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Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Meat Processing) Activity No. 2.1

Activity Title: Learning Target: Reference: CONCEPT NOTES:

Pork Tocino To familiarize the ingredients, procedures, tools and equipment in preparing pork tocino Livelihood Technology s. 17 Meat Processing, ITDI-DOST, pp.6

Ingredients: 1 2 5-8 1 - -1

Kg. Tbsp. Tbsp. Tbsp. tsp. tsp. Tablet

Pork ( Kasim or pigi) Salt Sugar Rhum / Gin Praque Powder Vetsin (optional) Ascorbic Acid (250 mg.)

Procedure: 1. Slice meat to about 0.63 cm. (1/4 inch ) thick 2. Mix all above ingredients for curing. 3. Rub the mixture on both sides of the slices and re-mix all to allow even distribution of curing mixture. 4. Arrange the pieces in a bowl and cover. 5. Keep at room temperature for 12 hours or in the refrigerator for 3 days to cure (the slices may be dried under the sun after curing to prolong shelf life). Utensils Needed: 1. Mixing bowl 2. Knife 3. Chopping Board 4. Measuring spoon 5. Weighing scale EXERCISES Vocabularies 1. Rub Application 1. Accomplish job plan for Pork Tocino and make a market list and budget

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Meat Processing) Activity No. 2.1

Activity Title: Learning Target: Reference:

Pork Tocino To familiarize the ingredients, procedures, tools and equipment in preparing pork tocino Livelihood Technology s. 17 Meat Processing, ITDI-DOST, pp.6 PORK TOCINO

Ingredients:

Procedure:

Utensils Needed:

EXERCISES Vocabularies 1. Rub Application 1. Accomplish job plan for Pork Tocino and make a market list and budget

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Meat Processing) Activity No. 2.2

Activity Title: Learning Target: I.

Project Planning (Pork Tocino) To prepare a project plan for Pork Tocino

II.

Objectives: 1. ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________ Bill of Materials Qty. Unit Particulars Unit Cost Total Cost

TOTAL III. Tools and Equipment Needed

IV.

Procedure

V.

Total Cost of the Product a. Cost of the Materials b. Labor Cost Total -

VI. Working Drawing:

VII.

Remarks/Ratings:

Checked by:

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Meat Processing) Activity No. 2.3

Activity Title: Calculating Production Cost Learning Targets: Calculate the cost of production. Reference: http://www.ehow.com/how_6550932_calculate-productioncost.html#ixzz1ERTYTnPu How To Calculate Production Cost: Add your fixed costs to the variable costs and divide by the number of items produced; this equals your cost of production for one item. The price you are charging for your product will need to be greater than the cost of production; otherwise, your business will be operating at a loss. Formula : production cost(PC) per item = fixed costs (FC) + variable costs (VC) divided by number of units/item(N) PC = (FC + VC) / N Example: Aling Celyn sell a home-made chicken tocino. She spent 20.00 for the firewood and spent 240.00 for the ingredients. She was able to make 10 packs of chicken tocino. How much was the cost of production per packs of chicken tocino? Given: fixed cost(FC) = P 20.00 , Solution: PC = (FC + VC) / N = ( P 20.00 + P 240.00 ) / 10 = P 260.00 /10 = P 26.00 variable cost(VC) = P240.00 , number of unit or item(N)= 10 substitute the given add fixed and variable cost divide by the number of item cost of production per item

Exercises: 1. Given that fixed cost and variable cost are P 200.00 and P 300.00, respectively for 10 packs chicken ham. Determine the cost of production per pack of chicken ham. Show your solution.

2. Mercy sells 15 dozens of chicken longanisa skinless. She paid 250.00 for the ingredients and 100 .00 for the labor. Compute the cost of production per dozen if shed have to gain profit. List down the fixed and variable factors in the production of chicken longanisa skinless.

3. Why is it important to determine the cost of production?

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Meat Processing) Activity No. 2.4

Activity Title: Learning Target: Reference:

Market Forms of Poultry To identify the market forms of poultry Livelihood Technology s.17, Meat Processing; DOST-ITDI, pp.7

MARKET FORMS OF POULTRY 1. Live poultry a type of poultry which are live, alert, healthy, well-feathered and well formed. They should have good fat covering, free of tears, broken bones, bruises and blisters. 2. Whole poultry This is similar to the form of the live poultry but it is no longer alive. 3. Dressed poultry These are slaughtered birds that have been bled and de-feathered. The head, Ffeet and viscera are still intact. 4. Drawn poultry These are slaughtered birds which have been bled, de-feathered and the visceral organs are removed. Dressed poultry sold as such may be drawn by the market vendor upon request. 5. Ready to-cook These are slaughtered birds that have been bled, de-feathered and the visceral organs, feet and head are removed and ready for cooking. Ready-to-cook chicken are available either chilled or frozen in the supermarkets of big cities. 6. Poultry parts- In this form, several poultry parts of single piece are made available in modern supermarkets either chilled or frozen. Poultry parts are a big treat to consumers who have great preferences for one part over the others. The various poultry parts are divided into either: a. Dark meat drumsticks, thighs, wings, neck, back and rib cage b. White meat breast c. Variety meats gizzard, heart and liver, head and feet EXERCISES 1. Differentiate between live and whole poultry.

