DESIGN OF AUTOMATION TO IMPROVE QUALITY& PRODUTIVITY OF PIPE BENDING MACHINE

M.Dharmendra1 Parthipan.N2 and Kannan.TTM 3 1,2 & 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Trichy Engineering College Somu nagar, Konalai, Tirchy – 621 132. E-mail ID: ttmk_8@yahoo.com, TEL: +91 9865486220, E-mail ID:tecparthipan@gmail.com, TEL:+91 9095765452 E-mail ID : johndharma@rediffmail.com TEL:+91 9843339254
Abstract Pipe bending is important in the manufacturing of boilers, heat exchangers and pipe products. Pipe may be mechanically bent either cold or hot. Hot bending is suitable for bends of smaller bending radii (or) pipes of larger diameter. Induction bending is the one type of hot bending. During, the bending process controlled heating is carried out at the bending region. The inner and outer surface of the pipe is heated by applying high frequency induction heating. Circulating water-cools the excess heat of the pipe. The incremental pipe bending machine/PB 600 is an induction pipe-bending machine, which is used for bending the pipes diameter ranges from 200 to 700 mm and the maximum length of 8.47m.While bending the pipe in the pipe-bending machine two important parameters have to be considered. They are 1) Bending radius of the pipe 2) Bending angle of the pipe. The bending radius of the pipe depends upon the setting position of the machine frame and clamp, which moves on the bending arm. The bending angle of the pipe depends upon the rotation of the bending arm. The operator setting the machine frame position, clamp at the required bending radius as well as stop the bending arm at desired angle. Hence time required to set the machine frame at required bending radius takes more and quality of the bend pipe not in up to the mark. Hence productivity of the machine and quality of the bend pipe are reduced. These limitations had been overcome by introduction of an automatic controller. This automatic controller controls the bending arm and machine frame position by using programmable logic controller. Flowchart and ladder diagram was developed based on the operation of the pipe-bending machine by using versamax PLC software. The PLC was selected on the basis of the inputs and outputs, which were given by hardware configuration of the versamax PLC software. After implementation of the PLC controller to the pipe bending machine the productivity and quality of the pipe has been increased. Keywords: programmable logic controller, ladder diagram, versamax PLC software 1.Bending Process In this machine, pipe can be bent by using three main drives, which are mainframe drive, support with drive& bending arm drive.These drives are manually controlled by using conventional arrangement of mechanical components like-gears, belt, and chain. After setting the position of mainframe at required bending radius, pipe is heated through inductor. The bending pipe is preheated for some time, which is depends upon what material to be bent in the machine. The bending force is applied to the pipe through linear motion of support drive. The clamp is used to clamp the front edge of the pipe, which is moved on the bending arm. Bending arm is rotated up to what bending angle to be required. Angular rotation of the bending arm is equal to the linear motion of the support drive.The pipe to be bent (5) is clamped in the clamp (1) which is situated on the bending arm (2). The bending arm (2) can freely rotate round its pivot (3). In the frame of the machine the pipe (5) is guided in two points, by means of a guide roll (6) and a movable support (7).

