Business SCOPE in China

The following presentation has been made by ChinaAccess, a China-based Access consulting company to assist overseas companies to enter China market.

Are you ready to setup your business in China?

It can be used as a first guide if you are interested in busines China: “If you are thinking of doing business with China but don´t know where to begin”.

A big market with 1.3 billion people.

 Why China?  Country Brand Index  China Facts & Predictions  What do the worldwide entrepeneurs     

want about China? Different corporate structures Outsourcing Ind. development zones, FTZ, Eco Cities International brands in China Appendix: ChinaAccess services

“China is confident, for China itself is a big market with 1.3 billion people, and is making effort to stimulate domestic demand. Under the financial crisis, China’s foreign trade is confronting with severe challenges, but China is taking positive measures to boost the growth of foreign trade, expanding exports and imports. The momentum of economic globalization remains. No country is able to find a solution to the financial crisis on its own, only joint efforts by all countries and deepening of cooperation can make an earlier recovery of the world economy. China will stick to opening up, and keep enhancing trade and economic cooperation with foreign countries. China values the important role played by foreign business in advancing China’s economic development and creating more jobs. While encouraging China’s business to expand overseas investment, China, as always, welcomes foreign business to invest in China, and vigorously creates favorable investment environment for them, and helps them to solve the problems they encounter.”
Commerce Minister: Chen Deming with the last meeting (March, 2009) with representatives from USA and European business at the High Level Forum on China Development.
Source: Ministry of Commerce Website (

“China Has the Strongest Ability to Withstand the Crisis in the Emerging Countries ”.
Standard & Poor’s – Feb, 2009

“China will continue to be favorable for foreign investors”. Mr. Chen Deming, Minister of Commerce of PRC, March 2009

“If you are not in China, you are really not in the game!” C. Eltschinger “I am in a flat world. The world become flat. Wherever you are, whatever you do, this is the time of dreams come true as long as you have ambition.” Haitao Qi, CEO Devott Ltd.

Why China?


• Welcome to the “world’s biggest market” with more than a 1.3 billions consumers.

Fastest Growing Economy
• China is now the 2nd largest economy in the world and the last grows have been at a 10% rate annually.

Market Opportunity

Economic Reforms
• A deep and gradual economic reform gives way to new business pportunities.

• A technological stronghold in the country can in time become a beachhead for future expanded business development.

Why China?

Cost Advantage

• China’s cost are typically 20-30% lower than India and more resistant to the kind of wage inflation and employee turnover. .

Human Resource Availability
• The university system in China is projected to produce 5m graduates by year (more than doubled in the last ten years).

Vendor Diversification

Geo-Political Diversifications
• Spreading offshore activities to different countries helps protect from political and business risk.

• Mantain more control, foster competition and spur performance by working with more than one outsourcing vendor.

China holds the 1st. position: 2) 3) Rising star Most impressive last year

Source: Country Brand Index (

China facts

The economy of the People's Republic of China is the second largest in the world after the US with a GDP of $10.21 trillion (2006) when measured on purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. It is the fourth largest in the world after the US, Japan and Germany, with a nominal GDP of US$2.527 trillion (2006) when measured in exchange-rate terms. The country's per capita income is classified as low by world standards, at about $2,000 (nominal, 86th of 179 countries/economies), and $7,800 (PPP, 107th of 179 countries/economies) in 2006, according to the IMF.

China has been the fastest growing major nation for the past quarter of a century with an average annual GDP growth rate above 10%. China's per capita income has grown at an average annual rate of more than 8% over the last three decades drastically reducing poverty, but this rapid growth has been accompanied by rising income inequalities.

