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9

Fixed Points of the q-Bracket on the p-adic Unit Disk

Eric Brussel

Emory University

Abstract. The q-bracket [X]

q

: O

Cp

→ O

Cp

, which is the q-analog of the identity function,

is also a norm-preserving isometry for q ∈ 1 + S, where S is the open disk of radius p

−1/(p−1)

centered at 0. We show x ∈ O

Cp

is a nontrivial ﬁxed point for [X]

q

for some q if and only if

(x −2) · · · (x −(p −1)) ∈ S. The map Q(X) taking x to a q for which [x]

q

= x is analytic, and

locally |Q(x

′

) −q| = c · |x

′

−x| for some constant c, unless x is a double (nontrivial) ﬁxed point,

in which case |Q(x

′

) − q| = c · |x

′

− x|

2

. The nontrivial pairs (x, q − 1) such that [x]

q

= x form

a manifold whose standard projections each have degree p − 2. Restricting to Z

p

, we ﬁnd the

theory to be trivial unless p = 3, in which case locally |q

′

−q| = |x

′

−x|/3.

I. Introduction.

Let C

p

denote the p-adic complex numbers. Write |−| for the metric on C

p

, and let O

p

denote

the unit disk in C

p

. Write v for the corresponding additive valuation, so that |x| = p

−v(x)

. Let

S = {y ∈ C

p

: 0 ≤ |y| < p

−1/(p−1)

} ⊂ O

p

If x ∈ O

p

and q ∈ 1 + S then xlog q ∈ xS ⊂ S, so q

x

= exp(xlog q) is well deﬁned. We deﬁne

the q-bracket [X]

q

on O

p

by

[x]

q

df

=

q

x

−1

q−1

if q = 1

x if q = 1

The q-bracket is an interpolation to O

p

of the “q-number” or “q-analog” of n ∈ N, which is

deﬁned by [n]

q

=

q

n

−1

q−1

= 1 +q +q

2

+· · · +q

n−1

. The q-bracket is also the canonical 1-cocycle

[X]

q

∈ Z

1

(O

p

, O

p

) sending 1 to 1, where O

p

is viewed as an O

p

-module via the action 1 ∗ 1 = q.

If q ∈ Z

p

, then [X]

q

∈ Z

1

(Z

p

, Z

p

), and then [X]

q

(mod p

n

) ∈ Z

1

(Z/p

n

, Z/p

n

).

For reference on basic concepts see the beautiful book [G] by Gouvˆea. The study of q-

functions for a general variable q tending to 1 is very old, and the study of q-numbers and

q-identities goes back at least to Jackson in [J]. In [F] Fray proved p-adic q-analogs of theorems

of Legendre, Kummer, and Lucas on q-binomial coeﬃcients. The structure of the space of

continuous functions C(K, Q

p

), where K is a local ﬁeld, was studied by Dieudonn´e in [D],

and Mahler constructed an explicit basis for this space in [M]. In [C] Conrad proved that the

q-binomial coeﬃcients form a basis for C(Z

p

, Z

p

). Isometries on Z

p

or on locally compact

connected one-dimensional abelian groups have been studied in [A], [B], and [Su].

II. Results.

1

2

Proposition 1. Fix q ∈ 1 +S. Then [X]

q

: O

p

→O

p

is a norm-preserving isometry.

Proof. This is clear for q = 1, so assume q = 1. [X]

q

is the composition of analytic isomorphisms

O

p

log q

−−−→ B(0, |q −1|)

exp(−)−1

−−−−−−−→ B(0, |q −1|)

1

q−1

−−−→ O

p

a dilation by |q −1|, an isometry, and a contraction by |q −1|. Tracing through the maps shows

[X]

q

preserves the norm.

Since [X]

q

is an isometry of the p-adic unit disk onto itself, the notion of ﬁxed point makes

sense. Set

f(X, Q−1) = [X]

Q

−X

For ﬁxed q ∈ 1 + S the set of ﬁxed points of [X]

q

is the set of solutions {x : f(x, q − 1) = 0}.

We see that f(X, Q−1) is analytic on O

p

×S, since upon rewriting the series we ﬁnd

f(X, Q−1) =

¸

n=1

X

n + 1

(Q−1)

n

is in C

p

[[X, Q−1]] and converges on O

p

×S.

