The Unparalleled Adventures of one Hans Pfaal {*1} BY late accounts from Rotterdam, that city seems to be in a high state

of philosophical excitement. Indeed, phenomena have there occurred of a nature so completely unexpected -- so entirely novel -- so utterly at variance with preconceived opinions -- as to leave no doubt on my mind that long ere this all Europe is in an uproar, all physics in a ferment, all reason and astronomy together by the ears. It appears that on the -- -- day of -- -- (I am not positive about the date), a vast crowd of people, for purposes not specifically mentioned, were assembled in the great square of the Exchange in the wellconditioned city of Rotterdam. The day was warm -- unusually so for the season -- there was hardly a breath of air stirring; and the multitude were in no bad humor at being now and then besprinkled with friendly showers of momentary duration, that fell from large white masses of cloud which chequered in a fitful manner the blue vault of the firmament. Nevertheless, about noon, a slight but remarkable agitation became apparent in the assembly: the clattering of ten thousand tongues succeeded; and, in an instant afterward, ten thousand faces were upturned toward the heavens, ten thousand pipes descended simultaneously from the corners of ten thousand mouths, and a shout, which could be compared to nothing but the roaring of Niagara, resounded long, loudly, and furiously, through all the environs of Rotterdam. The origin of this hubbub soon became sufficiently evident. From behind the huge bulk of one of those sharply-defined masses of cloud already mentioned, was seen slowly to emerge into an open area of blue space, a queer, heterogeneous, but apparently solid substance, so oddly shaped, so whimsically put together, as not to be in any manner comprehended, and never to be sufficiently admired, by the host of sturdy burghers who stood open-mouthed below. What could it be? In the name of all the vrows and devils in Rotterdam, what could it possibly portend? No one knew, no one could imagine; no one -- not even the burgomaster Mynheer Superbus Von Underduk -- had the slightest clew by which to unravel the mystery; so, as nothing more reasonable could be done, every one to a man replaced his pipe carefully in the corner of his mouth, and cocking up his right eye towards the phenomenon, puffed, paused, waddled about, and grunted significantly -- then waddled back, grunted, paused, and finally -puffed again. In the meantime, however, lower and still lower toward the goodly city, came the object of so much curiosity, and the cause of so much smoke. In a very few minutes it arrived near enough to be accurately discerned. It appeared to be -- yes! it was undoubtedly a species of balloon; but surely no such balloon had ever been seen in Rotterdam before. For who, let me ask, ever heard of a balloon manufactured entirely of dirty newspapers? No man in Holland certainly; yet here, under the very noses of the people, or rather at some distance above their noses was the identical thing in question, and composed, I have it on the best authority, of the precise material which no one had ever before known to be used for a similar purpose. It was an egregious insult to the good sense of the burghers of Rotterdam. As to the shape of the phenomenon, it was even still more reprehensible. Being little or nothing better than a huge foolscap turned upside

down. And this similitude was regarded as by no means lessened when, upon nearer inspection, there was perceived a large tassel depending from its apex, and, around the upper rim or base of the cone, a circle of little instruments, resembling sheep-bells, which kept up a continual tinkling to the tune of Betty Martin. But still worse. Suspended by blue ribbons to the end of this fantastic machine, there hung, by way of car, an enormous drab beaver hat, with a brim superlatively broad, and a hemispherical crown with a black band and a silver buckle. It is, however, somewhat remarkable that many citizens of Rotterdam swore to having seen the same hat repeatedly before; and indeed the whole assembly seemed to regard it with eyes of familiarity; while the vrow Grettel Pfaall, upon sight of it, uttered an exclamation of joyful surprise, and declared it to be the identical hat of her good man himself. Now this was a circumstance the more to be observed, as Pfaall, with three companions, had actually disappeared from Rotterdam about five years before, in a very sudden and unaccountable manner, and up to the date of this narrative all attempts had failed of obtaining any intelligence concerning them whatsoever. To be sure, some bones which were thought to be human, mixed up with a quantity of odd-looking rubbish, had been lately discovered in a retired situation to the east of Rotterdam, and some people went so far as to imagine that in this spot a foul murder had been committed, and that the sufferers were in all probability Hans Pfaall and his associates. But to return. The balloon (for such no doubt it was) had now descended to within a hundred feet of the earth, allowing the crowd below a sufficiently distinct view of the person of its occupant. This was in truth a very droll little somebody. He could not have been more than two feet in height; but this altitude, little as it was, would have been sufficient to destroy his equilibrium, and tilt him over the edge of his tiny car, but for the intervention of a circular rim reaching as high as the breast, and rigged on to the cords of the balloon. The body of the little man was more than proportionately broad, giving to his entire figure a rotundity highly absurd. His feet, of course, could not be seen at all, although a horny substance of suspicious nature was occasionally protruded through a rent in the bottom of the car, or to speak more properly, in the top of the hat. His hands were enormously large. His hair was extremely gray, and collected in a cue behind. His nose was prodigiously long, crooked, and inflammatory; his eyes full, brilliant, and acute; his chin and cheeks, although wrinkled with age, were broad, puffy, and double; but of ears of any kind or character there was not a semblance to be discovered upon any portion of his head. This odd little gentleman was dressed in a loose surtout of sky-blue satin, with tight breeches to match, fastened with silver buckles at the knees. His vest was of some bright yellow material; a white taffety cap was set jauntily on one side of his head; and, to complete his equipment, a blood-red silk handkerchief enveloped his throat, and fell down, in a dainty manner, upon his bosom, in a fantastic bow-knot of super-eminent dimensions.

Having descended, as I said before, to about one hundred feet from the surface of the earth, the little old gentleman was suddenly seized with a fit of trepidation, and appeared disinclined to make any nearer approach to terra firma. Throwing out, therefore, a quantity of sand from a canvas bag, which, he lifted with great difficulty, he became stationary in an instant. He then proceeded, in a hurried and agitated manner, to extract from a side-pocket in his surtout a large morocco pocket-book. This he poised suspiciously in his hand, then eyed it with an air of extreme surprise, and was evidently astonished at its weight. He at length opened it, and drawing there from a huge letter sealed with red sealing-wax and tied carefully with red tape, let it fall precisely at the feet of the burgomaster, Superbus Von Underduk. His Excellency stooped to take it up. But the aeronaut, still greatly discomposed, and having apparently no farther business to detain him in Rotterdam, began at this moment to make busy preparations for departure; and it being necessary to discharge a portion of ballast to enable him to reascend, the half dozen bags which he threw out, one after another, without taking the trouble to empty their contents, tumbled, every one of them, most unfortunately upon the back of the burgomaster, and rolled him over and over no less than one-and-twenty times, in the face of every man in Rotterdam. It is not to be supposed, however, that the great Underduk suffered this impertinence on the part of the little old man to pass off with impunity. It is said, on the contrary, that during each and every one of his one-and twenty circumvolutions he emitted no less than one-and-twenty distinct and furious whiffs from his pipe, to which he held fast the whole time with all his might, and to which he intends holding fast until the day of his death. In the meantime the balloon arose like a lark, and, soaring far away above the city, at length drifted quietly behind a cloud similar to that from which it had so oddly emerged, and was thus lost forever to the wondering eyes of the good citizens of Rotterdam. All attention was now directed to the letter, the descent of which, and the consequences attending thereupon, had proved so fatally subversive of both person and personal dignity to his Excellency, the illustrious Burgomaster Mynheer Superbus Von Underduk. That functionary, however, had not failed, during his circumgyratory movements, to bestow a thought upon the important subject of securing the packet in question, which was seen, upon inspection, to have fallen into the most proper hands, being actually addressed to himself and Professor Rub-a-dub, in their official capacities of President and Vice-President of the Rotterdam College of Astronomy. It was accordingly opened by those dignitaries upon the spot, and found to contain the following extraordinary, and indeed very serious, communications. To their Excellencies Von Underduk and Rub-a-dub, President and Vice-President of the States' College of Astronomers, in the city of Rotterdam.

and extremely unaccountable. to speak the truth. in a very short time. there was not a pair of bellows in all Rotterdam that ever stood in need of a stitch or required the assistance of a hammer. as well as myself. the very best customers in the world. we soon began to feel the effects of liberty and long speeches."Your Excellencies may perhaps be able to remember an humble artizan. having a wife and children to provide for. Duns. that the heads of all the people have been set agog with politics. I. and on all hands there was no lack of either money or good-will. in a manner which must have been considered by all parties at once sudden. left me little leisure for contemplation. steadily following the respectable and indeed lucrative profession of mending of bellows. at the head of the alley called Sauerkraut. an opportunity of vengeance should be afforded me. the writer of this communication. by name Hans Pfaall. and threatening me with the law. keeping watch continually about my door. If a fire wanted fanning. and. no better business than my own could an honest citizen of Rotterdam either desire or deserve. employment was never wanting. by blowing my brains out with a blunderbuss. disappeared from Rotterdam. in the meantime. had now not a moment of time to think of us at all. Credit was good. I continued for a long time to wander about the most obscure streets without object whatever. to dissemble my wrath. My ancestors have also resided therein time out of mind -. until of late years. until. about five years ago. and fret like a caged tiger against the bars of his enclosure. it could readily be fanned with a newspaper. my burdens at length became intolerable. and keep up with the march of intellect and the spirit of the age. if ever I should be so happy as to get them within my clutches. I thought it best. am the identical Hans Pfaall himself. and feeling more than usually dejected. They had. I have no doubt that leather and iron acquired durability in proportion. My house was literally besieged from morning till night. and radicalism. Upon these three I internally vowed the bitterest revenge. until at length I chanced to stumble against the corner of a bookseller's stall. and by occupation a mender of bellows.they. There were three fellows in particular who worried me beyond endurance. and all that sort of thing. it so please your Excellencies. If. as I was saying. and I spent hour after hour in reflecting upon the most convenient method of putting an end to my life. that for the period of forty years I continued to occupy the little square brick building. in which I resided at the time of my disappearance. and as the government grew weaker. People who were formerly. Seeing . so that I began to rave. and I believe nothing in the world but the pleasure of this anticipation prevented me from putting my plan of suicide into immediate execution. It is well known to most of my fellow citizens. having given my creditors the slip. This was a state of things not to be endured. by some good turn of fate. For. But. "One day. and to treat them with promises and fair words. with three others. as much as they could do to read about the revolutions. for. however. so they said. I soon grew as poor as a rat. however. and foam. who.

so far from rendering me diffident of my own ability to comprehend what I had read. I threw myself doggedly into it. Nature herself seemed to afford me corroboration of these ideas. at that time aware that this apparent paradox was occasioned by the center of the visual area being less susceptible of feeble impressions of light than the exterior portions of the retina. The longer I meditated upon these the more intense grew the interest which had been excited within me. reading it actually through twice before I awoke to a recollection of what was passing around me. struck me with the force of positive conformation. may not often in effect possess all the force. to doubt whether those crude ideas which. opened the pages of the first volume which came within my reach. But the treatise had made an indelible impression on my mind. and soon became more and more absorbed in the contents of the book. to proceed a step farther. profundity itself might not. however. whether. Arising early in the morning. and . But at the epoch of which I speak. This knowledge. came afterwards in the course of an eventful five years. than in the actual situations wherein she may be found. It proved to be a small pamphlet treatise on Speculative Astronomy. the depth lies more in the abysses where we seek her. in many cases. and some of another kind. during which I have dropped the prejudices of my former humble situation in life. and other inherent properties. By this time it began to grow dark. the reality. In the contemplation of the heavenly bodies it struck me forcibly that I could not distinguish a star with nearly as much precision. I was not. In other words. for the use of customers. direct and undeviating attention. the analogy which a casual observation of a star offered to the conclusions I had already drawn. There are some particular passages which affected my imagination in a powerful and extraordinary manner. "It was late when I reached home. and. or perhaps reasonable enough. and forgotten the bellows-mender in far different occupations. as when I suffered my eye only to glance in its vicinity alone. is frequently of its own essence. superficial. hardly knowing why. of instinct or intuition. and I then finally made up my mind to the course which I afterwards pursued. I believed. and still do believe. and more especially my ignorance on subjects connected with natural philosophy. arising in ill-regulated minds. and I went immediately to bed. as I sauntered along the dusky streets. was too much occupied to sleep. written either by Professor Encke of Berlin or by a Frenchman of somewhat similar name. have all the appearance.a chair close at hand. My mind. and that. of course. when I gazed on it with earnest. and I directed my steps toward home. that truth. The limited nature of my education in general. or inducing me to mistrust the many vague notions which had arisen in consequence. in matters of a purely speculative nature. I revolved carefully over in my memory the wild and sometimes unintelligible reasonings of the writer. be detected as a legitimate source of falsity and error. and I lay the whole night buried in meditation. merely served as a farther stimulus to imagination. I had some little tincture of information on matters of this nature. and I was vain enough. and.

in the purchase of some volumes of Mechanics and Practical Astronomy. "Matters being thus arranged. By these means -. without being at all aware of my intentions. cambric muslin. bought a quadrant. by whom it was conditionally communicated to myself. and to borrow. and soon made such proficiency in studies of this nature as I thought sufficient for the execution of my plan. a spy-glass. or semi-metal. In the meantime I worked up the twine into a net-work of sufficient dimensions. very fine. to dispose of what property I had remaining. three inches in diameter. through which substance any escape of gas was nearly an impossibility. a compass. to contain about fifty gallons each. altogether too expensive. which I shall not name. . I devoted every spare moment to their perusal. properly shaped. and ten feet in length. was not equally as good. upon the whole. to a retired situation east of Rotterdam. and laid out what little ready money I possessed. I then took opportunities of conveying by night. In this I finally succeeded -. a lot of the varnish of caoutchouc. by the aid of my wife and with the greatest secrecy and caution. and without paying any attention to my future means of repayment.contriving again to escape the vigilance of my creditors. a common barometer with some important modifications. and several other articles necessary in the construction and equipment of a balloon of extraordinary dimensions. whether cambric muslin with a coating of gum caoutchouc. Having arrived at home safely with these. in pieces of twelve yards each. The same individual submitted to me. and for assistance in which I solicited their services. I contrived. This I directed my wife to make up as soon as possible. and one of a larger size. I mention this circumstance. six tinned ware tubes. In the intervals of this period.or at least never applied to any similar purpose. under various pretences. I made every endeavor to conciliate the three creditors who had given me so much annoyance.partly by selling enough of my household furniture to satisfy a moiety of their claim.for they were ignorant men -. The gas to be formed from these latter materials is a gas never yet generated by any other person than myself -. The secret I would make no difficulty in disclosing. I found it. because I think it probable that hereafter the individual in question may attempt a balloon ascension with the novel gas and material I have spoken of. a method of constructing balloons from the membrane of a certain animal. I repaired eagerly to the bookseller's stall. With the means thus accruing I proceeded to procure at intervals. rigged it with a hoop and the necessary cords.I found little difficulty in gaining them over to my purpose. in small sums. in France. a quantity of a particular metallic substance. a large and deep basket of wicker-work. five iron-bound casks. and was not sure. twine. and two astronomical instruments not so generally known. but that it of right belongs to a citizen of Nantz. and partly by a promise of paying the balance upon completion of a little project which I told them I had in view. and a dozen demijohns of a very common acid. made to order. however. no inconsiderable quantity of ready money. and gave her all requisite information as to the particular method of proceeding.

I at length met with entire success in all my preparations. as I said before. the holes forming in this manner a circle twenty-five feet in diameter. and barely visible beyond the cask. the three creditors who had given me so much trouble.the keg and canisters -. she always looked upon me as an idle boy. In the centre of this circle. one of M. I found this machine. and promising. and a drizzling rain. as aides-de-camp. and placed the barrels over them in their destined situation. being the station designed for the large cask. These -. I privately dug a hole two feet deep. and taking with me. and there secreted. My balloon was soon completed.and I do not wish to deprive him of the honor of a very singular invention. leaving the other end of the match protruding about an inch. with one hundred and seventy-five pounds of ballast into the bargain. It was a dark night when I bade her good-bye. rendered us very uncomfortable. with severe labor and unremitting perseverance. with the car and accoutrements. It had received three coats of varnish. She was what people call a notable woman. I exacted from my wife an oath of secrecy in relation to all my actions from the day of my first visit to the bookseller's stall. we carried the balloon. a mere make-weight. Grimm's improvements upon the apparatus for condensation of the atmospheric air. "Besides the articles above enumerated. The night. good for nothing but building castles in the air. and in the larger one a keg holding one hundred and fifty pounds. to return as soon as circumstances would permit. In each of the five smaller holes. however. with all my implements. and was rather glad to get rid of me. I conveyed to the depot. to tell the truth. quite as strong and a good deal less expensive. and placed the cask over it. on my part. But. "Everything being now ready. and bade her farewell. I covered up the hole. to the station where the other articles were deposited. if I managed rightly. by a roundabout way. falling at intervals. Indeed I had no fear on her account. and I found the cambric muslin to answer all the purposes of silk itself. I believe. I calculated. But my chief anxiety was . I deposited a canister containing fifty pounds. "It was the first of April. I then filled up the remaining holes. It would contain more than forty thousand cubic feet of gas. and I proceeded immediately to business. I gave her what little money I had left. there was not a star to be seen. I also dug a hole three feet in depth. and having let into one of the canisters the end of about four feet of slow match.I connected in a proper manner with covered trains. and. We there found them all unmolested. was dark. of cannon powder. would take me up easily. and could manage matters in the world without my assistance. "On the spot which I intended each of the smaller casks to occupy respectively during the inflation of the balloon. to require considerable alteration before it could be adapted to the purposes to which I intended making it applicable.

and smoke. They could not perceive. for I verily believe the idiots supposed that I had entered into a compact with the devil. in short. Dropping a lighted cigar on the ground. when. in which much nutriment is contained in comparatively little bulk. that at all events I should come into possession of vast quantities of ready money. They did not cease. and provided I paid them all I owed. a copious supply of water. and I fell down in the bottom of the car. I began to get uneasy. in stooping to pick it up. and legs and arms. I dare say they cared very little what became of either my soul or my carcass. roaring and rumbling up after me in the most horrible and tumultuous manner. "In about four hours and a half I found the balloon sufficiently inflated. and that. and was pleased to find that I shot upward. began to grow rather heavy with the moisture. importuning me with questions as to what I intended to do with all this apparatus. as I said before. I contrived. what I was now doing was nothing better than it should be. To these speeches they gave.concerning the balloon. however. merely to take a part in such horrible incantations. and. and a trifle more. such as pemmican. a concussion. that my very heart sunk within me. of igniting privately the piece of slow match. I also secured in the car a pair of pigeons and a cat. which I shall never forget. in less than a second. and able to have carried up as many more. the powder also was liable to damage. in great fear of their leaving me altogether. and a large quantity of provisions. I therefore kept my three duns working with great diligence. and that the main consequences of the shock were yet to be experienced. as if by accident. jumping into the car. I now perceived that I had entirely overdone the business. so they said. Accordingly. therefore. and sulphur. their own interpretation. and stirring the acid in the others. fancying. and put all my implements in it -. which. what good was likely to result from their getting wet to the skin. and burning wood. and blazing metal. pounding down ice around the central cask. however. in consideration of their services.not forgetting the condensing apparatus. It was now nearly daybreak. I felt all the blood in my body rushing to my temples. came so dense a hurricane of fire. whose end. I immediately cut the single cord which held me to the earth. protruded a very little beyond the lower rim of one of the smaller casks. to pacify them by promises of payment of all scores in full. trembling with unmitigated terror. and I thought it high time to take my departure. no doubt. I was. "Scarcely. burst abruptly through the night and seemed to rip the very . Indeed. as soon as I could bring the present business to a termination. and expressed much dissatisfaction at the terrible labor I made them undergo. and gravel. however. and immediately thereupon. I took the opportunity. of course. therefore. carrying with all ease one hundred and seventy-five pounds of leaden ballast. This manoeuvre was totally unperceived on the part of the three duns. in spite of the varnish with which it was defended. had I attained the height of fifty yards. I attached the car. and worked away with all my might.