China facts
Ta of inv s m nt utiliza ble et e tion of FDI Num r of proje s Top 10 count s be ct : rie Country (Reg ion)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Ta of inv s m nt ut t of FDI ble et e ilizaion Re lize FDI: Top 10 count s(mill. U$S) a d rie Country (Reg ion)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Jan. to December 2008 12857 2360 2226 1772 1438 975 757 410 390 4329 27514

Jan. to December 2008 41036 15954 4453 3652 3145 3135 2944 1899 2550 13626 5 1359

HongKong Taiw an South Korea United States Japan Virg Island in Sing apore Canada Germany Others Tot l Proje a cts

HongKong Virg Island in Sing apore Japan Cayman Islands South Korea United States Taiw an West Samoa Others Tot l Proje s a ct

Source: Foreign Investment Department of the Ministry of Commerce

Source: Foreign Investment Department of the Ministry of Commerce

Economic Map of China

Econom Ma - De a d Inform t ic p t ile aion
Surface Area (thousand sq. km.) Eastern Region Beijing Fujian Guangdong Hainan Hebei Jiangsu Liaoning Shandong Shanghai Tianjin Zhejian Central Region Anhui Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangxi Jilin Neimenggu Shanxi Western Region Chongqing Gansu Guangxi Guizhou Ningxia Qinghai Shaanxi Sichuan Xinjiang Xizang Yunnan 16.8 120 180 34 190 100 150 150 5.8 11 100 130 460 160 180 210 160 180 1100 150 82.3 390 230 170 66 720 190 480 1600 1200 380 Population (million persons) 15.81 35.58 93.04 8.36 68.98 75.5 42.71 93.09 18.15 10.75 49.8 61.1 38.23 93.92 56.93 63.42 43.39 27.23 23.97 33.75 28.08 26.06 47.19 37.57 6.04 5.48 37.35 81.69 20.5 2.81 44.83 GDP Per Capita (US dollar) 6,637 2,824 3,726 1,664 2,231 3,789 2,865 3,129 7,587 5,413 4,192 1,322 2,130 1,751 1,749 1,572 1,420 2,067 2,637 1,857 1,638 1,152 1,354 761 1,558 1,547 1,596 1,387 1,973 1,372 1,180

Source: National Bureau of Statistic of China

Economic prospects and risks
• Global financial markets are likely to remain strained during 2009. • Risks and uncertainty about the international outlook are unusually large. •We expect private consumption growth to decelerate, but to remain significant.

• China’s real economy has been hit hard by the global crisis, but has been holding up. • Although China’s growth is set to slow, it is still likely to outgrow most other countries. • There are useful synergies between China’s short and medium term policy objectives. • Financial sector reform will help.

Economic policies
• China has important short, medium, and long term challenges. • With the short and medium term objectives overlapping, the medium term objectives need to shape economic policies in 2009. • Looking ahead, there may be less need for investment-oriented stimulus.

Recent Economic Developments
• The global financial and economic crisis intensified in the fall of 2008.      • The adverse impact on output and trade is very large and geographically broad-based.  • There are useful synergies between China’s short and medium term policy objectives. • The slowdown is adding further downward pressure on inflation.

• China’s economy is
likely to receive support from the expected global pick up if and when it occurs late in 2009 or in 2010. .

Some predictions about China
China will become a power of the size and influence of the US in the next few decades. The sophistication of China’s economy is advancing at even faster pace than its economic growth. The rapid acceleration of urbanisation will be continue, around 1 billion Chinese will live in cities by 2030. China will probably be biggest world economy before 2015.

Why do the worldwide entrepeneurs want about China?

Why do the worldwide entrepeneurs want about China?

Buy products

Since many decades ago the world is buying directly . from China several productsMade in China

Outsource services

The new times, Services in China. With the Government promotion and the privates companies development now the world can .outsource their services in China

Sell products/ services

The China´s door is opening increasingly so many companies worlwide are now selling their .products and services to China .Next business generation

Act locally

Thousands of companies worlwide are interested in a China “big market” development. Act .locally

Barriers – Entry to China
Language – the first and biggest barrier for .foreign companies to enter to China Government– unfamiliar with the central & local government and Chinese laws & .policies Culture – conflicts of western and eastern cultures set another barrier for business .development in China And thedistrust ensued makes it harder for foreign companies to enter and develop in .China market
According to World Bank’s report, from 2006 to 2010, 30% of the 250 billion U.S. dollars of oversea investment to the developing countries .would go directly to China Currently China has approved the establishment of over 500.000 foreign-financed enterprises and has used 270 billion U.S. dollars of foreign funds. Those foreign-funded enterprises import .over 560 billions U.S. dollars of goods annually





Different corporate structures
Representative Office Joint Venture Wholly Foreign Owned Enterprise (WFOE)

Branches. PRC Holding Companies

Representative Offices

Are often the first step taken by foreign companies when establishing a permanent presence in China.

