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1-Whats Difference between RSCP,RSSI and EcNo?

Lots people have some confusion related to RSCP,RSSI and EcNo. Here is the solution. RSSI is Rx level before descrembling. Its just RxLev of UARFCH. CPICH_RSCP is Rx level after descrembling. CPICH_Ec/No is result of filtering after dechanalization. In dBm is: RSCP=RSSI+EcNo 2-What is a typical UE sensitivity level?

The service and load determines the UE sensitivity; in general, in no-load condition, the sensitivity is between -105dBm and -120dBm. For Ericsson, the UE sensitivity level is calculated at around: CS12.2: -119 dBm PS-64: -112 dBm PS-128: -110 dBm PS-384: -105 dBm HSDPA: -95 dBm
3-Some

Facts about HSDPA

HSDPA represents an evolution of the WCDMA radio interface, which uses very similar methods to those employed by EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) technology for the GSM radio interface. The fundamental characteristics which enable the increase in the data throughput and capacity with reduced latency are summarised below:

Time and code multiplexing of the users Multi-Code transmission Fixed Spreading Factor (SF = 16) Shorter TTI = 2ms No DTX (Discontinuous transmission)for the data channel Adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) supporting higher order modulation Node B scheduling and link adaptation Node B retransmissions (H-ARQ Hybrid Auotmatic Repeat-Request) No power control No soft handover

Cdma question
4-1)TXPOWER

2)RXPOWER 3)Ec/Io 4)TXADJ 5)FER. 1.EcIo EcIo reflects the handset in the current received pilot signal level. This is an integrated pilot signal.

Why, because mobile phones are a multi-channel soft switching, which translates into mobile phones often lies in more than one pilot overlapping coverage area, the level of the phone, EcIo reflects the phone at this point that a multi-channel pilot signal level of the overall coverage. We know that the Ec is a mobile phone available pilot signal strength, and Io is the mobile phone receives all the strength of the signal. Therefore, EcIo reflects the available signal strength in occupies all signals. The higher the value, the greater the proportion of a useful signal, on the other hand also reversed. At some point EcIo big, there are two possibilities. First, the Ec is very large, dominant level here, Ec, Io is very small, that is to say here is from another base station's messy little pilot signal, EcIo also larger. In the latter case is weak, because the Ec small, Io is also small, so small, so RSSI also there may be dropped. At some point EcIo also small, there are two possible, first, the Ec is also small small RSSI, this is the weak coverage area. The Ec is not small, RSSI, this illustrates the Io is the overall intensity of the signal is not bad. This situation is often a BSC switch data configuration, no nearby strong pilot signal into the adjacent community table, so the phone doesn't recognize the strong pilot signal in the vicinity as a jamming signal processing. On the road, in the case of a typical phenomenon is the phone in a move to maintain certain RSSI, EcIo level, rapid rise to FER and eventually dropped. 2 TXPOWER TXPOWER is the phone's transmitter power. We know that power control is guaranteed call quality and address the CDMA community interference tolerance and one of the key means of mobile phone from the base station near, uplink quality good, the mobile phone transmitting power is smaller, because at the base station is able to guarantee the reception of the signal to launch mobile phone and fer also small and mobile phones transmitting power is smaller to other mobile phones in the community is also a small interference. So mobile phones transmit power level, reflecting the handset's current uplink loss and interference. Uplink loss of large, or there is serious interference with the phone's transmitter power will be greatly missed mobile phone transmitting power is smaller. Roadtest, in normal circumstances, the more closer to the base station or Repeater, the mobile phone transmitting power is reduced, away from the base station and Repeater, the mobile phone transmitting power increases. If the base station and Repeater nearby mobile phone transmitting power, obviously it is not normal. Perhaps there is interference, the uplink can be a base station and Repeater itself. Such as community antenna wrong receive carrier frequency amplifier circuit problems, etc. If the Repeater nearby, cell phone transmitter power, it may be a Repeater malfunctions, uplink gain set too small, and so on.Above you can see, the road of TXPOWER level reflects the base station coverage area of reverse link quality and uplink interference levels. 3RXPOWER RXPOWER is a mobile phone to receive power. In CDMA, according to my personal understanding, there are three parameters is very close by, you can almost equivalent to the use of parameters. Namely RXPOWER, RSSI, Io. RXPOWER is a mobile phone to receive power, Io is mobile phones currently receives all signal strength, RSSI is receives downlink band of total power, as currently I have access to information, the title explains, but understanding is very similar, is the phone receives a total of signal strength. RXPOWER and reflects the current signal receiving phone, RXPOWER small area, the weak positive fall within the coverage area, RXPOWER places belong to the covered area. But the high places, RXPOWER and does not necessarily signal quality is good, because there may be no signal, leading to frequency, or too many strong pilot, pilot frequency pollution. Therefore, the analysis of RXPOWER to EcIo to analysis.Above you can see, RXPOWER and simply reflects the drive test signal coverage area, rather than the quality of the signal coverage. 4TXADJ TXADJ reflects the up and down-link a balance. Note that this value is calculated from the measurement, instead. 800M CDMA system is Tx_adjust = 73dB + Tx_power + Rx_power, 1900M CDMA is Tx_adjust = 76dB + Tx_power + Rx_power. TXADJ reflects the current location of the mobile uplink and downlink of a more mass. We know that

