon off with a cloth. Cauliflower. salt water. Red and White. Cucumbers. the flowers open. cannot be too strongly condemned. The heads are cut up into fine Cabbage.

black pepper 1 oz. Cut off the stalks and sort the gherkins into three sizes. Ib. Dill may be used as spice but . and left to stand for several days in strong brine in order to ensure their keeping. with J pint of curry vinegar. a few laurel leaves and a little tarragon. as an addition to boiled mutton. When all has been thoroughly mixed together. and 3 to 4 pints of good vinegar.. with 2J gallons of wine vinegar.. Then wash them carefully and pack them into suitable clean barrels.. on the water-bath before they are closed. Pickled Gherkins. of salt. vinegar. esteemed highly Gooseberries. 6 ozs. French beans and French carrots form the chief ingredients of this mixture. tender vegetables. The unripe fruits are treated like cauliflower. and to this add 2J Ibs. 18 ozs. wine-vinegar bottles is : and other containers. 18 ozs. of ginger. 10 ozs. ginger 1 oz. cauliflower. cayenne pepper J oz. young beans. this being spiced with an extract To 5 gallons of vinegar add 36 ozs. the sauce is strained through a hair sieve. They are and hot vinegar is poured over them. pickling onions.. Mixed pickles are a mixture of young.. of mixture to stand for warm place and then filtering. They are then put in jars with good in the water-bath and closed up. carraway -seeds 1 oz. of white pepper. The filled bottles 14 days in a should be ^carefully heated Picalilti.490 into bottles MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. large capers and salted olives being also used All the vegetables are highly blanched by some makers. of pimento. good 4 per prepared as follows black pepper. Small gherkins. of salt. The be stored in in brine case vegetables may. coriander 4 ozs. however. warmed up For packing in cent. separately of very large quantities. all powdered. each at the proper season. young corn cobs. These mixed pickles are packed with the follow- ing preparation instead of vinegar: Stir 2J pounds of best English mustard powder together with 1 pint of best olive oil. allowing the used.. green and red capsicums. The curry vinegar is prepared from turmeric 3J ozs. cardamoms J oz. preserved separately. of sugar. and stored for mixing later on..

with the bung- holes open. Pickled Peas The peas are treated like beans and must not be . Pickled Onions. are treated cauliflower. manner as cucumbers. fill them to the top with the same liquor. fresh 12 per cent. If these small gherkins are to be kept stored in the barrels for a long time the fermented pickle should be drawn off and replaced by . nothing cent. Pickled Mushrooms. Clean and trim off at the bottom young small mushrooms and free them from the brown skin. The vinegar should not be allowed to fall below 4 per cent. Then wash them in cold water and carefully dry them. remove the cores. small onions. Then wash the gherkins.PREPARATION OF PICKLES AND MUSTARDS. Pickled Tomatoes even green and half grown. Pour over them a pickle consisting of 12 per brine containing 25 per cent. of good wine vinegar. They entirely ripe they may be are pickled in the same . like cucumbers. otherwise it will have to be supplemented. if necessary.. boil it up and return it to the barrels and heavily weight the latter. Skin and cut in halves large. and then cut them into long Place the latter in tubs. After a few days draw off the vinegar vinegar. Place the barrels in the sun or a warm place. so as to quickly start a slight fermentation. allow to stand for several days. brine. For use the gherkins are taken out of the barrels and packed with fresh wine vinegar spiced with tarragon. The fruits.*. sliced horseradish and shredded ginger. In 3 to 4 weeks the gherkins should be clear and translucent. ripe gherkins. not entirely ripe. clean up the barrels. a few laurel leaves and white pepper-corns. Small onions are peeled and hot vinegar is poured over them. and bung them down. 491 else. Pickled Peaches. When this has run its course. Sometimes the onions are placed in brine for one day. Gherkins in Mustard. Then pack them in bottles and pour boiling wine vinegar over them. pack them into barrels with yellow mustard seed. Pour in sufficient boiling wine to cover the whole. sprinkle well with salt and strips.

allspice. The two common varieties are the black or brown mustard. ginger. marjoram. thyme. either by itself or oftener in mixture with the brown seed. and then put them into bottles. for they have been in the brine for nine days. which has a very small seed. of wheat common salt and pepper: and in French mustard. Place the young. which grow wild and are cultivated under various conditions