2. Differentiate drawn and dressed poultry.

3. Draw and label the different poultry parts.

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Meat Processing) Activity No. 2.5

Activity Title: Learning Target:

Project Planning To prepare a project plan for ____________________________________ (Name of Project)

I.

II.

Objectives: 1. ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________ Bill of Materials Qty. Unit Particulars Unit Cost Total Cost

TOTAL III. Tools and Equipment Needed

IV.

Procedure

V.

Total Cost of the Product a. Cost of the Materials b. Labor Cost Total -

VI. Working Drawing:

VII.

Remarks/Ratings:

Checked by:

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.6

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

The Nature of Fish 1. Understands the nature of fish; 2. Identify the major categories of flesh foods. 3. Classify flesh foods as to vertebrate and invertebrate. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation

The Nature of Fish


Fish is scientifically known as Istiophorus Orientalis. This group of flesh foods may classified into two major categories: fish (vertebrate) and shellfish (invertebrate). Fish is covered with scales while the shellfish is encased in some type of shell. Shellfish is of two groups, the mollusks and the crustaceans. The mollusks are soft in structure and are either partially or wholly enclosed in a hard shell that is largely of mineral composition. Examples of mollusk are oysters, clams, abalone, scallops, and mussels. The crustaceans are covered with crustlike shells and have segmented bodies. Common examples are lobster, crab, shrimp, and crayfish. The kinds of scaly fish available for food vary widely in different localities. They include both salt-water and fresh water varieties and differ in flavor and quality depending partly on the water in which they grown. Most fish are caught in the open seas and their availability is not dependent on mans productive efforts, unlike agricultural or farming crops, but rather on his ability to detect and catch large school of fishes. However, in the Philippines we have learned to culture some marine fish and bangus. This is the foremost example. The act of culturing fish in inland water is called aquaculture, while culturing in salt water bodies such as coves and shores is mariculture. Mariculture, presently applies to tahong and oysters, is relatively in the Philippines. Fish has always been an important item in the Philippine diet and is one of the cheapest sources of protein and thus can take the place of chicken, pork, carabeef, or beef. Like these meats, the protein of fish contains all the essential amino acid; hence it has a high biological value.

Shellfish
Fish and shellfish are very perishable and deteriorate rapidly after removal from water. Fish with shells are distinguished from fish with bones form two groups based on differences in the character of the shells. Oysters, clams, scallops live in hinged shells. They have unsegmented bodies and the whole portion is eaten except in the case of the scallops. Of the scallops only the muscles are used. Lobsters, crabs, and shrimps have various appendages and shell like crusts that conform to the shape of their bodies. Fifteen percent of total fish consumption in the Philippines consists of shellfish. It includes squid, cuttlefish and sea cucumber. Exercises 1. Give the meaning of the following terms. 1. Mariculture 2. Aquaculture 3. Crustaceans 4. Mollusks 5. Istiophorus Orientalis Exercises 2. Identify the following whether it is Vertebrate or Invertebrate. 1. milkfish 6. shrimp 2. mussels 7.c.atfish 3. lobster 8.abalone 4. flying fish 9.crayfish 5. tilapia 10.crab Exercises 3. Explain briefly the following questions. (5 pts. each) 1. What is the difference between vertebrate and invertebrate?

2. Why it is the fish is important of the Filipinos diet?

3. What is the difference between crustacean and mollusks shellfish?

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.7

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

Deteriorative Changes after Death 1. Identify the deteriorative changes of the fish. 2. Describe the changes of the fish flesh after death. 3. Understand on how deterioration occurs. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation

The Deteriorative Changes Most fish caught from the sea die even while still in the net in the water. Those caught or harvested from inland waters also die shortly they are taken from water. An exception is those fish with accessory breathing organs like hito and dalag which stay alive after catch. The deteriorative changes after death of the fish are important to its acceptability as food. Immediately after death, the fleshy portion or muscle of fish is soft, gel like, and sticky. The rigor mortis sets in and is characterized by rigidity of the muscle. When rigor has passed, spoilage starts. This is caused mainly by fish enzymes and bacteria. The bacteria come from the slime of the fish skin as well as from the gills and intestinal tract. The flesh of a healthy fish is actually sterile. The enzymes which are found mainly in internal organs of the fish start digesting the neighboring flesh. A substance which is found in living fish called trime thylamine oxide is converted to trimethylamine which imparts the characteristic odor of stale fish. Oxidative deterioration or rancidity of fish fat follows. Exercises. A. Give the meaning of the following terms and translate into vernacular term/s. 1. Spoilage 2. Rigor 3. Enzymes 4. Deteriorate 5. Sterile 6. Bacteria 7. Oxidative 8. Harvest 9. Stale 10. Rancidity Exercises 2. Explain shortly what is asked. (5 pts. each) 1. When does deterioration of the fish starts?

