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**Common Fixed Point Theorems In Ultra Metric Spaces
**

K. P. R. Rao and G. N. V. Kishore Department of Applied Mathematics Acharya Nagarjuna University- Dr. M. R. Appa Row Campus Nuzvid-521201, Krishna Dt. A. P., India E-mail: kprrao2004@yahoo.com Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to prove some common ﬁxed point theorems for a pair of maps of Jungck type on a spherically complete metric space. AMS (MOS) Subject Classiﬁcation Codes: 47H10, 54H25. Key Words: Ultra metric space, Spherically complete, Common ﬁxed point. 1. Introduction Generally to prove ﬁxed or common ﬁxed point theorems for maps satisfying strictly contractive conditions, one has to assume the continuity of maps and compact metric spaces. In spherically complete ultra metric spaces, the continuity of maps are not necessary to obtain ﬁxed points. First we state some known deﬁnitions. Deﬁnition 1. ([3]): Let (X, d) be a metric space. If the metric d satisﬁes strong triangle inequality: d(x, y) ≤ max{d(x, z), d(z, y)}∀x, y, z ∈ X then d is called an ultra metric on X and the pair (X, d) is called an ultra metric space. Deﬁnition 2. ([3]): An ultra metric space (X, d) is said to be spherically complete if every shrinking collection of balls in X has a non empty intersection. Recently Gajic [1] proved the following Theorem 3. (Theorem 1, [1]): Let (X, d) be a spherically complete ultra metric space. If T : X −→ X is a mapping such that d(T x, T y) < max{d(x, y), d(x, T x), d(y, T y)}∀x, y ∈ X, x = y then T has a unique ﬁxed point in X. Now we extend this Theorem for a pair of maps of Jungck type.

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K. P. R. Rao and G. N. V. Kishore

2. Main Results Theorem 4. Let (X, d) be a spherically complete ultra metric space. If f and T are self maps on X satisfying T (X) ⊆ f (X), d(T x, T y) < max{d(f x, f y), d(f x, T x), d(f y, T y)}∀x, y ∈ X, x = y (2.1) (2.2)

then there exists z ∈ X such thatf z = T z. Further if f and T are coincidentally commuting at z then z is the unique common ﬁxed point of f and T . Proof. Let Ba = (f a; d(f a, T a)) denote the closed sphere centered at f a with the radius d(f a, T a) and let A be the collection of these spheres for all a ∈ X. Then the relation Ba ≤ Bb iﬀ Bb ⊆ Ba is a partial order on A. Let A1 be a totally ordered sub family of A. Since (X, d) is spherically complete , we have Ba = B = φ.

Ba ∈A1

Let f b ∈ B and Ba ∈ A1 . Then f b ∈ Ba . Hence d(f b, f a) ≤ d(f a, T a) · · · · · · (i) If a = b then Ba = Bb . Assume that a = b. Let x ∈ Bb . Then d(x, f b) ≤ d(f b, T b) ≤ max{d(f b, f a), d(f a, T a), d(T a, T b)} = max{d(f a, T a), d(T a, T b)} f rom(i) < max{d(f a, f b), d(f a, T a), d(f b, T b)} f rom(2.2) = d(f a, T a)........(ii) Now , d(x, f a) ≤ max{d(x, f b), d(f b, f a)} ≤ d(f a, T a) from(i) and (ii). Thus x ∈ Ba . Hence Bb ⊆ Ba for any Ba ∈ A1 . Thus Bb is an upper bound in A for the family A1 and hence by Zorn’s Lemma, A has a maximal element,say Bz , z ∈ X. Suppose f z = T z. Since T z ∈ T (X) ⊆ f (X), there exists w ∈ Xsuch that T z = f w. Clearly z = w. Now from (2.2) we have d(f w, T w) = d(T z, T w) < max{d(f z, f w), d(f z, T z), d(f w, T w)} = d(f z, f w) f rom(2.2)

Thus f z ∈ Bw . Hence Bz ⊆ Bw . It is a contradiction to the maximality of Bz . / Hence f z = T z. Further assume that f and T are coincidentally commuting at z . Then f 2 z = f (f z) = f T z = T f z = T (T z) = T 2 z. Suppose f z = z . Now from (2.2), we have d(T f z, T z) < max{d(f 2 z, f z), d(f 2 z, T f z), d(f z, T z)} = d(T f z, T z). Hence f z = z . Thus z = f z = T z. Uniqueness of common ﬁxed point of f and T follows easily from(2.2). Now we give an example to illustrate our Theorem 4.

Common Fixed Point Theorems In Ultra ....

