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ELEMENTS

OF

LOGIC;

TOGETHER

WITH

AN

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL,

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

THE

REASON.

BY

HENRY

P.

TAPPAK

NEW
D.

YORK
AND

APPLETON
346
"

COMPANY

348

BROADWAY.

M.DCCC.LVI. M.UUUUL.VI.

(~~\

34 3iy

Entekeb,

according
D.

to

Act

of

Congress,
"

in

the

year

1855,

by

APPLETON

COMPANY,
of the York. United States
for

In

the

Clerk's

Office

of

the

District District

Court of New

the

Southern

Pat.

Otto*

La*.

A"rft

1014.

"

"!

**#"

-'""..

PREFACE.

The

work
and

here

undertaken
from
to

differs

somewhat

in

its

scope hitherto

design
been

systems
the world. of

of

Logic
The

which

have

given
the

Aristotelian
;

Logic
such,
as

is
it

simply
is

method

deduction

and,
so

as

complete.
been

Subsequent strictly

works,
have

in

far

they

have the

logical,
have

closely
selves them-

copied
to

great
an

master,
of the laws

and the

confined

exhibition

deductive

principles
method
prehends com-

and

processes.

Now,
the

deductive which
govern

merely
or

inferences established.
be

conclusions

from

premises
in and method evolution and their

previously
turn,
to
a

These from and is

premises
other

may,

inferences
extent

premises,
so

so

on, is

certain

just
evident

far that

this the

all of

sufficient.

But and have


not

it

premises
must

clusions, con-

and

conclusions
must

premises,
which
but

limit.

There from

be

premises premises,

are

clusions con-

other

which

arise

in

some

other

way.

Now,

complete

and

adequate

PREFACE.

Logic ought to exhibit this other way likewise : it premises ought to inform us how the most original basis they rest. what and upon arise, in the have been abroad Other methods,indeed, world, but without beingsystematically propounded as parts of Logic. Thus, the Platonic philosophy reallycontains a Logicaldevelopment of the most of human forms thought,springingout of original the Novum the intuitive faculty. And Organum of the method of Bacon contains a logical exposition first principles tion of establishing through the observaof phenomena.
Both
and
out

Plato

and

Bacon
and

have

had
are

many

able

ciples dis-

expounders;
a

into but

broader
"

and

the

adopt the oppositepoles of one


to

dailycoming clearer light, not as nents, oppothought of Coleridge as


"

both

great and
to

harmonious

system.
The is present attempt, therefore, make
out

Logic under its several departments; of obtainand to present it not merely as a method ing inferences from truths, but also as a method of those first truths and generalprinciples establishing which must precede all deduction. With all humility, I acknowledge my ness indebtedwho have to the great thinkers preceded me. of course I have read as well as thought ; and my blended are thinkingand reading naturally together. With this acknowledgment,may I be permitted to to note narwork, without stopping go on with my

the system of

PREFACE.

rowly
when
other

in I
am

my

own

mmd,
from

or

to

remark and

to

my

reader,
from
to

drawing
I

original,
perhaps,
entire
years

when

sources?
to

ought,
the

in

justice
of this

self, mywork

remark,
out

that several written elaborate

plan since,
Professor

was

struck
of

and

different Whewell's works had

portions
and

it

before and

Mr.

Mills'
my

suggestive

fallen That
I

under

eye.

Logic assigned
It the

really
to

embraces think

all will of

the

parts
appear

which in which of

have

it, I

fully

the

sequel.

is that of

branch the Reason

philosophy
as

expounds
truth The the
and

laws

the

faculty

reality.
view which I have I taken of the

Logic,

will

tify justo

prolegomena.
in

give
in

Introduction
to

Philosophy
relative

General,
and And

order
of

point
in

out
a

the

position
system.

importance
I

Logic

sophical philoView

give
since
I

the

Preliminary
is the that

of

the

Reason,
reasons, if

because,
or

this deemed

faculty
such be
a

which

logieizes,
clearly place.

view,

given
in

both

and

briefly,

would

satisfactory

this

CONTENTS.

PART

I.

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

PAGE

Section

I.
"

Definition Distinction
"

of

Philosophy
between the Phenomenal
and

15 the

II.

Metaphe23

nomenal III.
"

Of The

the

Reality

of and

the

Metaphenomenal

27
32

IV." V.
"

Objective
and

the

Subjective

Reason

Sense and Laws Transcendentalism

39
42 50

VI.
"

Sensualism Ideas
"

VII. VIII.
"

and

Primary
Antecedence

and

Secondary
in Time and

Phenomena in of all

58

IX. X.

"

Necessary

Existence

60 64
....

