INTRODUCTION

The call centre industry in India refers to the services outsourcing industry catering to mainly western operations of MNC’s. The sector witnessed considerable activity during 200506, including a ramping up of operations by major Indians and MNC players and stepped up hiring. A leading UK-Based research agency indicates that 67-72% of costs to call centres operating in the US/UK are directly linked to man power costs. India on the other hand spends only 33-40% of costs on man power .this include training, benefits and other incentives for labour. Currently the Indian call centre industry employs in excess of 245100 people and another 94,500 jobs are expected to be added during the current fiscal year.

A call centre is a central place where customer and other telephone calls are handled by an organization, usually with some amount of computer automation. Typically, a call center has the ability to handle a considerable volume of calls at the same time, to screen calls and forward them to someone qualified to handle them, and to log calls. One early definition described a call centre as a place of doing business by phone that combines a centralized database with an automatic call
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distribution system. This is close, but it is really much more than that. Call centres can be any of the following,Huge telemarketing organizations, centres,Fund-raising Help desks, both and collections and internal

external,Outsourcers (better known as service bureaus) that use their large capacity to serve lots of companies,Reservation centres for airlines and hotels,Catalogue retailers,"E-tailing" centres and e-commerce transaction centres that don't handle calls so much as automated customer interactions.

Call centres are generally set up as large rooms, with workstations that include a computer, a telephone set (or headset) hooked into a large telecom switch and one or more supervisor stations. It may stand by itself, or be linked with other centres. It may also be linked to a corporate data network, including mainframes, microcomputers and LANs. Increasingly, the voice and data pathways into the centre are linked through a set of new technologies called CTI, or Computer Telephony Integration.

In other words a call centre is a unit that has adequate telecom facilities, trained consultants, access to worldwide databases and helps to provide information support to customer. Typically a customer calls a number, which is toll free and is assisted by the consultant. The operator can access the databases and gives the response. This is a very useful feature in airline reservations, hotel reservations, banking services,
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technology solutions, etc. The areas, which are addressed by call centres, include sales support, airline/hotel reservations, technical queries, bank accounts, client services, receivables, tele-marketing, market research, etc.

The advances made in telecom ensure that the person who is handling the call can be anywhere, provided that communication and interaction dimensions are handled properly. At times, call centres are set up for internal use also, especially in conglomerates where the demand of internal customers is very large.

The Background

Call centres were first recognized as such in their largest incarnations: airline reservation centres, catalogue ordering companies, consumer-oriented problem solvers. Until the early 1990s, only the largest centres across the globe could afford the investment in technology that allowed them to handle huge volumes. More recently, with the development of LAN-based switches, internet-based transaction processing, client/server software systems, and open phone systems, any call centre can have an advanced call handling and customer management system, even down to ten agents or less.

As companies have learned that service is the key to attracting and maintaining customers (and hence, revenue),
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the common perception of the call centre has changed. In some industries (catalogue retailing, financial services, hospitality) a call centre is the difference between being in business and not being in business. In other industries (cable television, utilities) call centres have been the centrepiece of corporate attempts to quickly overhaul service and improve their image. It's a strategic asset that companies can use to improve their customer relationships, and more importantly, to learn more about their customers, and therefore serve them better. This improves the bottom line. Call centres have evolved from cost centres to profit centres.

Origins of the Call Centre Industry Around 30 years ago in the USA, the travel and hospitality industry began to centralize their reservation centres into what we would recognize now as huge call centres. This happened at around the time the first large-scale high-volume premisebased telephone switches became available.

Banks have also used them since the 1970s at least, and later in that decade, with the rise of the catalogue shopping movement and outbound telemarketing, call centres became a staple within many industries. Each industry, however, had its own way of operating centres, its own standards for quality, and its own preferred technologies. This trend persisted until early in the 1990s, when call centre managers became more

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recognized as having a consistent set of skills and an operational knowledge.

Technologically speaking, call centres have advanced in the last ten years. Earlier, it was just a labour intensive department trying to handle some customer queries. Now, it is supposed to be a vital link in the entire process of marketing and improving customer interaction. Unlike an airline reservation where the queries are generally simple and easy to handle, requirements of a technology customer support are different and need technical knowledge. A pre requisite for any call handling person is extremely good customer relationship skills and command over language/ accent. The Basic Components The basic components of a call centre are computers, interactive voice response systems, EPABX and an automatic call router. The earlier adopters of call centres were able to reduce the cost of sales, become more responsive to their customer requirements and thus get a competitive edge.

