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ESTIMATING

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Tool I Girder Bridges


Author: Affiliation: Date: Ref.: Kevin Cowie, Alistair Fussell Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 7th February 2011 Seminar Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar February 2011

Key Words Bridge Estimating, Estimating, Bridges Introduction The likely cost of steelwork is an important consideration in feasibility studies for a bridge project as well as in planning and budgeting for the construction. Very little guidance is published on the cost of bridge steelwork because it is difficult to generalise for the wide range of bridge types and configurations. The price a client pays for the steelwork in a new bridge covers the cost of many activities and services as well as the basic cost of materials used and the direct workmanship in fabrication and erection. This article presents a simple method for bridge designers to quickly develop preliminary estimates for bridge superstructure steelwork costs. The bridge estimating method is limited to traditional multigirder (I sections, see figures 1 and 2) and ladder deck bridges (see figure 3). The bridge estimating method is suitable for spreadsheet application and example templates have been included. Rates appropriate at the time of the writing this article are given. These are based on feedback from steel bridge constructors. Elemental rates are given for various steelwork activities. Some rates are bundled to enable ease of preparing preliminary estimates. For the most up-to-date rates refer to the Steel Construction New Zealand website: www.scnz.org. When preparing final estimates, it is recommended that rates be confirmed with a suitable steel constructor.

Figure 1: Typical Short Span Multi Girder Bridge Details

Disclaimer: SCNZ and the author(s) of this document make no warrantee, guarantee or representation in connection with this
document and shall not be held liable or responsible for any loss or damage resulting from the use of this document

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 1

Figure 2: Typical Long Span Multi Girder Bridge Details

Figure 3: Typical Ladder Deck Bridge Details Scope The preliminary bridge estimating method is limited to the bridge superstructure steelwork costs for traditional multigirder (I sections) and ladder deck bridges. Bearings, deck and bridge steelwork erection rates are excluded. Cross brace frames are triangulated with simple end connections. Single element cross frames with moment connections are not specifically covered but the estimating method can be readily adapted to include these frames. It has been assumed field connections are bolted and girders are welded with 8mm fillet welds. Maximum depth of girders is 3.2 metres and maximum weight of girders is 1000 kg/m. Required Inputs The bridge designer is required to have undertaken a preliminary design, including sizing of the girders, cross frames and any other main members. The number and type of girder stiffeners must also be determined. The type of member connections must be known (i.e. bolted moment splice connection) but the connections do not need to have been specifically designed. Preliminary Bridge Steelwork Estimating Method The $/tonne method of measuring and estimating steelwork, based on past project data, cannot be relied on to give a true indication of cost. In fact this method can be misleading because only a small percentage of the overall cost of the steelwork can be related to tonnage. The $/tonne method does not consistently track the value added processes involved in the production of steelwork. The lightest design is usually not the most economical. Since the real factors that contribute to the cost of fabricated steelwork, are hidden by $/tonne approach, truly cost effective steel design options are often not readily recognised and rewarded by lower estimates at preliminary evaluation stage.

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 2

A good measurement system identifies the products key cost drivers and tracks them with suitable price indicators. Bridge steelwork costs can be readily associated with the following work categories: Material supply and storage Fabrication of girders and connections Surface Coatings Transportation Erection In this article suitable price indicators are selected for the first four of these work categories. These are used to develop the preliminary bridge steelwork estimate. No indicators are given for erection as there are too many factors to consider for bridge construction. The relative costs of bridge steelwork cost (i.e. erection excluded) can be seen in figure 4 which is an example of a multi girder bridge. Each of the work categories and appropriate cost indicators are discussed below. Current rates have been included in the appendix.