and. reeling and staggering like a drunken man. "How long I remained in this state it is impossible to say.a horrible nausea overwhelmed me -and at length I fainted away. until I succeeded in satisfying myself that it was not. If I felt any emotion at all. It now occurred to me that I suffered great uneasiness in the joint of my left ankle. When I afterward had time for reflection. it was a kind of chuckling satisfaction at the cleverness I was about to display in extricating myself from this dilemma. Then. have been no inconsiderable time. For a few minutes I remained wrapped in the profoundest meditation. there was much of incipient madness in the calm survey which I began to take of my situation. I found the day breaking. sufficiently collected my ideas. and not being able to do so.firmament asunder. and feeling it with minute attention. It situation directly above it.a shudder resembling a fit of the ague agitated every nerve and muscle of my frame -.I felt my eyes starting from their sockets -. and a dim consciousness of my situation began to glimmer through my mind. and in which. My sensations. for a moment. then whirled round and round with horrible velocity. and not a trace of land to be discovered far and wide within the limits of the vast horizon. which hung accidentally through a crevice near the bottom of the wicker-work. and making use of other gesticulations and grimaces common to men who. I have a distinct recollection of frequently compressing my lips. larger than my balloon. as I thought. in a knowing manner. and wondered what occurrence could have given rise to the swelling of the veins. as I had more than half suspected. however. were by no means so rife with agony as might have been anticipated. and finally. then furiously expanded. and in the line of its greatest power. for when I partially recovered the sense of existence. I drew up to my eyes each of my hands. missing therefrom a set of tablets and a toothpick case. shaking it repeatedly. upon thus recovering. But. Indeed. looked upon my ultimate safety as a question susceptible of doubt. I felt in both my breeches pockets. I gasped convulsively for breath -. by a piece of slender cord about three feet in length. I did not fail to attribute the extreme violence of the explosion. put my hands behind my back. hurled me with great force over the rim of the car. endeavored to account for their disappearance. however. But at the time. meditate upon matters of intricacy or importance. and my face outwards. at a terrific height. The balloon at first collapsed.utterly impossible -to form any adequate idea of the horror of my situation. It is impossible -. as regarded myself. and I never. and unfastened . strange to say! I was neither astonished nor horror-stricken. the balloon at a prodigious height over a wilderness of ocean. I thought only of preserving my life. I afterward carefully examined my head. I now. one after the other. putting my forefinger to the side of my nose. and the horrible blackness of the fingernails. my left foot became most providentially entangled. at ease in their arm-chairs. as I fell. felt inexpressibly chagrined. to its proper cause -. with my head downward. Having. with great caution and deliberation. and left me dangling.

perhaps. tightly around my wrist. I brought them.the large iron buckle which belonged to the waistband of my inexpressibles. the cord by which I was suspended had chanced to hang over the upper edge. But this weakness was. in the second place. In fact. of no very long duration. although. for greater security. I succeeded. had forced the bottom of the car considerably outwards from my position. in the circular rim of the wicker-work. without making the slightest farther exertion whatsoever. and entangling it. So far from it. I had therefore every reason to be grateful. I then. from the car. Holding the instrument thus obtained within my teeth. in either of these supposed cases. instead of turned outwardly from it. clutching with a vise-like grip the long-desired rim. and a chilling sense of utter helplessness and ruin. merely served to deprive me of the self-possession and courage to encounter it. or if. luckily for me. after some trouble. being somewhat rusty. turned with great difficulty on their axis. with frantic cries and struggles. In good time came to my rescue the spirit of despair. and which had hitherto buoyed up my spirits with madness and delirium. I had to rest several times before I could accomplish this manoeuvre. however. and the wonderful adventures of Hans Pfaall would have been utterly lost to posterity. This buckle had three teeth. at an angle of about forty-five degrees. "It was not until some time afterward that I recovered myself sufficiently to attend to the ordinary cares of the balloon. that when I fell in the first instance. I now proceeded to untie the knot of my cravat. and was glad to find them remain firm in that position. which. and thereunto succeeded horror. if I had fallen with my face turned toward the balloon. which was accordingly one of the most imminent and deadly peril. But this feeling did not fail to die rapidly away. in point of fact. I was still too stupid to be anything at all. and fell headlong and shuddering within the car. It should be remembered. and. and hung for. in throwing the buckle over the car. -. I jerked my way bodily upwards. as I had anticipated. however. instead of through a crevice near the bottom of the car. at the very first trial. as it actually was. but it was at length accomplished. had now begun to retire within their proper channels. To one end of the cravat I then made fast the buckle. for the change of situation which I had acquired. . I writhed my person over it. but it must not be understood that I was therefore only forty-five degrees below the perpendicular. Drawing now my body upwards. at right angles to the body of the buckle. with a prodigious exertion of muscular force. a quarter of an hour in that extraordinary manner. and the distinctness which was thus added to my perception of the danger.I say it may be readily conceived that. I should have been unable to accomplish even as much as I had now accomplished. till at length. and in a singularly tranquil state of idiotic enjoyment. "My body was now inclined towards the side of the car. and dismay. the blood so long accumulating in the vessels of my head and throat. I still lay nearly level with the plane of the horizon. and the other end I tied.

or only about 237.000 miles I would have to deduct the radius of the earth. Your Excellencies will bear in mind that distressed circumstances in Rotterdam had at length driven me to the resolution of committing suicide. I resolved. was not absolutely. and pitching heavily in the sea with her head to the W. that such an accident was entirely out of the question. say 4. slightly oblong in shape. in all 5. to drop enigmas. I had so well secured them in their places. close-hauled. I saw nothing but the ocean and the sky. yet live -. and the radius of the moon. at all events.080. wishing to live. to my great relief. however. Now. Now this. "It is now high time that I should explain to your Excellencies the object of my perilous voyage. short. Bringing my telescope to bear upon it.000. "The moon's actual distance from the earth was the first thing to be attended to. lay a small black object. and found it. I found it six o'clock. I then finally made up my mind.920 miles. in its perigee. Immediately beneath me in the ocean. But. examined it with attention. it was very certain that. I plainly discerned it to be a British ninety four-gun ship.05484 of the major semi-axis of the ellipse itself. say 1080. leaving an actual interval to be traversed. the above mentioned distance would be materially diminished. But it must be borne in mind that the form of the moon's orbit being an ellipse of eccentricity amounting to no less than 0. I say the mean or average interval. and incontestably full of danger. that to life itself I had any. uninjured. but that I was harassed beyond endurance by the adventitious miseries attending my situation. and in every way bearing a great resemblance to one of those childish toys called a domino. Travelling on land has been repeatedly accomplished at the rate of thirty miles per hour. seemingly about the size. lest I should be supposed more of a madman than I actually am. in any manner. Looking at my watch. In this state of mind. the considerations which led me to believe that an achievement of this leave the world. as well as I am able. to the moon. from the 237.000 miles. I reflected. and the sun. and the earth's centre being situated in its focus. yet continue to exist -. of 231. I was still rapidly ascending.W. although without doubt difficult. the treatise at the stall of the bookseller opened a resource to my imagination. if I could. contrive to meet the moon. yet wearied with life. let what would ensue. to say nothing at present of this possibility.9643 of the earth's equatorial radii. under average circumstances. if I could.S.however. the mean or average interval between the centres of the two planets is 59. It was not. Besides this ship. My implements were all safe. was no very extraordinary distance. I will detail. which had long arisen. to force a passage. Indeed. to a bold spirit. But even at this velocity. it would take me no more than . and. beyond the confines of the possible. as it were. I had lost neither ballast nor provisions. and my barometer gave a present altitude of three and three-quarter miles. positive disgust. and indeed a much greater speed may be anticipated. I determined to depart. Now.

for all . but in a ratio constantly decreasing. But a circumstance which has been left out of view by those who contend for such a limit seemed to me. in what may be called. it is taken for granted that animal life is and must be essentially incapable of modification at any given unattainable distance from the surface. at the same time. moreover. all such reasoning and from such data must. and.000 feet. although no positive refutation of their creed. I was aware that arguments have not been wanting to prove the existence of a real and definite limit to the atmosphere. we find that.000.600 we have ascended through nearly one-third. I will mention them more fully hereafter. one-half the ponderable. "On the other hand.that is. This is a moderate altitude. after giving credit. The greatest height ever reached by man was that of 25. that the most delicate means we possess of ascertaining the presence of the atmosphere would be inadequate to assure us of its existence. arrive at a limit beyond which no atmosphere is to be found. however. and. left below us about one-thirtieth of the entire mass of atmospheric air. ascend as high as we may. On comparing the intervals between the successive arrivals of Encke's comet at its perihelion. beyond which there is absolutely no air whatsoever. But I did not fail to perceive that these latter calculations are founded altogether on our experimental knowledge of the properties of air. in point of fact. and that at 18. "The next point to be regarded was a matter of far greater importance.the rarefaction would be so excessive that animal life could in no manner be sustained. be simply analogical.322 days to reach the surface of the moon. "But. the ponderable quantity of air surmounted in any farther ascension is by no means in proportion to the additional height ascended (as may be plainly seen from what has been stated before). that at 10. still a point worthy very serious investigation. at all events. of course. many particulars inducing me to believe that my average rate of travelling might possibly very much exceed that of thirty miles per hour. and I could not help thinking that the subject admitted room for doubt and great latitude for speculation. It is therefore evident that. not exceeding eighty miles -. in ascensions from the surface of the earth we have. at the height of 1. attained in the aeronautic expedition of Messieurs Gay-Lussac and Biot. It must exist. I argued. comparatively speaking. even when compared with the eighty miles in question. literally speaking. as these considerations did not fail to make a deep impression upon my mind.000 feet. we cannot. an ascension being made to any given altitude. which is not far from the elevation of Cotopaxi. in the most exact manner. There were. we have surmounted one-half the material. and the mechanical laws regulating its dilation and compression. although it may exist in a state of infinite rarefaction. body of air incumbent upon our globe. and. or. It is also calculated that at an altitude not exceeding the hundredth part of the earth's diameter -. Now. From indications afforded by the barometer. the immediate vicinity of the earth itself.

the sun's attraction would be constantly attaining greater power. This would remove the chief obstacle in a journey to the moon. to imagine it pervading the entire regions of our planetary system. also called the zodiacal light. so to speak. It was easy. "It is true that balloons. at first sight. in retarding the comet's velocity. I had little further hesitation. and consequently arrives successively in atmospheric strata of densities rapidly diminishing -. and perhaps at some of them modified by considerations. Granting that on my passage I should meet with atmosphere essentially the same as at the surface of the earth. in a slow but perfectly regular decrease. It appeared to me evidently in the nature of a rare atmosphere extending from the sun outward.the disturbances due to the attractions of the planets. by means of the very ingenious apparatus of M. condensed into what we call atmosphere at the planets themselves. purely geological. and. Indeed. Now. and follows generally the direction of the sun's equator. Now. this is precisely what ought to be the case. there is no other way of accounting for the variation in question. Valz. But again. or to the immediate neighborhood of the sun. it appears that the periods are gradually diminishing. that this apparent condensation of volume has its origin in the compression of the same ethereal medium I have spoken of before. this medium I could not suppose confined to the path of the comet's ellipse. I had indeed spent some money and great labor in adapting the apparatus to the object intended. if I could manage to complete the voyage within any reasonable period. was a matter worthy of attention. increase its centripetal. For it is evident that such a medium must. the power of elevation lies altogether in the superior lightness of the gas in the balloon compared with the atmospheric air.{*2} Indeed. in the first stage of their ascensions from the earth. and dilate with equal rapidity in its departure towards its aphelion. and which cannot be mistaken for any meteoric lustre. Grimm.I say. and the comet would be drawn nearer at every revolution. The real diameter of the same comet's nebulosity is observed to contract rapidly as it approaches the sun. so apparent in the tropics. and confidently looked forward to its successful application. beyond the orbit of Venus at least. I should readily be enabled to condense it in sufficient quantity for the purposes of respiration. that is to say. In other words. by weakening its centrifugal force. are known to rise with a velocity comparatively moderate. it does not appear probable that. Having adopted this view of the subject. This brings me back to the rate at which it might be possible to travel. This radiance. I conceived that. on the contrary. and which is only denser in proportion to its solar vicinity? The lenticular-shaped phenomenon. the major axis of the comet's ellipse is growing shorter. extends from the horizon obliquely upward. if we suppose a resistance experienced from the comet from an extremely rare ethereal medium pervading the regions of its orbit. it does . as the balloon acquires altitude. and I believed indefinitely farther. Was I not justifiable in supposing with M.

the force of gravitation would be constantly diminishing. In accordance with these ideas. I now considered that. and varnished with no better material than the ordinary varnish. for the expansion and compression of chest. why life could not be sustained even in a vacuum. besides the pain attending respiration. where the atmospheric density is chemically insufficient for the due renovation of blood in a ventricle of the heart. the original velocity should be accelerated. in regard to my power of ascending -. being what it was. It has been observed. Unless for default of this renovation. great uneasiness is experienced about the head and body. the sensations of pain would gradually diminish -.for the gas in the balloon would not only be itself subject to rarefaction partially similar (in proportion to the occurrence of which. a diminution was apparent in the absolute rate of ascent. I was not aware that. "There was still. with a velocity prodigiously accelerating. continue specifically lighter than any compound whatever of mere nitrogen and oxygen.{*3} This was a reflection of a nature somewhat startling. and consequent distention of the superficial blood-vessels -.that is to say. It seemed. which occasioned me some little disquietude.and to endure them while they continued. in any recorded ascension. in proportion to the squares of the distances. that. would. on account of the escape of gas through balloons ill-constructed. as the body should become habituated to the want of atmospheric pressure. as in the case of difficulty in breathing. and the cause. I should at length arrive in those distant regions where the force of the earth's attraction would be superseded by that of the moon. therefore. although such should have been the case. In the meantime. and other symptoms of an alarming kind. I conceived that. is action purely muscular.not appear at all reasonable that. and growing more and more inconvenient in proportion to the altitude attained. if on account of nothing else. Was it not probable that these symptoms would increase indefinitely. and provided that it should prove to be actually and essentially what we denominate atmospheric air. another difficulty. not the effect.not in any positive disorganization of the animal system. or at least until terminated by death itself? I finally thought not. therefore. provided in my passage I found the medium I had imagined. and thus. I could see no reason. Their origin was to be looked for in the progressive removal of the customary atmospheric pressure upon the surface of the body. in balloon ascensions to any considerable height. I relied with confidence upon the iron hardihood of my constitution. In a word. that the effect of such escape was only sufficient to counterbalance the effect of some accelerating power. On the other hand. however. . I could suffer an escape of so much as would be requisite to prevent explosion). often accompanied with bleeding at the nose. I did not think it worth while to encumber myself with more provisions than would be sufficient for a period of forty days. in this its progress upwards. at all events. it could make comparatively little difference at what extreme state of rarefaction I should discover it -. but. commonly called breathing. of respiration.

the balloon entered a long series of dense cloud. "At twenty minutes before seven. apparently to the eastward. to the entire surface of the sphere itself. "Having attained the altitude before mentioned. what a great extent of the earth's area I beheld. the versed sine -. I now began to experience. and. I beheld as much as a sixteen-hundredth part of the whole surface of the globe. by damaging my condensing apparatus and wetting me to the skin. I was glad of this. a flash of vivid lightning shot from one end of it to the other. The cat was lying very demurely upon my coat. I soon rose above the difficulty. and perceived immediately. although.400 feet. in my case. however. and eyeing the pigeons with an air of nonchalance. I shall now proceed to lay before you the result of an attempt so apparently audacious in conception." would express the proportion of the earth's area seen by me. which put me to great trouble. which I had taken off. or five miles to a fraction. may it please your Excellencies. severe pain in the head. were busily employed in picking up some grains of rice scattered for them in the bottom of the car. and feeling no pain whatever in the head. or the elevation of the point of sight above the surface. that is to say three miles and three-quarters. Now. especially about the ears -. it is very easily calculated by means of spherical geometry.was about equal to my elevation. and found that I still ascended with sufficient rapidity. at all events. I threw out from the car a quantity of feathers. Upon so doing. to prevent their escape.that is to say. I thought it best. breathing with great freedom. The sea appeared unruffled as a mirror. the thickness of the segment beneath me -. I have detailed some. The cat and pigeons seemed to suffer no inconvenience whatsoever. to throw out two five-pound pieces of ballast. therefore. however. as the versed sine of the segment to the diameter of the sphere. for I wished to retain with me as much weight as I could carry. breathing with tolerable freedom. at intervals. In a few seconds after my leaving the cloud. a singular recontre. "At twenty minutes past six o'clock."Thus. there was. These latter being tied by the leg. that I had obtained a great increase in my rate of ascent. and caused it to . The prospect seemed unbounded. so utterly unparalleled in the annals of mankind. I as yet suffered no bodily inconvenience. the considerations which led me to form the project of a lunar voyage. to eight thousand. for I had not believed it possible that a cloud of this nature could be sustained at so great an elevation. Indeed. to be sure. I could perceive it to be in a state of violent agitation. the barometer showed an elevation of 26. by means of the spy-glass. for reasons which will be explained in the sequel. The convex surface of any segment of a sphere is. having drifted away. no necessity for discharging any ballast. The ship was no longer visible. "As five miles. then. In other words. This was. though by no means all.still. reserving still a weight of one hundred and sixty-five pounds.

inevitable ruin would have been the consequence.that is to say -. are perhaps the greatest which must be encountered in balloons. into a highly rarefied stratum of the atmosphere. carried me too rapidly. attained too great an elevation to be any longer uneasy on this head. Upon passing the hand over them they seemed to have protruded from their sockets in no inconsiderable degree. was excessively painful. and my agitation was excessive. my hair stood on end. and I had already clutched one of the valve ropes with the view of attempting a descent. I had by this time. My eyes. staggered to and fro in the car as if under the influence of poison. and. I had. No fancy may picture the sublimity which might have been exhibited by a similar phenomenon taking place amid the darkness of the night. like a mass of ignited and glowing charcoal. and even the balloon itself. This. At this juncture. I was suddenly seized with a spasm which lasted for more than five minutes. and occasioned me some alarm. I could catch my breath only at long intervals. while the cat mewed piteously. and stalk about in the strange vaulted halls.bleeding all the while copiously at the nose and ears.had not the inconvenience of getting wet. Hell itself might have been found a fitting image. ceased. gave me great uneasiness. and the violence of the pain in my head seemed to be greatly on the increase. and the result had nearly proved fatal to my expedition and to myself. it must be remembered. and struggled to escape. and by seven o'clock the barometer indicated an altitude of no less than nine miles and a half. I anticipated nothing less than death. appeared distorted to my vision. also. in a measure. and all objects in the car. and. Thus I found that my senses would shortly give way altogether. however. and without consideration. and ruddy gulfs. and even slightly at the eyes. when the recollection of the trick I had played the three creditors. while I gazed afar down within the yawning abysses. "I was now rising rapidly. was in the broad light of day. determined me to discharge the ballast. The accelerated rate of ascent thus obtained. My head. I now too late discovered the great rashness of which I had been guilty in discharging the ballast. with her tongue hanging out of her mouth. letting imagination descend. The pigeons appeared distressed in the extreme. Even as it was. Such perils. and in a gasping manner -. I had indeed made a narrow escape. I began to find great difficulty in drawing my breath. I at length discovered it to be blood. and even when this. The physical suffering I underwent contributed also to render me nearly incapable of making any exertion for the preservation of my life. and death in a few minutes. although little considered. and red ghastly chasms of the hideous and unfathomable fire. very up. I threw out from the car three five-pound pieces of ballast. indeed. too. little power of reflection left. having felt for some time a moisture about my cheeks. as it were. throughout its vast extent. and without sufficient gradation. which was oozing quite fast from the drums of my ears. These symptoms were more than I had expected. Had the balloon remained a very short while longer within the cloud -. and the possible consequences to .

the northward. At a vast distance to the eastward. and finally succeeded in opening a vein in my right arm. had influenced me in attempting this ascension. but that the progression would have been apparent in a slight degree even had I not discharged the ballast which I did. I suffered much less than might have been expected. upon the whole. which every moment gained a deeper and a deeper tint of blue and began already to assume a slight appearance of convexity. with violence. with the blade of my penknife. I lay down in the bottom of the car. and the southward. I must consider my theory in fault. however. "The view of the earth. at intervals. and found myself freer from absolute pain of any kind than I had been during the last hour and a quarter of my ascension. more than anything else. should I return. I lay still for about a quarter of an hour. The difficulty of breathing.myself. and I found that it would soon be positively necessary to make use of my condenser. that she had taken the opportunity of my indisposition to bring into light a litter of three little kittens. the entire Atlantic coasts of France . of the pain attending animal existence at a distance above the surface. but. The pains in my head and ears returned. which. In the meantime. This was an addition to the number of passengers on my part altogether unexpected. and each inhalation was attended with a troublesome spasmodic action of the chest. The blood had hardly commenced flowing when I experienced a sensible relief. with more and more difficulty. Having no lancet. was diminished in a very slight degree. Thus it seemed to me evident that my rate of ascent was not only on the increase. having tied up my arm as well as I could. and got it ready for immediate use. but I was pleased at the occurrence. but. I discovered to my infinite surprise. Should the kittens be found to suffer uneasiness in an equal degree with their mother. At the end of this time I arose. most of the worst symptoms had abandoned me entirely. was beautiful indeed. at every moment. and by the time I had lost about half a moderate basin full. as far as I could see. extended the islands of Great Britain. operated to deter me for the moment. In this I so far succeeded as to determine upon the experiment of losing blood. but a failure to do so I should look upon as a strong confirmation of my idea. at this period of my ascension. lay a boundless sheet of apparently unruffled ocean. "By eight o'clock I had actually attained an elevation of seventeen miles above the surface of the earth. or nearly so. however. I now unpacked the condensing apparatus. I nevertheless did not think it expedient to attempt getting on my feet immediately. I was constrained to perform the operation in the best manner I was able. I breathed. I had imagined that the habitual endurance of the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the earth was the cause. however. and endeavored to collect my faculties. To the westward. It would afford me a chance of bringing to a kind of test the truth of a surmise. looking toward the cat. although perfectly discernible. who was again snugly stowed away upon my coat. and I still continued to bleed occasionally at the nose.