Types of Call Centres Call centres can be of different types. A regional call centre implies that a centre in America to handle America, Europe to handle Europe and a centre in South East Asia and Australia to handle Asia. This enables some economies of scale but duplication of efforts can minimize operational efficiency. The other option is to have a global call centre where all calls
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across the globe are handled. This results in tremendous economies of scale, which is really cost effective. Such a centre cannot afford any downtime because of lack of back up.

The latest version of call centre is a global intelligent network, a centralized database with advanced call handling facilities, managing a typical end-to-end service. The network is spread across the globe with local resources tapping it. This requires technically qualified manpower to maintain the backbone and telecom infrastructure management skills. This global internal network allows access to worldwide staff and ability to match languages, skills and resources. This is the first step towards a global virtual call centre.

Interactive Voice Response (IVR) has been the most significant productivity gain. 70 - 80% of calls can be handled without agent intervention, which helps reduce operating costs. In some extremely competitive markets like financial services, airlines, etc., IVR systems is a necessity.

Inbound and Outbound Centres An inbound centre is one that handles calls coming in from outside, most often through toll free numbers. These calls are primarily service and support calls, and inbound sales. An outbound centre is one that does mainly outgoing telemarketing.
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Inbound is the biggest component of call centre traffic these days, though perversely, outbound represents the area of largest projected growth in the next few years. In truth, the majority of centres contain some element of both inbound and outbound.

NEED FOR THE STUDY

Motivated work force is an asset of any organization. Even minor discontentment of workforce can be attributed in general science to dissatisfaction in work and the organization where the work is done. Any problem connected with the human resource assumes paramount significant and should be treated and handled in a careful sense. Less job satisfaction involve a considerable loss to the enterprises, because lack of job satisfaction in an organization may show ugly symptoms
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such as production losses, reduced profits, and changes in work schedule, under utilization of plant capacity, increase in wage rate, loss of man power, financial losses etc.. The success of management is managing manpower fully by making vital steps to minimize employee’s dissatisfaction. in call centers. The present study is a humble attempt to analyze employee job satisfaction

SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Around 95,000 are expected to be added to the ever increasing call center work force in India. The significance of understanding the reasons for employee dissatisfaction is increasing now a days as the attrition rate in voice call centres stand at a staggering 35%.

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Thus there lies the need for us to evaluate the reasons or factors which are causing dissatisfaction to these employees and thereby increasing the labor turnover rate.

Also since lots of present day youth are being chased by multi-national companies to employ them in their call centres. The result or findings of this project will help the future generation or batches of call centre job aspirants to understand the satisfaction level of employees in this sector.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Primary objective:
To find out the employee job satisfaction in call centers

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Secondary objectives:

1. To identify the factors that influence job satisfaction in call centers. 2. To find employees satisfaction towards salary. 3. To find if they are under stress. 4. To highlight some suggestion to improve job satisfaction.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
 Research design
This topic comes under descriptive research as it includes surveys and involves the description of the state of affairs as it exists in the present.

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 Sampling design
The universe is somewhat finite with regard to call centre employees’ population in the city chosen for the study i.e. Bangalore. There are around 109,500 employees in Bangalore working in call centres.

 Sampling technique
The sampling technique used for this study is convenience sampling.

 Sampling size
The sample size chosen for this study is 100 respondents.

 Method of data collection
The secondary data for this data was collected from various sources like internet and magazines or journals. The primary data was collected with the help of a questionnaire which was given to 100 respondents.

 Tools used for data analysis
The statistical tools used for analysis of data were percentage analysis and Chi-Square Test.

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Limitations

• The study was restricted to Bangalore city due to time constraints and hence the results cannot be generalized to all cities. • Due to time constraints the sample size was restricted to 100. • Many of the respondents were biased towards the respondents.
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High Attrition Rate: A Big Challenge

Defining attrition: "A reduction in the number of employees through retirement, resignation or death"

Defining Attrition rate: "the rate of shrinkage in size or number"

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Introduction: In the best of worlds, employees would love their jobs, like their coworkers, work hard for their employers, get paid well for their work, have ample chances for advancement, and flexible schedules so they could attend to personal or family needs when necessary. And never leave.