product and industry. The process control of the machine to be automated to get high quality bent pipes. 2. Bending angle of the pipe depends on the motion of the bending arm to be stopped at the required bending angle. bending radius and Bending angle Bending Bending Required Size Obtained Material S. this is mounted on the bending arm to be positioned to the same axis of the machine frame. Bent pipes produced in the machine for various ranges of size.The schematic drawing of bending process is shown Figure. Table-1 Bend the pipe in various size.No radius Kw speed Temperature angle θ (mm) angle grade (mm) (RPM) 1 2000 90 457*20 180 91 C 20 930 2 2000 30 457*20 180 31 C 20 930 3 1000 90 273*40 240 91 C 15 930 4 2000 90 457*14. It can be determined by using control charts.Process Control Before implement the automation to the machine find out whether the pipes produced by the operator being in process control or not.1 Limitations While bending the pipe in the pipe bending machine two important parameters to be considered carefully to achieve high quality bent pipes. By using control charts the performance of the operator is determined and checks whether the process based on operator being in control (or) not. The operator could not stop the bending arm at required bending angle of the pipe. It is suitable for any types of process.2 180 92 C 20 930 8 1200 90 368*30 200 91 C 15 930 9 2600 15 368*32 200 16 C 15 930 10 1000 45 323*35 240 46 Pa1 15 1030 11 1200 90 368*32 200 91 C 15 930 12 1500 90 508*30 200 92 P22 15 770 . 1. In the bending plane Z an inductor (4) is placed around the pipe through the inductor (4) flows an electric current. which induces current in the pipe material thus heating the pipe locally to such a temperature that the yield stress of the material is approx. They are bending radius of the pipe and bending angle of the pipe. Hence high quality bent pipes cannot produce by the operator.2 180 91 C 15 930 5 1700 90 406*32 240 91 C 15 930 6 1700 20 457*14 180 22 C 20 930 7 1500 90 457*14. Time consumption to set the machine frame and clamp to the required bending radius takes more by operator. In the pipe bending machine bent pipes quality depends upon the performance of machines and operators. bending radius and required bending angle &finished bending angle has been tabulated for a day in table-1. Bending radius of the pipe depends on the setting the position of the machine frame.by using X-R control chart performance of the operator to produce bent pipes was determined. Data were collected for 5 weeks on the basis of required bending radius& required bending angle which has been formulated as in table-2. After setting the position of the machine frame clamp. Control charts are the simplest graphical devices used to control quality.10% of the value at room temperature.

5 2 3 2 1 2 3 1.5 88 89 91.5 91.5 91 92 89 90 92 X5 91 89 90 90 91.5 88 89 91 88 92 88.5 89 90 X7 90 90 89 92 90 90 88 90.5 91 X9 91.5 89 89 91 91 88.5 90 89 89.5 88 92 88.66667 89.5 1336.5 1369.73333 89.5 90 89 91 X6 91.5 91 89.5 90 88.For Radius 2000mm & 90 Deg 2000mm & 90 Deg R-Bar Chart.36667 91.5 3 2 1.5 91 92 89.5 90 90 91.5 89.5 91 89 91 88.5 1367.3 89.5 92 X4 90 90 90.5 88.5 1355.5 1.5 89 91 X2 90 90 91 90 92 90 90 91 90 90 90.5 1.5 X10 90 90.5 89 92 91 91 88 90.5 MEAN 90.8 89.5 90 92 90.43333 91.5 89.43333 91.5 1341.5 91 90 88 89.96667 90.5 89 90 91 X8 91 89 90.5 89.5 91.5 90.5 90 90 90 91.5 89 90.5 92 91.83333 89.16667 RANG E 1.5 X3 91.5 1367.5 91.16667 90.83333 89.5 1349.53333 88.For Radius .1 89.5 91 90.We eks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 X1 91 90.5 1358 1332 1346 1342 1362.5 89 91 89 91 90 88.46667 90.5 89 90 90 91.5 89 91 89 90 91.5 92 91 88 91 89 90 89 92 90 90 92 TOTAL 1360 1347.5 89 89 90 91 90.5 1 2 X-Bar Chart.5 1341.

5 90.5 91. A stored program is used to repeat all the events in an operation step by step.97 89.10 88.5 1 2 89. The logic operation is created by push buttons.5 2 2 2 1.5 1.5 3 3 3 3 R-CHART-FOR RADIUS 2000mm & 90 DEG 90 E G N A R 2 1. The assignable causes are detected and take the decision to implement automation to the machine to eliminate assignable causes.5 91. both to drive the process itself and to operate the program and control system.43 89. usually via software. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a device that was invented to replace the necessary sequential relay circuits for machine control.5 1.30 91.B 91.37 89. counters and very often-digital inputs and outputs.73 1.67 90.5 89. Automation Automation is the technology by which a process (or) procedure is accomplished without human assistance . without wiring and stored in the memory of a PLC.17 3.5 0 89. The user enters a program.5 1 2 1. Although automation can be applied in a wide variety of areas.83 90. In addition to startup and shutdown of processes are also controlled by PLCs. This PLC is capable of operating several completely independent process units at the same time. it is most closely associated with the manufacturing industries.53 2.43 1 89. Using following flow chart can do process improvement Governed by Operator Pipe bending machine Process Quality of bent pipes Statistical quality control If the bending process governed By the operator is in out control If the bending process Governed by the operator In control Detect the assignable causes Implement the corrective action (PLC control) 3. turning ON or turning OFF its outputs.80 0. The PLC works by looking at the inputs and depending upon their state. There are also timers.17 91 90. throughout the production cycle.47 89.83 90.it is implemented using a program of instructions. power is required.5 89 88.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Number of weeks 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Number of weeks Control charts shows the performance of the operator is not enough to produce high quality bent pipes. The program elements consist of ON-OFF . To automate the process. that gives the desired results. analog and digital conversion. arithmetic and proportional control.