with great velocity. and I have no doubt he reached home in safety. to the upper rim or hoop where the net-work is attached. and formed a complete enclosure on all sides. I proceeded forthwith to adjust around the car the apparatus belonging to the condenser. but could not be persuaded to trust himself from off the car. I threw him downward with all my force. fluttering his wings. which was of sufficient dimensions. and so on. a beautiful gray-mottled pigeon. dotted with shining islands as the heaven is dotted with stars. "At a quarter-past eight. in the first place. however. the entire car was in a manner placed. I determined upon giving them their liberty. Overhead. but struggled with great vehemence to get back. now made a hearty meal of the dead bird and then went to sleep with much apparent satisfaction. no attempt to descend as I had expected. and placed him upon the rim of the wicker-work. but had hardly done so when his head dropped upon his breast. until its entire mass of waters seemed at length to tumble headlong over the abyss of the horizon.and Spain. and I found myself listening on tiptoe for the echoes of the mighty cataract. and threw him to about half a dozen yards from the balloon. In this bag. and accomplishing a return. In a very short time he was out of sight. Having pulled the bag up in this way. and was pleased to find him continue his descent. and in a perfectly natural manner. Her kittens were quite lively. it (the bag) was drawn over the whole bottom of the car. From the rock of Gibraltar. With this object in view I had prepared a very strong perfectly air-tight. He made. He appeared extremely uneasy. This apparatus will require some little explanation. a quantity of this same atmosphere sufficiently condensed for the purposes of respiration. and the stars were brilliantly visible. the sky was of a jetty black. with the intention of introducing within this barricade. by means of my condenser. being no longer able to draw breath without the most intolerable pain. uttering at the same time very shrill and piercing cries. spread itself out to the eastward as far as my vision extended. Of individual edifices not a trace could be discovered. The other one did not prove so unfortunate. and your Excellencies will please to bear in mind that my object. and so far evinced not the slightest sign of any uneasiness whatever. and the proudest cities of mankind had utterly faded away from the face of the earth. Puss. "The pigeons about this time seeming to undergo much suffering. That is to say. and making a loud cooing noise. was to surround myself and cat entirely with a barricade against the highly rarefied atmosphere in which I was existing. now dwindled into a dim speck. I took him up at last. looking anxiously around him. I first untied one of them. the dark Mediterranean sea. making use of his wings with ease. up its sides. who seemed in a great measure recovered from her illness. with a small portion of the northern part of the continent of Africa. and . and he fell dead within the car. He at length succeeded in regaining his former station on the rim. along the outside of the ropes. To prevent his following the example of his companion. but flexible gum-elastic bag.

had been inserted three circular panes of thick but clear glass. for had I even been able to place a window at top. for the buttons were not only very strong in themselves. I could expect to see no objects situated directly in my zenith. and the consequent wrinkles in the cloth. I now raised up the hoop again within the covering of gum-elastic. the balloon itself would have prevented my making any use of it. affixed to the cloth itself. of the same kind. it was now necessary to fasten up its top or mouth. I therefore undid only a few of these loops at one time. I should not have been at all uneasy. for that would have been impossible. through which I could see without difficulty around me in every horizontal direction. a few more of the loops were unfastened from the rim. the intervals between the buttons having been made to correspond to the intervals between the loops. All that now remained was to fasten up the mouth of the enclosure. This. and this was readily accomplished by gathering the folds of the material together. on account of the peculiar manner of closing up the opening there.but to a series of large buttons. while the whole weight of the car bottom. by passing its material over the hoop of the net-work -. was a matter of little consequence. but attached by a series of running loops or nooses. would seem an inadequate dependence. It is evident that the hoop would now drop down within the car. and twisting them up very tightly on the inside by means of a kind of stationary tourniquet. "About a foot below one of the side windows was a circular opening. what was to sustain the car in the meantime? Now the net-work was not permanently fastened to the hoop. to keep the bag distended at the top. a farther portion of the cloth introduced. leaving the car suspended by the remainder. between the net-work and the hoop. but so close together that a very slight portion of the whole weight was supported by any one of them. "In the sides of the covering thus adjusted round the car. Having thus inserted a portion of the cloth forming the upper part of the bag. In this way it was possible to insert the whole upper part of the bag between the net-work and the hoop. Indeed. had the car and contents been three times heavier than they were. but it was by no means so. would be held up merely by the strength of the buttons. eight inches in diameter. of course. and to preserve the lower part of the net-work in its proper situation. a fourth window. and the disengaged loops then connected with their proper buttons. of course. and fitted with a brass rim adapted in its . This was done. This enabled me to see perpendicularly down. about three feet below the mouth of the bag. But if the net-work were separated from the hoop to admit this passage. and corresponding with a small aperture in the floor of the car itself. with all its contents. and propped it at nearly its former height by means of three light poles prepared for the occasion. In that portion of the cloth forming the bottom. since the cloth now intervened other words. was likewise. but having found it impossible to place any similar contrivance overhead. at first sight. This. This done. I refastened the loops -not to the hoop.

in a state of condensation.000 feet. by reaching under the car with one of the poles before mentioned to which a hook had been attached. until one or two strokes from the pump of the condenser had supplied the place of the atmosphere ejected. A slight headache. or five-and-twenty miles. I did this at some little risk. then closed again. which. was nearly all of which I had now to complain. and the throat. was one of an extended construction. I soon began to reap the benefit of my invention. in a great measure. and suspended it outside the car to a button at the bottom. To avoid the inconvenience of making a total vacuum at any moment within the chamber. in a short time. as I had expected. but in a gradual manner -. For the sake of experiment I had put the cat and kittens in a small basket. and that much of the pain endured for the last two hours should have been attributed altogether to the effects of a deficient respiration. accompanied with a sensation of fulness or distention about the wrists. "By the time I had fully completed these arrangements and filled the chamber as explained. and I consequently surveyed at that time an extent of the earth's area amounting to no less than the three hundred-and-twentieth part of its entire superficies.and indeed why should I not? I was also agreeably surprised to find myself. It was then ejected by a small valve at the bottom of the car -. or ran down.the dense air readily sinking into the thinner atmosphere below. and bitterly did I repent the negligence or rather fool-hardiness.the valve being opened only for a few seconds. the ankles. the mercury attained its limit. of course.that is to say. it wanted only ten minutes of nine o'clock. In this rim was screwed the large tube of the condenser. Through this tube a quantity of the rare atmosphere circumjacent being drawn by means of a vacuum created in the body of the machine. of putting off to the last moment a matter of so much importance. relieved from the violent pains which had hitherto tormented me. necessarily become foul. a short time prior to my closing up the mouth of the chamber. at length filled the chamber with atmosphere proper for all the purposes of respiration. was thence discharged. of which I had been guilty. this purification was never accomplished all at once. This operation being repeated several times. within the chamber of gum-elastic. through which I could feed them at any moment when necessary. Once again I breathed with perfect freedom and ease -. and unfit for use from frequent contact with the lungs. and before closing the mouth of the chamber. Thus it seemed evident that a greater part of the uneasiness attending the removal of atmospheric pressure had actually worn off. At nine o'clock . During the whole period of my being thus employed. But in so confined a space it would. It then indicated an altitude on my part of 132. in the barometer. to mingle with the thin air already in the chamber. close by the valve. I endured the most terrible distress from difficulty of respiration. as I mentioned before. But having at length accomplished it. "At twenty minutes before nine o'clock -.inner edge to the windings of a screw. the body of the machine being.

than from so frequent a renovation being absolutely necessary. with a boundary line of clouds. and now in regenerating the atmosphere within the chamber. In the meanwhile I could not help making anticipations. while from the trunks of the trees other shadows were continually coming out. and craggy precipices. Fancy revelled in the wild and dreamy regions of the moon. like a bullet. I did not at first know what to make of this extraordinary phenomenon. en masse. and taking the place of their brothers thus entombed. "This then. of a sudden. more on account of the preservation of my health. but not before I became aware that the balloon was drifting rapidly to the N. I suffered no pain or uneasiness of any kind. "By ten o'clock I found that I had very little to occupy my immediate attention. and enjoyed better spirits than I had at any period since my departure from Rotterdam. Affairs went swimmingly. and commingled with the waves. Imagination. but sunk slowly and steadily down. And out of this melancholy water arose a forest of tall eastern trees. Then I came suddenly into still noonday solitudes. This latter point I determined to attend to at regular intervals of forty minutes. The convexity of the ocean beneath me was very evident indeed. And I have in mind that the shadows of the trees which fell upon the lake remained not on the surface where they fell. but dropped down perpendicularly. not being able to believe that my rate of ascent had. although my view was often interrupted by the masses of cloud which floated to and fro. like a wilderness of dreams. and more melancholy as the hours run on. busying myself now in examining the state of my various apparatus. and waterfalls tumbling with a loud noise into abysses without a bottom. But it soon occurred to me that the atmosphere was now far too rare to sustain even the feathers. that they actually fell. and where vast meadows of poppies." I said thoughtfully." But fancies such as these were not the sole possessors of my brain. "At half past nine I tried the experiment of throwing out a handful of feathers through the valve. I observed now that even the lightest vapors never rose to more than ten miles above the level of the sea. roamed at will among the ever-changing wonders of a shadowy and unstable land. with great rapidity. lily-looking flowers spread themselves out a weary distance. They did not float as I had expected. met with so prodigious an acceleration. Horrors of a nature most stern and most .being out of sight in a very few seconds. "is the very reason why the waters of this lake grow blacker with age. and that I had been surprised by the united velocities of their descent and my own elevation. and with the greatest velocity -.I had again lost sight of land to the eastward. and I believed the balloon to be going upward with a speed increasing momently although I had no longer any means of ascertaining the progression of the increase. all silent and motionless forever. and slender. where no wind of heaven ever intruded. as they appeared to do. W. feeling herself for once unshackled. N. Now there were boary and time-honored forests. Then again I journeyed far down away into another country where it was all one dim and vague lake.

It was evident that. in spite of their situation so much farther to the eastward. But I was not prepared to find them. but of course. "At six o'clock. and I had no hesitation in attributing her uneasiness chiefly to a difficulty in breathing. to see them betray a sense of pain. p. The cat herself appeared to suffer again very much. and deprived me of the insight into this matter which a continued experiment might have afforded. I had expected. as I had taken for granted. It was not. did not fail to give me an infinite deal of pleasure. upon removal to the denser strata near the earth. breathing with the greatest ease and perfect regularity. be unaware of any inconvenience attending its inhalation. Yet I would not suffer my thoughts for any length of time to dwell upon these latter speculations. at this time. I should behold the rising luminary many hours at least before the citizens of Rotterdam. and this circumstance. which continued to advance with great rapidity. at five minutes before seven. Positively. and that a person born in such a medium might. in a moment.. there could not have intervened the tenth part of a second between the disengagement of the basket and its absolute and total disappearance with all that it contained. My good wishes followed it to the earth. "At five o'clock. loosened it from the bottom. but my experiment with the kittens had resulted very strangely. and evincing not the slightest sign of any uneasiness whatever. I had no hope that either cat or kittens would ever live to tell the tale of their misfortune. the whole surface in view was enveloped in the darkness of night. It has since been to me a matter of deep regret that an awkward accident. while. I perceived a great portion of the earth's visible area to the eastward involved in thick shadow. although of course fully anticipated. and shake the innermost depths of my soul with the bare supposition of their possibility. and this would have been sufficient to confirm my opinion concerning the habitual endurance of atmospheric pressure.appalling would too frequently obtrude themselves upon my mind. I could only account for all this by extending my theory. although in a less degree than their mother. however. Had the whole actually vanished into air. and supposing that the highly rarefied atmosphere around might perhaps not be. in the morning. until. chemically insufficient for the purposes of life. and . occasioned me the loss of my little family of cats. evidently enjoying a high degree of health. of course. until long after this time that the rays of the setting sun ceased to illumine the balloon. with a cup of water for the old puss. and thus. it could not have shot from my sight in a more abrupt and instantaneous manner. rightly judging the real and palpable dangers of the voyage sufficient for my undivided attention. the sleeves of my shirt became entangled in the loop which sustained the basket. I took that opportunity of observing the cat and kittens through the valve. he might endure tortures of a similar nature to those I had so lately experienced. upon close examination. In passing my hand through the valve.m. being engaged in regenerating the atmosphere within the chamber. possibly.

To be sure. and ranged very securely around the interior of the car. without taking into consideration the intervals of darkness. the steam-engine. I had heard of the student who. or. It would require but five minutes at most to regenerate the atmosphere in the fullest manner. I reflected that man is the veriest slave of custom. but here a difficulty presented itself. I determined to lie down for the rest of the night. he should be overcome with drowsiness. after the dangers I had undergone. that. "It is necessary to premise. how could the atmosphere in the chamber be regenerated in the interim? To breathe it for more than an hour. I now determined to keep a journal of my passage. and finally make up my mind to the necessity of a descent. I should look upon this business in so serious a light. This circumstance favored me greatly in the project I now determined to adopt. My supply of water had been put on board in kegs containing five gallons each. which. which are only so at all by his having rendered them habitual. to prevent his falling asleep over his books. reckoning the days from one to twenty-four hours continuously. occasioned me no little trouble in its solution. day after day. and taking two ropes tied them tightly across the rim of the . was hailed by me. or the art of printing itself. would be a matter of impossibility. I at length hit upon the following expedient. I am willing to confess. that the balloon. would I enjoy the light of the sun for a longer and a longer period.thus. and that many points in the routine of his existence are deemed essentially important. the most ruinous consequences might ensue. My own case. and the car consequently followed with a steadiness so perfect that it would have been impossible to detect in it the slightest vacillation whatever. held in one hand a ball of copper. The consideration of this dilemma gave me no little disquietude. continued its course upward with an even and undeviating ascent. however. at the moment of discovery. at any moment. for I did not wish to keep awake. and left me no room for any similar idea. But this was a question which. obvious as it may appear. at the farthest. If I went to sleep as I proposed. at the elevation now attained. in proportion to the height ascended. as to give up all hope of accomplishing my ultimate design. and the only real difficulty was to contrive a method of arousing myself at the proper moment for so doing. had escaped my attention up to the very moment of which I am now speaking. It was very certain that I could not do without sleep. which. if even this term could be extended to an hour and a quarter. But this hesitation was only momentary. "At ten o'clock. served effectually to startle him up. was very different indeed. the din of whose descent into a basin of the same metal on the floor beside his chair. but I might easily bring myself to feel no inconvenience from being awakened at intervals of an hour during the whole period of my repose. as an invention fully equal to that of the telescope. I unfastened one of these. but to be aroused from slumber at regular intervals of time. if. and it will hardly be believed. feeling sleepy. simple as it may seem.

which was somewhat lower than the rim. might be ascertained. at some period. I now bored a hole in the end of the keg over the pitcher. getting full. and four feet from the bottom of the car I fastened another shelf -. it was seven o'clock. Below me in the ocean lay a cluster of black specks. however. and the sun had attained many degrees above the line of my horizon. to waken me up instantaneously. My curiosity was greatly excited. and when I finally arose for the day. was a matter briefly and easily ascertained. and performed the duties of the condenser. which undoubtedly were islands. and I immediately betook myself to bed. would fill the latter to the brim in the period of sixty minutes. being the only similar piece of wood I had. that. at the expiration of an hour. Punctually every sixty minutes was I aroused by my trusty chronometer. or streak. after a few experiments. find myself placed directly above the Pole itself. "April 3d. a small earthern pitcher was deposited. with full confidence in the efficiency of my invention. It was evident.but made of thin plank. and exactly beneath one of the rims of the keg. as to bring my head. placing them about a foot apart and parallel so as to form a kind of shelf. Far away to the northward I perceived a thin.wicker-work from one side to the other. Upon this latter shelf. cut in a tapering or conical shape. and fitted in a plug of soft wood. and I had no hesitation in supposing it to be the southern disk of the ices of the Polar Sea. in lying down. and falling into the pitcher below. would be forced to run over. immediately below the mouth of the pitcher. My bed was so contrived upon the floor of the car. "It was fully eleven by the time I had completed these arrangements. I now lamented that my great elevation would. and that the sure consequences would be. by noticing the proportion of the pitcher filled in any given time. even from the soundest slumber in the world. and the balloon still ascended without any perceptible . and might possibly. until. I retired again to bed. My apparatus all continued in good order. Nor in this matter was I disappointed. in this case. when. for I had hopes of passing on much farther to the north. and steadied it in a horizontal position. It was also evident. upon which I placed the keg. it arrived at that exact degree of tightness. These regular interruptions to my slumber caused me even less discomfort than I had anticipated. having emptied the pitcher into the bung-hole of the keg. on the edge of the horizon. This plug I pushed in or pulled out. the rest of the plan is obvious. I found the balloon at an immense height indeed. as might happen. and the earth's apparent convexity increased in a material degree. the pitcher. Nothing else of an extraordinary nature occurred during the day. and to run over at the mouth. of course. prevent my taking as accurate a survey as I could wish. at which the water. could not do otherwise than fall upon my face. This. Much. Having arranged all this. white. and exceedingly brilliant line. that the water thus falling from a height of more than four feet. About eight inches immediately below these ropes. oozing from the hole.

Weather moderate. respectively. Went early to bed. and with great rapidity. The islands were no longer visible. it would soon arrive above the Frozen Ocean. it is impossible to say. Nothing of importance occurred. Arose early. alas! I had now ascended to so vast a distance. I betook myself to bed. on the second of April. Toward night the limits of my horizon very suddenly and materially increased.M. and I slept until next morning soundly. During the whole of the day I continued to near the ice. at length beheld what there could be no hesitation in supposing the northern Pole itself. fearing to pass over the object of so much curiosity when I should have no opportunity of observing it. "April 6th. however. and appeared of a much darker hue than the waters of the ocean. Arose in good health and spirits. being now of a grayish-white. "April 5th. I was inclined. and I passed the day in reading. the deep tint of blue it had hitherto worn. The cold was intense. and immediately beneath my feet. Was surprised at finding the rim of ice at a very moderate distance. and I again saw the line of ice to the northward. to my great joy. to the latter opinion. and I had now little doubt of ultimately seeing the Pole. and my arriving above the flattened regions in the vicinity of the Arctic circle. in a great measure. When darkness at length overtook me. I was evidently approaching it. In time. whether they had passed down the horizon to the southeast. It was there. but could not be certain. with the exception of the periodical interruption. that nothing could with accuracy be discerned. "April 7th. Beheld the singular phenomenon of the sun rising while nearly the whole visible surface of the earth continued to be involved in darkness. and one also to the westward.vacillation. owing undoubtedly to the earth's form being that of an oblate spheroid. Nothing of any consequence happened during the day. and. however. of the same day (at which time the . and of a lustre dazzling to the eye. and obliged me to wrap up closely in an overcoat. but. and was astonished at the singular change which had taken place in the appearance of the sea. at different periods. the light spread itself over all. although it was for many hours afterward broad daylight all around my immediate situation. When darkness came over the earth. and an immense field of the same material stretching away off to the horizon in the north. The water-clock was punctual in its duty. or whether my increasing elevation had left them out of sight.M. and twenty minutes before nine A. Indeed. to judge from the progression of the numbers indicating my various altitudes. having taken care to supply myself with books. between six A. The rim of ice to the northward was growing more and more apparent. I went to bed in great anxiety. beyond a doubt. It was now very distinct. Fancied I could again distinguish a strip of land to the eastward. Cold by no means so intense. "April 4th. It was evident that if the balloon held its present course. It had lost.