• Rep. Offices can build relations and
provide technical support. • They can not transact business directly in China. • Are subject to registration requirements. • Registration is generally valid for three years with renewal terms. • It’s necessary to establish a physical office space in China.
Permitted: • Conduct data collection and research on local market. • Liaise with local contacts, Chinese government and commercial organisations. • Coordination of warranty and after-sales services. Not Permitted: • Sign contracts on its own behalf. • Directly engage in business for profit. • Collect money or issue invoices for products or services.

Joint Venture

Most common businesses for a foreign firm with a local Chinese partner.

• Different shapes depending of the ways
of contributions: Ownership, Financial contributions, Management, the level of participation, the contribution of technology. • JV are governed by the Law of the PRC and relevant implementing regulations.

Advantages: • Only option, as industry is restricted. • Quick establishment/contribution of existing facilities. • Local expertise.

Disadvantages: • Inflexibility • Difficulties in expanding investment. • Differing management styles. • Exposure of intellectual property.

Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise

This kind of enterprise is 100% owned by a foreign company or companies.

• The foreign investor has complete
control over the business, direction and profits of the enterprise. • WFOE allows the foreign investor to issue invoices and receive revenues in RMB (local currency). • Are operated by the Law of the PRC on Enterprises Operated Exclusively with Foreign Capital, and relevant implementing regulations.
Advantages: • Management control. • Easier to terminate. • Simpler establishment procedures. • Protection of intellectual property. Disadvantages: • Lack of experience and local connections. • May not be listed on stock exchange.


Are used by certain industries: banking, insurance and shipping.

• The branches are not separate legal
entities in China.

PRC Holding Companies

If the conditions are satisfied, foreign investors may establish holding companies in the PRC to hold equity interests in foreign investment enterprises.

• A PRC Holding company may trade the goods manufactured by its investees. • Also may render some services: marketing, staff recruitment and consultancy. • The PRC Holding tax separately with its subsidiary companies. • The next step could be a “Regional Headquarter”.

China has turned its attention to the lucrative offshore services market and is keen to close the gap between India economy, the world leader of outsourcing. The clearest indication of the Chinese Government's enthusiasm to grab market share in the world outsourcing market is the liberalised regime This has permitted the establishment of new China Service Outsourcing Zones, in which outsourcing is encouraged and that provide subsidies and tax breaks for outsourcing suppliers to establish and expand their activities.

The initiative targets specific sectors have been software; financial services; film and television; innovation and design; specialist services, such as accountancy and legal services; and commerce. The first cities to be granted these new freedoms (initially for a five-year period) were Dalian, Chengdu, Shanghai, Shenzen and Xi¡¯an, followed this year by Beijing, Hangzhou, Jinan, Nanjing, Tianjin, and Wuhan.

Outsourcing Cities and Parks
Right until the end of July, 2008, MOC of China has successively authorized 16 cities and 4 national demonstration zones (includes Suzhou Industrial Park etc.) in 4 groups as the base cities for China’s service outsourcing industry. Now, there are around 50 outsourcing parks in China, with whom we have established and maintained good cooperation relationships. Thus we are able to offer our clients the researches and evaluations on these parks regarding their basic information, preferential policies, taxation and HR storage etc., so as to help them to select the most competitive area.




Tianjin Xi’an

Nanjing Hefei Chengdu Wuhan Chongqing Shanghai Hangzhou


Guangzhou Shenzhen

Top 10 Service Outsourcing Providers in China 2008

Is an international consulting company integrated consulting, portal and outsourcing services. Taking "dedicated to the promoting of China outsourcing industry’s global competitiveness" as its responsibility and in virtue of its in-depth understanding of the global outsourcing industry and extensive industry resources of China’s outsourcing industry, Devott offers comprehensive outsourcing consulting, project management and industry research services to global outsourcers and suppliers on the basis of the Chinasourcing webstite ( which is the only portal website and e-transaction platform for China’s outsourcing industry. Source: Top 50 Service Outsourcing Providers in China 2008

High-tech outsourcing company with broad business expertise and experience. Extensive global understanding.

Is a leading IT outsourcing service provider in China. The company has over 2.500 full time employees.