2. Where do the bacteria and enzymes come from?

3. What do you mean by trime thylamine oxide?

4. What is the importance of having accessory breathing organs of fish?

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.8

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

Nutritive Value of Fish and Shellfish. 1. Identify the different nutritive value of fish and shellfish. 2. Appreciate the importance of its nutritive value. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation, Nora Narvaez - Soriano Nutritive Value of Fish and Shellfish

Fish is high in vitamins, minerals, and protein but low in fats and carbohydrates. Nutritive components: Protein, Fish is one of the most valuable sources of high grade protein. Most fish contains 18 20 % protein with most the essential amino acids in the right proportion. Apahap, lapu-lapu, labahita, tulingan, talakitok, bia and kanduli have generally high protein content. Protein is needed for growth and repair of body tissues Fats. The fat content of fish varies. Most fish varieties are low in fat. ( lea than one percent) thus, being moderately low in calories. Fat is not always uniformly distributed throughout the flesh of a fatty fish but it is found on the belly, head and the liver where the bulk of it is stored. Vitamins. Fish liver oil are topically rich sources of Vitamin A. Often, parts of a fish not normally eaten, like the liver and gut, contain much grater quantities of oil soluble vitamins than the flesh. Fish roe, when present is also a good source of vitamins. An average serving of fish meat supplies 1/20 to 1/5 of daily allowance for B, 1 /25 to 1/5 of B2, and 1/10 to of Niacin. These Water soluble concentrates contain an appreciable amount of Vitamin B2 a growth promoting compound. Minerals. The edible portions of fishes are satisfactory source of magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, and iodine. Shellfish is rich in minerals such as calcium which is good for the bones. Inclusion of fish in the daily diet provides an abundant mineral intake. Carbohydrates. All shellfish has some carbohydrates in the form of glycogen. Its sweet taste is due to the glucose formed by enzymes action from glycogen. Exercises 1. Fill in the blank with the correct word/s. 1. All __________ has some carbohydrates in the form of ______________. 2. Most fish contains _________ proteins with most of the essential ____________ in the right proportion. 3. ____________ are topically rich source of ____________. 4. The sweet taste is due to the ___________ formed by the enzymes from ___________. 5. Shellfish is rich in minerals such as __________ which is good for the ____________. Exercises 2. Enumerate what is being asked. A. What are the particular kinds of fish rich source of proteins?

B. List down the minerals found in the edible portion of fish.

C. Write the three parts of the fish where the bulk of fats are stored.

D. List down the nutritive components of fish.

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.9

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title: Internet :

Parts of the fish and its meaning. 1. Identify the part of the fish.; 2. Name the part of the fish. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation Author: Nora Narvaez - Soriano Enchanted learning . com

Parts of Fish
anal fin - the fin on the lower side of the body lateral line - a series of sensory pores (small openings) that are near the tail located along the sides of fish - they sense vibrations in the water caudal fin - the tail fin mouth - the part of the body which the fish uses to catch food it is located at the front of the body dorsal fin - the fin on the upper side of the body pectoral fin - each of the paired fins on either side of the body, near the head eye - sight organs located on the head pelvic fin - each of the paired fins on the lower side of the body, gills - fleshy organs that are used for breathing - they are located on the side of the near the head head Exercise 1. Identify the parts of a fish 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The tail fin The fin near the head sight organs of fishthe fin on the upper side of the body organ used for breathing uses to catch food fin on the lower side of the body fin on the lower side of the body near the tail sensory pores along the sides of the fish -

Exercise 2.Name the parts of a fish.

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.10

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

Types of Shellfish 1. Identify the various type of Crustacean shellfish. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation Author: Nora Narvaez - Soriano

Crustaceans
Crustaceans are shellfish with hard shells over the back and along the claw but have softer shells covering the lower part of the body and legs. Crabs, lobsters and shrimps are example of this type.

Crab These are various types of crabs commonly found in the Philippines: the alimango or green crab, the alimasag or blue crab, and the talangka. The talangka or kapi is unique due to its small size, about one fourth the size of a regular crab. A fresh water crab obtained from the rivers has a shell that covers the lower part of its body and is soft enough to be edible. The carapace or hard shell covers its back which contains the fat or aligi that may be separate from the meat and preserved. Called taba ng talangka it is eaten as sauce, a delicacy prepared laboriously by expects. The bigger crabs alimango and alimasag, also contain aligi which is normally with its meat. Lobsters It is the popular shellfish in New England Fisheries. The claw meat is preferred and brings a higher price than the tail meat. Lobsters are expensive and marketed mainly for export. Shrimps These are more commonly eaten than the lobster. Like crab, some shrimps are also small and would normally be eaten whole with their shells. Suahe (white shrimp), Tiger prawn (sugpo), and alamang ( small shrimp) are salt water shrimps while Ulang and Tagunton are fresh water shrimps.
Exercises A. Give the tagalog name of the following shellfish. 1. fresh water shrimp 2. green crab 3. small crab 4. blue crab 5. small shrimp 6. white shrimp B. Fill-in the blanks 1. __________________________ are shellfish with hard shells over the back and along the claw but have softer shells covering the lower part of the body and legs. 2. A fresh water crab obtained from the rivers has a shell that covers the lower part of its body and is soft enough to be edible. 3. ____________________are more commonly eaten than the lobster. 4. Lobster is a popular shellfish in . 5. _________________ and ______________________ are examples of fresh water shrimps. 6. Salt water shrimps include . 7. The fat of a crab is known as . 8. The part of a lobster which has a higher price is . 9. Examples of crustaceans are . 10. It contains the fat of the crab .