But then there's the real world. And in the real world, employees, do leave, either because they want more money, hate the working conditions, hate their coworkers, want a change, or because their spouse gets a dream job in another state. So, what does all that turnover cost? And what employees are likely to have the highest turnover? Who is likely to stay the longest?

Background of article

The IT enabled services (BPO) industry is being looked upon as the next big employment generator (Nasscom predicts 1.1 million job requirement by the year 2008). It is however no easy task for an HR manager in this sector to bridge the ever increasing demand and supply gap of professionals. Unlike his software industry counterpart, the BPO HR manager is not only required to fulfill this responsibility, but also find the right kind of people who can keep pace with the unique work patterns in this industry. Adding to this is the issue of maintaining consistency in performance and keeping the motivation levels high, despite the monotonous work. The toughest concern for an HR manager is however the high attrition rate.

In India, the average attrition rate in the BPO sector is approximately 30-35 percent. It is true that this is far less than the prevalent attrition rate in the US market (around 70 percent), but the challenge continues to be greater considering
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the recent growth of the industry in the country. The US BPO sector is estimated to be somewhere around three decades old. Keeping low attrition levels is a major challenge as the demand outstrips the supply of good agents by a big margin. Further, the salary growth plan for each employee is not well defined. All this only encourages poaching by other companies who can offer a higher salary.

The much hyped "work for fun" tag normally associated with the industry has in fact backfired, as many individuals (mostly fresh graduates), take it as a pas-time job. Once they join the sector and understand its requirements, they are taken aback by the long working hours and later monotony of the job starts setting in. This is the reason for the high attrition rate as many individuals are not able to take the pressures of work.

The toughness of the job and timings is not adequately conveyed. Besides the induction and project training, not much investment has been done to evolve a "continuous training program" for the agents. Motivational training is still to evolve in this industry. But, in all this, it is the HR manager who is expected to straighten things out and help individuals adjust to the real world. I believe that the new entrant needs to be made aware of the realistic situation from day-one itself, with the training session conducted in the nights, so that they get accustomed to things right at the beginning.

The high percentage of females in the workforce (constituting 30-35 percent of the total), adds to the high attrition rate. Most women leave their job either after marriage or because of social pressures caused by irregular working hours in the industry. All this translates into huge losses for the company, which invests a lot of money in training them.
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If a person leaves after the training it costs the company about Rs 60,000. For a 300-seater call centre facing the normal 30 percent attrition, this translates into Rs 60 lakh per annum. Many experts are of believe that all these challenges can turn out to be a real dampener in the growth of this industry. This only raises the responsibility of "finding the right candidate" and building a "conducive work environment", which will be beneficial for the organization. The need is for those individuals who can make a career out of this.

All this has induced the companies to take necessary steps, both internally and externally. Internally most HR managers are busy putting in efforts on the development of their employees, building innovative retention and motivational schemes (which was more money oriented so far) and making the environment livelier. Outside, the focus is on creating awareness through seminars and going to campuses for recruitment.

Major Worries for the Industry Poor Infrastructure- the industry has more to worry about than just reckless start-ups. Primary among those is infrastructure. While telecom networks are state of the art, getting a connection still takes up to three months. Unreliable power supply is forcing units to create their own back-ups. Roads are bad and airports are in dire need of repairs and upgrades.

High Attrition-another major problem is the high attrition and growth aspirations of the workforce. At least 60,000 of the 171,000 workforce change jobs every year. About 80% of them look for better leaders. Team leaders want to upgrade to supervisors, quality professionals or operations heads. The HR problem threatens to soon become grave. Good agents are
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becoming hard to find and with tardy infrastructure, big moves to the much talked about smaller towns will take longer. This means costs will rise making it difficult for small VC-funded companies to survive. Attrition rates

US 42% Australia 29% Europe 24% India 18% Global Average 24% * Source-Times News New York

Staff attrition (or turnover) and absenteeism represent significant costs to most organizations. It is odd, therefore, that many organizations neither measure such costs nor have targets or plans to reduce them. Many organizations appear to accept them as part of the cost of doing business - a sign of increasing job mobility and decreasing staff loyalty perhaps, a matter to be regretted but just 'one of those things.' They add a sum in their budgets for 'temp staff' and 'recruitment' and forget about it.

However, it seems to be one of the areas in which HR can make a difference - and one that can be measured in quantifiable, financial terms against targets.