Is one of the biggest call centers in China, with China’s biggest telecom operation company as the holding company. Is a leading Chinabased provicer of global outsourcing services. Owns four global delivery centers around China. Is a high & new technology enterprise focusing on software, game & animation and service outsourcing.

Is a specialized vendor of solutions, digital products and services with expertise in software technologies.

With over 2.400 IT resources, a comprehensive solutions platform, and mature delivery model.

The Who´s who in China Outsourcing
Chinasourcing is the first consulting service provider dedicated to the sourcing industry in China. It has positioned itself as an outsourcing industry service provider (ISP) to capitalize on the historical opportunity of China’s economic transition from manufacturing to services, and fully leverage the transfer of global services into China and the outsourcing frenzy worldwide. Chinasourcing focuses on the outsourcing industry, and takes advantage of to deliver industry research, information, sourcing management, process optimization, business consulting, staff training, project intermediation and headhunting services to outsourcing clients and vendors. Chinasourcing rides the wave of China’s economic transition to services to build a bridge linking domestic and international business services. By consolidating the various resources at home and abroad, it has gradually become the flagship service brand in China’s outsourcing industry. Industry Website: Chinasourcing Website ( is the portal website of China’s outsourcing industry, a springboard by which overseas outsourcers enter China’s marketplace, and a platform of information release and project transaction in China’s outsourcing industry. The website is dedicated to creating the industry chains of information release, transaction platform, industry exchange, intermediary services and software products, and delivering outsourcing solutions. It is intended to become a bridge and link between outsourcing clients and vendors.

Industrial Development Zones
Hangzhou High Tech
Focus: High Tech, Software, IC, Telecom Equipment, Ecommerce Selected companies: Motorola, Alibaba, Handsome Electronics, Sunyard


Suzhou Hig-Tech
Focus: Electronics and Information, precision machinery, bio-med, new materials. Selected companies: Motorola Electronics, Curtis Instruments, Harman Electronics, Ambow Software Co., Logitech, Siemens, Philips, Fuji Film, Canon Inc.

Nanjing New and High Tech Technology
Focus: Electronics and Information, bioengineering, pharmaceuticals, new materials, aeronautics and astronautics. Selected companies: Ericsson Communications, Southern Telecom, Siemens, Panda Electronics, GE Appliance Co.

Wuxi New District
Focus: Micro electronics, machinery, bioengineering, chemicals, new engineering. Selected companies: Infineon Technologies, Bayer, GE Medical Systems, Kenmore Refrigeration Components. (*) some IDZ as a presentation only

Industrial Development Zones
Shanghai Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park
Focus:IC, Water, software, information security, medical/pharmaceutical. Some clients: Glaxo Smithkline. Roche, Medtronic, SMIC, GSMC, GE China R&D.


Shanghai Minhang
Focus: High-tech, IT, precision machinery, photoelectric machinery. Selected companies: Coke, Pepsi, Mitsubishi, Unileber, Johnson&Johnson.

Focus: Chemical, electronic information, IC, telecom, port services. Some clients: Quanyong Electric, Zhongtian Optic Fiber & Devices.

Focus: Semiconductors, biochem, electronic information, precision machinery. Selected companies: Exxon, Samsonite, Dow Chemical.

(*) some IDZ as a presentation only

Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area
Created 24 years ago with the approval of the Chinese central government, Tianjin Economic-technological Development Area (TEDA) is one of the first state-level coastal development areas opening to the outside world.

Is one of 53 national High Technology Zones in China, designed for the efficient promotion of industrial high-tech development and production in the Country. An ample road network interlacing all parts of the Zone, which is stretching over a surface of 35 km2.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) listed TEDA as one of the most dynamic areas of China together with Shenzhen, Suzhou, Wenzhou, Shanghai Pudong and Xi'an High-tech Park.

Is the second-to-none interlocutor and partner in Xi'an for interested prospective investors of the high-tech industrial fields, in particular of Information Technology, Bio-pharmaceutical, environment-friendly, advanced material and process technology fields.