under normal circumstances, the cell phone away from the base station close to the phone's transmitter power will decrease, and received power will become larger and far away from the cell phone, mobile phone base station transmitter power will increase while receiving power gets smaller. Normally, the transmitter power and receiver power plus a constant fixed values, the result should be a small interval (for example,-10 to + 10). If TXADJ great, it means that the phone's transmitter power, receive the power, then it is obvious that mobile current downlink of good quality (receiving power), and the poor quality of the uplink (transmitter power), this time forward link is better than a reverse link. On the contrary, TXADJ is very small, explains this reverse link well to the forward link. We know that the base station coverage depends on the reverse link loss level. Therefore, in General, we require the following TXADJ in 0. But greater than 10, the reverse link forward link than are poor, the situation is not ideal. For TXADJ, nor can they be said to be as small as possible. But in the actual drive test, we generally encounter, often TXADJ too high, forward link, reverse link. 5 FER FER is a forward-fer. Forward fer with EcIo also is a comprehensive quality of forward link. Because when the phone is in the multi-channel soft switching, fer actually multi-channel forward an integrated signal quality. FER, description of the mobile phone of the forward link better, received signal is good, this time EcIo also should be better. The larger the Description cell phone FER the received signal strength is poor, EcIo should also at this time. FER is large, it may also be due to a neighboring community switch parameter configuration error. If you switch between adjacent community with leakage, single and mobile to mobile, adjacent to the pilot was not recognized, and the pilot does not recognize, it will become interference signal, resulting in increased FER. In reality, often manifested in mobile, mobile phones, FER a rapid rise in sharp decline, EcIo, and finally dropped.Above that is closely followed by EcIo FER. FER reflects the call quality is good or bad, reflects the RoadTest regional coverage quality level, rather than the signal coverage strength level. In some areas although belonging to the weak signal coverage area, but relatively clean (messy signals, noise), as well as be good FER. Note the above parameters, EcIo, RXPOWER is the phone in standby or call have parameters, TXPOWER, TXADJ, FER is only a phone call and from the only parameter. The above five parameters, together, to analysis of drive test region to cover the intensity level, the former to override the quality level, as well as the reverse link loss level, and so on, is the analysis of drive test is the most important parameters. In-depth understanding of the five parameters, combined with the overall situation for drive testing specific analysis, is engaged in network optimization staff in one of the basic conditions.

Antenna Hopping
Antenna Hopping is a downlink performance enhancement feature designed to improve link performance where frequency hopping is not in use or not effective due to high correlation between frequencies. In a typical sector where you have the BCCH and hopping layer, the BCCH layer has no downlink diversity since it is only one frequency transmitting over a single antenna. This makes it more suceptible to noise, interference and fading. The hopping layer however has the advantage that it is hopping from one frequency to another creating phase diversity where it combats long term fading and frequency related interference. This feature enables the TRXs in an RF hopping BTS to transmit with all the TX antennas in the BTS using the existing BB (Baseband) hopping functionality in the BTS. With AH the improvement is more substantial on the non-hopping layer because we bring it to almost equal link performance with the hopping layer .This translates to gain on the nonhopping layer that will improve existing coverage and RSSI levels. This feature would also be very beneficial in interference-limited areas

Step to check TCH Drop Analysis. 1. Radio Link Time-Out


Every time a SACCH message can not be decoded the radio link time-out counter is decreased by 1. If the message can be decoded the counter is incremented by 2. However, the value can not exceed the initial value. The initial value is set by the parameter RLINKT for radio link time-out in the mobile station and by RLINKUP for timeout in the BSC. If the mobile moves out of coverage and no measurement reports are received in the BSC, there will be a radio link time-out and the message Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, unspecified) is sent to the mobile station and the SACCH is deactivated in the BTS. A Clear Request message is sent to the MSC. To be sure that the mobile has stopped transmitting, the BSC now waits RLINKT SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call can be established on the channel.