Notation. We will write Q− 1 = Y = p

m0

U, so that q = Q(y) = Q(u) ∈ 1 +S for y ∈ S and

u ∈ O

∗

p

. Set A

0

(X) = 1, and for n > 0 set

A

n

(X) = (X −2)(X −3) · · · (X −(n + 1))

It is obvious that f(x, 0) = 0 for all x ∈ O

p

, and f(0, q −1) = f(1, q −1) = 0 for all q −1 ∈ S.

We call these solutions trivial, and are led to deﬁne

M

df

= V

[X]

Q

−X

(Q−1)X(X −1)

**This set parameterizes the pairs (x, q −1) such that x is a nontrivial ﬁxed point for (X)
**

q

.

Proposition 2. The set M is a submanifold of O

p

× S. If (x, q − 1) ∈ M then there is an

analytic function Q(X) in a neighborhood N of x such that q = Q(x), and (x

′

, Q(x

′

) −1) ∈ M

for all x

′

∈ N.

Proof. Let Y = Q−1 and

g(X, Y ) =

f(X, Y )

Y X(X −1)

We show dg does not vanish on M by showing

∂g

∂Y

(x, y) = 0 or all (x, y) ∈ M. Then M is a

submanifold of O

p

×S by [Se, Chapter III, Section 11], and there is an analytic function Q(x)

such that (x

′

, Q(x

′

)−1) ∈ M in a neighborhood of (x, y) by the p-adic implicit function theorem.

Directly from the deﬁnition of f,

∂f

∂Y

=

∂[X]

Q

∂Q

=

XQ

X−1

−[X]

Q

Q−1

3

If (x, y) ∈ M, then (x, y) ∈ V (f), so [x]

q

= x. Therefore

∂f

∂Y

(x, y) = x[x −1]

q

Since g = f/Y X(X −1),

∂g

∂Y

=

1

Y X(X −1)

∂f

∂Y

−

g

Y

By the power series expression for g we have g(X, 0) = 1/2, so in particular if (x, y) ∈ M then

y = 0, hence (g/Y )(x, y) = 0, hence

∂g

∂Y

(x, y) =

1

yx(x −1)

∂f

∂Y

(x, y) =

[x −1]

q

y(x −1)

Expand

[X]

q

=

¸

n=1

(log q)

n

(q −1)n!

X

n

Therefore

[X−1]q

X−1

=

¸

n=0

(log q)

n+1

(q−1)(n+1)!

(X − 1)

n

. This has value log q/(q − 1) at X = 1, and if

X = 1 then it is nonzero since [X−1]

q

preserves the norm in O

p

by Proposition 1. We conclude

∂g

∂Y

(x, y) = 0 for all (x, y) ∈ M.

Deﬁnitions. Let φ

1

: M → O

p

and φ

2

: M → S be the projections, and let M

y

= φ

−1

2

(y)

and M

x

= φ

−1

1

(x) denote the corresponding ﬁbers. We identify M

y

with φ

1

(M

y

), and M

x

with

φ

2

(M

x

). Thus M

y

is the set of nontrivial ﬁxed points of [X]

q

, where q = 1 +y.

Series 1. For any x ∈ O

p

and q ∈ 1 +S, write

[X]

q

−X =

¸

n=0

c

n

(x, q)(X −x)

n

= ([x]

q

−x) +

q

x

log q

q −1

−1

(X −x) +

¸

n=2

q

x

(log q)

n

(q −1)n!

(X −x)

n

Proposition 3. If p = 2 then M = ∅. If p = 2, then φ

2

has degree p −2, and

φ

2

(M) = {q −1 ∈ S : p

−1/(p−2)

≤ |q −1| < p

−1/(p−1)