Develop ladder diagram for control the process sequence. time delay. 2)Move the clamp on the bending arm that is positioned same axis to the machine frame. machine monitoring. bending arm should be positioned to the home (or) zero position. 7)After reaching the required bending angle angular motion of the bending arm should be stopped and pusher should be reversed to the home position 8)Open the clamp and unloading the pipe from the machine. material handling.9)Finally. 3.1 Implementation of PLC The following procedures are required to implement PLC to the pipe-bending machine. They are 1)Set the machine frame position to the required bending radius. elapsed time periods. To ensure that all the data receive by the PLC is correct. 3. and predetermined counts of pulses and pulsed output for set point control.relay logic.2 Operation of Pipe Bending Machine When bending the pipe in the bending-machine the following sequence of operation to be done.4)Before starting the bending process in the machine pusher to be in home position. and data gathering and reporting. energy management. various checks are continuously executed and a failure of many of these will cause the PLC to trip. Develop flow chart for the logical operation. Sequential logic control system is best suited to improve a variety of application including process control. They are Understand the operational logic of the pipe bending process. bending arm both are activated to bend the pipe for required angle. Find number of inputs and outputs for select the PLC. 6) Pusher. Man machine interface Clamp position Input module Field junction box Output moule Pusher motion Clamp motion Bending arm motion Machine frame START IS MACHINE CHECK THE FAULT START &RECTIFY THE HEALTY IS JOB CLAMP UNIT AT OPEN ENERGIZE THE JOB UNCLAMP UNIT .5)Loading the pipe in the machine and close the clamp. 3)Clamp should be in open before loading the pipe in the machine.

IS BENDING ARM AT MOVE THE BENDING UNIT TO ZERO POSITION SET THE BENDING RADIUS (C1) ZERO DEGREE MOVE MACHINE FRAME AND CLAMP TO THE SET POSITION (C2) IS C1=C2 LOAD THE JOB JOB CLAMP MECHANISM ACTIVATED 1 SET THE REQURIED AMOUNT OF BENDING ANGLE (C3) IS JOB CLAMPED 1 MOVE THE PUSHER ACTUATE THE BENDING ARM MOVEMENT TO THE SET VALUE (C4) IS C3 =C4 STOP THE BENDING ARM&PUSHER MOVE THE PUSHER TO HOME DECLAMP THE JOB CLAMPING MECHANISM IS JOB UNCLAMPD UNLOAD THE JOB &GIVE THE CONFORMATION AS THE JOB IS UNLOADED MOVE THE BENDING ARM TO HOME POSITION END .