By twelve o'clock the circular centre had materially decreased in circumference. of course. and the inconvenience became. I lost sight of it entirely. whose apparent diameter subtended at the balloon an angle of about sixty-five seconds. with slight qualification. This elevation may appear immense. and floating away rapidly in the direction of the equator. at all times. I could easily perceive that the balloon now hovered above the range of great lakes in the continent of North America. and I hailed it as a happy omen of ultimate success. as it were. or nearly unbroken. sharply defined. due south. the balloon passing over the western limb of the ice. reached a height of not less. than 7. sheet of ice continues to extend. was. readily imagine that the confined regions hitherto unexplored within the limits of the Arctic circle. comparatively too diminutive. and was holding a course. to admit of any very accurate examination. certainly. and therefore seen without any appearance of being foreshortened. the direction I had hitherto taken. which would bring me to the tropics. Indeed. at four o'clock in the morning of April the seventh. had filled me with . between whose masses I could only now and then obtain a glimpse of the earth itself. This difficulty of direct vision had troubled me more or less for the last forty-eight hours. but my present enormous elevation brought closer together.254 miles above the surface of the sea. Northwardly from that huge rim before mentioned. besides a material alteration in its general color and appearance. and at too great a distance from the point of sight. in themselves.M. This circumstance did not fail to give me the most heartful satisfaction.barometer ran down). and whose dusky hue. becoming not a little concave. what could be seen was of a nature singular and exciting. it terminates. The whole visible area partook in different degrees of a tint of pale yellow. At all events I undoubtedly beheld the whole of the earth's major diameter. it might be fairly inferred that the balloon had now. little could be ascertained. My view downward was also considerably impeded by the dense atmosphere in the vicinity of the surface being loaded with clouds. its surface is very sensibly flattened. more and more palpable in proportion to my ascent. and in some portions had acquired a brilliancy even painful to the eye. Nevertheless. may be called the limit of human discovery in these regions. although situated directly beneath me. "April 8th. were still. and by seven P. darker than any other spot upon the visible hemisphere. and which. however. but the estimate upon which it is calculated gave a result in all probability far inferior to the truth. the entire northern hemisphere lay beneath me like a chart orthographically projected: and the great circle of the equator itself formed the boundary line of my horizon. in a circular centre. and occasionally deepened into the most absolute and impenetrable blackness. Found a sensible diminution in the earth's apparent diameter. Your Excellencies may. the floating bodies of vapor. Nevertheless. Farther than this. one unbroken. and finally. varying in intensity. farther on depressed into a plane. In the first few degrees of this its progress. at the Pole itself.

afforded me the most unequivocal delight. being nearly in my zenith. but could find no means whatever of accounting for it. and the color of the surface assumed hourly a deeper tint of yellow. crackling. at nine P.M. had I continued it much longer. but made little progress to the eastward. It now required long and excessive labor to condense within the chamber sufficient atmospheric air for the sustenance of life. and could discover nothing out of order. over the northern edge of the Mexican Gulf. about five o'clock this morning. in that of the moon itself. "April 14th. however. "April 12th. I was suddenly aroused from slumber. in a more or less degree. I still continued in the plane of the elipse. I examined all my apparatus. "April 11th. now observable for the first time. Thought long upon the subject. in its former course. Found a startling diminution in the apparent diameter of the earth. but. for it was evident that. having. To-day the earth's diameter was greatly diminished. and terrific sound. Spent a great part of the day in meditating upon an occurrence so extraordinary. attributed the noise to the bursting of the balloon. for a period of many hours. while it lasted resembled nothing in the world of which I had any previous experience. about the twentieth parallel of southern latitude.uneasiness. Great decrease in the earth's apparent diameter. and a considerable increase. To-day I became strongly impressed with the idea. there would have been no possibility of my arriving at the moon at all. in the first instance. What was worthy of remark. which now subtended from the balloon an angle of very little more than twenty-five degrees. it turned off suddenly.. and in a state of great anxiety and agitation. The balloon kept steadily on her course to the southward. Extremely rapid decrease in the diameter of the earth. at an acute angle. but was unable to form any satisfactory conclusion.a vacillation which prevailed. and thus proceeded throughout the day. It is needless to say that I became excessively alarmed. a very perceptible vacillation in the car was a consequence of this change of route -. whose orbit is inclined to the ecliptic at only the small angle of 5 degrees 8' 48". The moon could not be seen at all. "April 13th. "April 9th. in the exact plane of the lunar elipse. with great attention. that the balloon . crackling noise which terrified me on the tenth. keeping nearly. if not altogether. by a loud. which wanted only a few days of being full. for which I could in no manner account. Was again very much alarmed by a repetition of the loud. It was of very brief duration. and although fully anticipated. to the eastward. "April 10th. Went to bed dissatisfied. Having reached. and arrived. A singular alteration took place in regard to the direction of the balloon.

for the third time. I stood in expectation of I knew not what hideous destruction. and allowed me scarcely any respite from exertion. and. "April 17th. About twelve o'clock I became aware. This morning proved an epoch in my voyage. Indeed. stupefied and terror-stricken. the seventeenth. as it were. on the fifteenth a still more remarkable decrease was observable. at finding the surface beneath me so suddenly and wonderfully augmented in volume. a very small portion of the moon's disk protruding. on retiring on the night of the sixteenth. on all sides beyond the huge circumference of the balloon. It will be remembered that. on the thirteenth. and my frame trembled with exhaustion. the absolute horror and astonishment. therefore. and a gigantic and flaming mass of some material which I could not distinguish. with which I was seized . "April 15th. the labor now required by the condenser had increased to a most oppressive degree. looking upward as well as I could. My agitation was extreme. Not even the outlines of continents and seas could now be traced upon the earth with anything approaching distinctness. in all probability. on awakening from a brief and disturbed slumber. for I had now little doubt of soon reaching the end of my perilous voyage.was now actually running up the line of apsides to the point of perigee. During the now brief interval of darkness a meteoric stone again passed in my vicinity. roaring and booming by the balloon. To-day. through each of the side windows alternately. and the frequency of these phenomena began to occasion me much apprehension. and. on the morning of this day. It was impossible that human nature could endure this state of intense suffering much longer. holding the direct course which would bring it immediately to the moon in that part of its orbit the nearest to the earth. Sleep was a matter nearly out of the question. What. of that appalling sound which had so astonished me before. "April 16th. one of that singular class of substances occasionally picked up on the earth. The moon iself was directly overhead. I had noticed an angle of no more than about seven degrees and fifteen minutes. and gathered intensity as it continued. At length. while. and consequently hidden from my view. however. continued for some moments. It now. I beheld. came with a voice of a thousand thunders. On the fourteenth this had greatly other words. When my fears and astonishment had in some degree subsided. Great and long-continued labor necessary for the condensation of the atmosphere. to my great delight. I had little difficulty in supposing it to be some mighty volcanic fragment ejected from that world to which I was so rapidly approaching. must have been my amazement. as to subtend no less than thirty-nine degrees in apparent angular diameter! I was thunderstruck! No words can give any adequate idea of the extreme. the earth subtended an angular breadth of twenty-five degrees. and termed meteoric stones for want of a better appellation. the car vibrated with excessive violence. I became quite ill.

In fact. after all. and emerging from the terror which had absorbed every faculty of my soul. in appearance. was not expected at the moment. and I finally succeeded in regarding the phenomenon in its proper point of view. either about my person or about my apparatus. and I began to doubt. although I was evidently approaching the surface below me.I was falling -. had I even been awake at the time of the occurrence. and the surface of my mother earth. then. I paused. between the surface below me. and completely hidden by the balloon. at the farthest. before I should meet the surface of the earth. when I could not see the vast difference. and at my feet. where the gravitation of the balloon toward the earth should be less powerful than its gravitation toward the moon.that is to say. For the bouleversement in itself was not only natural and teeth chattered -. as the most extraordinary feature in its geological . while the moon -. that part of the adventure least susceptible of explanation. upon coming to a due sense of my situation. more precisely. My knees tottered beneath me -. It lay beneath me like a chart -. it could not be more than ten minutes. the most unparalleled velocity! To judge by the immense distance already so quickly passed over. and one which. I should have been made aware of it by any internal evidence of an inversion -.the moon itself in all its glory -. and altogether overwhelmed. struck me. The revolution itself must. amazement must have fairly deprived me of my senses. Besides. have taken place in an easy and gradual manner. This consideration served to calm the perturbation of my mind. wholly directed to the contemplation of the general physical appearance of the moon. To be sure I arose from a sound slumber. "It is almost needless to say that. and it is by no means clear that. The entire absence of ocean or sea.lay beneath me. "The stupor and surprise produced in my mind by this extraordinary change in the posture of affairs was perhaps. it was with a speed by no means commensurate with the velocity I had at first so horribly conceived. and be hurled into annihilation!" But at length reflection came to my relief.falling with the most impetuous. my attention was. in the first place. the indentures of its surface were defined to my vision with a most striking and altogether unaccountable distinctness. The latter was indeed over my head. and indeed of any lake or river. but had been long actually anticipated as a circumstance to be expected whenever I should arrive at that exact point of my voyage where the attraction of the planet should be superseded by the attraction of the satellite -. or body of water whatsoever. with all my senses in confusion. by any inconvenience or disarrangement. had actually burst!" These were the first tumultuous ideas that hurried through my mind: "The balloon had positively burst! -. "The balloon. although hair started up on end.possessed.and although I judged it to be still at no inconsiderable distance. I considered. at first glance. to the contemplation of a very startling phenomenon. The matter was impossible. of course. I could not in any reason have so rapidly come down.or.

strange to say. The highest among them does not exceed three and three-quarter miles in perpendicular elevation. the height of the atmosphere (which could refract light enough into its dark hemisphere to produce a twilight more luminous than the light reflected from the earth when the moon is about 32 degrees from the new) to be 1.and the evidently accelerated velocity of my descent began to fill me with alarm. The two cusps appeared tapering in a very sharp faint prolongation.376 feet. the third disappeared after having been about 1" or 2" of time indistinct. in spite of a general disbelief in the existence of any lunar atmosphere at all. although by far the greater portion of the hemisphere in sight was covered with innumerable volcanic mountains. he found no alteration of figure at all.356 Paris feet. dense in proportion to the bulk of the planet. which now rushed upward by the balloon with a frequency more and more appalling. and. in the earliest stage of my speculations upon the possibility of a passage to the moon. He observed the moon when two days and a half old. by the repeated thunders of the miscalled meteoric stones. also. had entered largely into my calculations. conical in shape. in which it is stated that at an occultation of Jupiter's satellites. but a map of the volcanic districts of the Campi Phlegraei would afford to your Excellencies a better idea of their general surface than any unworthy description I might think proper to attempt. and. I supposed the greatest height capable of refracting the solar ray. Schroeter. Soon afterward. and gave me fearfully to understand their fury and their power. in its vicinity. I beheld vast level regions of a character decidedly alluvial. each exhibiting its farthest extremity faintly illuminated by the solar rays. Yet. before any part of the dark hemisphere was visible. Jupiter. the existence. I thought. To-day I found an enormous increase in the moon's apparent bulk -. and continued to watch it until it became visible. My ideas on this topic had also received confirmation by a passage in the eighty-second volume of the Philosophical Transactions.{*4} "Cassini frequently observed Saturn. there is a dense matter encompassing . of Lilienthal. and the fourth became indiscernible near the limb. I had been strengthened in my opinion by certain observations of Mr. to have their circular figure changed into an oval one. of an atmosphere. in other occultations. that at some times and not at others. But. in this view. "April 18th. when approaching the moon to occultation. must have arisen from the refraction of the sun's rays by the moon's atmosphere. that. this too in spite of many theories to the contrary. This prolongation of the cusps beyond the semicircle. the whole dark limb became illuminated. in addition to what I have already urged in regard to Encke's comet and the zodiacal light. and having more the appearance of artificial than of natural protuberance. before the dark part was visible. it may be added. It will be remembered.condition. in the evening soon after sunset. The greater part of them were in a state of evident eruption. to be 5. Hence it might be supposed. I computed. and the fixed stars.

as far as the eye could reach. and in an equal degree as at the surface of the earth. of course. the surface of the moon being frightfully near. That it was not the case. therefore. I ventured to unscrew the tourniquet. This morning. But it was all to no purpose. As might have been expected. having got rid of my coat. I had in consequence nothing better to expect. at all adequate to the support of the great weight contained in the car of my balloon. indeed. my precipitous downfall gave testimony enough. By ten. the actual gravity of bodies at either planet supposed in the ratio of the atmospheric condensation. was thickly interspersed with diminutive . This approach. more properly. My distance from the moon was comparatively trifling. after all. can only be explained by a reference to those possible geological disturbances to which I have formerly alluded. As a last resource. was still impetuous in the extreme. however. prove to have been mistaken. very little labor was necessary at the apparatus. while the labor required by the condenser was diminished not at all. as a finale to my adventure. and it soon became alarmingly certain that. when. I had.the moon wherein the rays of the stars are refracted. however. clinging with both hands to the net-work. and thus. which was of no inconsiderable weight. I cut loose from the balloon the car itself. At all events I was now close upon the planet. I had now every reason to be terrified. about nine o'clock. and I could discover no indication whatever of a decreasing rarity in the air. I finally threw open the gum-elastic chamber. Should I then. in consideration of my leaving them behind me momently in my approach to the denser strata near the moon. and was now not more than half a mile from the surface. upon the support of an atmosphere. spasms and violent headache were the immediate consequences of an experiment so precipitate and full of danger. "April 19th. even at the surface. finding no inconvenience from having done so. entirely depended for the safety of my ultimate descent. "Upon the resistance or. to my great joy. why it was not so. I lost not a moment. with some hesitation. existing in the state of density imagined. than being dashed into atoms against the rugged surface of the satellite. and boots. in throwing overboard first my ballast. the pump of my condenser at length gave evident tokens of an alteration in the atmosphere. I had barely time to observe that the whole country. then my condensing apparatus and gum-elastic chamber. I still fell with horrible rapidity. and finally every article within the car. and at twelve o'clock. I determined to endure as I best could. I had reason to believe its density considerably increased. By eleven. and unrigged it from around the car. still I had been wrong in supposing this density. Yet this should have been the case. then my water-kegs. hat. And. although I had probably not been deceived in the expectation of an atmosphere dense in proportion to the mass of the satellite. as they were by no means so great as to put me in peril of my life. But these and other difficulties attending respiration. and coming down with the most terrible impetuosity. accordingly. and my apprehensions excited to the utmost.

unheard of dangers. after a residence of five years upon a planet not only deeply interesting in its own peculiar character. and. of their consequent ignorance of the use and properties of speech. but rendered doubly so by its intimate connection.a connection analogous with.habitations. of those dark and hideous mysteries which lie in the outer regions of the moon -. arrived in safety at the conclusion of a voyage undoubtedly the most extraordinary. and more than polar frigidity for the next. or conceived by any denizen of earth. with the world inhabited by man. grinning in a ludicrous manner. of a variable zone of running water.regions which. of their substitute for speech in a singular method of inter-communication. I turned from them in contempt. but stood. of unmitigated and burning sunshine for one fortnight. if it so please your Excellencies -. by distillation like that in vacuo. ever accomplished.above all. the case. and the whole was clouded with variable spots. about two degrees in diameter. of their want of ears. in capacity of satellite. with their arms set a-kimbo. never shall be turned. and depending upon. fixed immovably in the heavens overhead. "Thus. gazing upward at the earth so lately left. like a parcel of idiots. after a series of great anxieties. I may have intelligence for the private ear of the States' College of Astronomers of far more importance than the details. owing to the almost miraculous accordance of the satellite's rotation on its own axis with its sidereal revolution about the earth. and eyeing me and my balloon askant. customs. on the nineteenth day of my departure from Rotterdam. of a constant transfer of moisture. I have much -. who none of them uttered a single syllable. This is. and unparalleled escapes. No traces of land or water could be discovered. and.very much which it would give me the greatest pleasure to communicate. of the incomprehensible connection between each particular individual in the moon with some particular individual on the earth -. and tipped on one of its edges with a crescent border of the most brilliant gold. those useless appendages in an atmosphere so peculiarly modified. of their peculiar physical construction. in fact. of their ugliness. and political institutions. dull. and left perhaps for ever. to the . ere I tumbled headlong into the very heart of a fantastical-looking city. from the point beneath the sun to the point the farthest from it. beheld it like a huge. that of the orbs of the planet and the satellites. have never yet been turned. copper shield. of the mere voyage which so happily concluded. I have much to say of the climate of the planet. undertaken. however wonderful. and the most momentous. or gave themselves the least trouble to render me assistance. of their manners. and by means of which the lives and destinies of the inhabitants of the one are interwoven with the lives and destinies of the inhabitants of the other. by God's mercy. And indeed your Excellencies may well imagine that. and belted with tropical and equatorial zones. and above all. may it please your Excellencies. and into the middle of a vast crowd of ugly little people. But my adventures yet remain to be related. of its wonderful alternations of heat and cold. of the people themselves. at length. I had.

and more. and the matter was therefore at an end." Upon finishing the perusal of this very extraordinary document. is. and as the price of any farther communication on my part -. But. Professor Rub-a-dub. Having reached the door. with these sort of people. I am pining for a return to my family and to my home. This. But hoax. gave rise to a variety of gossip and opinion. Secondly. Let us see what they say: Imprimus. and properly instructed. an inhabitant of the moon. as nothing better than a hoax. and deposited them in his doubt frightened to death by the savage appearance of the burghers of Rotterdam -. etc. Its bearer. it is said. I must have my reward. as he took the arm of his brother in science. I cannot conceive upon what data they have founded such an accusation. Don't understand at all. For my part. Professor Rub-a-dub. rumors and speculations. the professor ventured to suggest that as the messenger had thought proper to disappear -.the pardon should be obtained. and without saying a word. and return to me with the pardon in question. your Excellencies' very humble servant. a general term for all matters above their comprehension. however. HANS PFAALL. So at least swore. so far forgot both himself and his dignity. To the truth of this observation the burgomaster assented. as no one but a man of the moon would undertake a voyage to so vast a distance.I must solicit. Not so. a pardon for the crime of which I have been guilty in the death of the creditors upon my departure from Rotterdam. in any manner. That an odd little dwarf and bottle conjurer. dropped his pipe upon the ground in the extremity of his surprise. Some of the over-wise even made themselves ridiculous by decrying the whole business. through the influence of your honorable body. "I have the honor to be. then. if it can. wiped them. There was no doubt about the matter -. be obtained. and Mynheer Superbus Von Underduk having taken off his spectacles. as to turn round three times upon his heel in the quintessence of astonishment and admiration. having been published. of the burgomaster's dwelling. to be my messenger to the earth. however. whom I have prevailed upon. That certain wags in Rotterdam have certain especial antipathies to certain burgomasters and astronomers. both of whose . to be brief.scrutiny of the telescopes of man. and so finally thought the illustrious Von Underduk.much more -would I most willingly detail.the pardon would be of little use. began to make the best of his way home to deliberate upon the measures to be adopted.. All this. I believe. is the object of the present paper. with a round oath. The consideration of the light which I have it in my power to throw upon many very important branches of physical and metaphysical science -. will await your Excellencies' pleasure.

having just returned.undoubtedly -. and the three very idle gentlemen styled his creditors. L's in the "New York Sun. not a whit better. to say the least of the matter. have been cut off close to his head.don't believe a word of it.what of that? Thirdly. Don't believe it -. and therefore could not have been made in the moon. does not exist. Fourthly. perhaps. _that his own _jeu d'esprit _was published in the "Southern Literary Messenger" about three weeks before the commencement of Mr. Indeed. and as both hoaxes are on the same subject. Well -. the druken villain.and Gluck." Fancying a likeness which. Lastly. -. They were dirty papers -. That it is an opinion very generally received. -. as well as other colleges in all other parts of the world. nor wiser than they ought to be. for some misdemeanor. but as both have the character of _hoaxes _(although the one is in a tone of banter. As many more persons were actually gulled by the "Moon-Hoax" than would be willing to acknowledge the fact. that the College of Astronomers in the city of Rotterdam. it may here afford some little amusement to show why no one should have been deceived-to point out those particulars of the story which should have been sufficient to establish its real character." and collated it with the "Moon-Hoax. That Hans Pfaall himself.ears. some of the New York papers copied "Hans Pfaall. would take his Bible oath to their having been printed in Rotterdam. no longer than two or three days ago. has been missing for several days from the neighboring city of Bruges. Locke. nor greater. from a trip beyond the sea.mistaken.are. in a tippling house in the suburbs. the other of downright earnest).very dirty -. in _self-defence." by way of detecting the writer of the one in the writer of the other. were all seen. He was mistaken -. ~~~ End of Text ~~~ Notes to Hans Pfaal {*1} NOTE--Strictly speaking. with money in their pockets. as both attempt to give plausibility by scientific detail--the author of "Hans Pfaall" thinks it necessary to say. or which ought to be generally received. That the newspapers which were stuck all over the little balloon were newspapers of Holland. there is but little similarity between the above sketchy trifle and the celebrated "Moon-Story" of Mr. however rich the . the moon--moreover. the printer.not to mention colleges and astronomers in general.