Figure 4: Example of a Multi Girder Bridge Steelwork Cost (erection excluded) Material Supply Material supply is a major component of bridge steelwork fabrication. For most bridges, costs can be minimised by ordering plates and sections directly from the steel mill. Time has to be allowed in any bridge procurement programme for supply from the mills. Typical lead times are 6 to 8 weeks for plate from New Zealand Steel and 14 to 18 weeks for plate/sections from overseas mills. Australian steel mills hold a limited amount of ex-stock plate/sections. The typical lead times for this are 4 - 6 weeks. Full design information is not necessary to enable orders for steel to be placed but sufficient detail must be available to define all components in advance of rolling dates to minimise waste and costs. New Zealand Steel can supply plate up to 14 m long by 1.5 m wide. The maximum thickness for G300 plate is 50mm. For G350 plate the maximum thickness is 32mm. G300 and G350 plate can be supplied as L0 and L15 plate. The minimum mill order item quantity for AS/NZS 3678 plate is 6 tonnes. Offshore mills can supply plate up to 18 m long by 3.2 m wide. The maximum thickness for G250/G300 plate is typically 100mm although larger thicknesses are available. The maximum thicknesses for G350 plate in typically 80mm. Weathering steel is also available from offshore mills. The minimum mill order item quantity for plate from offshore mills is typically 10 tonnes, however for weathering steel the minimum mill order item quantity may be greater. Plate availability and lead times may change and for the most up to date information please contact a SCNZ member listed on the web site: www.scnz.org For members fabricated from plate, most plate components including flanges, webs and stiffeners, are cut from plates of appropriate size and width to minimise wastage. Hence steel listing for ordering includes a computerised nesting process to achieve best utilisation and minimise waste to no more than a few percent. Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 3

Therefore to reduce wastage, the designer should avoid mixing of grades where possible and rationalise the range of plate thicknesses and section sizes. The designer should consider the standard available plate sizes available. Reducing dimensions may save weight but this could increase the scrap produced, as a result the anticipated cost savings may not be realised. It is worth spending time determining the optimum section size while keeping an eye on the plate waste remembering to allow for 10mm for the cut. Haunched or tapered webs will increase the wastage unless the plate could also be used for connection cleats and this incorporated into the computer nesting process. The designer should involve the steel bridge fabricator in the final selection of plate sizes and grades. Hot rolled sections indented from overseas mills are available as G300/G350 steel. The minimum mill order item quantity is 10 tonnes. For ex-stock long products typically only a limited amount of G300 sections are held at lengths of 6 / 9 / 12 / 15 / 18m. The supply rate for steel sections and plate is typically quoted in $/metre or $/tonne terms. These are reasonable units of measurement reflecting the cost of energy and high capital input per tonne of the commodity smeltered, rolled and shipped. It also allows steel supply quantities to be easily measured and costed. Typical plate supply rates in New Zealand, at time of publication, for indent orders are given in table 1. Hot rolled sections supply rates are given in table 2 and are also provided on the SCNZ website: www.scnz.org These rates include an allowance for transport to the fabrication shop, and merchant and fabricator margins. Waste allowance is not included and should be added. Fabrication of Girders and Connections Fabrication is generally more economic if connections are simple, geometry is straight forward, and the amount of welding is minimised. Steel bridges tend to incorporate a limited number of generic connection types such as bolted moment splices, stiffeners, and simple brace connections. The detailed design of the connections is often not undertaken until late in the structural design process. However the structural engineer will usually know what type of connection should be used and the relative level of load that it will be required to transmit. Therefore, to assist the estimator and the structural engineer at the preliminary design evaluation stage, tables of typical connections have been listed for the range of common loading conditions. The fabricated price consists of two main components: workstation processing costs and work piece handling costs. The processing operations include saw and gas flame cutting, drilling, hole punching, cropping by guillotine, weld preparation and welding. The handling component is made up of through shop and workstation handling. The connection prices include allowances for supply of bolts and plate fittings. All rates are inclusive of fabricator margin. An estimate is prepared by summing the total number of connections in a project and multiplying by the relevant price / connection, then adding to the allowances for supply of main sections, surface coatings, and transport. Connections can be classified into end connections, work along a member and compound members. For compound members such as girders from three plate members the cost of fabrication is related to their length and therefore the fabricating of these members is given as a rate per metre. Table 3 provides cost of fabrication of three plate girders. The cost includes stripping of plate, handling, assembly and continuous 8mm fillet weld of web to flanges and non destructive weld testing. Table 4 provides rates for complete penetration butt weld splicing of flange and web plates. Splicing is required where the bridge girder member is greater than the available plate length (typically 18m overseas indent or 12m NZ Steel Ltd) and at location where plate thicknesses change. The rates are for shop welding.