An attrition rate in call (or contact) centres has become legendary. Indeed, the attrition rates in some Indian call centers
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now reach 80%. This is an extreme figure but the average attrition rates in Indian call centers are up around 30-40%.

However, it is interesting to note that the attrition rates in India - and the costs associated - are so high that they can override the benefits of lower wage costs. While wages in call centres in Indian are less than one-eighth of those in Northern Europe, it has been reported that Hewlett-Packard have found the cost per 'ticket' (the cost of processing a query) has doubled "due to the inability of the staff to resolve customer queries efficiently because of language barriers and inexperience." It is said that this increased cost has made HP's move from Ireland to India "completely pointless," and that it can never recover the (substantial) costs of the move. It is further reported that GE Capital has moved a call centre back to Australia "after staff attrition rates of 70% wiped away any potential cost savings."

The issue is not with the quality or education of the staff - and still less with the investment in technology. It is simply attrition - people do not stay long enough to be taught or to learn the job. The staff may be cheaper but if they cannot do the job, what's the point? Managing attrition is not just a 'nice thing to do' in Indian call centres. It is the route to their survival.

Far from accepting attrition rates as part of the cost of doing business, it is surely something that all organizations should address, and equally surely it is an area in which HR can take a lead - measure attrition, seek its causes, set out solutions and target performance.

Components to be taken into consideration, while calculating attrition rate
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I request HR professionals not to drive their own formulas to calculate attrition rate. In terms of numbers, attrition rate means:

Total Number of Resigns per month (Whether voluntary or forced) divided by (Total Number of employees at the beginning of the month plus total number of new joinees minus total number of resignations) multiplied by 100.

If calculating in monetary terms, it includes the following: Costs Due to a Person Leaving Calculate the cost of the person(s) who fills in while the position is vacant. Calculate the cost of lost productivity at a minimum of 50% of the person's compensation and benefits cost for each week the position is vacant, even if there are people performing the work. Calculate the lost productivity at 100% if the position is completely vacant for any period of time. Calculate the cost of conducting an exit interview to include the time of the person conducting the interview, the time of the person leaving, the administrative costs of stopping payroll, benefit deductions, benefit enrollments. Calculate the cost of the manager who has to understand what work remains, and how to cover that work until a replacement is found. Calculate the cost of training your company has invested in this employee who is leaving. Calculate the impact on departmental productivity because the person is leaving. Who will pick up the work, whose work will suffer, what departmental deadlines will not be met or delivered late.
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Calculate the cost of lost knowledge, skills and contacts that the person who is leaving is taking with them out of your door. Use a formula of 50% of the

person's annual salary for one year of service, increasing each year of service by 10%. Subtract the cost of the person who is leaving for the amount of time the position is vacant. Recruitment Costs The cost of advertisements; agency costs; employee referral costs; internet posting costs. The cost of the internal recruiter's time to understand the position requirements, develop and implement a sourcing strategy, review candidates backgrounds, prepare for interviews, conduct interviews, prepare candidate assessments, conduct reference checks, make the employment offer and notify unsuccessful candidates. This can range from a minimum of 30 hours to over 100 hours per position. Calculate the cost of the various candidate pre-employment tests to help assess a candidates' skills, abilities, aptitude, attitude, values and behaviors. Training Costs Calculate the cost of orientation in terms of the new person's salary and the cost of the person who conducts the orientation. Also include the cost of orientation materials. Calculate the cost of departmental training as the actual development and delivery cost plus the cost of the salary of the new employee. Note that the cost will be significantly higher for some positions such as sales representatives and call center agents who require 4 - 6 weeks or more of classroom training. Calculate the cost of the person(s) who conduct the training.
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Calculate the cost of various training materials needed including company or product manuals, computer or other technology equipment used in the delivery of training.