000 (the moon's real distance). the writer appearing to be ignorant that. L. we. apparently. That the public were misled. but Messrs. more strictly. by the vague titles. L. speaking of "a hairy veil" over the eyes of a species of bison. Herschel that this was a providential contrivance to protect the eyes of the animal from the great extremes of light and darkness to which all the inhabitants of our side of the moon are periodically subjected. on a lunar map. in passing. he has himself observed that the lens would not render perceptible objects of less than eighteen inches in diameter. speaks about Sir John Herschel's perceiving flowers (the Papaver rheas. H. Hartley and Grant. have but to divide the distance by the magnifying or. etc. the line of division is found to be . 240. In examining the boundary between light and darkness (in the crescent or gibbous moon) where this boundary crosses any of the dark places. Mare Tranquillitatis. much less the minute points particularized in the story. that this prodigious glass is said to have been molded at the glasshouse of Messrs. Deceived.).'s establishment had ceased operations for many years previous to the publication of the hoax. as I have said. by the space-penetrating power of the glass.. is entirely at variance with that or any other lunar chart. L. In the absence of the sun they have a light from the earth equal to that of thirteen full unclouded moons. the author says: "It immediately occurred to the acute mind of Dr. the east being to the left.000 miles. Mr. it wanted much of the force which might have been given it by a more scrupulous attention to facts and to general analogy. too. and even detecting the color and the shape of the eyes of small birds. and we have five miles and five sevenths. are in inextricable confusion. The moon's distance from the earth is. but even this. and even grossly at variance with itself. as the apparent distance. even when professing to accord with Blunt's Lunar Chart. pamphlet edition. If we desire to ascertain how near. whereas there is no astronomical point more positively ascertained than that no such bodies exist there. On page 13. The inhabitants of our side of the moon have. Shortly before. too. The points of the compass. etc. given to the dark spots by former astronomers. in round numbers. Mare Nubium. and G. has entered into details regarding oceans and other large bodies of water in the moon. Mr. etc. no darkness at all. evidently. merely proves the gross ignorance which is so generally prevalent upon subjects of an astronomical nature. makes his lens have a power of 42. even for an instant. of course. It may be observed. By this divide 240. Mare Faecunditatis. is giving the glass by far too great power. The topography throughout. Mr. perhaps.000 times. so there can be nothing of the "extremes" mentioned." But this cannot be thought a very "acute" observation of the Doctor's. these are not in accordance with terrestrial points. in Dumbarton.imagination displayed in this ingenious fiction. a lens would bring the satellite (or any distant object). No animal at all could be seen so far.

with heels up and head down. There is a real and very definite limit to optical discovery among the stars--a limit whose nature need only be stated to be understood. On page 23. and particularly the powers of the man-bats (for example. but. Let us imagine the power actually possessed of seeing animals upon the moon's surface -. with most of the other fancies in regard to animal and vegetable existence. perhaps. in the manner of flies on a ceiling. at least. scarcely necessary to add. but it should be observed that no astronomer would have made such remark. under the denomination of rigmarole. in the sense intended. when it is demonstrable that he could have seen only the diameter of their heads! It might as well be remarked." etc. in the beginning of the article. that all the suggestions attributed to Brewster and Herschel.this to the "Edinburgh journal of Science!" But there is one point. belong to that species of figurative writing which comes. that the size.rough and jagged. in particular. man's ingenuity would ultimately prove equal to the task.. nor any other such peculiarity. especially to any journal of Science. most properly. but speaks of seeing the entire bodies of such creatures. but forty-nine times larger than the moon. the passive subject of chemical affinity!" This is very fine.what would first arrest the attention of an observer from the earth? Certainly neither their shape. so soon as their remarkable _situation_. with all analogical reasoning on these themes. their ability to fly in so rare an atmosphere--if. indeed. This simple fact should have induced suspicion. is but a literal copy of Peter Wilkins' account of the wings of his flying islanders. are at variance. the moon have any).. A similar objection applies to the whole of the concluding pages. were these dark places liquid. on page 21. where. about "a transfusion of artificial light through the focal object of vision. indeed. which should have betrayed the fiction. it might be thought. the casting of large lenses were all that is required. is not only thirteen. it would evidently be even. If. and that analogy here will often amount to conclusive demonstration. the _fictitious_ observer has not even mentioned the subject. The _real_ observer would have uttered an instant ejaculation of surprise (however prepared by previous knowledge) at the singularity of their position. the philosophical correspondent enters into a minute schoolboy account of that planet -. and we . by way of introduction to some discoveries in Saturn. in conclusion. size. we have the following: "What a prodigious influence must our thirteen times larger globe have exercised upon this satellite when an embryo in the womb of time. for the earth. etc. It is. They would appear to be walking. generally. The description of the wings of the man-bat.

This brings about a training of birds. and 5 at the centre. et sur tout de la Philosophic Naturelle. Aduanturier Espagnol. pres la Fontaine de Saint Benoist. Helena. the two separate." After some irrelevant adventures. being ill during a sea voyage. lately constructed in England. Thus the only "artificial" light which could avail Mr. Mis en notre langve par J. A. and live as far apart as possible. in proportion to the increase of size in the lens." Pp. The writer professes to have translated his work from the English of one Mr. it is 5 1/2 inches thick at the edges. nouuellement decouuert par Dominique Gonzales. much in the manner of Gil Blas. And for this evil there is no remedy within human ability. Je lui ai cette obligation entre les autres. the author relates that. mais encore le Manuscrit du Sieur Thomas D'Anan. is the diminution of light from the object. B. Paris.071 square inches." but upon the real object to be viewed-to wit: upon the moon. autremét dit le Courier volant. medecin des mieux versez qui soient aujourd'huy dans la cònoissance des Belles Lettres. D'Avisson (Davidson?) although there is a terrible ambiguity in the statement. I have lately read a singular and somewhat ingenious little book. the crew abandoned him. "J' en ai eu. Et chez J. de m' auoir non seulement mis en main cc Livre en anglois. It has been easily calculated that. recommandable pour sa vertu. for an object is seen by means of that light alone which proceeds from itself. The focal length is 50 feet. when the light proceeding from a star becomes so diffused as to be as weak as the natural light proceeding from the whole of the stars. by diffusion of its rays. Locke. The weight is 3 tons. The metal of the Earl of Ross's is 6 feet diameter. then the star is no longer visible for any practical purpose. The Earl of Ross's telescope. proche les Consultations. sur la version duquel j' advoue que j' ay tiré le plan de la mienne. 76. to serve the purpose of carrier-pigeons between them." says he "l'original de Monsieur D'Avisson. MDCXLVII. has a _speculum_ with a reflecting surface of 4. Goignard. At length the idea is entertained of uniting the force of a great number of the birds. By and by these are taught to carry parcels of some weight-and this weight is gradually increased. in a clear and moonless night.might have them of any size demanded. and consequently of space-penetrating power. gentilhomme Eccossois. To increase the chances of obtaining food. whose title-page runs thus: "L'Homme dans la lvne ou le Voyage Chimerique fait au Monde de la Lvne. together with a negro servant. unhappily. D. whether direct or reflected. and which occupy the first thirty pages. with a view to raising the author himself. au premier pilier de la grand'salle du Palais. the Herschel telescope having one of only 1. But. would be some artificial light which he should be able to throw-not upon the "focal object of vision.811. A machine is . on the island of St. chez Francois Piot.

and that the closer they were to it the larger they seemed. Here he finds. "I must not forget here. but of the moon. of course. as usual. with point ruffles and a huge periwig. to migrate annually to some portion of the earth. _with whom he had become so familiar. which wanted two days of being full. that the stars appeared only on that side of the globe turned toward the moon. _we were carried insensibly around the globe of the earth. and these ten times larger (as well as I could judge) than they seem to the inhabitants of the earth. Thence it had been their custom. being out of the gravitating influence. and in a very brief period arrives at the satellite. a question of which I propose to speak more at length here-after. happening. among other odd things. seated astride something which resembles very closely a broomstick. I cannot forbear giving a specimen of the general _philosophy _of the volume. _that they die without pain. and that they can jump sixty feet high. _not upon the poles of the Equinoctial. _since there was no night where I was. whether it was calm weather or stormy. and the author. when I shall have leisure to refresh my memory in regard to the astrology which I learned at Salamanca when young. Helena. that the stars appeared only on that side of the globe turned toward the moon. were not really denizens of St. who maintains that it never ceases to revolve _from the east to the west. which is materially helped out by a steel engraving. but upon those of the Zodiac. and that the closer they were to it the larger they seemed. commonly called the poles of the world. is unexpectedly carried straight tip. and very nearly like the moon of a morning. that they live five thousand years. time out of mind. I have also me and the earth. and have since forgotten. Here we perceive the Signor Gonzales. they fly about with fans. As to the stars. and borne aloft by a multitude of wild swans _(ganzas) _who had strings reaching from their tails to the machine. of which the reader is kept in ignorance until near the end of the book. they would return home." . _For I admit the opinion of Copernicus. when. to require their services for a short voyage. that they have an emperor called Irdonozur.contrived for the purpose. they always had the same appearance. that they have no _law. The main event detailed in the Signor's narrative depends upon a very important fact. and because whenever we attempted to rest. and we have a minute description of it. not brilliant. The _ganzas. that they are from ten to thirty feet in height. I have also to inform you that. that the people enjoy extreme happiness. one day. "I must not forget here. _But few of them were visible. In proper season. The moon. but pale. I found myself _always immediately between the moon and the earth. was of a terrible bigness._ I_ _was convinced of this for two reasons-because my birds always flew in a straight line.

was. the gamekeeper of an Irish peer. at the same altitude of the moon. that. from Hungry Hill. In the third volume of the "American Quarterly Review" will be found quite an elaborate criticism upon a certain "journey" of the kind in question--a criticism in which it is difficult to say whether the critic most exposes the stupidity of the book. it is evident . _in the application of scientific principles (so far as the whimsical nature of the subject would permit). to be utterly uninformed in respect to astronomy. to the satellite. in digging the earth." etc. One of these assumed.precisely in accordance with the theory here urged in a mere spirit of banter. 2. which. -. The "flight" is made on an eagle's back. I find that Mr. in each instance. the theme being a description of Lunarian customs as compared with ours. we find our voyager "carried insensibly around the globe. 26. p. deny the assertions of Humboldt. the moon and its maculae did not appear equally lucid at all times. accordingly. lib. that the "gravitating power" extended but a short distance from the earth's surface. and speak of a decreasing inconvenience. and other late aeronauts. There have been other "voyages to the moon. Thomas. The "Flight of Thomas O'Rourke." but none of higher merit than the one just mentioned. in skies perfectly clear. The writers seem. but the _means _of the voyage are more deplorably ill conceived than are even the _ganzas _of our friend the Signor Gonzales. in this respect. at the same elongation from the earth. From the circumstances of the observation. and has been translated into German." is a _jeu d' esprit _not altogether contemptible. or his own absurd ignorance of astronomy.Notwithstanding the blunders italicized. In these various _brochures _the aim is always satirical. Green. a lofty mountain at the end of Bantry Bay. inasmuch as regards an attempt at _verisimilitude. and. The adventurer. as affording a naive specimen of the current astronomical notions of the time. flies with him. happens to discover a peculiar metal for which the moon has a strong attraction. and with one and the same excellent telescope. {*3} Since the original publication of Hans Pfaall. {*4} Havelius writes that he has several times found. when cast loose from its terrestrial fastenings. -. I forget the title of the work.Pliny. In "Hans Pfaall" the design is original. whose eccentricities gave rise to the tale. the hero. the book is not without some claim to attention. to the actual passage between the earth and the moon. forthwith. when even stars of the sixth and seventh magnitude were conspicuous. In none is there any effort at _plausibility _in the details of the voyage itself. That of Bergerac is utterly meaningless. of Nassau balloon notoriety. Emicant Trabes quos docos vocant. and straightway constructs of it a box. {*2} The zodiacal light is probably what the ancients called Trabes. in fact.

or in the eye of the spectator. This Island is a very singular one. and is about three miles long. is covered with a dense undergrowth of the sweet myrtle. the city of his forefathers. but rarely employed them. oozing its way through a wilderness of reeds and slime. may be found. not far from the eastern or more remote end of the island. by the fugitives from Charleston dust and fever. the bristly palmetto. and a line of hard. made his acquaintance. This soon ripened into friendship . in quest of shells or entomological specimens. In these excursions he was usually accompanied by an old ._ MANY years ago. or sauntering along the beach and through the myrtles. William Legrand. so much prized by the horticulturists of England. In the inmost recesses of this coppice. but the whole island. and had once been wealthy. which he occupied when I first.his collection of the latter might have been envied by a Swammerdamm. I contracted an intimacy with a Mr. by mere accident. in the moon. It is separated from the main land by a scarcely perceptible creek. with the exception of this western point. or at least dwarfish. but a series of misfortunes had reduced him to want. Its breadth at no point exceeds a quarter of a mile. as might be supposed. and forms an almost impenetrable coppice. but must be looked for in something (an atmosphere?) existing about the moon. Near the western extremity. Legrand had built himself a small hut. To avoid the mortification consequent upon his disasters. . but infected with misanthropy.that the cause of this phenomenon is not either in our air. burthening the air with its fragrance. white beach on the seacoast. tenanted. is scant. and subject to perverse moods of alternate enthusiasm and melancholy.for there was much in the recluse to excite interest and esteem. and where are some miserable frame buildings. near Charleston. It consists of little else than the sea sand. where Fort Moultrie stands. I found him well educated. His chief amusements were gunning and fishing. He had with him many books. in the tube. he left New Orleans. indeed. during summer. He was of an ancient Huguenot family. The shrub here often attains the height of fifteen or twenty feet. and took up his residence at Sullivan's Island. No trees of any magnitude are to be seen. The vegetation. South Carolina. _--All in the Wrong. ====== THE GOLD-BUG What ho! what ho! this fellow is dancing mad! He hath been bitten by the Tarantula. with unusual powers of mind. a favorite resort of the marsh hen.

negro, called Jupiter, who had been manumitted before the reverses of the family, but who could be induced, neither by threats nor by promises, to abandon what he considered his right of attendance upon the footsteps of his young "Massa Will." It is not improbable that the relatives of Legrand, conceiving him to be somewhat unsettled in intellect, had contrived to instil this obstinacy into Jupiter, with a view to the supervision and guardianship of the wanderer. The winters in the latitude of Sullivan's Island are seldom very severe, and in the fall of the year it is a rare event indeed when a fire is considered necessary. About the middle of October, 18-, there occurred, however, a day of remarkable chilliness. Just before sunset I scrambled my way through the evergreens to the hut of my friend, whom I had not visited for several weeks - my residence being, at that time, in Charleston, a distance of nine miles from the Island, while the facilities of passage and re-passage were very far behind those of the present day. Upon reaching the hut I rapped, as was my custom, and getting no reply, sought for the key where I knew it was secreted, unlocked the door and went in. A fine fire was blazing upon the hearth. It was a novelty, and by no means an ungrateful one. I threw off an overcoat, took an arm-chair by the crackling logs, and awaited patiently the arrival of my hosts. Soon after dark they arrived, and gave me a most cordial welcome. Jupiter, grinning from ear to ear, bustled about to prepare some marsh-hens for supper. Legrand was in one of his fits - how else shall I term them? - of enthusiasm. He had found an unknown bivalve, forming a new genus, and, more than this, he had hunted down and secured, with Jupiter's assistance, a scarabæus which he believed to be totally new, but in respect to which he wished to have my opinion on the morrow. "And why not to-night?" I asked, rubbing my hands over the blaze, and wishing the whole tribe of scarabæi at the devil. "Ah, if I had only known you were here!" said Legrand, "but it's so long since I saw you; and how could I foresee that you would pay me a visit this very night of all others? As I was coming home I met Lieutenant G--, from the fort, and, very foolishly, I lent him the bug; so it will be impossible for you to see it until the morning. Stay here to-night, and I will send Jup down for it at sunrise. It is the loveliest thing in creation!" "What? - sunrise?" "Nonsense! no! - the bug. It is of a brilliant gold color - about the size of a large hickory-nut - with two jet black spots near one extremity of the back, and another, somewhat longer, at the other. The antennæ are - " "Dey aint no tin in him, Massa Will, I keep a tellin on you,"

here interrupted Jupiter; "de bug is a goole bug, solid, ebery bit of him, inside and all, sep him wing - neber feel half so hebby a bug in my life." "Well, suppose it is, Jup," replied Legrand, somewhat more earnestly, it seemed to me, than the case demanded, "is that any reason for your letting the birds burn? The color" - here he turned to me - "is really almost enough to warrant Jupiter's idea. You never saw a more brilliant metallic lustre than the scales emit - but of this you cannot judge till tomorrow. In the mean time I can give you some idea of the shape." Saying this, he seated himself at a small table, on which were a pen and ink, but no paper. He looked for some in a drawer, but found none. "Never mind," said he at length, "this will answer;" and he drew from his waistcoat pocket a scrap of what I took to be very dirty foolscap, and made upon it a rough drawing with the pen. While he did this, I retained my seat by the fire, for I was still chilly. When the design was complete, he handed it to me without rising. As I received it, a loud growl was heard, succeeded by a scratching at the door. Jupiter opened it, and a large Newfoundland, belonging to Legrand, rushed in, leaped upon my shoulders, and loaded me with caresses; for I had shown him much attention during previous visits. When his gambols were over, I looked at the paper, and, to speak the truth, found myself not a little puzzled at what my friend had depicted. "Well!" I said, after contemplating it for some minutes, "this is a strange scarabæus, I must confess: new to me: never saw anything like it before - unless it was a skull, or a death's-head - which it more nearly resembles than anything else that has come under my observation." "A death's-head!" echoed Legrand -"Oh - yes - well, it has something of that appearance upon paper, no doubt. The two upper black spots look like eyes, eh? and the longer one at the bottom like a mouth - and then the shape of the whole is oval." "Perhaps so," said I; "but, Legrand, I fear you are no artist. I must wait until I see the beetle itself, if I am to form any idea of its personal appearance." "Well, I don't know," said he, a little nettled, "I draw tolerably - should do it at least - have had good masters, and flatter myself that I am not quite a blockhead." "But, my dear fellow, you are joking then," said I, "this is a very passable skull - indeed, I may say that it is a very excellent skull, according to the vulgar notions about such specimens of physiology - and your scarabæus must be the queerest scarabæus in the world if it resembles it. Why, we may get up a very thrilling bit of

superstition upon this hint. I presume you will call the bug scarabæus caput hominis, or something of that kind - there are many similar titles in the Natural Histories. But where are the antennæ you spoke of?" "The antennæ!" said Legrand, who seemed to be getting unaccountably warm upon the subject; "I am sure you must see the antennæ. I made them as distinct as they are in the original insect, and I presume that is sufficient." "Well, well," I said, "perhaps you have - still I don't see them;" and I handed him the paper without additional remark, not wishing to ruffle his temper; but I was much surprised at the turn affairs had taken; his ill humor puzzled me - and, as for the drawing of the beetle, there were positively no antennæ visible, and the whole did bear a very close resemblance to the ordinary cuts of a death's-head. He received the paper very peevishly, and was about to crumple it, apparently to throw it in the fire, when a casual glance at the design seemed suddenly to rivet his attention. In an instant his face grew violently red - in another as excessively pale. For some minutes he continued to scrutinize the drawing minutely where he sat. At length he arose, took a candle from the table, and proceeded to seat himself upon a sea-chest in the farthest corner of the room. Here again he made an anxious examination of the paper; turning it in all directions. He said nothing, however, and his conduct greatly astonished me; yet I thought it prudent not to exacerbate the growing moodiness of his temper by any comment. Presently he took from his coat pocket a wallet, placed the paper carefully in it, and deposited both in a writing-desk, which he locked. He now grew more composed in his demeanor; but his original air of enthusiasm had quite disappeared. Yet he seemed not so much sulky as abstracted. As the evening wore away he became more and more absorbed in reverie, from which no sallies of mine could arouse him. It had been my intention to pass the night at the hut, as I had frequently done before, but, seeing my host in this mood, I deemed it proper to take leave. He did not press me to remain, but, as I departed, he shook my hand with even more than his usual cordiality. It was about a month after this (and during the interval I had seen nothing of Legrand) when I received a visit, at Charleston, from his man, Jupiter. I had never seen the good old negro look so dispirited, and I feared that some serious disaster had befallen my friend. "Well, Jup," said I, "what is the matter now? - how is your master?" "Why, to speak de troof, massa, him not so berry well as mought be."

taint worf while for to git mad about de matter Massa Will say noffin at all aint de matter wid him . dat he aint! .he aint find nowhar ." "Jupiter. dey aint bin noffin unpleasant since den .'twas fore den I'm feared .he can't very well stand it ." "Keeps a what. Jupiter .but can you form no idea of what has occasioned this illness.why didn't you say so at once? Is he confined to bed?" "No. ." "The what?" "De bug. I mean de bug .my mind is got to be berry hebby bout poor Massa Will. Todder day he gib me slip fore de sun up and was gone de whole ob de blessed day. massa.dat's just whar de shoe pinch . wid he head down and he soldiers up.ah yes! .don't flog him. I should like to understand what it is you are talking about." "Very sick. or rather this change of conduct? Has anything unpleasant happened since I saw you?" "No.he look so berry poorly. and as white as a gose? And den he keep a syphon all de time .him neber plain of notin ." "Eh? . Hab for to keep mighty tight eye pon him noovers. massa.I'm berry sartain dat Massa Will bin bit somewhere bout de head by dat goole-bug.but den what make him go about looking dis here way. I tell queerest figgurs I ebber did see.what? . You say your master is sick. Jupiter?" "Keeps a syphon wid de figgurs on de slate . Ise gittin to be skeered. I had a big stick ready cut for to gib him deuced good beating when he did come .dare now.but Ise sich a fool dat I hadn't de heart arter all .but him berry sick for all dat.upon the whole I think you had better not be too severe with the poor fellow ." .'twas de berry day you was dare. Jupiter! ."Not well! I am truly sorry to hear it." "How? what do you mean?" "Why. Hasn't he told you what ails him?" "Why. massa. What does he complain of?" "Dar! dat's it! .

yet scarcely know how to tell it.he kick and he bite ebery ting what cum near him. almost beyond endurance.he had prepared a huge stick."And what cause have you. make it convenient. massa?" "Did you bring any message from Mr." and here Jupiter handed me a note which ran thus: MY DEAR -Why have I not seen you for so long a time? I hope you have not been so foolish as to take offence at any little _brusquerie_ of mine. that is improbable. myself. Legrand " "No. come over with . among the hills on the main land. I rap him up in de paper and stuff piece ob it in he mouff . so I would n't take hold ob him wid my finger. and poor old Jup annoys me. _solus_.dat's how I nose. or whether I should tell it at all. and that the bite made him sick?" "I do n't tink noffin about it . perhaps you are right. and mouth too. If you can." "And you think. I bring dis here pissel. no how. I nebber did see sick a deuced bug . I did n't like de look oh de bug mouff. the other day. in any way. if taint cause he bit by de goole-bug? Ise heerd bout dem goole-bugs fore dis. but had for to let him go gin mighty quick." "Well. and spending the day. for such a supposition?" "Claws enuff." "But how do you know he dreams about gold?" "How I know? why cause he talk about it in he sleep . but no.den was de time he must ha got de bite. What make him dream bout de goole so much.I nose it. but I cotch him wid a piece ob paper dat I found. I have made no addition to my cabinet since we met. Massa Will cotch him fuss. that your master was really bitten by the beetle. I have something to tell you. I tell you . massa. Jupiter. Since I saw you I have had great cause for anxiety. by his well-meant attentions Would you believe it? .dat was de way. massa. but to what fortunate circumstance am I to attribute the honor of a visit from you to-day?" "What de matter. Jup. I verily believe that my ill looks alone saved me a flogging. then. with which to chastise me for giving him the slip. I have not been quite well for some days past.