Machine frame and clamp moves for the desired bending radius of the pipe automatically by PLC. S.No 1 Description Preparation of drawing and approval for rework. These two values are taken as reference value to the PLC. Bending arm is stopped after reaching the desired bending angle of the pipe and pusher moves reverse direction for its home position automatically by implementation of PLC to the machine. Such as a) Over bend angle b) Under bend angle. Clamp is opened and unloading the pipe from the machine by crane. Finally bending arm reaches its home position automatically. c) Over bent angle pipe: In this case the angle of bend exceeds the desired angle by min 2 deg. After loading the pipe in the machine. a)Time consumption: The pipe bend in the machine without PLC takes time for each sequence of operation is as follows Sequence of Operation to bend the pipe Pipe loading time Machine frame setting time to desired radius Clamping unit motion to set radius Clamping time Bending time to desired angle (90 bend) Unclamp time 0 Without PLC 30 min (approx) 30 min (approx) 20 min (approx) 10 min (approx) 120 min 30 min (approx) 30 min (approx) 4 Hrs 30 min With PLC 30 min (approx) 15 min 5 min 10 min 100 min 30 min (approx) 30 min (approx) 3 Hrs 40 min Unloading time Total time b) Rework operation The pipe-bending machine with out PLC had higher order of tolerance to accept the bend and pass quality. pusher is activated to push the pipe in the linear direction at the same time bending arm rotated from the home position to desired bending angle. the operator only enter the desired value of the pipe bending radius and desired pipe bending angle values through the panel board. Process Description: After implementation of PLC to the machine. 5. Hrs 4 hrs Manpower One . Clamp is opened for loading the pipe in the machine by using crane.Results and Discussion After implementation of PLC to the machine following advantages are achieved.4. There are two types of reworks were carried out when the desired angle is not reached. The rework procedure as follows. Hence the pipe has to be reworked to pass the quality.

It has produce high quality of bend pipes with low tolerance limit. The reworking procedure is as follows. Cutting the pipe in to two pieces as per drawing.per hour Rs 100 x 3 6 x 300 : Rs : Rs 300 / hr 1800/ pipe After implementation of PLC to the pipe-bending machine there is no bend inaccuracy and rework.per hour Rs 100 x 10 25 x 1000 Rs 5000 Rs 1000 Rs 26000 /- : Rs 1000 / hr : Rs 25000 / pipe. Welding of the pipes and joining. Here again the pipe has to be reworked in the following way. Add cost of crane handling @ Rs250 for 4 hrs.No 1 2 3 Description Loading the pipe on the machine and set up time Re bending the pipe to the desired angle Cooling and unloading Hrs 1 hrs 1hrs 1hrs Manpower Two Two Two Total reworking hrs Total manpower required Labor rate per hour Total Labor hour rate Total cost of reworking : : : : : 3 hrs 6 persons Rs 100 /. Edge preparation of the pipes.2 3 4 5 Marking on the pipe. It is graphed as follows . 3 hrs 3 hrs 4 hrs 8 hrs 3 hrs Two Two Two Two One 6 Grinding and smoothening the Weldment. Total duration of rework : 25 hrs Total manpower requirement Labor rate per hour Total Labor hour rate Total cost of reworking Add cost of machining for edge preparation Total reworking cost Under bent angle pipe: : : : : : : 10 persons Rs 100 /. c) Productivity improvement: Productivity is increased because of reduction of time to produce pipes. : In this case the pipe is under bent and the finished angle is less than the desired angle if the desired angle of bending is 90deg the finished angle would be min 2 deg less than 90 deg and the pipe has to be reworked. S.

This can be determined by using x bar control chart.5 90 90 89.07143 90 90. Table1-Bending radius 2000mm and Bending angle 90 deg weeks X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 90 90.14286 1 1 1 1 0.5 89.5 90 X7 TOTAL MEAN RANGE 90.5 90.5 90 90 90.5 89.07143 90.5 90 89.5 90 89.5 90 90 631.5 90 90.5 90 90 90 90.5 90.5 90 90 90.5 90.5 90.PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 PIPES---- 7 3 2 6 2 3 7 3 4 7 3 5 6 3 6 7 2 7 DAYS 8 6 3 8 6 2 9 2 10 7 3 11 7 4 6 3 12 13 d) Quality improvement: After implementation of the PLC in bending machine quality of the bend pipe is increased.5 90 90 90.5 90.5 630.5 0.5 90 90.21429 90.5 631 632 632 630 631 90.28571 90 90.21429 90.5 90.5 90.5 .5 90.5 90.14286 90.5 90.5 630 631.5 90. Tabulation has formed for the pipe ranges of bending radius 2000mm and bending angle 90 deg shows in table 8.5 90 90.5 630.28571 90.5 90.5 90 90.5 90 90 90.5 90 90 90 90 90.5 90 90 90.5 90 90.5 89.5 90 90 89.5 0.5 89.5 1 0.1.5 90 90.5 0.5 90 90.

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