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.11

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

Parts of a Fish Draw and label the parts of a fish Culinary Arts IV

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.12

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

Types of Shellfish 1. Identify the various type of Mollusk shellfish. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation Author: Nora Narvaez - Soriano

Mollusks
Mollusks have soft unsegmented bodies and are protected by calcareous shells in one or more piece or enclosed in hard shells which are largely mineral in composition. Examples of these are oysters, clams, scallops and sea mussels. There are two types of mollusks: the univalves with one shell and the bivalves with two shells. The shells of mollusk are usually hard all over so that they are not in any case edible. Kohol is one example of univalve while clams (halaan), kabibi, tulya, oysters (talaba), and mussels ( tahong) are the bivalves. The composition of the edible portion of mollusks is quite different from fin fishes and crustaceans, even if the formers shell is not normally eaten. Their flesh is generally leathery in texture. They comparatively high in glycogen content. Tahong is a salt water mussel cultured mostly in Bacoor, Cavite. Its meat is considered more delicious than that of oysters. Oysters grown in artificial beds are usually of better quality than those grown in natural beds. Oyster eggs are now being planted in many waters. When the eggs are hatched the tiny oysters which are not any larger than point of a needle move about the water and finally attach themselves to some body such as stone, a stick, or a shell. They grow slowly and at the age of one year they have usually reached about the size of silver quarter. Oysters are harvested by picking and scooping the shells from the bottom of the sea. Clams are two types: the hard shell clams and the soft shell clams. The former have tightly shut shells but the latter may have partially open shells because of the long siphon extending from the interior. Clams are dug by hand. Scallops are highly prized because of their buttery texture and delicate flavor. Scallops have two shells and are capable of swimming freely though water. Other family are squid (pusit), and octopus (pugita) Exercises A. Give the tagalog name of the following shellfish 1. oyster 4. mussel 2. clam 5. squid 3. octopus B. Fill in the blanks. 1. ___________________have soft unsegmented bodies and are protected by calcareous shells in one or more piece or enclosed in hard shells which are largely mineral in composition. 2. The two types of mollusks are 3. It is a salt water mussel and is more delicious than oysters. 4. Scallops are highly prized because of _______________________________________________. C. Questions 1. What is the difference of the composition of the edible portion of mollusks and fishes & crustaceans? 2. What are the two types of clams? Describe each.

3. How are oysters harvested? 4. How are clams harvested? 5. Give examples of univalves. 6. Give examples of bivalves.

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.13

Activity Title: Names of Philippine Fish (Local & English terms) Learning Targets: 1. Identify the different names of Philippines fish. 2. Identify each Local names and the English name of fish. Internet : Kitchen Rescue. Reggie.Aspiral
LOCAL NAMES Alakaak Tuel, balat, dulama Alumahan Tuna, tambacol, tanigi, tanigigi Apahap Katuyot, matang-pusa, mangagat Asohos Bakoko Bagus Bisugo Betilya Blue marlin / Royal blue marlin Chabita Hiwas, Isabita, Bilong-bilong, Tahas Dagum-dagum Kabayo-kabayohan Dalag Dalagang bukid (Lapas, morong, boyoyod) Danggit Dapa Dilis (Bulinau, silag, bombra, sibuyan) Dorado or kabayo Duhol Espada Galunggong ENGLISH and OTHER REGIONAL NAMES Croaker Long-jawed Mackerel Sea bass; bulgan (Negros); Barramundi (Australia) Whiting Sea bream, reddish variety or sweet lips; related to snapper, with a smaller mouth; passed off as grouper (lapu-lapu) Milkfish Threadfin bream Emperor, white snapper; passed off as maya-maya Swordfish (billfish) Moonfish Seahorse Mud fish Yellow tail fusilier Rabbit fish with white dots Indian halibut or tongue sole Anchovy Mahi-mahi, dolphin fish Sea snake Beltfish Hard-tail mackerel (galunggong babae); round scad (galunggong lalaki), muro-aji in Japan. Oil fish (escolar); two types: smooth-skinned and rough-skinned, the latter with a higher oil content; for both, servings of more than 6 oz or 150 g may cause bothersome loose oily stools, for which it has been referred to as "xenical' fish. A good "colon-cleansing" fish, but a traveler's nightmare, a fish to avoid if travel is contemplated in a day or two.

Gindara

Exercise. GIVE THE ENGLISH NAME OF THE FISH 1. Galunggong 2. Duhol 3. Dalag 4. Matang pusa 5. Blue marlin 6. Bangus 7. Dilis 8. Danggit -

GIVE THE LOCAL NAME OF THE FISH 9. Oil fish 10. sea snake 11. moon fish 12. sea horse 13. whiting 14. Yellow tail fusilier 15. belt fish 16. croaker -