Industries strongly represented and/or promoted in XHTDZ: • Software generation and processing, • Communication, • Environmental protection Biopharmaceuticals, • New and Creative products

Shanghai Fengpu Industrial Park Export Processing Zone
As 1 of the 3 Shanghai key development zones, Fengpu is located in the Fengxian District of the South Shanghai, which is the economic center of Shanghai in 21st century, enjoying the joint supporting from the municipal government and Fengxian local government. Due to the historical reason, Fengxian District used to be the industrial base of mechanism, electric, telecommunication and electron industries, possessing the predominant capability of providing correlative service for industry.

China and Singapore, both governments decided to join hands in developing a modern industrial park in the east of Suzhou. The China-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park (CS-SIP) was thus born on Feb. 26, 1994 when Chinese Vice Premier Li Lanqing and Singapore Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew signed the Agreement on the Joint Development of Suzhou Industrial Park in Beijing.

The Suzhou Industrial Park (SIP) is located about 20km from the city. Even as the park was being constructed, the Suzhou City government set up Suzhou New District Industrial Park (SND) right next to SIP. It was the exact replica of the Singapore model. The park has been named the first national ecological demonstration industrial parks

Free Trade Zones (*)
Since 1992, total 14 border and economic cooperation zones have received approval from the State Council of China. .

Zhangjiagang FTZ
Is one of the major free trading zones in China. Trading, exports, warehousing are some of the major activities which are being undertaken by the companies and units operating at the Zhanjiagang FTZ. Several benefits are also being offered. From simplification of foreign exchange earnings and repatriation of the benefits to the parent country, overall simplification of rules and custom levies and taxes make doing business at the Zhanjiagang FTZ a profitable and interesting proposition.

Shanghai Waigaoqiao
Located in the Pudong region of China, Waigaoqiao free trade zone provides for a number of benefits to the units situated there. A detailed review of the Waigaoqiao FTZ in China offers a comprehensive insight into the facilities that the trading, processing and warehousing sector gets out of the free trade regulations for the zone. Waigaoqiao FTZ in China is one of the popular free trade zones in China that provides for a plethora of opportunities for both domestic and global business houses operating from this part of the world.

Ningbo FTZ
Covering an area of 2.3 square quilometers, has main economic functions of export processing, international trade, bonded logistics and commodity exhibition. Ningbo is one of the major windows of fast economic growth in the region. As part of the development process, Ningbo FTZ has obtained ISO 14001 enviromental management certification.

(*) some FTZ as a presentation only

Eco Cities
Is a new eco-city planned for the island of Chongming in Shanghai, China. The name of the city literally translates as "East Beach". Arup, the British engineering consultancy firm, was contracted in 2005 by the developer, Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation (SIIC), to design and masterplan Dongtan, an eco-city on Chongming Island close to Shanghai. The cities are planned to be ecologically friendly, with zero-greenhouse-emission transit and complete self-sufficiency in water and energy, together with the use of zero energy building principles.

Fundamentally the city is being designed to enable people to choose a healthy and sustainable lifestyle, a city in balance with the natural environment that supports and surrounds it. Phase 1 is scheduled for completion by 2010, in time for the World Expo in Shanghai, and will accommodate a population of 50,000, rising to a projected 500,000 by 2040.

Eco Cities
Will be located 40 km from Tianjin city and 150 km from Beijing, will cover 10 sq km of salt pan, 10 sq km of desert and 10 sq km of watered. Located along the Jiyun River in Tianjin's Hangu district, the area will comprise residences, commercial space and factories, all of which will comply with international standards of energy use and environmental protection. The Chinese and Singaporean governments approved a development plan for the eco-city. It will be the second flagship Sino-Singaporean cooperation project since the Suzhou Industrial Park and will draw on Singapore's eco-conservation experience in regard to efficient energy use and environmental protection.

Drafted with three principles in mind, the master plan aims to make the ecocity a practical, scalable and replicable model that promotes green living, economic development and social harmony for cities in China and elsewhere. The eco-city may house 350,000 residents when it is completed in 10 to 15 years.