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2. Layer 2 Time-Out If the BTS never get an acknowledge on a Layer 2 message after the time T200XN200, the BTS will send Error Indication (cause: T200 expired) to the BSC, which will send Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, timer expired) to the mobile station and a Clear Request to the MSC. The SACCH is deactivated and the BSC waits RLINKT SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call can use the channel. This is only valid if the call is in steady state, i.e. not during handover or assignment.

3. Release Indication When the BTS received a layer 2 DISC frame from the mobile it replies with a Layer 2 UA frame to the mobile station and a Release Indication to the BSC. The system does only react on Release Indication if it is received during a normal disconnection situation. If such a message is received unexpectedly this will

usually cause radio link time-out or timer T200 expiration as the mobile station stops the transmitting of measurement reports. It is also possible that the release will be normal depending on when the Release Indication is received. 4. MSC Time-Out Normal Release: If the MSC never received a response on a message (e.g. Identity Request) and there is no radio link time-out or layer 2 time-out, the MSC will send a Clear Command to the BSC. The time-out is depending on the message. When receiving Clear Command, the BSC will send a Channel Release (cause: normal release) and then deactivates the SACCH. Reject (only SDCCH): If the MSC never receives a response on the first message after Establish Indication, the MSC will send a reject message. If the connection was a Location Update it will be a Location Update Reject (cause: network failure) and if the connection was a mobile originating call (CM Service Request) a CM Service Reject (cause: network failure) will be sent. The MSC will then send a Clear Command to the BSC and the call is cleared by Channel Release (cause: normal release).

5. Assignment to TCH Before sending an Assignment Command from the BSC at TCH assignment, the following two criterion have to be fulfilled: a. There must be a TCH channel available, i.e. no congestion b. The locating algorithm must have received at least one valid measurement report. If either of the criterion is not fulfilled, Assignment Command will not be sent and a Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, unspecified) will be sent to the mobile station and a Clear Request to the MSC. TCH Drop reason (1) The classification of TCH Drop Reasons are arranged in the order of priority: 1.Excessive Timing Advance 2.Low Signal Strength 3.Bad Quality 4.Sudden Loss of Connection 5.Other Reasons Excessive Timing Advance The TCH Drop counters due to Excessive Timing Advance will pegged when the during the time of disconnection, the last Timing Advance value recorded was higher than the TALIM Parameter. This drop reason is commonly apparent to isolated or island sites with a wide coverage area.

Action: Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < "63" Solution: Set TALIM to a value close to 63. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power, etc. for co-channel cells.

TCH Drop Reasons (2) Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink or Both Links The drops counters due to Low Signal Strength will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last Measurement Report before the call dropped is below the LOWSSDL and/or LOWSSUL Thresholds. LOWSSDL and LOWSSUL are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only for statistics purposes and does not affect the behavior of calls. If both UL and DL Signal Strength are below the thresholds, only Drop due to Low SS BL will pegged. Normally a call is dropped at the border of large rural cell with insufficient coverage. Bad tunnel coverage cause many dropped calls as well as so called coverage holes. Bad indoor coverage will result in dropped calls. Building shadowing could be another reason.

Action: Check coverage plots. Check output power. Check power balance and link budget. Check if Omni site. Check antenna configuration & type. Check antenna installation. Perform drive tests & site survey. Check TRX/TS with high CONERRCNT. Solution: Add a repeater to increase coverage in for example a tunnel. Change to a better antenna (with higher gain) for the base station. Add a new base station if there are large coverage holes. Block/Deblock TRX TCH Drop Reasons (3) Poor Quality on Down or Uplink or Both Links The drops counters due to Bad Quality will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last Measurement Report before the call dropped is above the BADQDL and/or BADQUL Thresholds. BADQDL and BADQUL (expressed in DTQU) are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only

for statistics purposes and does not affect the behavior of calls. If both UL and DL Quality are above the thresholds, only Drop due to BAD Quality BL will pegged. Problem on Bad Quality is usually associated with Co-channel Interference on BCCH or TCH. Faulty MAIO assignment can cause frequency collisions on co-sited cells especially on 1x1 Reuse. External interference is also one possible cause of problem on quality.

Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. Check Frequency Plan (Co-BCCH or Co-BSIC Problem). Check MAIO, HOP, HSN parameters. Check FHOP if correctly configured (BB or SY). Check for External Interference. Perform drive tests.