Without a moment's hesitation. if he had yet obtained the scarabæus from Lieutenant G --. Ever yours. and de debbils own lot of money I had to gib for em. There was something in the tone of this note which gave me great uneasiness. After some inquiries respecting his health. His countenance was pale even to ghastliness. . "I got it from him the next morning. all apparently new." "Very true. coloring violently. Nothing should tempt me to part with that scarabæus. Jup?" I inquired. I asked him. with a sad foreboding at heart." Finding that no satisfaction was to be obtained of Jupiter. and his deep-set eyes glared with unnatural lustre. But it's all cum ob do bug. I assure you that it is of the _highest_ importance. upon business of importance. fairly unsettled the reason of my friend. yes. Legrand had been awaiting us in eager expectation. Upon reaching the wharf. at length. "Him syfe. I prepared to accompany the negro. With a fair and strong breeze we soon ran into the little cove to the northward of Fort Moultrie. Do you know that Jupiter is quite right about it?" "In what way?" I asked. I dreaded lest the continued pressure of misfortune had. lying in the bottom of the boat in which we were to embark. massa. is your 'Massa Will' going to do with scythes and spades?" "Dat's more dan I know. but what are they doing here?" "Him de syfe and de spade what Massa Will sis pon my buying for him in de town. and a walk of some two miles brought us to the hut. too. and spade. therefore. It was about three in the afternoon when we arrived. He grasped my hand with a nervous empressement which alarmed me and strengthened the suspicions already entertained." I now stepped into the boat and made sail. _Do_ come. WILLIAM LEGRAND. I noticed a scythe and three spades. "Oh. Its whole style differed materially from that of Legrand. What could he be dreaming of? What new crotchet possessed his excitable brain? What "business of the highest importance" could he possibly have to transact? Jupiter's account of him boded no good.Jupiter." he replied." "But what. and debbil take me if I don't blieve 'tis more dan he know. "What is the meaning of all this. whose whole intellect seemed to be absorbed by "de bug. in the name of all that is mysterious. not knowing what better to say. I wish to see you to-_night_.

"I sent for you. There were two round. Is it any wonder. Whether we succeed or fail. with a grave and stately air. upon the main land. The weight of the insect was very remarkable." he continued. the excitement which . found not the slightest indication of fever. until you get over this. at that time. Jupiter. In the first place. then. If you really wish me well. and brought me the beetle from a glass case in which it was enclosed. in a grandiloquent tone. and. black spots near one extremity of the mus git him for your own self. in this expedition we shall need the aid of some person in whom we can confide. "to reinstate me in my family possessions. massa? I'd rudder not go fer trubble dat bug . and I will remain with you a few days. with all the appearance of burnished gold. with a triumphant smile. you will relieve this excitement. taking all things into consideration. when I had completed my examination of the beetle. tell. and a long one near the other."In supposing it to be a bug of real gold. You shall go to bed. that I prize it? Since Fortune has thought fit to bestow it upon me. and. interrupting him. Jupiter and myself are going upon an expedition into the hills. "This bug is to make my fortune. and had better use some little precautions. I could hardly blame Jupiter for his opinion respecting it. In the next" "You are mistaken." he interposed." I cried. I could not. I felt it. and I felt inexpressibly shocked. "I sent for you. and. It was a beautiful scarabæus. "But you may be ill and yet have no fever. You are feverish and" "Feel my pulse. but what to make of Legrand's concordance with that opinion." He said this with an air of profound seriousness. for the life of me. You are the only one we can trust.of course a great prize in a scientific point of view. bring me that scarabæus!" "What! de bug. and. Allow me this once to prescribe for you." "And how is this to be done?" "Very easily. that I might have your counsel and assistance in furthering the views of Fate and of the bug" "My dear Legrand." said he. The scales were exceedingly hard and glossy." said he. "you are certainly unwell." Hereupon Legrand arose. unknown to naturalists . to say the truth. I have only to use it properly and I shall arrive at the gold of which it is the index. go to bed. "I am as well as I can expect to be under the excitement which I suffer.

I promise. "but do you mean to say that this infernal beetle has any connection with your expedition into the hills?" "It has." "And will you promise me. while Legrand contented himself with the scarabæus. and. for we have no time to lose. than from any excess of industry or complaisance. I had charge of a couple of dark lanterns.Legrand. In the mean time I endeavored. as that of your physician?" "Yes. Having succeeded in inducing me to accompany him. however. Legrand. Jupiter had with him the scythe and spades . and be back. which he carried attached to the end of a bit of whip-cord. For my own part." "I am anxious to oblige you in any way." With a heavy heart I accompanied my friend. at least for the present.the whole of which he insisted upon carrying .for we shall have to try it by ourselves. but all in vain. and now let us be off. upon your honor. twirling it to and fro." I replied. I can become a party to no such absurd proceeding. and to all my questions vouchsafed no other reply than "we shall see!" We crossed the creek at the head of the island by means of a skiff. the dog." "Try it by yourselves! The man is surely mad! . . I thought it best. he seemed unwilling to hold conversation upon any topic of minor importance. We started about four o'clock . at all events. ascending the high grounds on the shore of the main land." "Then. that when this freak of yours is over. to humor his fancy. of trusting either of the implements within reach of his master. as he went." "I am sorry . plain evidence of my friend's aberration of mind. you will then return home and follow my advice implicitly. We shall start immediately. and myself. or until I could adopt some more energetic measures with a chance of success.but stay! . to sound him in regard to the object of the expedition. with the air of a long do you propose to be absent?" "Probably all night. When I observed this now perceive in me will be equally allayed. and the bug business (good God!) settled to your satisfaction. His demeanor was dogged in the extreme. I could scarcely refrain from tears. by sunrise. and "dat deuced bug" were the sole words which escaped his lips during the journey. Jupiter.more through fear.very sorry . it seemed to me.

near the summit of an almost inaccessible hill. "Yes. The natural platform to which we had clambered was thickly overgrown with brambles.d-n if I do!" "If you are afraid. Deep ravines. if you do not take it up with you in some way. and asked him if he thought he could climb it. proceeded to clear for us a path to the foot of an enormously tall tulip-tree. The old man seemed a little staggered by the question. I shall be under the necessity of breaking your head with this shovel. Jup climb any tree he ebber see in he life. through which we soon discovered that it would have been impossible to force our way but for the scythe. massa?" inquired Jupiter. At length he approached the huge trunk. where no trace of a human footstep was to be seen.proceeded in a northwesterly direction. evidently shamed into . and in many cases were prevented from precipitating themselves into the valleys below." "Then up with you as soon as possible.stop! take this beetle with you."what for mus tote de bug way up de tree? . to take hold of a harmless little dead beetle. Massa Will! . and far surpassed them all." "What de matter now. a great big negro like you. pausing only for an instant. why you can carry it up by this string . to consult what appeared to be certain landmarks of his own contrivance upon a former occasion. and then I will tell you which way to go . he merely said. and Jupiter. When he had completed his scrutiny. walked slowly around it. with some eight or ten oaks. In this manner we journeyed for about two hours. gave an air of still sterner solemnity to the scene." "How far mus go up. and interspersed with huge crags that appeared to lie loosely upon the soil.and here . massa?" said Jup. massa. Jup. for it will soon be too dark to see what we are about. and for some moments made no reply. drawing back in dismay . and in the general majesty of its appearance. densely wooded from base to pinnacle.but. in the beauty of its foliage and goole bug!" cried the negro. and all other trees which I had then ever seen." "De bug. upon the level. in various directions. When we reached this tree. Legrand led the way with decision. and examined it with minute attention. "Get up the main trunk first. It was a species of table land. here and there. through a tract of country excessively wild and desolate. and the sun was just setting when we entered a region infinitely more dreary than any yet seen. in the wide spread of its branches. Legrand turned to Jupiter. merely by the support of the trees against which they reclined. by direction of his master. which stood.

" "Then go one limb higher. pon dis side." replied the negro. "How much fudder is got for go?" "How high up are you?" asked Legrand. Was only funnin any how. and. in the present case.the one on this side. until no glimpse of his squat figure could be obtained through the dense foliage which enveloped it. and apparently with but little trouble. four. The risk of the achievement was." said Legrand. Me feered de bug! what I keer for de bug?" Here he took cautiously hold of the extreme end of the string. Presently his voice was heard in a sort of halloo. and seemed to consider the whole business as virtually accomplished. Thus the difficulty of ascension. If you see anything strange. two. How many limbs have you passed?" "One. In youth. Jupiter.I done pass fibe big limb. or Liriodendron Tulipferum. the most magnificent of American foresters. seizing with his hands some projections. Embracing the huge cylinder. Look down the trunk and count the limbs below you on this side. ascending higher and higher. "can see de sky fru de top ob de tree. in its riper age. "Which way mus go now. but. massa. as closely as possible. the tulip-tree. lay more in semblance than in reality. and resting his naked toes upon others.compliance. while many short limbs make their appearance on the stem. announcing that the seventh limb was attained. at length wriggled himself into the first great fork. "I want you to work your way out upon that limb as far as you can. in fact. now over. was put finally . Jup." "Never mind the sky." cried Legrand. and often rises to a great height without lateral branches. "always want for to raise fuss wid old nigger. "Now. "Keep up the largest branch . the bark becomes gnarled and uneven. The negro obeyed him promptly. but attend to what I say. fibe . prepared to ascend the tree." In a few minutes the voice was heard again. evidently much excited. with his arms and knees. maintaining the insect as far from his person as circumstances would permit. after one or two narrow escapes from falling. let me know. "Ebber so fur. although the climber was some sixty or seventy feet from the ground." By this time what little doubt I might have entertained of my poor friend's insanity. tree. has a trunk peculiarly smooth. Massa Will?" he asked.

sure nuff. glad of an opportunity to interpose a word. "Yes. and not let go the beetle.deed I is. do you hear me?" "Yes. Look here. Mought ventur out leetle way pon de limb by myself. While I was pondering upon what was best to be done.done up for sartain done departed dis here life. Jupiter?" cried Legrand in a quavering voice. needn't hollo at poor nigger dat style." "You infernal scoundrel!" cried Legrand. Jupiter.what do you mean?" "Why I mean de bug." replied the negro very promptly . and. and I became seriously anxious about getting him home. and see if you think it very rotten.that's a fine fellow.tis dead limb putty much all de way. massa. "what do you mean by telling me such nonsense as that? As sure as you drop that beetle I'll break your neck." "Did you say it was a dead limb. Massa Will."mos out to the eend now. 'Tis berry hebby bug. hear you ebber so plain. Come now! . him dead as de door-nail . massa. I'll make you a present of a silver dollar as soon as you get down. then. "Do!" said I. I had no alternative but to conclude him stricken with lunacy. massa. apparently much relieved." "Well! now listen! . Jupiter's voice was again heard. without heeding me in the least." "What in the name heaven shall I do?" asked Legrand. you remember your rest. Massa Will . with your knife." "Try the wood well. and den de limb won't break wid just de weight ob one nigger." replied the negro in a few moments. It's getting late. Spose I drop him down fuss. "do you hear me?" "Yes." "Him rotten." "Jupiter. "why come home and go to bed." cried he.if you will venture out on the limb as far as you think safe." "By yourself! . "but not so berry rotten as mought be. seemingly in the greatest distress. besides. dat's true. "Mos feerd for to ventur pon dis limb berry far ." "I'm gwine." .

" "To be sure! you are left-handed. Why dis berry curous sarcumstance. Now. "what is it?" "Why taint noffin but a skull . as far as the string will reach .how is it fastened to the limb? . too? ." "Pay attention."Out to the end!" here fairly screamed Legrand. At length the negro asked. what fastens ob it on to de tree. I nose dat . I de lef eye! what mus do wid it?" "Let the beetle drop through it.cause de skull aint got not a bit ob a hand at all nebber mind! I got de lef eye now . you can find the left eye of the skull." "Well now." "Curse your stupidity! do you know your right hand from your left?" "Yes. highly delighted. mighty easy ting for to put de bug fru de hole . massa." "All dat done. you say! . eye is on the same side as your left hand. and de crows done gobble ebery bit ob de meat off. then! . and your left. pon my word . or the place where the left eye has been.dare's a great big nail in de you hear?" "Yes. Jupiter. Massa Will. Have you found it?" Here was a long pause. mus look. massa.somebody bin lef him head up de tree. ." "Hum! hoo! dat's good! why dare aint no eye lef at all." "A skull.what holds it on?" "Sure nuff.very well! .o-o-o-o-oh! Lor-gol-a-marcy! what is dis here pon de tree?" "Well!" cried Legrand.nose all bout dat .but be careful and not let go your hold of the string. "Is de lef eye of de skull pon de same side as de lef hand of de skull.look out for him dare below!" During this colloquy no portion of Jupiter's person could be . massa. "do you say you are out to the end of that limb?" "Soon be to de eend.tis my lef hand what I chops de wood wid. do exactly as I tell you .find the left eye of the skull.

with great nicety. I would have had no hesitation in attempting to get the lunatic home by force. by chance. Driving a peg. would have fallen at our feet. which he had suffered to descend. but the beetle. and. as the glare fell upon our persons and implements. would most willingly have declined it. Legrand immediately took the scythe. . and. having accomplished this. I was sadly vexed and puzzled. perhaps. by Jupiter's obstinacy in maintaining it to be "a bug of real gold. to hope that he would assist me. and cleared with it a circular space. at the precise spot where the beetle fell. Legrand begged us to set about digging as quickly as possible. about four feet in diameter. upon Jupiter's aid. I could not help thinking how picturesque a group we composed. of the fallacy of the opinions he entertained. The scarabæus hung quite clear of any branches. he unrolled it till it reached the peg. some of which still faintly illumined the eminence upon which we stood. just beneath the insect. I had no especial relish for such amusement at any time. and. like a globe of burnished gold. under any circumstances. in the direction already established by the two points of the tree and the peg. Could I have depended. To speak the truth. and giving one to Jupiter and one to me. Fastening one end of this at that point of the trunk. of the tree which was nearest the peg. for the distance of fifty feet ." Upon the whole. Taking now a spade himself.and then I called to mind the poor fellow's speech about the beetle's being "the index of his fortune.especially if chiming in with favorite preconceived ideas ." A mind disposed to lunacy would readily be led away by such suggestions . The lanterns having been lit. into the ground. but. at that particular moment. in a personal contest with his master. ordered Jupiter to let go the string and come down from the tree. but I saw no mode of escape. might have stumbled upon our whereabouts. I made no doubt that the latter had been infected with some of the innumerable Southern superstitions about money buried. three or four yards in diameter. a rude circle. and how strange and suspicious our labors must have appeared to any interloper who. and was fearful of disturbing my poor friend's equanimity by a refusal. described. At the spot thus attained a second peg was driven.seen. and I felt much fatigued with the exercise already taken. in the last rays of the setting sun. and thus the sooner to convince the dig with a good will. my friend now produced from his pocket a tape measure. and about this. as a centre. by ocular demonstration. and. if allowed to fall. for the night was coming on. or. and that his phantasy had received confirmation by the finding of the scarabæus. and thence farther unrolled it. I concluded to make a virtue of necessity .Jupiter clearing away the brambles with the scythe. indeed. at length. and glistened. but I was too well assured of the old negro's disposition. we all fell to work with a zeal worthy a more rational cause. was now visible at the end of the string.

speak. we had reached a depth of five feet.or. who. and seized him by the collar.We dug very steadily for two hours. with the bitterest disappointment imprinted upon every feature. when. getting out of the hole with a dogged air of deliberation. Still nothing appeared. whom I sincerely pitied. When the time mentioned had expired. at length clambered from the pit. . my golly. began to gather up his tools.which which is your left eye?" "Oh. much to the astonishment of his valet. to put on his coat. very effectually silenced by Jupiter. Legrand strode up to Jupiter. "You scoundrel. to his task.I knew it! hurrah!" vociferated Legrand. perhaps. and our chief embarrassment lay in the yelpings of the dog. letting the negro go. and then from myself to his master. and the dog having been unmuzzled." said Legrand. slowly and reluctantly. at length. He. and proceeded. and then returned. and executing a series of curvets and caracols. and fell upon his knees. The astonished negro opened his eyes and mouth to the fullest extent. A general pause ensued. The gold-seeker. . with a grave chuckle. from his master to myself. as if in immediate dread of his master's attempt at a gouge. let fall the spades. this was the apprehension of Legrand. "the game's not up yet. arising from his knees. Legrand. and went to the farther depth of two feet. rather. Jupiter. We had taken. This done. which he had thrown off at the beginning of his labor. at length. mutely. placing his hand upon his right organ of vision." and he again led the way to the tulip-tree. became so obstreperous that we grew fearful of his giving the alarm to some stragglers in the vicinity. I tell you! . with a loud oath.for myself. and I began to hope that the farce was at an end. tied the brute's mouth up with one of his suspenders. We had excavated the entire circle of four feet diameter."you infernal black villain! . at a signal from his master. "I thought so! . without prevarication! . however. The noise was. and yet no signs of any treasure became manifest. In the mean time I made no remark. wiped his brow thoughtfully and recommenced. and now we slightly enlarged the limit. Massa Will! aint dis here my lef eye for sartain?" roared the terrified Jupiter. and holding it there with a desperate pertinacity. who took exceeding interest in our proceedings. I should have rejoiced at any interruption which might have enabled me to get the wanderer home. we turned in profound silence towards home. although evidently much disconcerted." said the latter. hissing out the syllables from between his clenched teeth . who.answer me this instant. Little was said. looked. . a dozen steps in this direction. "Come! we must go back.