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 4

Table 5 provides costs of girder stiffeners. The fabrication costs include the cutting of plate, handling and welding of stiffener. The stiffener plate is included in the fittings cost and this is added to the fabrication cost to give the total connection cost. Table 6 provides the cost of fully bolted moment girder splice connections suitable for field installation. Table 7 provides the cost of cross frame I section members such as in a ladder deck bridge that are bolted via the member web to girder stiffener. The girder stiffener is not included in the connection cost. The girder stiffener is assumed to be profile cut so that coping of the cross frame member is not required. Table 8 provides cost of cross frame bracing angle connections. These angle members could be connected to the girder stiffener or to gusset plate welded onto other cross frame members. It has been assumed that all field connections will be bolted. For other connections types refer to the SCNZ online estimating guide for indicative costs. Shop Drawings Shop drawings are prepared by fabricators or on their behalf by a specialist draughting company. The time to prepare shop drawings is dependent on the quality of the contract drawings, the complexity of the project and amount of repetition. Bridge design drawings generally contain sufficient information so that shop drawings can be quickly and easily prepared. The cost of shop drawings may be incorporated into the connection costs above or they may be costed separately. The approach taken in this article is to cost shop drawings separately and apply $/tonne cost, see table 9. As shop drawings account for a small percentage of steelwork costs this crude approach is considered appropriate at the preliminary design stage. Transportation The cost of transport is directly related to the number of truck loads of steel, the size of the loads and time taken to load, transport and unload the steel. Hence the cost is related to both the weight and volume of steel and to a lesser extent the distance from the site. Significant increase in transport costs incur for loads greater than 18m in length, greater than 3m in width and heavier than 20 tonnes. Overdimension loads require pilot vehicle(s) and incur additional costs. Refer to the Land Transport Safety Authority website for up-to-date requirements for overdimension loads and piloting requirements. http://www.ltsa.govt.nz/factsheets/53.html Transportation rates are given in table 10 based on a $/tonne basis. Coatings The following systems in accordance with AS/NZS 2312 are commonly used for protecting bridge steelwork surfaces in New Zealand: Inorganic zinc silicate, 75m, IZS 2 Inorganic zinc silicate, 125m, IZS 3 Zinc metal spray, 100m, TZS100 Zinc metal spray, 200m, TSZ200 Aluminium metal spray with sealer, TSA150S Rates are given in $/m2 in table 11 for the above coating systems Erection Erection is one of the more difficult activities to estimate at a preliminary stage as much depends on the location of the bridge and the layout of the site. In addition the level of co-ordination and dependence on the performance and co-operation of other trades is critical in determining the time to erect. A key determinant in the cost of erecting steel bridges is the cost associated with the use of cranes. For the use of large cranes the mobilisation and demobilisation costs form a large component of the total erection costs where there are a small number of members to be lifted into place.

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 5

Rates are not given. A bridge contractor experienced in steel bridges may be willing to assist in estimating erection costs. Worked Examples Two worked examples have been prepared to illustrate the application of the estimating approach presented in this paper. The first example is a multigirder bridge, while the second is a ladder deck configuration. Example 1 Simply Supported Composite I Girder Bridge This bridge example has been taken from (Watson et al, 1996). While this bridge example is for an Australian setting the example is still useful to illustrate the steps to prepare a preliminary estimate. The bridge is shown in appendix 2 and is skewed at 15 to the road alignment. The bridge spans 34.5 metres with a width of 12.6 metres and consists of four composite plate I-beams, each weighing approximately 25 tonnes, at a spacing of 3.5 metres. The surface treatment to be applied is 75m of inorganic zinc silicate (IZS2).

Costing of the bridge

Table 12 shows the estimated costs of the supply, fabrication, surface treatment of the girders and cross frames and bracing.