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.14

Activity Title: Names of Philippine Fish (Local & English terms) Learning Targets: 1. Identify the different names of Philippines fish. 2. Identify each Local names and the English name of fish. Internet : Kitchen Rescue. Reggie.Aspiral
LOCAL NAMES Hasa-hasa Haol-haol Bilis, Tamban-tuloy Hito Isdang lawin Japayuki Kanduli Lapu-lapu Bato-bato Kulapo, Kakab Loro Malasugui Maming Matang baka Matang-dagat Matumbok Maya-maya (Bambangon, matangal, alsis) Pagi Palos Pampano Apahan, damis lawin, pulang buntot Pla-pla Sapsap Hiwas, Laway-laway Salay-salay Pampano, Apahay, Tarakitok Sinarapan Talakitok Tambakol Tulingan, barilis, talingay Tamban TanguingueTangi,Tanige Tawilis Skipjack tuna Sardinella Spanish mackerel; kingfish (U.S.); a bigger variety is called wahoo. Herring; found only in Taal Lake. ENGLISH and OTHER REGIONAL NAMES Short-bodied mackerel Sardines Catfish Flying fish Mackerel Salmon catfish Grouper Parrot fish, brightly colored with beak-shaped mouth Black or white marlin Wrasse Purse-eyed scad Tilefish Sailfish Red snapper Manta orsting ray Eel Pomfret, silver or black Tilapia bigger than 1 kg Small flat fish, Ponyfish Smooth-tailed trevally Mistichthys Luzonensi, world's smallest edible fish

Labahita (Mangadlit, isdang ilong, pulang ikog) Surgeon fish or unicorn fish

EXERCISE. List at least 20 local names of fish and give its corresponding English name. 1. 11. 2. 12. 3. 13. 4. 14. 5. 15. 6. 16. 7. 17. 8. 18. 9. 19. 10. 20.

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.15

Activity Title: Characteristics of the Fresh and Stale fish. Learning Targets: 1. Identify the various characteristics of fresh and stale fish. 2. Distinguish between fresh and stale fish. 3. Recognize the characteristics of fresh and stale fish. Reference Title: A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation Characteristics of Fresh and Stale fish Criteria Eye Gills Odor Body Color Flesh Slime Belly walls Muscle tissue Vent Scales Test Taste Fresh bright, full, bulging bright red, covered with clear slime, odor fresh fresh, sea weedy odor firm bright, shiny firm, elastic, finger impression does not remain clear intact white, light` pink, not protruding complete, adhere. Tightly, sink sink in the basin of water sweet Stale dull, wrinkled, sunken dull brown or gray, slime cloudy, odor offensive stale, sour, putrid soft faded soft and flabby, finger impression remains opaque often ruptured, viscera protruding pinkish, tainted, with blood especially around backbones brown protruding loosely attached float in a basin water biting itchy

Exercise 1: Complete the sentence by underlining the word/s in the parenthesis. 1. A fresh fish has a (bulging, wrinkled) eye. 2. When the finger impression (will, will not) remain, it means the fish is stale. 3. The color of the muscle tissue for the stale fish is (white, pinkish). 4. It has a (sweet, itchy) taste when fresh. 5. One way to test the fresh fish when it (sinks, floats) in the basin. Exercises 2: Complete the table by filing the blank with the correct answer. Criteria Body Eye Test Flesh sweet bright red, covered with clear slime, odor fresh Muscle tissue fresh, sea weedy odor bright, shiny Belly walls Scales Slime complete, adhere. Tightly, sink clear Fresh bright, full, bulging Stale dull, wrinkled, sunken brown protruding float in a basin water soft and flabby, finger impression remains dull brown or gray, slime cloudy, odor offensive pinkish, tainted, with blood especially around backbones stale, sour, putrid often ruptured, viscera protruding

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.16 Market forms of fish Identify the different market forms of the fish. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation Author: Nora Narvaez - Soriano

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

In the market, meats and other forms of meat are categorizing according to its size, sex, classes and base on the cuts. Cuts are sliced or cut upon the uses of cookery and availability of meat in the market. Like meat fish is also available into different forms and cuts.

Market Forms of the Fish


1. Live fish or whole fish these are transported and marketed alive. Whole, round fishes are caught and taken from the water. 2. Dressed fish is whole fish with scales, entrails, fins and head removed. Common examples of the dressed fish are use in making sardines and can goods. 3. Butterfly fillet are the two sides of the fish cut lengthwise away from the backbone and held together by the uncut flesh and skin of the belly. Mostly of the butterfly fish used in dried fish production. 4. Fillet is the boneless side of the fish cut lengthwise from the backbone. These are the fishes which are exported in some areas herein the Philippines and outside countries. 5. Steaks are cross section slices cut from a cross section of backbone generally included. 6. Sticks are uniform cuts from large blocks of frozen fillets. 7. Fish cakes- are "prepared from flaked fish, potatoes, and seasonings, and shaped into cakes, coated with batter, breaded, and then packaged and frozen, ready-to-be-cooked" 8. Fish fingers Exercises. A. Enumerate the eight (8) market form of the fish and describe each. (2 pts each) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. B. Essay: Explain what is asked. (5 pts) 1. Differentiate steaks and sticks.