At sight of these the joy of Jupiter could scarcely be restrained. the vision of which had demented my unfortunate companion. three or four loose pieces of gold and silver coin came to light. tore up the mould frantically with his claws. which impressed me. as we dug farther. we were again interrupted by the violent howlings of the dog. Perhaps there was something. or of deliberation." and here it was his right eye that the negro indicated. about whose madness I now saw. was it this eye or that through which you dropped the beetle?" .some air of forethought. Around the new position a circle. amid all the extravagant demeanor of Legrand . scarcely understanding what had occasioned the change in my thoughts.nay. His uneasiness. "Twas dis eye. or with the face to the limb?" "De face was out. was now described. the tape measure from the nearest point of the trunk to the peg. by several yards. One or two strokes of a spade upturned the blade of a large Spanish knife. but. and what appeared to be the dust of decayed woollen. widout any trouble. but the result of playfulness or caprice. At a period when such vagaries of thought most fully possessed me." said Legrand touched each of Jupiter's eyes. and continuing the extension in a straight line to the distance of fifty feet. with something that very much resembled expectation. massa . I dug eagerly."Jupiter. then. Upon Jupiter's again attempting to muzzle him. forming two complete skeletons. and now and then caught myself actually looking. certain indications of method.must try it again. I felt no longer any great aversion from the labor imposed. In a few seconds he had uncovered a mass of human bones. but the countenance of his master wore an air of extreme . and. as before. I had become most unaccountably interested . massa. a spot was indicated. to a spot about three inches to the westward of its former lef eye . I was dreadfully weary. somewhat larger than in the former instance. "come here! was the skull nailed to the limb with the face outwards. from the point at which we had been digging. evidently. leaping into the hole. now. "That will do ." "Well. in the first instance. removed. removed the peg which marked the spot where the beetle fell. Taking. or fancied that I saw. so dat de crows could get at de eyes good. he made furious resistance. and when we had been at work perhaps an hour and a half. had been. but he now assumed a bitter and serious tone. intermingled with several buttons of metal. even excited. when we reached its foot. for the fancied treasure. and. and we again set to work with the spades." Here my friend.jis as you tell me.

and. were three rings of iron .by means of which a firm hold could be obtained by six persons. and forming a kind of open trelliswork over the whole. but after excessive toil. On each side of the chest. and it behooved us to make exertion. to stir from the spot. upon any pretence. three feet broad. We now worked in earnest. with a deep sigh. At length. It was growing late.thunderstricken. We. that absolutely dazzled our eyes. from its perfect preservation and wonderful hardness. As the rays of the lanterns fell within the pit. for some minutes. to raise it from the hole. predominant. Worn out as we were. and spoke very few words. which. let them there remain. Legrand appeared exhausted with excitement. at confused were the ideas of all. however. there flashed upwards a glow and a glare. as deadly a pallor as it is possible. having caught the toe of my boot in a large ring of iron that lay half buried in the loose earth.disappointment He urged us. We at once saw the impossibility of removing so great a weight. that we might get every thing housed before daylight. for any negro's visage to assume.answer me dat!" It became necessary. lightened the box by removing two thirds of its contents. In an instant. and the dog left to guard them. burying his naked arms up to the elbows in gold.six in all . from a confused heap of gold and of jewels. had plainly been subjected to some mineralizing process . It was firmly secured by bands of wrought iron. During this interval we had fairly unearthed an oblong chest of wood. near the top.perhaps that of the Bi-chloride of Mercury. as if in a soliloquy. it was not in human . with some trouble. the sole fastenings of the lid consisted of two sliding bolts. We then hurriedly made for home with the chest. with strict orders from Jupiter neither. "And dis all cum ob de goole-bug! de putty goole bug! de poor little goole-bug. in nature of things. to continue our exertions. Presently he fell upon his knees in the pit. I shall not pretend to describe the feelings with which I gazed. as if enjoying the luxury of a bath. reaching the hut in safety. This box was three feet and a half long. These we drew back . when we were enabled. and two and a half feet deep. riveted. Our utmost united endeavors served only to disturb the coffer very slightly in its bed. The articles taken out were deposited among the brambles. It was difficult to say what should be done. and the words were hardly uttered when I stumbled and fell forward. at one o'clock in the morning. he exclaimed. Jupiter's countenance wore. of course. finally. nor to open his mouth until our return. Luckily. nigger? . He seemed stupified . what I boosed in dat sabage kind ob style! Aint you shamed ob yourself.trembling and panting with anxiety. and never did I pass ten minutes of more intense excitement. a treasure of incalculable value lay gleaming before us. Amazement was. that I should arouse both master and valet to the expediency of removing the treasure. and much time was spent in deliberation .

among us. we deposited our golden burthens. There were diamonds . all very beautiful. ornamented with richly chased vine-leaves and Bacchanalian figures. with an opal. divided the remainder of the booty. we arose. which. and had supper. We estimated the entire contents of the chest. After an unquiet slumber of some three or four hours' duration. The chest had been full to the brim. and upon the subsequent disposal of the trinkets and jewels (a few being retained for our own . by the tables of the period. from corrosion . All was gold of antique date and of great variety . which we picked out from among the other gold. and many other smaller articles which I cannot recollect.but all were richly jewelled and in cases of great worth. again set out for the hut. and we spent the whole day. just as the first faint streaks of the dawn gleamed from over the tree-tops in the East. and some counters. more or less. eighteen rubies of remarkable brilliancy. There had been nothing like order or arrangement.French. Many of them were very old. and as time keepers valueless. in a scrutiny of its contents. . There was no American money. by good luck. we found ourselves possessed of even vaster wealth than we had at first supposed. and. the works having suffered. three of the number being worth each five hundred dollars. and in this estimate I have not included one hundred and ninety-seven superb gold watches. Having assorted all with care. so worn that we could make nothing of their inscriptions. and not one of them small. Besides all this.eighty-three very large and heavy crucifixes. if I remember.estimating the value of the pieces. to make examination of our treasure. We rested until two.nature to do more immediately. for the second time. In coin there was rather more than four hundred and fifty thousand dollars . We were now thoroughly broken down. . with two sword-handles exquisitely embossed. . there was a vast quantity of solid gold ornaments. if chains thirty of these. A little before four we arrived at the pit. as equally as might be.nearly two hundred massive finger and earrings. . There were several very large and heavy coins. as accurately as we could. appeared to have been beaten up with hammers. as if by preconcert. were upon the premises. Spanish. but the intense excitement of the time denied us repose. starting for the hills immediately afterwards. . and the greater part of the next night.a hundred and ten in all. These stones had all been broken from their settings and thrown loose in the chest. The settings themselves. with a few English guineas. and twenty-one sapphires. The weight of these valuables exceeded three hundred and fifty pounds avoirdupois. .a prodigious golden punch bowl. at a million and a half of dollars. armed with three stout sacks. that night. at which. as if to prevent identification. leaving the holes unfilled. The value of the jewels we found more difficulty in estimating. Every thing had been heaped in promiscuously. There was not a particle of silver.some of them exceedingly large and fine . of which we had never seen specimens before.five gold censers of great value.three hundred and ten emeralds. and German money.

when I recovered from this stupor.use). Well. now." said I. when you handed me the scrap of parchment. the sneer at my graphic powers irritated me . I had made the drawing of the beetle. that I became quite vexed at you for insisting that my drawing resembled a death' the singular coincidence involved in the fact. to remember that there had been no drawing upon the parchment when I made my sketch of the scarabæus. I discovered it. I say the singularity of this coincidence absolutely stupified me for a time. proceeded to scrutinize the parchment more closely. and seating myself at the other end of the room. who saw that I was dying with impatience for a solution of this most extraordinary riddle. My first idea. but in size." said he. "No. of course I could not have failed to notice it. subsided. "the night when I handed you the rough sketch I had made of the scarabæus. Still. it had much of the appearance of paper. the figure of a death's-head just where. Upon turning it over. in fact. to be a piece of very thin parchment. as I was in the very act of crumpling it up. my glance fell upon the sketch at which you had been looking. I knew that my design was very different in detail from this . should so closely resemble my drawing. For a moment I was too much amazed to think with accuracy.for I am considered a good artist . it was found that we had greatly undervalued the treasure. It was quite dirty. Legrand. You recollect also. "You remember. When you first made this assertion I thought you were jesting. there dawned upon me gradually a conviction which startled me even far more than the coincidence. Had the skull been then there. and the intense excitement of the time had. I began distinctly. Presently I took a candle. and you may imagine my astonishment when I perceived. But. just as I had made it. you mean. therefore. suffers a species of temporary paralysis. for I recollected turning up first one side and then the other. immediately beneath my figure of the scarabæus. you remember. and admitted to myself that your remark had some little foundation in fact. there should have been a skull upon the other side of the parchment. but when I came to draw upon it. I saw my own sketch upon the reverse. positively. being unable to do so. entered into a full detail of all the circumstances connected with it. it seemed to me. and that this skull. The mind struggles to establish a connexion . in search of the cleanest spot. was mere surprise at the really remarkable similarity of outline . but afterwards I called to mind the peculiar spots on the back of the insect.although there was a certain similarity in general outline. This is the usual effect of such coincidences. I was about to crumple it up and throw it angrily into the fire. in some measure." "The scrap of paper. at length. we had concluded our examination. When. at once. and at first I supposed it to be such. I became perfectly certain of this. that unknown to me. not only in outline. Here was indeed a mystery which I felt it .a sequence of cause and effect and.

Jupiter picked up the parchment. . I betook myself to a more methodical investigation of the affair. by which to take hold of it. I searched my pockets. for the purpose of making a sketch of the beetle. ask 'where is the connexion?' I reply that the skull. "Well. he thrust it forthwith into his waistcoat pocket. within the most remote and secret chambers of my intellect. and mine also. even at that early moment. and gave it to me. I showed him the insect. is the well-known emblem of the pirate. and when Jupiter was fast asleep. Near the spot where we found it.not a paper . Soon afterwards we turned to go home. which caused me to let it drop. for the resemblance to boat timbers could scarcely be traced. The spot where we discovered the scarabaeus was on the coast of the main land. I thus detail the precise mode in which it came into my possession. about a mile eastward of the island. for the circumstances impressed me with peculiar force. faintly. It was lying half buried in the sand. but. looked about him for a leaf.with a skull depicted upon it. hoping to find an old letter. before seizing the insect. without being conscious of it. without the parchment in which it had been wrapped. I looked in the drawer. I arose at once. and putting the parchment securely away.but I had already established a kind of connexion. a glow-worm-like conception of that truth which last night's adventure brought to so magnificent a demonstration. a corner sticking up. or something of that nature. and on the way met Lieutenant G-. when my hand fell upon the parchment. "When you had gone. Upon my taking hold of it. I observed the remnants of the hull of what appeared to have been a ship's long boat. fell upon the scrap of parchment. Upon my consenting. and not far from the boat was a parchment . It was at this moment that his eyes. and found none there. and thought it best to make sure of the prize at once . In the first place I considered the manner in which the parchment had come into my possession. I found no paper where it was usually kept. "No doubt you will think me fanciful . At the same time. wrapped the beetle in it. there seemed to glimmer.impossible to explain. I must have deposited the parchment in my own pocket. I had put together two links of a great chain. which had flown towards him. Jupiter. or death's-head. and he begged me to let him take it to the fort. Perhaps he dreaded my changing my mind. and but a short distance above high water mark. "You remember that when I went to the table. The flag of the death's head is hoisted in all engagements. and which I had continued to hold in my hand during his inspection. it gave me a sharp bite. which I then supposed to be paper. with his accustomed caution. The wreck seemed to have been there for a very great while. dismissed all farther reflection until I should be alone. There was a boat lying upon a know how enthusiastic he is on all subjects connected with Natural History. You will. of course.

and have existed time out of mind. by some accident. it could be seen that the original form was oblong. while your right. hereupon turns the whole mystery. gives a red. Matters of little moment are rarely consigned to parchment. At one moment I thought the blaze had caught it. Then it was not done by human agency.some relevancy .almost imperishable. is sometimes employed. according to your own admission. with entire distinctness. for the mere ordinary purposes of drawing or writing. dissolved in spirit of nitre. also. With your left hand you caressed him and kept him off. had drawn a chair close to the chimney. so that the characters shall become visible only when subjected to the action of fire. and was about to caution you. as might have been chosen for a memorandum . You. and diluted with four times its weight of water. although the secret. and a fire was blazing upon the hearth. thus: When I drew the scarabæus. and not paper. And nevertheless it was done. for example. Parchment is durable . You are well aware that chemical preparations exist. and no one else was present to do it. the form of the parchment." I interposed. These colors disappear at longer or shorter intervals after the material written upon cools. you had withdrawn it. "At this stage of my reflections I endeavored to the death's-head. How then do you trace any connexion between the boat and the skull . When I had completed the drawing I gave it to you. the Newfoundland. When I considered all these particulars. Zaffre. however. entered. did not design the skull. The regulus of cobalt. it is not nearly so well adapted as paper.for a record of something to be long remembered and carefully preserved. It was just such a slip. and as you were in the act of in. and leaped upon your shoulders. I doubted not for a moment that heat had been the agent in bringing to light. before I could speak."I have said that the scrap was parchment. I reasoned. and could afford but a single result. upon the parchment. was permitted to fall listlessly between your knees. I was heated with exercise and sat near the table. inspecting it. This reflection suggested some meaning . a green tint results. You. Although one of its corners had been. and were engaged in its examination. must have been designed (God only knows how or by whom) at some period subsequent to your sketching the scarabæus?" "Ah. The weather was chilly (oh rare and happy accident!). My steps were sure. Wolf. indeed. by means of which it is possible to write upon either paper or vellum. holding the parchment. and observed you narrowly until you returned it. and in close proximity to the fire. every incident which occurred about the period in question. and did remember. at this point. therefore. but." "But. I had comparatively little difficulty in solving. "you say that the skull was not upon the parchment when you made the drawing of the beetle. Just as I placed the parchment in your hand. there was no skull apparent upon the parchment. but again become apparent upon the . since. I did not fail to observe. the skull which I saw designed upon it. destroyed.since this latter. digested in aqua regia.

." "I presume you expected to find a letter between the stamp and the signature." "Something of that kind. however. sufficiently cool for fire.of the text for my context. had a remarkable effect upon my fancy? And then the series of accidents and coincidences . about the bug being of solid gold. and that without the fire. "I now scrutinized the death's-head with care.pretty much the same thing. but not altogether.of the body to my imagined instrument ." "But I have just said that the figure was not that of a goat. I can scarcely say why. or without the intervention of the dog at the precise moment in which he appeared. because its position upon the vellum suggested this idea. have nothing to do with goats. and so never the possessor of the treasure?" "But proceed .were far more distinct than the others. and subjected every portion of the parchment to a glowing heat. It was clear that the action of the caloric had been imperfect or unequal. "to be sure I have no right to laugh at you . I say signature." "Pretty much. I immediately kindled a fire. at the corner of the slip. satisfied me that it was intended for a of heat. The death's-head at the corner diagonally opposite. after all.but do you know that Jupiter's silly words. upon persevering in the experiment. diagonally opposite to the spot in which the death's-head was delineated. you know. but." "Well. or may be. I at once looked upon the figure of the animal as a kind of punning or hieroglyphical signature. a kid then . or seal. Do you observe how mere an accident it was that these events should have occurred upon the sole day of all the year in which it has been." said Legrand.a million and a half of money is too serious a matter for mirth ." .but you are not about to establish a third link in your chain . At first. there became visible. But I was sorely put out by the absence of all else . the only effect was the strengthening of the faint lines in the skull. I felt irresistibly impressed with a presentiment of some vast good fortune will not find any especial connexion between your pirates and a goat pirates.these were so very extraordinary." "Ha! ha!" said I. A closer scrutiny. they appertain to the farming interest. I should never have become aware of the death's-head. The fact is. it was rather a desire than an actual belief. the air of a stamp. had. in the same manner.I am all impatience. "You may have heard of one Captain Kidd. the figure of what I at first supposed to be a goat. Its outer edges the edges of the drawing nearest the edge of the vellum . Perhaps.

I removed the slip. that the earth still held them. to regain it. not about money-finders. you have heard. Had the pirate recovered his money.say the loss of a memorandum indicating its locality .48†85. and suffered it to remain another minute. could have resulted. I placed it in a tin pan. the whole was just as you see it now. with what appeared to be figures arranged in lines. having done this. found it spotted. is well known. and. in a red tint." "But that Kidd's accumulations were immense. . having re-heated the parchment. I now thought it possible that the coating of dirt might have something to do with the failure. because unguided attempts. These rumors must have had some foundation in fact. the many stories current . and afterwards reclaimed it. nearly amounting to certainty. after increasing the heat. there the affair would have dropped. I took it for granted. the rumors would scarcely have reached us in their present unvarying form. and that this accident had become known to his followers." "But how did you proceed?" "I held the vellum again to the fire. between the death's-head and the goat: "53‡‡†305))6*. It seemed to me that some accident .806*.had deprived him of the means of recovering it.8:8‡1.4)8¶8*. And that the rumors have existed so long and so continuous."Well. busying themselves in vain. Upon taking it off.:*8-83(88)5*‡ . only from the circumstance of the buried treasure still remaining entombed.48. that the parchment so strangely found.1(‡9.)6†8)4.1-(. but nothing appeared. who otherwise might never have heard that treasure had been concealed at all. Again I placed it in the pan. and then universal currency. submitted it to my inspection.8)*‡(.88*96*?. You will observe that the stories told are all about money-seekers.4)485†528806*81(‡9. and put the pan upon a furnace of lighted charcoal. so I carefully rinsed the parchment by pouring warm water over it. somewhere upon the Atlantic coast." Here Legrand.485). it appeared to me.48‡8¶60))85. in several places. had given first birth.48081. In a few minutes. involved a lost record of the place of deposit. the pan having become thoroughly heated.the thousand vague rumors afloat about money buried.4956*2(5*.4826)4‡)4‡. The following characters were rudely traced.46(. with the skull downwards. and. by Kidd and his associates. Have you ever heard of any important treasure being unearthed along the coast?" "Never. and who. therefore.40692 85). Had Kidd concealed his plunder for a time. of course. to the reports which are now so common. to my inexpressible joy. and you will scarcely be surprised when I tell you that I felt a hope.5*†2:*‡(.

so far. and it may well be doubted whether human ingenuity can construct an enigma of the kind which human ingenuity may not. Had there been divisions.‡?.that is to say. but then. form a cipher . I am quite sure that I should be unable to earn them. resolve. As it was. for example. my first step was to ascertain the predominant letters. Counting all.(88. Circumstances. "In the present case . I have solved others of an abstruseness ten thousand times greater. and are varied by. "You observe there are no divisions between the words. had a word of a single letter occurred. I scarcely gave a thought to the mere difficulty of developing their import. returning him the slip. Were all the jewels of Golconda awaiting me upon my solution of this enigma. But. These characters.4(‡?34. however. I constructed a table.:188. as is most likely. at once. having once established connected and legible characters. (a or I. there is no alternative but experiment (directed by probabilities) of every tongue known to him who attempts the solution.such. I assumed the cryptograph to be English. the task would have been comparatively easy." "But. until the true one be attained." said Legrand. the genius of the particular idiom." "And you really solved it?" "Readily. especially. But for this consideration I should have begun my attempts with the Spanish and French. But. for the principles of solution. and.48)4‡.) I should have considered the solution as assured. as would appear. there being no division. from what is known of Kidd. In such case I should have commenced with a collation and analysis of the shorter words. and a certain bias of mind.indeed in all cases of secret writing the first question regards the language of the cipher. absolutely insoluble without the key. In fact. to the crude intellect of the sailor.161. as any one might readily guess. thus: . all difficulty was removed by the signature." said I. that this was of a simple species . I could not suppose him capable of constructing any of the more abstruse cryptographs. with the cipher now before us. have led me to take interest in such riddles. In general. as well as the least frequent. they convey a meaning. as the tongues in which a secret of this kind would most naturally have been written by a pirate of the Spanish main. "I am as much in the dark as ever. The pun upon the word 'Kidd' is appreciable in no other language than the English. by proper application." "And yet. depend upon. I made up my mind. as the more simple ciphers are concerned. "the solution is by no means so difficult as you might be lead to imagine from the first hasty inspection of the characters.

let us see. in the very beginning. 8. The general use which may be made of the table is obvious . As our predominant character is 8. 4. To verify the supposition. succession runs thus: _a o i d h n r s t u y c f g l m w b k p q x z_. 1. we leave. 'the' is most usual. for example. of all _words_ in the language. let us observe if the 8 be seen often in couples . 19. the letter which most frequently occurs is such words.for _e_ is doubled with great frequency in English . 4 ‡) * 5 6 †1 0 92 :3 ? ¶ -.' 'speed. "Now. the groundwork for something more than a mere guess. "Here. although the cryptograph is brief. in English. 2.' 'agree. as 'meet. Afterwards. so arranged.' 'seen. _E_ predominates so remarkably that an individual sentence of any length is rarely seen. Now. in this particular cipher. 6. the last of them being 8. in which it is not the prevailing character. we shall only very partially require its aid.' &c.Of the character . 11. whether there are not repetitions of any three characters. we will commence by assuming it as the _e_ of the natural alphabet. 5. 13. 16. then. in the same order of collocation.but. If we discover repetitions of such letters. 12. "Let us assume 8. " " " " " " " " " " " " " 26. therefore. 8 there are 33.fleet. 3. they will most probably represent the word . then.' '.' been. as _e_. In the present instance we see it doubled no less than five times.

and employ it by way of _termination_ to what immediately precedes.' we are cognizant of no less than five.'the. Thus a great step has been taken. "Looking beyond these words. not very far from the beginning. Let us refer. we read thus: the tree thr. where known. We thus gain another letter. "Now. we arrive at the word 'tree.the last being now well confirmed. or substitute dots. But this discovery gives us three new letters. to the last instance but one. or. thus. if. going through the alphabet.48 occurs . we find. by the letters we know them to represent. We are thus narrowed into t ee.4(‡?34 the. if necessary.' as forming no portion of the word commencing with the first t. represented by ‡ ? and 3. in place of the unknown characters. substituting the natural letters. the characters being .48. in which the combination . when the word '_through_' makes itself evident at once. at once. therefore. immediately ensuing is the commencement of a word. we leave blank spaces. 4 represents _h_.' as the sole possible reading. Let us set these characters down. through the cipher for combinations of known characters. since. having established a single word.' Upon inspection. represents _t_. "Looking now. and 8 represents _e_ . narrowly. _r_. that is to say.not far from the end of the cipher. "Here we are enabled. We have thus this arrangement: the tree .. of the six characters succeeding this 'the. with the words 'the tree' in juxtaposition. we again see the combination . we perceive that no word can be formed of which this _th_ can be a part. _o_. and.h the. leaving a space for the unknown t eeth. we find no less than seven such arrangements. several commencements and terminations of other words. it reads thus: the tree thr‡?3h the. _u_ and _g_. "But. and. assume that . we are enabled to establish a vastly important point. We know that the ..48. for example. as before. represented by (. We may. for a short distance. to discard the 'th. this . by experiment of the entire alphabet for a letter adapted to the vacancy.