Steel Supply

The girders weight, number and lengths were calculated and the appropriate rate applied. This was similarly done for cross frame bracing. A 5% wastage factor was allowed for trimming the plates and for the waste involved in profiling the web to provide the specified camber. A 5% wastage factor was also allowed for hot rolled sections.

Fabrication

The fabrication costs of the girders, cross frame bracing were quickly and simply obtained from the relevant tables. An allowance was made for shop drawings. The amount is not significant. The girders between the piers are greater than 18m in length and so require pilot vehicles and will have increased transport costs.

Surface Treatment

The surface areas were readily determined and the appropriate rates for inorganic zinc silicate applied Example 2 SH4 Okura Realignment South Bridge This is a 3 span ladder deck bridge 96m long. Details of this bridge can be found in (Gaby, Chan and Romanes, 2008)

Costing of the bridge

Table 9 shows the estimated costs of the supply, fabrication, surface treatment of the girders and cross frames and bracing.

Steel Supply

The girder weight, number and lengths were calculated and the appropriate rate applied. This was similarly done for cross frame bracing and horizontal bracing. A 5% wastage factor was allowed for trimming the plates. Pier girder webs are tapered. This could increase wastage component however it is assumed a computer nesting program is used and the girder web plate could also be used for connection cleats. A 5% wastage factor was also allowed for hot rolled sections.

Fabrication

The fabrication costs of the girders, cross frames and bracing were quickly and simply obtained from the relevant tables. Span girders lengths are greater than 18m and so will exceed maximum available plate lengths. Therefore an allowance is made for complete penetration butt weld of span girder plates. An allowance was made for shop drawings. The amount is not significant. Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 6

As the span girders are greater than 18m in length, pilot vehicles are required and this will increase transport costs.

Surface Treatment

The surface areas were readily determined and the appropriate rates for inorganic zinc silicate applied.

Overall Cost Comparison

The steel option was being considered as an alternative to a concrete superstructure. Savings in substructure costs are significant and should be included in any cost comparison. Due to the lighter superstructure weight of a composite steel/concrete option instead of a concrete option, the cost savings in the foundations and columns amounted to a saving of close to $400/m2 of decking area (El Sarraf, 2009). Conclusion This article presents a simple method for developing preliminary estimates of steel bridge superstructure costs for traditional multi girder (I sections) and ladder deck bridges based on limited design information. This will be of assistance to engineers in evaluating different steel options and also in material selection choice. The rates provided in this article are for estimating purposes only and do not necessarily reflect the current market rates. Steel bridge fabricators and constructors should be consulted to provide input into the design details of the bridge and will be able to provide up to date rates. The steel bridge superstructure fabrication cost is only a portion of the overall cost of a bridge project. The weight savings of a steel-concrete composite bridge may result in significantly reduction in substructure costs. The ease and speed of erection of a steel bridge are also has significant advantages over alternate material options. References AS/NZS 2312:2002/2004, Guide to the Protection of Structural Steel against Atmospheric Corrosion by the Use of Protective Coatings, incorporating Amendment No 1:2004. Standards New Zealand, Wellington El Sarraf, R., Economical Steel Bridge Solutions for New Zealand, SESOC Journal Vol 21 No 2 Vol 2 2009 Gaby, P, Chan, M and Romanes, M; Okura Ladder Deck Bridges, Conference Proceedings of the Metals Industry Conference, HERA, Manukau City, New Zealand. 2008 Hayward, A., Sadler, N., Tordoff, D., Steel bridges A Practical Approach to Design for Efficient fabrication and Construction, The British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd, London, 2002 HERA, Steel Bridges for New Zealand A 1 Day Seminar for bridge Design Engineers, Contractors and Specifiers, HERA Report R4-130, New Zealand Heavy Engineering Research Association, Manukau City, New Zealand, 2004 SCNZ, Online Estimation Guide, accessed on the website www.scnz.org Watson, K., B., Dallas, S., van der Kreek, N., Main, T., Costing of steelwork from feasibility through to completion, Steel Construction volume 30 Number 2, Australian Institute of Steel Construction, June 1996

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 7

Appendix 1: Bridge Preliminary Estimating Rates

Supply Rates
Table 1: Plate Indent Supply

Grade
250 300 300L0 300L15 350 350L10 350L15
1) 2)