}

Proof. Fix q ∈ 1 + S. For x ∈ O

p

, let c

n

= c

n

(x, q) be the coeﬃcient from Series 1. By the

p-adic Weierstrass preparation theorem [G, Theorem 6.2.6], the number of zeros of [X]

q

−X is

N = sup{n : v(c

n

) = inf

m

v(c

m

)}, counting multiplicities. Since {0, 1} are both zeros, we know

N ≥ 2, and M

q−1

has cardinality N −2. For n ≥ 2, we compute

v(c

n

) = (n −1)m

0

−

n −s

p

(n)

p −1

4

where s

p

(n) is the sum of the coeﬃcients of the p-adic expansion of n. It is easy to see v(c

n

) >

v(c

p

) whenever n > p. If p = 2, v(c

2

) = m

0

−1. If p = 2,

(∗) v(c

n

(q, x)) =

m

0

+nm

0

if 2 ≤ n ≤ p −1

(p − 1)m

0

−1 if n = p −2

Thus if p = 2 or m

0

> 1/(p −2) we have N = 2, hence M

q−1

= ∅. If p = 2 and m

0

≤ 1/(p −2)

then v(c

p

) ≤ v(c

2

), hence N = p, hence M

q−1

has cardinality p −2, counting multiplicities. We

conclude φ

2

has degree p − 2 over 1/(p −1) < m

0

≤ 1/(p −2).

Series 2. Let Q = 1 +p

m0

U, where m

0

> 1/(p −1). For any u ∈ O

p

,

h

m0

(x, U)

df

=

(x)

Q

−x

(Q−1)x(x −1)

=

¸

n=0

d

n

(x, u)(U −u)

n

where d

n

(x, u) =

¸

∞

k=n

k

n

A

k

(x)

(k+2)!

p

km0

u

k−n

. Since m

0

> 1/(p − 1), the series converges on O

∗

p

for all x ∈ O

p

.

Proposition 4. Suppose p = 2. Then φ

1

has degree p −2, and

φ

1

(M) = {x ∈ O

p

: A

p−2

(x) ∈ S}

If (x, q −1) ∈ M then v(A

p−2

(x)) = 1 −(p −2)m

0

.

Proof. Since p = 2, M = ∅ and 1/(p−1) < m

0

≤ 1/(p−2) by Proposition 3. Write d

n

= d(x, 0)

for the coeﬃcient in Series 2. Then

v(d

n

) = v(A

n

(x)) +nm

0

+

s

p

(n + 2) −(n + 2)

p −1

and from this we read oﬀ

(∗∗) v(d

n

(x, 0)) =

v(A

n

(x)) +nm

0

if 0 ≤ n ≤ p −3

v(A

p−2

(x)) + (p −2)m

0

−1 if n = p −2

If n > p − 2, we easily compute v(d

n

) − v(d

p−2

) > 0 using m

0

> 1/(p − 1). It follows that the

Weierstrass polynomial has nonzero degree if and only if v(d

p−2

) ≤ v(d

0

), i.e., v(A

p−2

(x)) ≤

1−(p−2)m

0

, and then the degree is p−2. Since m

0

may assume any value greater than 1/(p−1),

for a given x this holds for all m

0

if and only if v(A

p−2

(x)) < 1/(p − 1), i.e., A

p−2

(x) ∈ S. If

x is a nontrivial ﬁxed point for [X]

q

then the ﬁrst segment of the Newton polygon must be

horizontal to ensure the solution U = u is a unit. Thus m

0

= (1 −v(A

p−2

(x)))/(p −2).

5

Proposition 5. Suppose M

q−1

= ∅, so that Card(M

q−1

) ≤ p −2, and write M

q−1

for the set

of residues.

a. If m

0

< 1/(p −2), M

q−1

= {2, . . . , p −1}, and Card(M

q−1

) = p −2.

b. If m

0

= 1/(p −2), M

q−1

∩ {2, . . . , p −1} = ∅, and Card(M

q−1

) ≥ p −3.

Proof. Since 1/(p − 1 < m

0

≤ 1/(p − 2), the Weierstrass polynomial for [X]

q

− X in Series 1

has degree p by Proposition 3, and each [X]

q

has a ﬁxed point. We have v(A

p−2

(x)) = 0 if and

only if ¯ x ∈ {2, . . . , p −1} if and only if m

0

= 1/(p −2) by Proposition 4. This proves all but the

cardinality statements.

If m

0

= 1/(p − 2) then v(c

2

(x, q)) = v(c

p

(x, q)) = m

0

by (∗), so there are at most two zeros

with residue ¯ x by (∗). Suppose [X]

q

has ﬁxed points x and x

′

, such that ¯ x = ¯ x

′

. We compute

c

1

(x

′

, q) − c

1

(x, q) = ([x

′

]

q

− [x]

q

) log q, and [x

′

]

q

− [x]

q

is a unit by Proposition 1. Therefore

if v(c

1

(x, q)) > m

0

then v(c

1

(x

′

, q) − c

1

(x, q)) = m

0

, hence v(c

1

(x

′

, q)) = m

0

. Thus if there

are two points in M

q−1

with the same residue, then the remaining residues are distinct, hence

Card(M

q−1

) ≥ p −3.