2. What is the significance of knowing the different market forms of the fish?

3. How are fish cakes prepared?

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.17

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

Market forms of fish Draw the different market forms of the fish. Foodservice Management III

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.18

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

Market forms of shellfish Identify the different market forms of the shellfish. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation Market forms of the Shellfish

Shellfish are sold in the shell, shucked or removed from the shell, or cooked. All forms are quickly perishable and care is needed in selecting them. 1. Live Shellfish Ideally crabs, clams, mussels and snails, oysters and shrimps should be marketed alive. A live crab indicated to be fat if its claws do not have sharp teeth and if it is heavy in weight. The female crab has a narrow, more pointed apron. Filipino consumers generally prefer the female variety. Because of the proximity of most markets to the source of shellfish, live species can be sold to consumers. 2. Whole Shellfish Whole shellfish are served in the form on which they are caught but are no longer alive. The head and thorax are intact. Filipinos are fun of eating the head and extremities of crabs and shrimps. 3. Shucked Shellfish Oysters, clams, mollusks and scallops are removed from the shells and are known as shucked shellfish. Fresh shucked shellfish have a translucent appearance but become opaque when no longer fresh. 4. Headless Shellfish Shrimps, lobster, and prawn for export are marketed in headless form; the head and thorax removed. Foreign consumers do not favor the consumption of these parts of the shellfish. Furthermore, the head is removed mainly because it is the main source of bacterial spoilage. 5. Cooked Form Most cooked shellfish are canned for export. The meat of shrimps, crabs, and lobsters are usually popular items for canned products. At present, only a small volume of canned, cooked shellfish is available locally; most of it is imported. Exercise. 1. What are the market forms of shellfish?

2. What are the popular shellfish that is used for export?

3. How do we know if the crab is fat?

4. What is the difference between shucked and headless shellfish?

5. Why does the Filipino consumer prefer to select female crab than the male crab?

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.19

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

Principles of Cooking Shellfish Identify the principles in cooking shellfish A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation

Principles of cookery
1. Shellfish requires a little cooking time; overcooking causes the flesh to become tough and fibrous. 2. Unwholesome parts of most shellfish such as the beard of mussels, crabs grills, or lobsters internal tubes must be removed before cooking. 3. Color change in crustaceans is an indication that cooking is done. Shrimps and crabs, for example, change from dark blue green to an attractive orange or bright red. 4. Crabs are usually boiled in a small amount of brine for 10 to 20 minutes until a color change occurs. Over cooking would make the food watery. 5. Clams, oysters, and mussels may be roasted, baked, or broiled in their shells to retain their delicate flavor. 6. Shellfish are all very lean. Therefore, dry heat, high heat and long cooking time will make them tough and rubbery. Ideally they should be either steamed or simmered within the temperature range of 190 120 F. All shellfish cook very quickly. Questions: 1. What will happen if we overcooked shellfish?

2. What are ideal cooking methods in preparing shellfish?

3. What are some of unwholesome parts of most shellfish which should be removed before cooking?

4. How long should crabs be boiled?

5. If crabs were overcooked, it will become 6. How do we know if crustaceans are already cooked?

7. What is the color of shrimps and crabs when cooked?

8. What are the causes why shellfish becomes tough and rubbery?

9. What cooking methods retain the delicate flavors of clams, mussels and oysters? 10. All shellfish should be cook .

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.20

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

Fish Cookery and Principles of Cooking Fish Understand the fish cookery and the principles of cooking fish. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation

Fish Cookery Fish tastes much better when cooked. Fish is cooked to destroy any bacteria present as well as to improve its taste and tenderness. In cooking, moderate temperature is used, long enough for the fish delicate flavor to develop, for proteins to coagulate and for very small amounts of connective tissue present to break down. The flesh of fish of fish is sufficiently cooked when it falls easily into clumps of chalky white flakes when tested with a fork. When no additional water is used to cook fish, it is important that no overcooking be done; otherwise the fish would be very dry. This method is known as dry cookery. Broiling, baking, frying and toasting are examples of such a method. As a rule, fat fish are more desirable for dry heat cooking. When moist cookery is employed that is, fish is cooked in water it is best to allow the water to boil before plunging or adding the fish. Prolonged boiling tends to break the flesh of fish until it falls apart. Ten to 15 minutes cooking is generally enough time for the fish to be done. Indication of doneness is evident when the flesh becomes opaque and the muscles are easily faked. Principles in Cooking Fish 1. If fish is not to be cooked at once, it should be dressed and wrapped completely and placed in the freezer in a closed container or package. 2. Fish requires less cooking time for it has no connective tissues. It is fully cooked when it can be easily flaked and eyeballs come out. 3. Fat fish is best cooked by dry heat, boiled or baked. 4. Cooking should be done in the shortest possible time to avoid loss of moisture, flavor, and nutritive value. 5. Because fish has a mild flavor, it is frequently served with sauce and some garnishes. Garnishes and sauce add to the appearance and f flavor of fish. Sliced cucumber, tomatoes and green pepper, hard cooked eggs, pickles, etc. are good garnishes. Butter, tomato, chili, mayonnaise and catsup are example of sauce. 6. Fish should be served soon after it has been prepared, otherwise it will become dry and lose some of its flavor. Something colorful, crisp, or tart like celery, raw vegetables, coleslaw or tossed green salad should be served with fish. 7. Fish may be fried at moderate heat until golden brown. Fry only a single layer at a time and drain it on absorbent paper. 8. When baking fish baste the fish occasionally to prevent it from drying out.