Ideas
"

the

last

Authority
Philosophy

Judgments

or

Knowledges

XI.
"

Divisions I.

of

Metaphysics

70

Comprehending Psychology
Dynamics Anthropology Ontology
II.
71

73 74 75

Nomology;
The Morale

comprehending
80 ib. 82 83
.,

Esthetics

Somatology
Logic.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

Sect. XII."

Of

the

Relations

between

Philosophy

and

the

Sciences

and
86

Arts...

Geometry
Sciences Natural
of

89 Discrete

Quantity
Science

91

Science and Unconditional

92
95 99

Conditional Art XIII.


"

Reason,
Criteria

the

Organ
a

of

Philosophy

103 108

XIV."

of

True

Philosophy

PART

II.
OF THE REASON.

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

Section

I.
"

General Outline

IntroductoryConsiderations
of the Ideas Ideas the Functions and Functions

respectingthe
of the Reason

Reason...

123
129

II. III. IV. V.

"

"

Explicationof Explication of
Does

138 of the Reason of the Reason?.,., 143 144

"

"

Logic comprehend

all the Functions

PART
LOGIC

III.
PROPER.

BOOK
PRIMORDIAL,

I.
LOGIC.

Section

I.-r-General II.

Laws

of the Evolution
;

of Ideas

148

Metaphysical Ideas
I.

comprehending
155 156 the Finite 159
ib. 165

Subject and
and

ObjeotiveExteriority Space

II. Time III. The IV. V. VI. VII.

Infinite and

Quantity Quality
Relation

167 172

Modality

III.
"

Nomological Ideas; comprehending


L Law 177

CONTENTS.

PAGE

II. Matter III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII.

and

Spirit

178 ib.

Perfection

Right
Freedom Personal

and

Wrong. Responsibility

180 182 183 184

and

Identity

Immortality
The

Beautiful, comprehending
187 188 ib. 189 190

Symmetry
Grace

Regularity,Uniformity,Variety
Determinate The Sublime
Form

Melody
Harmony
IX. X. XL XII. XIII. XIV. XV. The Useful and

'.

191 ib. 196

Centralization and Affinity Life

Diffusion

198 199 ib.


200

Repulsion

Polarity
Instinct

201

Regularity, Uniformity,
Determinate
Form

Variety, Symmetry,

and
202

XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. XXII. IV.


"

Difference, Identity,

Resemblance and End

203 205 207


209 210

Design,
Truth The

Final

Cause, Means

Philosophical Idea

Intuition Involution and Evolution

211

Analysis and
Sensuous

Synthesis Cognitions
of the Exterior

213

Primary

Cognitions, or

Consciousness V.
"

219

Primary

Subjective Cognitions, or

Cognitions of

the

Interior
222 224

Consciousness VI." Axioms

Metaphysical NOmological
VII. VIDI. IX."
"

Axioms Axioms of Axioms in

226

228

Of

the

Characteristics Relations

general

235
.

"

General

of Axioms

240 243

Definitions

10

CONTENTS.

BOOK

II.

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.
PAGE

Section

I.
"

Introduction Causes The and Laws

249
252
as

II.

"

III. IV. V.

"

Human

Reason,

related

to

the

ObjectiveWorld
of Phenomena

259 262

"

General

View

of Classification

"

determining the Principles


Distinction Fixed between Law of General Facts
:

Induction

in Classification 265

VI.

"

General

Fact

and

an

Absolute

and

276 283

VII."

The

Logic
I.

of Principles General Point II. General

Elimination
Difference

with

Uniform

Agreement
Difference

in One 288

Agreement

with

Uniform

in

One 289

Point III. Elimination

by Corresponding Quantities
of the Terms
which is the

and

sities Inten291

IV.

Elimination
determine

of

Sequence, in order
and

to

Antecedent

which

the 294

Consequent
VIII. IX."
"

Inductive The

Logic
of Art

of Universal

and

Necessary

Laws

303

Logic

315

BOOK

III.

deductive

logic.

Section

I.
"

Introduction

318
320
to

II.

"

Analysis of Propositions
Of
as Propositions, opposed

III. TV. V.
"

"

each

other

325 328 332 347


351

Of the

Conversion

of

Propositions
into

"

constructed Propositions Of Moods


and

Syllogisms

VI." VII." VLTI. IX.