If m

0

< 1/(p − 2) then v(c

2

(x, q)) > v(c

p

(x, q)) by (∗), so since not every ﬁxed point for

[X]

q

has the same residue we must have v(c

1

(x, q)) = v(c

p

(x, q)), hence there is at most one

x ∈ M

q−1

with any given residue, and Card(M

q−1

) = p −2.

**Remark. By Proposition 4 and Proposition 5, we compute
**

φ

1

(M) =

¸

¯ a∈{

¯

2,..., ¯ p−

¯

1}

B(a, 1) ∪

¸

a∈{2,...,p−1}

B(a, 1) −

¯

B(a, p

−1/(p−1)

)

where the left union corresponds to v(q −1) = 1/(p−2), the right union to v(q −1) < 1/(p−2),

and a ∈ O

p

. Note no rational integer not congruent to 0 or 1 (modp) may be a ﬁxed point for

any [X]

q

.

Proposition 6. Suppose (x, q − 1) ∈ M. Then Card(M

x

) = p − 2, and each u = p

−m0

(q − 1)

has a diﬀerent residue. If x

′

∈ B(x, |A

p−2

(x)|) then there exists a unique q

′

∈ B(q, |q −1|) such

that (x

′

, q

′

−1) ∈ M, and we have a map

Q(X) : B(x, |A

p−2

(x)|) →B(q, |q −1|)

such that |q

′

−q| = |([x

′

]

q

−x

′

)/x

′

(x

′

−1)|.

Proof. Since x is a nontrivial ﬁxed point, 0 ≤ v(A

p−2

(x)) < 1/(p − 1) and M

x

has cardinality

p −2, counting multiplicities, by Proposition 4. By Series 2,

h

m0

(x, U) =

¸

n=0

d

n

(x, u)(U −u)

n

where d

n

(x, u) =

¸

k=n

k

n

A

k

(x)

(k+2)!

p

km0

u

k−n

. Thus d

0

(x, u) = h

m0

(x, u) = 0, and using (∗∗)

we compute for 1 ≤ n ≤ p − 2, v(d

n

(x, u)) = 0. Thus the Newton polygon contains the points

(n, v(d

n

(x, u))) = (0, ∞), (1, 0), . . . , (p−2, 0), which shows the p−2 roots u have distinct residues.

6

We show v(d

0

(x

′

, u)) > 0 for x

′

∈ B(x, |A

p−2

(x)|). As d

0

(x, u) = 0, it is equivalent to show

v(A

p−2

(x

′

)−A

p−2

(x)) > 1−(p−2)m

0

= v(A

p−2

(x). Since A

p−2

(X) = 1+X+· · ·+X

p−2

(mod p),

this is equivalent to

v((x

′

−x) + ((x

′

)

2

−x

2

) +· · · + ((x

′

)

p−2

−x

p−2

)) > v(A

p−2

(x)

and the condition holds since x

′

∈ B(x, |A

p−2

(x)|. Next,

d

1

(x

′

, u)) =

¸

k=1

k

A

k

(x

′

)

(k + 2)!

p

km0

u

k−1

=

A

1

(x

′

)

3!

p

m0

+· · · + (p −2)

A

p−2

(x

′

)

(p −1)!

p

(p−2)m0−1

u

p−3

+· · ·

and v(d

1

(x

′

, u)) = v(A

p−2

(x

′

)p

(p−2)m0−1

). As x

′

∈ B(x, |A

p−2

(x)|), v(A

p−2

(x

′

)) = v(A

p−2

(x)),

so v(d

1

(x

′

, u)) = v(d

1

(x, u) = 0. By the Newton polygon, for each x

′

∈ B(x, |A

p−2

(x)|) there

is a unique q

′

= 1 + p

m0

u

′

, such that x

′

is a nontrivial ﬁxed point for [X]

q

′ , and v(u

′

− u) =

v(d

0

(x

′

, u))−v(d

1

(x

′

, u)) = v(d

0

(x

′

, u)), hence v(q

′

−q) = v(h

m0

(x

′

, u))+m

0

. The result follows

since h

m0

(x

′

, u) = ([x

′

]

q

−x

′

)/((q −1)x

′

(x

′

−1)).