Exercises 1: Give the meaning of the following terms. 1. Broiling 2. Baking 3. Frying 4. Toasting 5. Boiling Exercises 2: Fill in the blank/s with the correct answer by selecting answer/s from the box. Wrapped / flaked / heat / baste / served / moderate / mild / less / appearance / closed 1. If fish is not to be cooked at once, it should be dressed and ____________. 2. When baking fish ________ the fish occasionally to prevent it from drying. 3. Fish should be _______ soon after it has bee prepared. 4. Fish has a _______ flavor, it is frequently served with sauce and some garnishes. 5. Fish requires ______ cooking time for it has no connective tissues. 6. Fish may be fried at ___________ heat until golden brown. 7. The fish should be fully cooked when it can be easily _______ and eyeballs come out. 8. If not to be cooked, fish should be placed in the freezer in a _________ container or package. 9. Garnishes and sauce add to the _____________ and flavor of fish. 10. Fat fish is best by dry _____, boiled or baked. Exercises 3: Essay: Explain briefly. (5 pts) Use the back portion of this activity sheet in answering the ff. nos: 1. What is the significance of the different principles in cooking fish? 2. Why prolonged of boiling fish should be discouraged? 3. What garnishes and sauces can be apply and why it should be used?

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.21

Activity Title: Learning Target:

Project Planning Dried Fish To prepare a project plan for dried fish Name of Project

I.

II.

Objectives: 1. ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________ Bill of Materials Qty. Unit Particulars Unit Cost Total Cost

TOTAL III. Tools and Equipment Needed

IV.

Procedure

V.

Total Cost of the Product a. Cost of the Materials b. Labor Cost Total -

VI. Working Drawing:

VII.

Remarks/Ratings:

Checked by:

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.22

Activity Title: Learning Target:

Project Planning Fish Paste To prepare a project plan for fish paste Name of Project

I.

II.

Objectives: 1. ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________ Bill of Materials Qty. Unit Particulars Unit Cost Total Cost

TOTAL III. Tools and Equipment Needed

IV.

Procedure

V.

Total Cost of the Product a. Cost of the Materials b. Labor Cost Total -

VI. Working Drawing:

VII.

Remarks/Ratings:

Checked by:

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.23

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title:

New Fish and Fishery Products 1. Identify the different fishery products. 2. Identify the fish products by technology. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation

New Fish and Fishery Products Fish Quekiam is prepared by mixing the fish meat with shrimp meat, egg, spices, and vegetables and is served sweet sour sauce to enhance its flavor. Fish Croquettes are a mixture of fish meat, chicken, and vegetables chopped into fine pieces. It is formed into balls and finally rolled in bread crumbs and deep fried in oil until brownish color is obtained. Tuna Ham is a convenience item simply prepared from the meaty portion of fish. It undergoes curing in the mixture of flavoring and preserving agents such as salt, sugar, and nitrates for one week, finally smoked to obtain a distinctive flavor and aroma. Boneless Bangus is a result of deboning bangus, after which it may be closed, frozen, smoked, or fried. It may also be left open and picked in preparation for making it into daing. Fish Burger is derived from a wide variety of fish such as lapu-lapu, tuna, and parrot fish. It is easily prepared by mixing the chopped fish meat with the ingredients such as salt, pepper, milk, onion, eggs, and hamburger seasoning. Then it is molded into patties and fried in oil until a brownish color is obtained. Spicy dilis is prepared from dried dilis, completely coated with the mixture of well blended ingredients such as egg, sugar, salt, sili, and cornstarch. It is fried in deep fat or oil. Fish sausage similarity prepared to meat sausage, consists mainly of the white meaty portion of fish like labahita, sharks, or marlin. It is prepared by grinding the fish meat and thoroughly blending it with other ingredients and cooked in simmering for one hour. By - Product Technology Fishery by products is largely derived from fish left unsold; these include products that cannot be sold as fresh fish or rejects from drying and smoking plants. Such by products comprise the following: Fish sauce bagoong residue left after the exaction of patis. Fish meal a dried product, ground to small particles and used as additives in animal feeds. Fish sauce locally called patis drawn off from the liquefaction of salt mixture. Fish silage for animal feed ingredients; a product of acid hydrolysis. Exercise1: Identify the answer and write it on the space provided. ____________1. It is the result of deboning bangus, after which it may close, frozen, smoked, or fried. ____________2. It is form into a ball with the mixture of fine meat of fish, chicken and species. ____________3. It is a molded patty from variety fish and fried in oil until brownish in color is obtained. ____________4. It is prepared by mixing the fish meat with shrimp and eggs. It served with sweet sour sauce to enhance its flavor. ____________5. It is prepared from the white meaty portion of fish. ____________6. It is for the animal feed ingredients, a product of acid hydrolysis. ____________7. It is locally called patis drawn off from liquefaction of salt mixture. ____________8. It is convenience item simply prepared from meaty fish and undergoes curing. ____________9. It is a dried product, ground to small particles and used as additives in animal feeds. ___________10. It is prepared from dried dilis, completely coated with the mixture of well blended ingredients such as salt, eggs, sili, and cornstarch. Exercises 3: List down at least 5 fishery products that are commonly found in our locality.