Lost Productivity Costs As the new employee is learning the new job, the company policies and practices, etc. they are not fully productive. Use the following guidelines to calculate the cost of this lost productivity: Upon completion of whatever training is provided, the employee is contributing at a 25% productivity level for the first 2 - 4 weeks. The cost therefore is 75% of the new employees’ full salary during that time period. During weeks 5 - 12, the employee is contributing at a 50% productivity level. The cost is therefore 50% of full salary during that time period. During weeks 13 - 20, the employee is contributing at a 75% productivity level. The cost is therefore 25% of full salary during that time period. Calculate the cost of mistakes the new employee makes during this elongated indoctrination period. New Hire Costs Calculate the cost of bring the new person on board including the cost to put the person on the payroll, establish computer and security passwords and identification cards, telephone hookups, cost of establishing email accounts, or leasing other equipment such as cell phones, automobiles. Calculate the cost of a manager's time spent developing trust and building confidence in the new employee's work.
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Lost Sales Costs Calculate the revenue per employee by dividing total company revenue by the average number of employees in a given year. Whether an employee contributes directly or indirectly to the generation of revenue, their purpose is to provide some defined set of responsibilities that are necessary to the generation of revenue. Calculate the lost revenue by multiplying the number of weeks the position is vacant by the average weekly revenue per employee. Conclusion: It is clear that there are massive costs associated with attrition or turnover and, while some of these are not visible to the management reporting or budget system, they are none the less real. The 'rule of thumb' appears to be very inaccurate indeed and, while it depends upon the category of staff, it is probably better to estimate around 80% of salary as a truer rule of thumb - and this will be on the conservative side. What does this mean? Well it means that if a company has 100 people doing a certain job paid 25,000 and that turnover or attrition is running at 10%, the cost of attrition is:

(Total staff x attrition rate %) x (annual salary x 80%) 100 staff at 10% attrition means 10 people leave and are replaced each year. A replacement cost of 80% of a salary of 25,000 means the cost of each replacement is 20,000. The cost of turnover is therefore 10 x 20,000 or 200,000 a year. The oncost to the overall salary bill is 8%. (Saving 8% of salary costs would make the average HR manager a hero.)

By: Sanjeev Sharma
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Source: http://www.bpoindia.org/research/attrition-rate-bigchallenge.shtml

Table-01

Respondent’s gender
S .No. 1. Male 2. Female
Source: Primary data

No. Of Respondents 83 17 100

Percentage of respondents 83 17 100

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that The maximum number of respondents are male 83%

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Table-02

Respondent’s age group
S .No. 1. Less than 22 2. More than 22
Source: Primary data

No. Of Respondents 41 59 100

Percentage of respondents 41 59 100

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 59% of respondents were above or equal to 22 years of age and 49% were below 22 years

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Table-03
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Respondent’s Marital status
S .No. 1. Single 2. Married
Source: Primary data

No. Of Respondents 89 11 100

Percentage of respondents 89 11 100

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 89% of respondents marital status was single

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Table-04
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Respondents educational qualification
S .No. 1. High School 2. UG 3. PG
Source: Primary data

No. Of Respondents 2 89 9 100

Percentage of respondents 2 89 9 100

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 89% of respondents educational qualification was ug

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Table-05

Respondents annual income
S .No. 1. Less than 1lakh 2. 1lakh to 2lakh 3. more than 2Lakh
Source: Primary data

No. Of Respondents 13 77 10 100

Percentage of respondents 13 77 10 100

Interpretation—

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It is inferred from the above table that 77% of respondents earn between 1-lakh to2-lakh

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Table-06

Respondent’s satisfaction towards salary
S .No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. No. Of Respondents 34 42 23 1 0 100 Percentage of respondents 34 42 23 1 0 100

Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 42% are satisfied with their salary

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Table-07
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Respondents work experience
S .No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. No. Of Respondents 62 25 11 2 0 100 Percentage of respondents 62 25 11 2 0 100

0-6 Months 6 Months - 1 Year 1 - 2 Year 2 - 3 Year 3 Years and Above

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 62% of respondents have work experience between 0-6months

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Table-08
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Respondents Feeling of security towards the current job
S .No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. No. Of Respondents 28 51 15 3 3 100 Percentage of respondents 28 51 15 3 3 100

Very Secure Secure Neutral Insecure Very Insecure

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 51% fell secure about the current job

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Table-09

Respondents Reasons for quitting from the job, if so
S.No. No. Of Respondents Work Dissatisfaction Less Salary Work Culture Stress Work Load 12 5 8 58 17 100
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Percentage of respondents 12 5 8 58 17 100

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 58% of respondents fe4ll t6hgat stress will be the factor if they will be quitting now

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Table-10

Respondents whether salary is based on performance
S .No. 1. Yes 2. No 3. Can't Say
Source: Primary data