Let’s know more about some international companies in China

They have just arrived……
Chanel Chrysler Coach Coca-Cola CommScope Continental Creative Technol. Cummins Daimler Danfoss Degussa Dell Delphi Denso Diageo Disney DuPont Eaton Energizer Epson Estée Lauder Fendi Ferrero Ford General Mills Glaxo Smithkline Gore Gucci Michelin NBA Properties Inc. NEC Corporation Nissan Motor Novartis Panasonic Panduit Pernord Ricard Peugeot Pfizer Philip Morris Prada SA Puma Roche Rohm and Haas S.C. Johnson Samsonite SanDisk Sanofi-Aventis Sanyo Sara Lee Schneider Electric Servier Sony Ericsson Tiffany and Co. Time Warner Unilever Xerox

Acushnet Apple BASF BAT Beiersdorf AG Bosch Cisco Systems Dahon Eli Lilly Emerson General Motors Hewlett-Packard Intel Johnson & Johnson LVMH Fashion Gro. Microsoft Motorola Nike Nokia Philips Procter & Gamble Qualcomm Samsung SAP Siemens Sony Corporation Underwriters Zippo

Harley-Davidson Hasbro Henkel Hermes Hindustan Pencils Hitachi Honeywell IBM ICI John Deere JT International Karsten Manufact. Kodak Konika Minolta Lafarge Legrand Lexmark Logitech Lutron L'Óreal Makita Mars Mary Kay Mahle Mattel McCormick Merck MGM

3Com 3M ABB Abbot Laboratories Adidas Alcatel AMD Amway Anheuser-Busch Applied Materials Armstrong AstraZeneca Bacardi Baxter Bayer Beaufour Ipsen BIC BMW Bose BP Bridgestone Brother Burberry Callaway Calvin Klein Canon Casio Caterpillar

……more than 500.000

Chain Store and Franchise
McDonald’s has opened more than 1.050 outlets in China in the past two decades. McDonald's China announced on Feb. 4 an expansion plan to set up 175 new outlets and create more than 10,000 jobs this year on the Chinese mainland despite global economic downturn. The expansion was the largest of its kind ever made by McDonald's across the world. Watsons hopes to open stores in 75 cities in China by the end of 2009. At present, Watson has a big plan in China, to open 5000 stores in China quickly.
Brand Country Number of stores in China
95 71 75 33 58 16 40 11 4 Carrefour France Wal-Mart United States Lotus Supercenter Thailand Metro Germany B&Q United Kingdom Auchan France Parkson Malaysia Jusco Japan Ikea Sweden

Source: China Store & Franchise Association (2007)

Media Markt, the consumer electronics branch of Metro Group, entered a joint venture with Foxconn Technology Group in China. The joint venture’s target is the expansion of the Media Markt banner in China, where the first large format store is expected to open in the region of Shanghai by 2010. For the future, both partners see a potential for several hundred stores to open in China.

H&M, the Swedish apparel retailer has announced plans to vigorously expand in the Chinese market during 2009 by opening five new specialty stores in Beijing and Shanghai.

Appendix Our services in the PRC

As the name implies, Chinacces is a China-based consulting company whose mission is to assist overseas companies that wish to enter China market successfully.

Chinaccess is committed to help foreign companies that wish to develop and then implement entrance strategies into the China market; and to pursue a longterm, successful and low-cost growth trajectory in China.

SYSTEM Methodologies tailored to the China market such as an advanced database collection system; in-depth research processes; strict quality assurance system; integrated service based on market research, market evaluation; creating distribution channels to the point of reaching business expansion in China.

TEAM International management and consulting teams made up of experts with rich experience (average 8 years) and knowledge of the China market.

NETWORK Act locally, think globally. Our global network with agent representatives lets us keep informed and active in global business.

SOLUTION One-stop solutions customized to the specific needs of our customers. Chinaccess continues to provide full service as the operation is set up and expanded in China.

EXPERIENCE Extensive experience in doing business in China and in successfully assisting foreign companies to enter the China market, achieve business growth and source reliable suppliers in China.

RESOURCES Deep-rooted local business resources are the powerful backbone of all our services and solutions. We have developed and maintained extensive relationships with China's national and local governments, industry organizations and have a broad business network covering 28 major cities in China.

We have the key to China

Which is your next business?
Do not hesitate to contact us if you are interested in China. We are ready to offer you more in-depth assistance on developing a China strategy and operation management. Surely we will assist you and find out the business opportunities that are just waiting you! China-Access Tel: +86 2266203159 - Fax: +86 2266211568 Contact: Mr. Maximiliano Malamed E.mail:

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