Solution: Change BCCH frequency. Change BSIC. Change MAIO, HOP, HSN. Change FHOP. Record RIR or on-site Frequency Scanning to identify source of interference. Use available radio features. TCH Drop Reasons (4) Sudden Loss of Connection Drops due to Sudden Loss are drops that have not been registered as low signal strength, excessive timing advance, bad quality or hardware (other) reasons, and the locating procedure indicates missing measurement results from the MS. There are some common scenarios that could lead to Sudden Loss of connections such as very sudden and severe drops in signal strength, such as when subscribers enter into buildings, elevators, parking garages, etc., very sudden and severe occurrence of interference, MS runs out of battery during conversation, Handover Lost, BTS HW faults, Synchronization or A-bis link fault (transmission faults), and MS Faults. Action: Check BTS Error Logs, Alarms and Fault Codes. Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS. Check Transmission Link (A-bis). Check for DIP Slips.

Check LAPD Congestion. Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Sudden Loss Solution: Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms. Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT. Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable. Change RBLT with high DIP Slips. Change CONFACT or increase Transmission Capacity Investigate HO Lost Problem TCH Drop Reasons (5) TCH Drops due to Other Reasons TCH drops due to Other Reasons are computed by subtracting the sum of drops due to Excessive TA, Low SS, Bad Quality and Sudden Loss from the Total TCH Drop Counts. Drops due to Other Reasons are generally associated with hardware problems, transmission link problems on A-bis, Ater or Ainterfaces, and sometimes Handover Lost. Action: Check BTS Error Logs. Check Alarms and Fault Codes. Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS. Check Transmission Link (A-bis). Check for DIP Slips. Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Other Reasons Solution: Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms. Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT. Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable. Change RBLT with high DIP Slips. Investigate HO Lost Problem

Problem reason of drop in SDCCH Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink The reason for poor coverage could be too few sites, wrong output power, shadowing, no indoor coverage or network equipment failure. Action: Check coverage plots.Check output power. Perform drive tests. Check BTS error log Solution: Add new sites. Increase output power. Repair faulty equipment.

Poor Quality on Down or Uplink Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. Check frequency plan. Perform drive tests. Solution: Change frequency. Use available radio features. Too High Timing Advance Action: Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < style="font-weight: bold;">Solution: Set TALIM to a value close to 63. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power, etc. for cochannel cells. Mobile Error Some old mobiles may cause dropped calls if certain radio network features are used. Another reason is that the MS is damaged and not working properly. Action: Check MS fleet. Solution: Inform operator. Subscriber Behavior Poorly educated subscribers could use their handsets incorrectly by not raising antennas, choosing illadvised locations to attempt calls, etc. Action: Check customer complaints and their MS. Battery Flaw When a subscriber runs out of battery during a conversation, the call will be registered as dropped call due to low signal strength or others. Action: Check if MS power regulation is used. Check if DTX uplink is used. Congestion on TCH The SDCCH is dropped when congestion on TCH. Action: Check TCH congestion Solution: Increase capacity on TCH or using features like Assignment to another cell, Cell Load Sharing, HCS, Dynamic Half-Rate Allocation and FR-HR Mode Adaptation etc

What is benefit of shorter TTI in HSDPA?


1)After every TTI the resources can be redistributed among the users. Therefore, the resource usage is more efficient. 2)each UE reports about the channel quality after every TTI by sending the CQI. 3)CQI is sent after the very short period of time of 2 ms, it is possible to effectively perform link adaptation even in rapidly changing condition

What is Difference between ARQ and HARQ?


ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request), which is used in UMTS, a package received in error will be discarded and a retransmission will be requested. If the retransmission is also erroneous, another retransmission

will be requested. Using HARQ, an erroneous package will be stored at the receiver and a retransmission will be requested. Even if the retransmission is faulty, the receiver attempts to combine the two erroneous packages to reproduce the original package.

What are the main technologies used for HSDPA?


1)Link adaptation (AMC) 2)Fast Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ), and 3)Shorter Transmission Time Interval (TTI)

What is Latency in HSDPA


Latency is the time a packet needs to travel from sender to receiver. While UMTS typically features an end-to-end latency of approximately 200ms, HSDPA manages to lower the delay times in transmission to around 100ms.

What is Link Adaption?


HSDPA uses link adaptation, which means the way of transmission is changed according to the quality of the channel conditions. If a user is in favourable conditions, for example close to the nearest antenna tower, this user will be assigned a high data rate. When the user moves into worse channel conditions, for example far away from the antenna tower, the transmission parameters will be changed accordingly and thus the data rate will be decreased.