**Proposition 7. Suppose (x, q −1) ∈ M. If x has multiplicity one in M
**

q−1

, then |Q(x

′

) −q| ∼

|x

′

−x| for x

′

suﬃciently near x. Otherwise |Q(x

′

) −q| ∼ |x

′

−x|

2

for x

′

suﬃciently near x.

Proof. By Series 1, x has multiplicity one in M

q−1

if and only if q

x

log q = q − 1 or x ∈ {0, 1}.

We expand ([X]

q

−X)/((q −1)X(X −1)) around x. For x = 0, 1,

1

X(X −1)

=

¸

n=0

a

n

(X −x)

n

where a

n

= (−1)

n+1

(x

−(n+1)

−(x −1)

−(n+1)

). Then

g(X, q) =

[X]

q

−X

X(X −1)

=

¸

n=0

b

n

(x, q)(X −x)

n

where b

n

=

¸

i+j=n

a

i

c

j

, where c

j

= c

j

(x, q−1) is the coeﬃcient from Series 1. Since (x, q−1) ∈

M, c

0

= 0, and we obtain b

0

= 0, b

1

= a

0

c

1

= (1 −q +q

x

log q)/((q −1)x(x −1)), and if b

1

= 0

then b

2

= a

0

c

2

= q

x

(log q)

2

/((q − 1)x(x − 1)). Whenever b

1

= 0, for x

′

suﬃciently near x we

have v(q

′

− q) = v(x

′

− x) + v(b

1

(x, q)) by Proposition 6. If b

1

= 0, i.e., q

x

log q = q − 1, then

b

2

= 0, and then for x

′

suﬃciently near x we have v(q

′

−q) = 2v(x

′

−x) +v(b

2

(x, q)).

For x = 0 we use 1/(X − 1) =

¸

n=0

−X

n

, and compute g(X, q) =

¸

n=0

b

n

X

n

where

b

n

= −(c

1

+· · · +c

n+1

). Since (x, q − 1) ∈ M, x already has multiplicity two, so c

1

= 0, hence

b

0

= 0, and since c

2

= 0 is guaranteed, for x

′

suﬃciently near x = 0 we have |q

′

−q| ∼ |x

′

−x|.

For x = 1 we use 1/X =

¸

n=0

(−1)

n

(X − 1)

n

, and g(X, q) =

¸

n=0

b

n

(X − 1)

n

where b

n

=

c

1

−c

2

+c

3

−· · · + (−1)

n

c

n+1

, and we obtain the same result, for x

′

suﬃciently near x = 1.

7

Proposition 8. Suppose (x, q − 1) ∈ M, x

′

∈ B(x, |A

p−2

(x)|), and q

′

= Q(x

′

). If p = 3

then locally Q(X) : B(x, |x − 2|) → B(q, |q − 1|) is an analytic surjection satisfying |q

′

− q| =

|x

′

−x|p

1−2m0

. If x has multiplicity two in M

q−1

then v(A

(1)

p−2

(x)) = 1 −(p −3)m

0

.

Proof. Write q−1 = p

m0

u and q

′

−1 = p

m0

u

′

. We have v(u

′

−u) = v(h

m0

(x

′

, u)) by Proposition

6. Since h

m0

(x, u) = 0,

h

m0

(X, u) = h

m0

(X, u) −h

m0

(x, u) =

¸

n=1

A

n

(X) −A

n

(x)

(n + 2)!

p

nm0

u

n

If p = 3 then A

p−2

(x) = A

1

(x) = x−2, and it is easy to see v(h

m0

(x

′

, u)) = v(x

′

−x)+m

0

−1.

Thus v(q

′

−q) = v(x

′

− x) + 2m

0

− 1, and the map Q(X) : B(x, |x −2|) →B(q, |q − 1|), which

is analytic by Proposition 2, is surjective: If q

′

∈ B(q, |q − 1|) then q

′

= φ

2

(x

′

) for some x

′

by

Proposition 3, and v(x

′

−x) = v(q

′

−q) + 1 −2m

0

> 1 −m

0

= v(x −2), so x

′

∈ B(x, |x −2|).