No. Of Respondents 76 21 3 100

Percentage of respondents 76 21 3 100

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 76% feel that their salary is based on their performance

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CHART 10

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Table-11
Respondents Agreeability level towards valuation of salary
S .No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. No. Of Respondents Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 18 59 16 5 2 100 Percentage of respondents 18 59 16 5 2 100

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 59% agree that their performance is being valued

CHART 11
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Table-12

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Respondents Agreeability level toward feeling relieved if
quitting from the current job now S .No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. No. Of Respondents Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 4 14 60 19 3 100 Percentage of respondents 4 14 60 19 3 100

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 60% are neutral towards feeling relieved upon quitting from their job now

CHART 12
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Table-13

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Respondents Agreeability level toward stress during work
S.No. No. Of Respondents Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 26 63 9 0 2 100
Source: Primary data

Percentage of respondents 26 63 9 0 2 100

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 63% agree to stress in the job

CHART 13

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Table-14

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Respondents Agreeability level toward the company being
only bothered about the output/results

S .No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

No. Of Respondents Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 36 45 14 3 2 100

Percentage of respondents 36 45 14 3 2 100

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 45% agree that company is bothered only about the employees output/result.

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CHART 14

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Table-15

Respondents Agreeability level towards feeling unsecure in
the current job

S .No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

No. Of Respondents Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 2 7 59 23 9 100

Percentage of respondents 2 7 59 23 9 100

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 59% are neutral towards feeling unsecure working in the present job

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CHART 15

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Table-16

Respondents whether getting enough rest

S .No . 1. Yes 2. No 3. Can't Say
Source: Primary data

No. Of Respondents 7 82 11 100

Percentage of respondents 7 82 11 100

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 82% say they are not getting enough rest.

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Table-17
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Respondents Agreeability level toward the job being based on
qualification and skill

S .No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

No. Of Respondents Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 2 7 59 23 9 100

Percentage of respondents 2 7 59 23 9 100

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 59% are neutral towards the fact that job is based on qualification and skill

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Table-18
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Respondents whether the work is recognized by the superiors

S .No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

No. Of Respondents Always Often Sometimes Rare Not at All 7 0 11 0 82 100

Percentage of respondents 7 0 11 0 82 100

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 82% feel that their work is

 not at all recognized by their superiors

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Table-19

Respondents whether leave can be availed from the company

S .No . 1. Yes (Casual leave) 2. No (Casual Leave) 3. 4. Yes (medical leave) No (Medical leave)

No. Of Respondents 11 89 86 14 100

Percentage of respondents 11 89 86 14 100

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 89% do not get casual leave and 86% get medical leave.

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Table-20
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Respondents whether will recommend the job to someone
else

S.No. 1. 2. Yes No

No. Of Respondents 84 16 100

Percentage of respondents 84 16 100

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 84% say that will recommend their job to someone else

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Table-21

Respondents Overall satisfaction level towards the job

S .No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

No. Of Respondents Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 11 48 36 4 1 100

Percentage of respondents 11 48 36 4 1 100

Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

It is inferred from the above table that 48% are overall satisfied towards the job

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Comparison between Gender and satisfaction towards Salary
Null hypothesis Gender is not associated with satisfaction towards salary.

Alternate hypothesis Gender is associated with satisfaction towards salary.
GENDER * SATISFACTION TOWARD SALARY Count
Satisfaction towards salary

GENDER Total

1 2

1 27 7 34

2 36 6 42

3 19 4 23

4 1 1

Total 83 17 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 0.208

Expected value 5.991

D Significan f ce 2 Not significant

Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between gender and satisfaction towards salary

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Comparison between Gender and level of Stress
Null hypothesis Gender is not associated with stress

Alternate hypothesis Gender is associated with stress
GENDER * STRESS Count

Stress
GENDER Total 1 2 1 18 8 26 2 57 6 63 3 7 2 9 5 1 1 2 Total 83 17 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 0.819

Expected value 5.991

d Significan f ce 2 Not significant

Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between gender and stress

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Comparison between Gender and Overall job Satisfaction
Null hypothesis Gender is associated with overall job satisfaction

Alternate hypothesis Gender is not associated with overall job satisfaction
GENDER * OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION Count Overall job satisfaction 1 GENDER Total 1 2 8 3 11 2 40 8 48 3 31 5 36 4 3 1 4 1 5 1 Total 83 17 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 0.392