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.25

Activity Title: Learning Targets: Reference Title: Internet :

Fish processes and methods preservation 1. Discuss the importance of fish processes and preservation. 2. Identify the methods of preservation. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation Bearshare.com Fish Processing and Preservation

The term fish processing refers to the processes associated with fish and fish products between the time fish are caught or harvested, and the time the final product is delivered to the customer. Although the term refers specifically to fish, in practice it is extended to cover any aquatic organisms harvested for commercial purposes, whether caught in wild fisheries or harvested from aquaculture or fish farming. Fish processing can be subdivided into fish handling, which is the preliminary processing of raw fish, and the manufacture of fish products. Another natural subdivision is into primary processing involved the preservation processing that produces products for retail and catering trades. Preservation techniques are needed to prevent fish spoilage and lengthen shelf life. They are designed to inhibit the activity of spoilage bacteria and the metabolic changes that result in the loss of fish quality. Spoilage bacteria are the specific bacteria that produce the unpleasant odours and flavours associated with spoiled fish. Fish normally host many bacteria that are not spoilage bacteria, and most of the bacteria present on spoiled fish played no role in the spoilage. To flourish, bacteria need the right temperature, sufficient water and oxygen, and surroundings that are not too acidic. Preservation techniques work by interrupting one or more of these needs. It is a techniques used to prevent food from spoiling. It includes methods such as salting, pickling, drying and freeze - drying, smoking, and the addition of chemical additives or curing. Food preservation has become an increasingly important component of the food industry as fewer people eat foods produced on their own lands, and as consumers expect to be able to purchase and consume foods that are "out of season." Exercise1: Define the following terms. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Food preservation Fish handling Fish spoilage Preservation technique Fish processing -

Exercise 2: Explain briefly, ( 3 pts each) 1. What is the importance of preserving fish?

2. Write down at least 3 benefits of preserving fish.

3. What are the strategies or techniques in fish preservation?

Name: Year & Section:

Date: Grade/Score: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.24

Activity Title: Learning Target: Reference Title:

Smoking House To draw the smoking house for fish Culinary Arts IV

Name: Year & Section: TLE II Foods and Food Services (Fish Processing) Activity No. 2.26 Activity Title: Learning Target: Reference: Methods of Fish Preservation To identify the methods of fish preservation Culinary Arts IV, pp. 156-162

Date: Grade/Score:

The deterioration of the quality of food may be due to: 1. The biochemical action of enzymes in molds, yeast and bacteria that may grow in food 2. A purely chemical reaction such as oxidation 3. Any physical means resulting in bruising, moisture loss or gain, absorption of foreign odors, and attack of insects and rodents of food *If these causes may be prevented, food can be preserved. Fish preservation is accomplished by the following methods: 1. Drying preserves food by reducing its water content below that in which microorganisms can grow and reproduce. There are three ways of drying food: a. Sun-drying involves the use of energy from the sun to dry the food. b. Dehydration - is made possible by the use of equipment called mechanical driers. c. Freeze-drying consists of freezing the fish in conventional freezing equipment and then removing the ice formed by sublimation in vacuum. The freeze dried fish shows no shrinkage and looks very similar to fresh fish. (Dried fish are packed in wooden boxes for large quantities and in plastic bags for small units.) 2. Salting Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, functions as an agent which removes the water content of fish muscles by osmosis. It improves the fish texture because it tends to make the fish firm. There are three basic methods in applying salt in fish preservation: a. Brine salting is immersed in a constant saturated solution of 25 parts of salt for every 100 parts of water. b. Dry salting rock or granular salt is rubbed on the fish. c. Pickling salting the fish is covered with salt and then packed in watertight containers in layers, with salt sprinkled between the layers. 3. Smoking applied to fish that has been cooked previously in salt solution or brine. This includes tinapa. The preserving effect of the smoke is due more to the drying and cooking of the product than to the action of the preservatives from hardwood fuel. The cooking effect of hot smoke destroys the bacteria and stop the action of enzymes. There are two types of smoking: a. Cold smoking the temperature is maintained between 26-32.2oC for two to three weeks. b. Hot smoking the temperature is kept at 48.8 OC at the beginning and gradually increased to 82.2 oC and the smoking period lasts three hours. 4. Fermentation Salt does not only preserve fish but also promotes fermentation. The most popular fish product preserved through fermentation is bagoong. 5. Canning a method of preserving food which combines the techniques of heating food to cook it, kill the spoilage of microorganisms, and destroy the activity of enzymes present in the food with sealing the food in an airtight container to prevent the recontamination of the sterile canned food. 6. Chilling Preservation by chilling or freezing is based on the principle that extreme cold retards microbial growth and slows down enzyme activity and oxidation. Chilling or refrigeration is the process of holding food just above the freezing point. It requires the lowering of temperature of fish from 25oC to 1-4oC. Ice is the cooling agent used. Freezing starts at 0oC or lower. The two methods of freezing commonly used are: a. Slow or sharp freezing refer to freezing in cold rooms wherein the temperature is held at -15 o to -29 C. Freezing is slow and takes from 12 to 72 hours. b. Quick freezing refers to the freezing of food for a short time, generally 30 minutes or less, at an initial temperature of 0oC and then lowering further to -17.8 to -34.4oC. Supercold or cryogenic freezing a new method of freezing which makes use of liquid nitrogen. Frozen fish should be placed in a moisture-vaporproof (MVP) packaging materials that prevent moisture from evaporating or air from entering the package. Freezer burn is prevented if the frozen food is properly packed. With freezer burn, the food becomes hard and pithy and shows undesirable color and flavor changes.