46(. as before. which. which assures us that the first letter is _A_.' and gives us another letter. _d_. as far as discovered. plainly. is the conclusion of the word 'degree. or egree. to the beginning of the cryptograph. now. _i_ and _n_. represented by 6 and *. It will stand thus: 5 represents † 8 3 4 6 * ‡ ( .' we perceive the combination . we find the combination.' "It is now time that we arrange our key. and representing the unknown by dots. "Four letters beyond the word 'degree. we read thus: th rtee. 53‡‡†.88. as before. to avoid confusion. "Translating the known characters. and that the first two words are 'A good. in a tabular form. 83(88. "Translating. an arrangement immediately suggestive of the word 'thirteen.' and again furnishing us with two new characters. represented by †. " " " " " " " " " d e g h i n o r t a . we obtain good.arrangement. "Referring.

and it will be unnecessary to proceed with the details of the solution." "You mean. If you will observe the MS.northeast and by north ." "But how was it possible to effect this?" "I reflected that it had been a point with the writer to run his words together without division." said I. "leaves me still in the dark.main branch seventh limb east side . My first endeavor was to divide the sentence into the natural division intended by the cryptographist. to punctuate it?" "Something of that kind. during which I made diligent inquiry. "for a few days.. "the enigma seems still in as bad a condition as ever. in the neighborhood of Sullivan's Island. Acting upon this hint. I have said enough to convince you that ciphers of this nature are readily soluble. so as to increase the difficulty of solution. more than usually close together." replied Legrand. for any building which went by the name of the . "that the matter still wears a serious aspect." replied Legrand. Now. in the present instance. as unriddled.' " "But. when regarded with a casual glance. at this place. and to give you some insight into the rationale of their development. But be assured that the specimen before us appertains to the very simplest species of cryptograph. in the course of his composition.' and 'bishop's hotels?' " "I confess. in pursuing such an object would be nearly certain to overdo the matter.' 'death's heads. Here it is: " '_A good glass in the bishop's hostel in the devil's seat forty-one degrees and thirteen minutes northeast and by north main branch seventh limb east side shoot from the left eye of the death's-head a bee line from the tree through the shot fifty feet out_." said I. no less than ten of the most important letters represented.' " "Even this division. or a point. When. It now only remains to give you the full translation of the characters upon the parchment.shoot from the left eye of the death's-head .forty-one degrees and thirteen minutes . you will easily detect five such cases of unusual crowding. I made the division thus: 'A good glass in the Bishop's hostel in the Devil's seat .a bee-line from the tree through the shot fifty feet out. therefore. he would be exceedingly apt to run his characters." "It left me also in the dark. a not over-acute man."We have. he arrived at a break in his subject which would naturally require a pause. How is it possible to extort a meaning from all this jargon about 'devil's seats.

'northeast and by north.' for. while a niche in the cliff just above it. about four miles to the northward of the Island. dismissing her. which. I proceeded to examine the place. Now here. I was on the point of extending my sphere of search. admitting no variation. and found that it was impossible to retain a seat upon it except in one particular position. since the horizontal direction was clearly indicated by the words. We found it without much difficulty. then. the 'forty-one degrees and thirteen minutes' could allude to nothing but elevation above the visible horizon. from which to use it. and then felt much at a loss as to what should be next done. This fact confirmed my preconceived idea. gave it a rude resemblance to one of the hollow-backed chairs used by our of the latter being quite remarkable for its height as well as for its insulated and artificial appearance I clambered to its apex. time out of mind. was a telescope to be used. that this 'Bishop's Hostel' might have some reference to an old family. At length one of the most aged of the women said that she had heard of such a place as Bessop's Castle. and. I accordingly went over to the plantation. quite suddenly. "The 'good glass. Nor did I hesitate to believe that the phrases. of the name of Bessop. perhaps a yard below the summit upon which I stood.' Gaining no information on the subject. of course. I hurried home. This ledge projected about eighteen inches. I moved it cautiously up or down. Greatly excited by these discoveries. I dropped the obsolete word 'hostel. and now I seemed to grasp the full secret of the riddle. one morning. "I offered to pay her well for her trouble. "forty-one degrees and thirteen minutes. had held possession of an ancient manor-house. and a definite point of view. but a high rock. and returned to the rock. for the word 'glass' is rarely employed in any other sense by seamen. The 'castle' consisted of an irregular assemblage of cliffs and rocks . I at once saw. and was not more than a foot wide. procured a telescope. and proceeding in a more systematic manner. she consented to accompany me to the spot. my eyes fell upon a narrow ledge in the eastern face of the rock. and re-instituted my inquiries among the older negroes of the place. until my attention was arrested by a circular . I proceeded to use the glass.'Bishop's Hotel. but that it was not a castle nor a tavern. when. "I let myself down to the ledge. and thought that she could guide me to it.' and 'northeast and by north. pointing the glass as nearly at an angle of forty-one degrees of elevation as I could do it by guess. after some demur. could have reference to nothing but a telescope. I made no doubt that here was the 'devil's seat' alluded to in the MS.' were intended as directions for the levelling of the glass. Of course.' I knew. when. it entered into my head. "While I was busied in reflection.' This latter direction I at once established by means of a pocket-compass.

in the first attempt at digging. were merely two points for the establishment of a line of direction. nor could I get a glimpse of it afterwards. "you missed the spot. After much toil I found it.) and thence extended to a distance of fifty feet. When you left the Bishop's Hotel. and took especial care not to leave me alone. what then?" "Why. of course the error. however . The instant that I left 'the devil's seat. I again looked.' the error would have been of little moment. the circular rift vanished. a straight line.' could refer only to the position of the skull upon the tree.that is to say." I said. "In this expedition to the 'Bishop's Hotel' I had been attended by Jupiter. no doubt. Adjusting the focus of the telescope. I turned homewards. I contrived to give him the slip. the abstraction of my demeanor. When I came home at night my valet proposed to give me a flogging. drawn from the nearest point of the trunk through 'the shot." said I. In the centre of this rift I perceived a white spot. for some weeks past. at first. and that a bee-line." "I suppose. but 'the shot.' (or the spot where the bullet fell. and had the treasure been beneath the 'shot. But.and beneath this point I thought it at least possible that a deposit of value lay concealed. With the rest of the adventure I believe you are as well acquainted as myself. and now made it out to be a human skull. in the position of the peg nearest the tree. still simple and explicit. in regard to a search for buried treasure. through Jupiter's stupidity in letting the bug fall through the right instead of through the left eye of the skull.rift or opening in the foliage of a large tree that overtopped its fellows in the distance. This mistake made a difference of about two inches and a half in the 'shot' . getting up very early." "Precisely. What seems to me the chief ingenuity in this whole business. of but one interpretation. east side. but could not. or. I perceived that the design was to drop a bullet from the left eye of the skull. distinguish what it was. turn as I would. while 'shoot from the left eye of the death's head' admitted.' however. observed. who had. "Upon this discovery I was so sanguine as to consider the enigma solved." "All this. on the next day. would indicate a definite point . and went into the hills in search of the tree. seventh limb. having carefully taken the bearings of the tree. is the fact (for repeated experiment has convinced me it is a fact) that the circular opening in question is visible from no other attainable point of view than that afforded by the narrow ledge upon the face of the rock. for the phrase 'main branch. "is exceedingly clear. although ingenious. also. in other words.' together with the nearest point of the tree. and.

and now there is only one point which puzzles me. and for this reason I let it fall it from the tree." "But your grandiloquence. increased as we proceeded with the line. What are we to make of the skeletons found in the hole?" "That is a question I am no more able to answer than yourself.trivial in the is clear that he must have had assistance in the labor.who shall tell?" _ _ ~~~ End of Text ~~~ ========== FOUR BEASTS IN ONE THE HOMO-CAMELEOPARD Chacun a ses vertus. we might have had all our labor in vain. indeed._ ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES is very generally looked upon as the Gog of the prophet Ezekiel. from the skull?" "Why. But for my deep-seated impressions that treasure was here somewhere actually buried.if Kidd indeed secreted this treasure. to be frank. This honor is. And why did you insist upon letting fall the bug. perhaps it required a dozen . instead of a bullet." "Yes. It is clear that Kidd . For this reason I swung the beetle. more properly attributable to Cambyses. however. which I doubt not . I felt somewhat annoyed by your evident suspicions touching my sanity. But this labor concluded. and your conduct in swinging the beetle . There seems. the son of Cyrus. Perhaps a couple of blows with a mattock were sufficient. only one plausible way of accounting for them and yet it is dreadful to believe in such atrocity as my suggestion would imply. the character of the Syrian monarch does by no means stand in need of any adventitious . and by the time we had gone fifty feet. while his coadjutors were busy in the pit. I perceive. and so resolved to punish you quietly. he may have thought it expedient to remove all participants in his secret. in my own way. --_Crebillon's Xerxes. threw us quite off the excessively odd! I was sure you were mad. And. by a little bit of sober mystification. An observation of yours about its great weight suggested the latter idea. however.

with the exception of the Mediterranean. and let us. where stood a temple to that divinity. Let us suppose. the remarkable city of Antioch. his attempt to plunder the temple of Diana at Ephesus. and finally through the wilderness of buildings?" That is the Orontes. and are making the most of . were it the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and forty-five. that it is now the year of the world three thousand eight hundred and thirty. after a tumultuous reign of eleven years.embellishment. and many of the emperors of the queen city (among whom may be mentioned. In the flourishing times of the Roman Empire. his implacable hostility to the Jews. it was the ordinary station of the prefect of the eastern provinces. and became immediately the residence of the Syrian monarchy. there are few who have had a peep at Antioch. Therefore cease to regard that sea. in memory of his father Antiochus.that is to say. are circumstances of a prominent kind. imagine ourselves at that most grotesque habitation of man. a hundred and seventy-one years before the coming of Christ. gentle reader. Verus and Valens) spent here the greater part of their time. for a few minutes. I see you profit by my advice. But ours is that which went by the name of Antiochia Epidaphne. or rather his usurpation of the sovereignty. This is well. have had. the advantages of a modern education. His accession to the throne. through the mountainous wilderness. in Syria and other countries. You will remember that it is now the year of the world three thousand eight hundred and thirty. Every one has seen the Mediterranean. besides the one to which I more particularly allude. from its vicinity to the little village of Daphne. I mean. which stretches. few who. Let us ascend this battlement. But I perceive we have arrived at the city itself. and it is the only water in sight. and throw our eyes upon the town and neighboring country. It was built (although about this matter there is some dispute) by Seleucus a lamentable state of decay. especially. dastardly. like a broad mirror. what little of its former self may then remain. like you and me. and his miserable death at Taba. but let me tell you. sixteen cities of that appellation. To be sure there were. cruel. at the same time. Antioch will be -.for example. the first king of the country after Alexander the Great. and therefore more generally noticed by the historians of his time than the impious. "What broad and rapid river is that which forces its way. totally destroyed. by that time. his pollution of the Holy of Holies. will be found in so desolate and ruinous a state that the patriarch shall have removed his residence to Damascus. with innumerable falls. silly. by three successive earthquakes. Were it later -. we should be deprived of this extraordinary spectacle. to say the truth. In the nineteenth century Antioch is -. and give your whole attention to the mass of houses that lie beneath us. By few. Indeed. It will have been. about twelve miles off to the southward. and whimsical achievements which make up the sum total of his private life and reputation. at three different periods.

sumptuous and magnificent.behold! -.I beg least not the Sunship adored by the Syrians. whereby is denoted Fire." There are." All this I must acknowledge. and thence derive a cognomen. shouting and gesticulating to the rabble?" . were it not for the over-powering fumes of idolatrous incense. You need not look up at the heavens. He is worshipped under the figure of a large stone pillar terminating at the summit in a cone or pyramid. That deity will be found in the interior of yonder building. I had forgotten that Shakespeare will not flourish for seventeen hundred and fifty years to come. "There are a prodigious number of stately palaces. But does not the appearance of Epidaphne justify me in calling it grotesque? "It is well fortified. Still there is an infinity of mud huts. and in this respect is as much indebted to nature as to art.your time in inspecting the premises -. Hereafter a very notorious Roman Emperor will institute this worship in Rome. We cannot help perceiving abundance of filth in every kennel." That is the new Temple of the Sun. "And the numerous temples. we should otherwise have the darkness of Egypt in the time of her desolation.who can those ridiculous beings be. with their faces painted. his Sunship is not there -. or houses so miraculously tall? What gloom their shadows cast upon the ground! It is well the swinging lamps in those endless colonnades are kept burning throughout the day. Did you ever behold streets so insufferably narrow. who is adored in Syria under the title of Elah Gabalah. "It is certainly a strange place! What is the meaning of yonder singular building? See! it towers above all others. and abominable hovels. Heliogabalus. and lies to the eastward of what I take to be the royal palace. half naked. and. I dare say you would like to take a peep at the divinity of the temple." Very true. I have no doubt we should find a most intolerable -satisfying your eyes With the memorials and the things of fame That most renown this city. may bear comparison with the most lauded of antiquity. "Hark -.

undoubtedly. however -. You perceive. or the throttling of a consecrated bull. to be sure. "But what extraordinary tumult do I hear? Surely this is a loud noise even for Antioch! It argues some commotion of unusual interest. are led with a rope about the neck." Yes -. executing as in duty bound. in the wake of its master. Others more particularly belong to the race of philosophers. -. -. They have been trained without difficulty to their present profession. Yet all these appearances have been given -.Some few are mountebanks. but not in the least degree dangerous. some laudable comicality of the king's. The uproar increases.I beg pardon -.will be given -. Let us descend. "But what have we here? Heavens! the town is swarming with wild beasts! How terrible a spectacle! -.some gladiatorial exhibition at the hippodrome -.or. for the love of fun. In the meantime let us survey this image. and attend upon their respective owners in the capacity of valets-de-chambre. is following. there are occasions when Nature asserts her violated dominions. and horrible with clamor of a million the learned of future ages. a bonfire of a few Jews. to the Ashimah of the Syrians. is a circumstance of too little moment to be more than hinted at in Epidaphne. What is it? "Bless me! it is an ape!" . Let us ensconce ourselves in the vestibule of the sanctuary.therefore the king is most probably among the rioters. It is dangerous a peculiarity!" Terrible. that he is neither a lamb. The sea of people is coming this way. The king has ordered some novel spectacle -. -. if you please. and we shall find a difficulty in stemming the tide. the tiger.I hear the shouts of the herald proclaiming his approach in the pompous phraseology of the East. We shall have a glimpse of his person as he passes by the temple of Ashimah. and the leopard are entirely without restraint. neither has he much resemblance to the Pan of the Arcadians. The air becomes dissonant with wind instruments. Put on your spectacles.or perhaps the massacre of the Scythian prisoners -. but these are chiefly the lesser or timid species. The greatest portion. What is it? Oh! it is the god Ashimah in proper person. Some few.are the principal courtiers of the palace. and tell me what it careful! Here we are in the principal street. nor a goat. however. They are pouring through the alley of Heraclides.or the tearing down of a handsome temple -. and see what is going on! This way -. which is called the street of Timarchus.or the conflagration of his new palace -. Shouts of laughter ascend the skies.those especially who belabor the populace with clubs -. nor a satyr. which leads directly from the palace. he will be here anon. Each animal if you will take the pains to observe. Yes. indeed.but then the devouring of a man-at-arms. very quietly. The lion.

a baboon.let us sing Long life to our king. a thousand. Sing a thousand over again! Soho! -. a thousand chained Israelitish prisoners! For this exploit the ragamuffin is lauding him to the skies. mille. a thousand. They have made a Latin hymn upon the valor of the king. Who knocked over a thousand so fine! Soho! -. a thousand. Where is he going? What is he bawling about? What does he say? Oh! he says the king is coming in triumph. but by no means the less a deity. We. unus homo! Mille. mille. with one warrior. that he has just finished putting to death. a thousand. A thousand. decollavimus! Mille. a thousand. mille.True -. with his own hand.yonder scampers a ragged little urchin. Mille.see! -. mille. a thousand. His name is a derivation of the Greek Simia -. mille. have slain! A thousand. Decollavimus. mille. and are singing it as they go: Mille. mille.what great fools are antiquarians! But see! -.let us roar. that he is dressed in state. He has given us more Red gallons of gore . Vivat qui mille mille occidit! Tantum vini habet nemo Quantum sanguinis effudit!{*1} Which may be thus paraphrased: A thousand. mille. Hark! here comes a troop of a similar description. a thousand. mille.

Besides." Then you must be blind.the king? -.but that is because all people have not the capacity to appreciate his merits. -.take care that you are not overheard. presume he would not have adopted it but for some occasion of especial state. See! the beast has very justly kicked one of the rabble over -. is held aloft by his two principal concubines. Indeed. We may. and the most potent of all the autocrats of the East! It is true. you perceive. Still I see nothing but a tumultuous mob of idiots and madmen.bravo! . my dear sir. Antiochus Epimanes -. you will allow.why these are the noble and free citizens of Epidaphne! Beasts.there he is! "Who? -. Such. is the massacre of a thousand Jews. Do you not perceive that the animal has the visage of a man? Why." Rabble. however. Elline and not behold him -. and endeavoring to obtain a kiss of the animal's hoofs. were it not for the protuberance of his eyes. "Very possible. and the dress is therefore neither unbecoming nor over large. and lift up their eyes to the heavens in reverence. Let us follow him to the hippodrome. at times. Antiochus the Illustrious.and another -. the monarch is of gigantic stature. and his whole appearance would be infinitely prepossessing. and the queer color of his face. who are busy in prostrating themselves before a gigantic cameleopard.where? -. indeed! -. It is also certain that he is at present ensconced in the hide of a beast. I cannot help admiring the animal for the excellent use he is making of his feet. With how superior a dignity the monarch perambulates on all fours! His tail.and another -.cannot say that I perceive him. -.Antiochus the madman -. and is doing his best to play the part of a cameleopard. whither he is proceeding. He comes.Than all Syria can furnish of wine! "Do you hear that flourish of trumpets?" Yes: the king is coming! See! the people are aghast with admiration. did you say? -. which has become nondescript from the quantity of wine he has swallowed. and listen to the song of triumph which he is commencing: Who is king but Epiphanes? Say -. King of Syria.he is coming. that cameleopard is no other than Antiochus you know? Who is king but Epiphanes? Bravo! -. that he is entitled. which will certainly start out of his head.and another. but this is done for the better sustaining his dignity as king.

in anticipation of his victory at the approaching Olympics. 'The Prince of Poets.let us conceal ourselves in the arch of this aqueduct. ply thy legs with vigor. Let us be off -. Here! -. for hadst thou. Antiochus the Illustrious! -. See! -. but take courage.' been half a second longer in reaching the gates of the Amphitheatre. Prince! -.he is there! This is well. and do you hear? -. at its unavoidable degradation. No -. it seems.oh! ah! -.there is none: So tear down the temples.There is none but Epiphanes. . When he arrives at the hippodrome.Bravo. all human efforts will be of no avail in quelling the mob. It has turned out as I have been anticipating.' thou art in danger of mastication! Therefore never regard so piteously thy tail. Let us get into a place of safety as soon as possible. he will be crowned with the poetic wreath. And put out the sun! Well and strenuously sung! The populace are hailing him 'Prince of Poets. "But. in general.for we shall find our delicate modern ears unable to endure the vast uproar which is about to commence in celebration of the king's escape! Listen! it has already commenced. given offence to the notions of propriety entertained. running for his life. His courtiers have left him in the lurch.' as well as 'Glory of the East. and I will inform you presently of the origin of the commotion.he is singing it over again. is upon his hinder legs. 'Delight of the Universe.' and 'Most Remarkable of Cameleopards!' Heavens! what a power of speed thou art displaying! What a capacity for leg-bail thou art developing! Run. and for this there is no help.Glorious Antiochus! -. 'Glory of the East.he leaps! -. My friend. and his concubines have followed so excellent an example.also 'Prince of Poets.' 'Glory of the East. The singular appearance of the cameleopard and the head of a man.' and 'Most Remarkable of Cameleopards. has.he shrieks! -.' They have encored his effusion. Cameleopard! -. there is not a bear's cub in Epidaphnethat would not have had a nibble at thy carcase. Epiphanes! Well done. it is well that you spoke in time.let us take our departure! -.' 'Delight of the Universe. by the wild animals domesticated in the city. then.the whole town is topsy-turvy. it will undoubtedly be draggled in the mud.' therefore. but the general voice of the four-footed patriots seems to be for eating up the cameleopard.He runs! -.' 'Delight of the Universe.I perceive.he flies! Like an arrow from a catapult he approaches the hippodrome! He leaps! -. A mutiny has been the result. and.' thou art in a sad predicament! 'Glory of the East. good Jupiter! what is the matter in the crowd behind us?" Behind us. Look not behind thee. as is usual upon such occasions. Several of the Syrians have already been devoured. did you say? -. and scud for the hippodrome! Remember that thou art Antiochus Epiphanes.

what is the meaning of it. "Stay a moment! I see a vast hubbub in the hippodrome. do think it no more than their duty to invest his brows (in addition to the poetic crown) with the wreath of victory in the footrace -. I beseech you?" That? -. as they declare. moreover. in the Sarmatic war. therefore. valor. with his own hand. nine hundred and fifty of the enemy. wisdom."Surely this is the most populous city of the East! What a wilderness of people! what a jumble of all ranks and ages! what a multiplicity of sects and nations! what a variety of costumes! what a Babel of languages! what a screaming of beasts! what a tinkling of instruments! what a parcel of philosophers!" Come let us be off. and having. they now give him in advance. and which. ========== . well satisfied of the faith. and divinity of their king. having slain. that the hymn here introduced was sung by the rabble upon the occasion of Aurelian. nothing! The noble and free citizens of Epidaphne being.oh.Four Beasts {*1} Flavius Vospicus says. ~~~ End of Text ~~~ Footnotes -. been eye-witnesses of his late superhuman agility.a wreath which it is evident he must obtain at the celebration of the next Olympiad.

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