$/kg
1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.80 1.80 1.80

For weathering steel add $0.4/kg For charpy testing add $0.05/kg

Table 2: Section Supply

Section
Universal Beams (UB) G300 Angles (EA, UA) G300 Structural Hollow Sections (CHS, RHS, SHS)
1) 2) For weathering steel add $0.4/kg For charpy testing add $0.05/kg

Indent $/kg
1.70 1.70 2.40

Ex-stock $/kg
2.00 2.00 2.80

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 8

Fabrication Rates
General Notes: 1) CFW: Continuous Fillet Weld 2) CPBW: Complete Penetration Butt Weld Table 3: Three Plate Girder Fabrication Rates Section Mass Cost kg/m $/m 315 to 455 380 455.1 to 700 430 700.1 to 1000 490 Note: Stripping, handling, assembly, CFW (8mm) to web/flanges, Non destruction testing of welds Table 4: CPBW Splice Rates for Girder Flanges/Webs Plate thickness Cost mm $/m 6 115 10 177 16 234 25 393 40 750 50 1050 60 1400 70 1800 80 2300 Table 5: Girder Stiffeners Connection Rates Stiffeners Fitted Stiffener Fitted Stiffener Section Butt welded ends Fillet welded Mass $ $ kg/m
Fabricate Fittings Total Fabricate Fittings Total

Curtailed Stiffener Both ends $


Fabricate Fittings Total

Curtailed Stiffener Single end $


Fabricate Fittings Total

315 to 455 455.1 to 700 700.1 to 1000 Diagram

440 550 650

70 90 110

510 640 760

250 310 370

70 90 110

320 400 480

150 190 230

70 90 110

220 280 340

200 250 300

70 90 110

270 340 410

Comments

Cut & weld Cut & Weld Cut & Weld Flange CPBW / Web Flange/Web CFW Web CFW CFW Note: CPBW costs are based on 16mm thick stiffener. CFW are based on 6mm CFW

Cut & Weld Flange/Web CFW

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 9

Table 6: Girder Splice Connection Rates Connection 100% Moment Capacity Splice Section Mass Fully Bolted kg/m $
Fabrication Fittings Total

315 to 455 455.1 to 700 700.1 to 1000 Diagram

1200 1700 2200

800 1300 1800

2000 3000 4000

Comments:

Cut plates & beams, drill/punch holes, web splice plates each side

Table 7: Cross Frame I Sections End Connections Connection Bolted to Girder Stiffener Section Mass kg/m $
Fabrication Fittings Total

<60.5 60.6 to 160 Diagram

120 155

25 40

145 195

Comments:

Cut beam, drill/punch holes, web plate not included - see girder stiffeners

Table 8: Cross Frame Bracing Angle Connection Rates Connection Bolted to Girder Stiffener Bolted to Gussets Section Mass kg/m $ $
Fabrication Fittings Total Fabrication Fittings Total

Welded to Gussets $
Fabrication Fittings Total

<30 Diagram

65

10

75

120

15

135

130

135

Comments:

Cut beam, drill/punch holes, web plate not included - see girder stiffeners

Cut bracing member and gusset, drill/punch holes, CFW gusset to other members

Cut bracing member and gusset, CFW to gusset, CFW gusset to other members

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 10

Other Rates
Table 9: Shop Drawing Rates

Shop Drawings
High standard of contract drawings

Per tonne
150

Table 10: Transportation Rates

Transport
Unescorted (min 5 tonnes/ delivery) One Pilot Vehicle Two Pilot Vehicle

Per tonne
140 175 205

Assumptions: 1. 6 hr round trip for the distance less than or equal to 50 km from fabrication shop 2. 2.5 hr round trip for pilot vehicle accompanying loads. 3. Rates includes an allowance of $10 per tonne for loading and unloading. 4. Rates includes fabricator's margin. Table 11: Coating Rates

Coating
Inorganic Zinc Silicate 75m Inorganic Zinc Silicate 125m Zinc Metal Spray 100m Zinc Metal Spray 200m Aluminium Metal Spray with sealer Hot dipped galvanised