Expected value 5.991

d Significan f ce 2 Not significant

Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between gender and overall job satisfaction

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Comparison between Age group and Satisfaction towards Salary
Null hypothesis Age group is not associated with satisfaction towards salary

Alternate hypothesis Age group is associated with satisfaction towards salary
AGE GROUP * SATISFACTION TOWARDS SALARY Count
Satisfaction towards salary

AGE `GROUP 1 2 Total

1 15 19 34

2 18 24 42

3 8 15 23

4 1 1

Total 41 59 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 1.247

Expected value 5.991

d Significan f ce 2 Not significant

Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between age group and satisfaction towards salary

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Comparison between Age Group and Stress Level
Null hypothesis Age group is not associated with stress level

Alternate hypothesis Age group is associated with stress level
AGEGROUP * STRESS LEVEL Count Stress level AGEGROUP Total 1 2 1 13 13 26 2 24 39 63 3 4 5 9 2 2 5 Total 41 59 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 1.446

Expected value 5.991

d Significan f ce 2 Not significant

Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between age group and stress level

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Comparison between Age Group and Overall Work Satisfaction
Null hypothesis Age group is not associated with overall work satisfaction

Alternate hypothesis Is associated with overall work satisfaction
AGEGROUP * OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION Count Overall job satisfaction 1 AGEGROUP Total 1 2 3 8 11 2 25 23 48 3 12 24 36 4 1 3 4 1 1 5 Total 41 59 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 2.803

Expected value 5.991

d Significan f ce 2 Not significant

Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between age group and overall work satisfaction

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Comparison between Marital Status and Satisfaction toward Salary
Null hypothesis Marital status is not associated with satisfaction toward salary

Alternate hypothesis Marital status is associated with satisfaction toward salary
MARITAL * SATISFACTION TOWARDS SALARY Count Satisfaction towards salary MARITAL Total 1 2 1 31 3 34 2 35 7 42 3 22 1 23 1 4 1 Total 89 11 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 1.525

Expected value 5.991

d Significan f ce 2 Not significant

Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between marital status and satisfaction toward salary

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Comparison between Marital Status and Level of Stress
Null hypothesis Marital status is not associated with level of stress

Alternate hypothesis Marital status is associated with level of stress
MARITAL * LEVEL OF STRESS Count Level of stress MARITAL Total 1 2 1 23 3 26 2 60 3 63 3 5 4 9 5 1 1 2 Total 89 11 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 15.03 9

Expected value 5.991

d Significan f ce 2 Significant

Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between marital status and level of stress.

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Comparison between Marital Status and Overall Job Satisfaction
Null hypothesis Marital status is not associated with overall job satisfaction

Alternate hypothesis Marital status is associated with overall job satisfaction
MARITAL * OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION Count Overall job satisfaction MARITAL Total 1 2 11 1 11 2 45 3 48 3 31 5 36 4 1 3 4 1 5 1 Total 89 11 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 14.67 8

Expected value 5.991

d Significan f ce 2 Significant

Alternate hypothesis is accepted and Null hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is significant relationship between marital status and overall job satisfaction

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Comparison between Educational Level and Satisfaction towards Salary
Null hypothesis Educational level is not associated with satisfaction towards salary

Alternate hypothesis Educational level is associated with satisfaction towards salary
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL * SATISFACTION TOWARDS SALARY Count Satisfaction towards salary 1
EDUCATIONAL 2 LEVEL

2 1 39 2 42

3 1 18 4 23

4 1 1

1 31 3 34 3

Total 2 89 9 100

Total

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 3.61

Expected value 9.49

d Significan f ce 4 Not significant

Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between educational level and satisfaction towards salary

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Comparison between Educational Level and Level of Stress
Null hypothesis Educational level is not associated with level of stress

Alternate hypothesis Educational level is associated with level of stress
EDUCATIONAL * LEVEL OF STRESS Count

Level Of Stress
1
EDUCATIONAL 1 LEVEL

2 2 62 1 63

3 7 2 9

5

Total 2 89 2 2 9 100

2 3

20 4 26

Total

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 25.53 4

Expected value 9.49

d Significan f ce 4 Significant

Alternate hypothesis is accepted and Null hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is significant relationship between educational level and level of stress

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Comparison between Educational Level and Overall Job Satisfaction
Null hypothesis Educational level is not associated with overall job satisfaction