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Example 5. . Let X = R, d(x, y) = 0 if x = y 1 if x = y

Deﬁne T, f : X −→ X as T x = 1 and f x = x+1 , ∀x ∈ X. 2 All conditions of Theorem 4 are satisﬁed. Clearly 1 is the unique common ﬁxed point of T and f . Corollary 6. Theorem 4 holds if the inequality (2.2) is replaced by d(T x, T y) < max{d(f x, f y), d(f x, T x), d(f y, T y), d(f x, T y), d(f y, T x)} ∀x, y ∈ X, x = y (2.3)

Proof. Since d(f x, T y) ≤ max{d(f x, f y), d(f y, T y)} and d(f y, T x) ≤ max{d(f y, f x), d(f x, T x)} it follows that (2.3) implies that (2.2). Corollary 7. Taking f = I(Identity map) in Theorem 4 , we obtain Theorem 1 of [1]. Now we generalize Theorem 4 when T is a multi-valued map. Let C(X) denote the class of all non empty compact subsets of X. For A, B ∈ C(X), the Hausdorﬀ metric is deﬁned as H(A, B) = max where d(x, A) = inf {d(x, a) : a ∈ A}. Deﬁnition 8. Let (X, d) be an ultra metric space, f : X −→ X and T : X −→ C(X). f and T are said to be coincidentally commuting at z ∈ X if f z ∈ T z implies f T z ⊆ T f z. Theorem 9. Let (X, d) be a spherically complete ultra metric space. Let f : X −→ X and T : X −→ C(X) be satisfying T x ⊆ f (X), ∀x ∈ X, H(T x, T y) < max{d(f x, f y), d(f x, T x), d(f y, T y)}∀x, y ∈ X, x = y. Then there exists z ∈ X such that f z ∈ T z. Further assume that d(f x, f u) ≤ H(T f y, T u)∀x, y, u ∈ Xwithf x ∈ T y and f and T are coincidentally commuting atz. Then f z is the unique common ﬁxed point of f and T . (2.7) (2.4) (2.5)

sup d(x,B) , x∈A sup d(y,A) y∈B

(2.6)

Proof. Let Ba = (f a; d(f a, T a)) denote the closed sphere centered at f a with the radius d(f a, T a) and let A be the collection of these spheres for all a ∈ X. Then the relation Ba ≤ Bb iﬀ Bb ⊆ Ba is a partial order on A. Let A1 be a totally ordered Ba = B = φ. sub family of A. Since (X, d) is spherically complete , we have

Ba ∈A1

Let f b ∈ B and Ba ∈ A1 . Then f b ∈ Ba . Hence d(f b, f a) ≤ d(f a, T a) · · · (i) If a = b then Ba = Bb . Assume that a = b. Let x ∈ Bb . Then d(x, f b) ≤ d(f b, T b).

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K. P. R. Rao and G. N. V. Kishore

Since T a is compact, there exists u ∈ T a such that d(f a, u) = d(f a, T a) · · · (ii) Consider d(f b, T b) = inf d(f b, c) c ∈ Tb inf d(u, c)} c ∈ Tb ≤ max{d(f a, T a), d(T a, T b)} f rom(i)and(ii) < max{d(f a, T a), d(f b, T b)} f rom(i)and(2.5) ≤ max{d(f b, f a), d(f a, u), Thus d(f b, T b) < d(f a, T a) · · · (iii) Now, d(x, f a) ≤ max{d(x, f b), d(f b, f a)} ≤ d(f a, T a) f rom(i)and(iii) Thus x ∈ Ba and Bb ⊆ Ba for any Ba ∈ A1 .Thus Bb is an upper bound in A for the family A1 and hence by Zorn’s Lemma, A has a maximal element,say Bz , z ∈ X. Suppose f z ∈ T z. / Since T z is compact, there exists k ∈ T z such that d(f z, T z) = d(f z, k). From (2.4), there exists w ∈ X such that k = f w. Thus d(f z, T z) = d(f z, f w) · · · (iv) Clearly z = w. Now, d(f w, T w) ≤ H(T z, T w) < max{d(f z, f w), d(f z, T z), d(f w, T w)} = d(f z, f w) f rom(iv). Hence f z ∈ Bw . Thus Bz ⊆ Bw . / It is a contradiction to the maximality of Bz . Hence f z ∈ T z. Further assume (2.6) and (2.7). Write f z = p . Then p ∈ T z. From (2.6), d(p, f p) = d(f z, f p) ≤ H(T f z, T p) = H(T p, T p) = 0. This implies that f p = p. From (2.7), p = f p ∈ f T z ⊆ T f z = T p. Thus f z = p is a common ﬁxed point of f and T . Suppose q ∈ X, q = p is such that q = f q ∈ T q. From (2.5) and (2.6) we have d(p, q) = d(f p, f q) ≤ H(T f p, T q) = H(T p, T q) < max{d(f p, f q), d(f p, T p), d(f q, T q)} = d(p, q). This implies that p = q. Thus p = f z is the unique common ﬁxed point of f and T. Remark 10. If f = I (Identity map) then the ﬁrst part of Theorem 9 is the main theorem of Gajic [2]. Acknowledgement The authors are thankful to referees for their valuable suggestions to improve the paper.

Common Fixed Point Theorems In Ultra ....

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References

[1] Lj.Gajic : On ultra metric spaces, Novi Sad J.Math.31, 2 (2001), 69-71. [2] Lj.Gajic : A multi valued ﬁxed point theorem in ultra metric spaces, Math.vesnik, 54, (3-4) (2002), 89-91. [3] A.C.M.Van Roovij : Non- Archimedean Functional Analysis, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1978.

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