AS/NZS 2312:2004 System


IZS 2 (solvent borne) IZS 3 (solvent borne) TSZ100 TSZ200 TSA150S HDG600

Rate
$/sqm 30 40 60 70 140 $/steel kg 1.60

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 11

Appendix 2: Simply Supported Composite I Girder Bridge

Figure 5: Simply Supported Composite I Girder Bridge Details (Watson et al, 1996)

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 12

Table 12: Simply Supported Composite I Girder Bridge Preliminary Estimate


Item Description Quantity
Width/Depth mm 450 650 650 1415 Thickness mm 25 45 55 20 Length m 140.0 96.0 44.0 140.0 kg/m 88.3 229.6 280.6 222.2

Units

Rate $

Subtotal

Total

1
1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4

Material Supply
Girders Plates Top flange - Grade 350 Bottom flange -Grade 350L15 Bottom flange -Grade 350L15 Web - Grade 250 Waste Abutment Crossframes Top Chord Bottom Chord Bracing Waste Intermediate Crossframes Top Chord Bottom Chord Bracing Waste
kg/m no length (m) kg/m no length (m)

12364 22043 12348 31102 77856 5

kg kg kg kg kg %

1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 137,031

22,255 39,677 22,226 52,873 6,852

300PFC 40.1 125x125x10EA 18 100x100x12EA 17.7

6 6 12

21 21 42

842 378 743 1964 5

kg kg kg kg %

1.7 1.7 1.7 3,338

1,432 643 1,264 167

90x90x8EA 10.6 90x90x8EA 10.6 90x90x8EA 10.6

6 6 12

21 21 42

223 223 445 890 5

kg kg kg kg %

1.7 1.7 1.7 1,514

378 378 757 76 148,977

2
2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4

Fabrication & Connections

(incl fittings)

Girders Three Plate Girder Fabrication Top Flange (450 x 25) CPBW Splice Bottom Flange (650 x 45) CPBW Splice Web (1415 x 20) CPBW Splice Intermediate Stiffeners - curtailed, fillet weld Abutment Stiffeners - fitted, fillet weld all round Abutment Crossframes End Connections Top chords Bolted to Girder Stiffener Bottom chord Bolted to Girder Stiffener Bracing Bolted to Girder Stiffener Bolted to Gusset on Bottom Chord Intermediate Crossframes End Connections Top chords Bolted to Girder Stiffener Bottom chord Bolted to Girder Stiffener Bracing Bolted to Girder Stiffener Bolted to Gusset on Bottom Chord

140 1.8 5.2 5.66 12 16 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

m m m m no no no no no no no no no no

430 393 900 322 280 400 145 75 75 135 145 75 75 135

60,200 707 4,680 1,823 3,360 6,400 1,740 900 900 1,620 1,740 900 900 1,620

87,490

3
3.1 3.2 3.3

Shop Drawings
Girders Abutment Crossframes Intermediate Crossframes 77.9 2.0 0.9 tonnes tonnes tonnes 150 150 150 11,678 295 134

12,107

4
4.1 4.2 4.3

Transportation
Girders, require 2 pilot vehicles Abutment Crossframes Intermediate Crossframes 77.9 2.0 0.9 tonnes tonnes tonnes 205 140 140 15,961 275 125

16,360

5
5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3

Coatings
Inorganic Zinc Silicate (IZS2)

Girders Abutment Crossframes Intermediate Crossframes SUB TOTAL

730 33 32

sqm sqm sqm

30 30 30

21,900 990 960

23,850 $288,783

6 7

Contigency Total Steelwork (excl erection) (Deck area)

5%

$14,439

$14,439

441

sqm

688

$303,223

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 13

Table 13: Simply Supported Composite I Girder Bridge Preliminary Estimate Summary
Member 35 length girder Abutment crossframe Crossframe intermediate Total steelwork (excl erection) Cost/Member 71,030 1,789 1,394 No. of Members 4 6 6 Total Cost 284,121 10,735 8,366 $303,223