Alternate hypothesis Educational level is associated with overall job satisfaction
EDUCAT IONAL LEVEL* OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION Count Overall job satisfaction 1
EDUCATIONAL 1 LEVEL

2 9 2 47 1 48

3 1 31 4 36

4 1 1 2 4

5 1 1

Total 2 89 9 100

2 3

Total

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Chisquare Result—

Valu e 17.52 6

Expected value 9.49

d Significan f ce 4 Significant

Alternate hypothesis is accepted and Null hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is significant relationship between educational level and overall job satisfaction

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Comparison between Income and Satisfaction towards Salary
Null hypothesis Income is not associated with satisfaction towards salary

Alternate hypothesis Income is associated with satisfaction towards salary
INCOME * SATISFACTION TOWARDS SALARY Count Satisfaction towards salary 1 INCOME 1 2 3 Total 3 26 5 34 2 5 36 1 42 3 5 14 4 23 1 1 4 Total 13 77 10 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 4.585

Expected value 9.49

d Significan f ce 4 Not significant

Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between income and satisfaction towards salary

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Comparison between Income and Level of Stress
Null hypothesis Income is not associated with level of stress

Alternate hypothesis Income is associated with level of stress
INCOME * LEVEL OF STRESS Count Level of stress 1 INCOME 1 2 3 Total 7 17 2 26 2 4 53 6 63 3 1 7 1 9 1 2 5 1 Total 13 77 10 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 7.033

Expected value 9.49

d Significan f ce 4 Not significant

Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between income and level of stress.

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Comparison between Income and Overall Job Satisfaction
Null hypothesis Income is not associated with overall job satisfaction

Alternate hypothesis Income is associated with overall job satisfaction
INCOME * OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION Count Overall job satisfaction 1 INCOME 1 2 3 Total 1 6 4 11 2 2 44 2 48 3 8 24 4 36 4 1 4 2 2 1 5 Total 13 77 10 100

Chisquare Result—

Valu e 9.695

Expected value 9.49

d Significan f ce 4 Significant

Alternate hypothesis is accepted and Null hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship between income and overall job satisfaction

Findings
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The maximum number of respondents were male 83%

 59% of respondents were above or equal to 22 years of age and 49% were below 22 years  89% of respondents marital status was single  89% of respondents educational qualification was UG  77% of respondents earn between 1lakh to2lakh  42% are satisfied with their salary  62% of respondents have work experience between 0-6months  51% fell secure about the current job  58% of respondents fell that stress will be the factors if they will be quitting now  76% feel that their salary is based on their performance.  59% agree that their performance is being valued.  60% are neutral towards feeling relieved upon quitting from their job now.  63% agree to stress in the job.
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45% agree that company is bothered only about the employees output/result.

 59% are neutral towards feeling unsecure working in the present job  82% say they are not getting enough rest.  59% are neutral towards the fact that job is based on qualification and skill  82% feel that their work is not at all recognized by their superiors  89% do not get casual leave and 86% get medical leave.  84% say that will recommend their job to someone else

48% are overall satisfied towards the job

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Suggestions

The company should provide better canteen facilities. The company should see that all the employees should work as a team.

The company should give casual leave to the employees. The Superiors in the company should not harass the employees for achieving targets.

The company should set lenient targets for the employees to achieve.

There should be frequent rest intervals for the employees especially in night shifts.

There should be more convenient or better time shifts.
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There should be more financial and non-financial incentives. The company should provide facilities or for stress relief.

 Stress from superiors to reach customer satisfaction targets.

The company should see that there are no constant changes in work schedules and timings i.e. there should be fixed timings or the schedules should change less frequently

Conclusion
The study was conducted to know the employees

satisfaction in call centres in Bangalore. The study revealed that the employees faced some problems like stress and job dissatisfaction mainly due to heavy work load and pressure from supervisors to achieve targets. The call centers are suggested to improve their HR practices and give a better work environment to the employees to reduce the attrition rate.

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Bibliography
 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Call_centre  www.callcentersindia.com  www.bpoindia.org  www.callcentercafe.com  www.go4callcenter.com  www.bpoindia.org/research/attrition-rate-bigchallenge.shtml

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 www.beagleresearch.typepad.com/beagle_research/2007/ 06/call_center_att.html

Relief for Call Center Stress Syndrome -Stephen Cosci Research methodology-C.R.Kothari

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