Assume p = 3, so p −2 = 1. Compute

A

p−2

(x

′

) −A

p−2

(x) = A

(1)

p−2

(x)(x

′

−x) +

1

2!

A

(2)

p−2

(x)(x

′

−x)

2

+· · · +

1

(p −1)!

A

(p−1)

p−2

(x)(x

′

−x)

p−1

If x has multiplicity two in M

q−1

then |q

′

−q| ∼ |x

′

−x|

2

by Proposition 7, and since p = 3 this

can only happen if v(A

(1)

p−2

(x)) + (p −2)m

0

−1 = m

0

, as claimed.

Remark. Since A

p−2

(X) = 1 +X +· · · + X

p−2

(mod p), we have

A

(1)

p−2

(X) = 1 + 2X +· · · + (p −2)X

p−3

(mod p)

Thus if p = 3 and ¯ x ∈ F

p

then since A

(1)

p−2

(x) = 0, x is not a double point for [X]

q

.

Proposition 9. Let M(Z

p

) = {(x, q −1) ∈ M : x, q ∈ Z

p

}. Then

M(Z

p

) = ∅ ⇐⇒ p = 3

The image of φ

1

is φ

1

(M(Z

3

)) = B(1, 1) ∪ B(0, 1), and we have an analytic surjection

Q(X) : B(1, 1) −→ B(4, 3

−1

)

B(0, 1) −→ B(7, 3

−1

)

with |q

′

− q| = |x

′

− x|/3 about each x ∈ {0, 1}. Thus if q = 1 + 3u for u ∈ Z

∗

3

, the map U(X)

taking x

′

to u

′

yields isometries B(1, 1)

∼

−→B(1, 1) and B(0, 1)

∼

−→B(2, 1).

Proof. By Proposition 3, M = ∅ if and only if 1/(p −1) < v(q −1) ≤ 1/(p −2), so we have the

ﬁrst statement. Assume p = 3. By Proposition 4, φ

1

(M) ∩ Z

3

= {x : x = 2(mod 3)}, and by

Proposition 3, φ

2

(M) ∩Z

3

= {q −1 : |q −1| = 3

−1

}. Since the Weierstrass polynomial for Series

2 has degree one, we see that x ∈ Z

3

if and only if q ∈ Z

3

, so these sets are φ

1

(M(Z

3

)) and

φ

2

(M(Z

3

)), respectively. Locally the map Q(X) takes B(x, 1) onto B(q, 3

−1

) by Proposition 8,

and is a contraction by 1/3. By sheer luck we ﬁnd the nontrivial ﬁxed point −1/2 for q = 4,

and since −1/2 has residue 1, we conclude that Q(X) takes B(1, 1) onto B(4, 3

−1

) and B(0, 1)

onto B(7, 3

−1

). The last statement is trivial.

8

References.

[A] Arens, R.: Homeomorphisms preserving measure in a group, Ann. of Math., 60, no. 3,

(1954), pp. 454–457.

[B] Bishop, E.: Isometries of the p-adic numbers, J. Ramanujan Math. Soc. 8 (1993), no.

1-2, 1–5.

[C] Conrad, K.: A q-analogue of Mahler expansions. I, Adv. Math. 153 (2000), no. 2,

185–230.

[D] Dieudonn´e, J.: Sur les fonctions continues p-adiques, Bull. Sci. Math. (2) 68 (1944),

79–95

[F] Fray, R. D.: Congruence properties of ordinary and q-binomial coeﬃcients, Duke Math.

J. 34 (1967), 467–480.

[G] F. Q. Gouvˆea, p-adic Numbers, An Introduction Second edition, Springer-Verlag, New

York, 2003.

[J] Jackson, Rev. F. H.: q-diﬀerence equations, Amer. J. Math. 32 (1910), 305–314.

[M] Mahler, K.: An interpolation series for continuous functions of a p-adic variable, J.

Reine Angew. Math. 199 (1958) 23–34.

[Se] J.-P. Serre, Lie Algebras and Lie Groups, LNM 1500, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992.

[Su] Sushchanski

˘

i, V. I.: Standard subgroups of the isometry group of the metric space of

p-adic integers, VBisnik Ki

¨

iv. UnBiiv. Ser. Mat. Mekh. 117 no. 30 (1988), 100–107.

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