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 14

Appendix 2: SH4 Okura Realignment South Bridge

Figure 6: SH4 Okura Realignment South Bridge Plan and Elevation Details (Gaby, Chan, Romanes, 2008)

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 15

Figure 7: SH4 Okura Realignment South Bridge Cross Section Details (Gaby, Chan, Romanes, 2008)

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 16

Table 14: SH4 Okura Realignment South Bridge Preliminary Estimate


Item Description Quantity
Width/Depth Thickness mm 500 500 1480 mm 16 25 12 Length m 144.0 144.0 144.0 kg/m 62.8 98.1 139.4 300.3

Units

Rate $

Subtotal

Total

1
1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4

Material Supply
Girders Span Girder Top flange - Grade 350 Bottom flange - Grade 350 Web - Grade 350 Waste Pier Girder Top flange - Grade 350 Bottom flange - Grade 350 Web (depth varies) - Grade 350 Waste Transoms and Bracing Transoms Bracing at Piers Transom Bracing Horiz Bracing Edge Panel Supports Waste
kg/m no length (m)

9043 14130 20076 43249 5

kg kg kg kg %

1.8 1.8 1.8 77,848

16,278 25,434 36,137 3,892

1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7 1.1.8 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5

500 500 1977

20 32 12

48 48.56 48

78.5 125.6 186.2 390.3

3768 6099 8939 18806 5

kg kg kg kg %

1.8 1.8 1.8 33,851

6,782 10,978 16,091 1,693

610UB 150x10 EA 125x8 EA 125x8 EA CWB

101 21.9 14.9 14.9 39

48 24 16 20 48

192 132.8 24 112 50.4

19392 2908 358 1669 1966 26292 5

kg kg kg kg kg kg %

1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.75 46,761

32,966 4,944 608 2,837 5,405 2,338 166,384

2
2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.2.8

Fabrication & Connections


Girders Three Plate Girder Fabrication

(incl fittings)

Span Girder Pier Girder Span Girder Top Flange (500x16) CPBW Span Girder Bottom Flange (500x25) CPBW Span Girder Web (1480x12) CPBW Bolted Girder Splice Span Girder Stiffeners - fitted, fillet all round Pier Girder Stiffeners - fitted, fillet all round Transom and Bracing Connections Transoms Bolted to Girder Stiffener Welded Moment Bracing at Piers Bolted to Girder Stiffener Bolted to Gussetts Transom Bracing Bolted to Girder Stiffener Bolted to Gussetts Horiz Bracing Bolted to Gussetts Edge Panel Supports Welded Moment

144 48 3.0 3.0 8.9 8 26 22 48 48 24 24 16 16 40 48 88

m m m m m no no no no no no no no no no no tonnes

380 380 115 393 196 2000 320 320 195 450 75 135 75 135 135 200 150

54,720 18,240 345 1,179 1,740 16,000 8,320 7,040 9,360 21,600 1,800 3,240 1,200 2,160 5,400 9,600 13,252

161,944 13,252

3 4
4.1 4.2 4.3

Shop Drawings Transportation


Span Girders, require 2 pilot vehicles Pier Girders Transoms and Bracing

43.2 18.8 26.3

tonnes tonnes tonnes

205 140 140

8,866 2,633 3,681

15,180

5
5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5 5.1.6 5.1.7 5.1.8

Coatings
Inorganic Zinc Silicate (IZS3)

Span Girder Pier Girder Transoms Bracing at Piers Transom Bracing Horiz Bracing Edge Panel Supports Girder stiffeners

610UB 150x10 EA 125x8 EA 125x8 EA CWB

101 21.9 14.9 14.9 39

sqm/m 5.02 6.03 1.84 0.59 0.491 0.491 0.7

723 290 353 78 12 55 35 36

sqm sqm sqm sqm sqm sqm sqm sqm

40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40

28,904 11,585 14,131 3,134 471 2,200 1,411 1,440

$63,276 $420,037

SUB TOTAL

6 7

Contigency Total Fabrication (Deck area)

5%

$21,002

$21,002

966

sqm

457

$441,038

Preliminary Bridge Estimating Notes for Design of Steel Composite Bridges Seminar Feb 2011 Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. 2011 17