"

Figures
of

Of the Reduction Of

Syllogisms Disjunctive Propositions

Modal, Hypothetical,and

354 357
362 365

"

Hypothetical Reasoning
Of the Dilemma Of the Sorites

X." XL" XH.


"

of Application

the Deductive

Formula

368

CONTENTS.

11

PAGE

Sec.

XIII."

Of

Fallacies. of Deduction 377

Fallacies

Comprehending
I. II. Fallacies Fallacies 1.
2.

in in

the the

Formula

378 380 ib.


to

Matter

Ambiguous
Fallacies Matter

Middle

relating
of the

the

Connection and that of the

between Conclusion.

the 383

Premises

Fallacies I. II. III. Fallacies

of

Induction of

comprehending
393

Fallacies Fallacies Fallacies in

Observation
in in

Determining

General
Laws

Facts

396 398 399

Inducting
to

respect

Intuition

BOOK

IV.

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

Section

I." II. III.

Nature The

of

Proof. kinds of the of


"

403

different the Nature

"

priori

and

posteriori

Proof. and sequents Con-

408

"

Of

Relation

between

Antecedents

413 IY." V." VI. VII. VIII.


"

Of Of
"

Degrees Testimony

of

Evidence

416 430

Circumstantial

Evidence from

436

"

Argument Proving Reasoning Reasoning


Demonstrative

Progressive

Approach

443 446 451

by

Example
from from

IX.
"

Experience
Resemblance and

X.
"

Analogy

454 462

XL
"

Proof.
of

XII.

"

Calculation

Probabilities

and

Chances

463

PART

I.

INTEODUCTOKY

VIEW

OF

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

PART

I.

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

SECTION

I.

DEFINITION

OF

PHILOSOPHY.

The

term

Philosophy

in
an

common

usage

has

obtained When

an

indefinite

and

often
and

improper
relation
to
or

application.
to to

ployed em-

alone,
it is

without

any

specific subject,
science
:

generally supposed
a

refer

natural
on

and

thus be

Treatise,
to

or

Essay,

Lecture,

Philosophy,
to

would

expected

embrace

something
Electricity,
would go

relating
or

Mechanics,

Astronomy,
Some the in
term

Chemistry, undoubtedly
in its
to

Magnetism.
this
;

beyond
as

and

regard

higher applications,
the doctrines of the

expressing something
and moral

relation
:
or

intellectual it with

powers
a

they
less

would

simply
and

identify
to

Metaphysics, apprehension.
will
at

term

no

vague

obscure that the


that

common

It appear

is
to

to

be

expected

affirmation

first

many

paradoxical,
are

Mechanics,
of

Astronomy,
:

Chemistry,
end
a

"c,
appear
most

not

branches

Philosophy
Philosophy
to

but

in the holds
:

it will
and

perfectly just. important


of
even

indeed sciences

close

relation
;

these

they

are

grand
itself.

results And

philosophy

but

they

are

not

phy philosocompre-

Metaphysics,

general

and

16

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

hensive

as

it

does is,

not

comprehend

all

philosophy
"

it

only forms one of its important divisions. In defining we philosophy, may go on


the Scientia Scientiarum
"
"

to say, that

it is
;
as

the

Science

of Sciences
of all

its object is to

and explainthe principles


to

causes

things
their

existing ;
which do

and
not

supply
we

the

defects

of inferior

sciences,

demonstrate, or
Or
may

sufficiently explain
"

* principles/'

call it the But

Science

of the Universal

and

the

Absolute."

this is not
as

enough.
yet by

It

would

be like A

definingAstronomy
definition
may be

the

"

Science

of the
reason

Heavens." of its

just,and
elaborate

and technical, dry, general, may fall short of the true


to intelligence
a

form

of expression,

end

of all

definition, viz.,
a more

to lead

the

clearer

and insight

fect per-

comprehension.
Philosophy is
a

word

formed
a

from

the Greek affection


"

$"koaoa

$"ia. It primarilyexpresses
knowledge
or

mental

love of

of wisdom. be

It cannot

questioned that
mind. activities of the
earnestness
"

such

an

herent affection is in-

in the human
it stimulates forms the in the

It appears

in feeble

infancy
"

wakeful manhood

child it busy prattling and joy of youth it stirs


"
"

nobly
It is when
a

it

decays
in

not

with

the

decay
shows

of age. man,
to

even moving spirit

savage the

and life,

lowest,as

still above

brute.

This

impulse

know,

this restless curiosity,


in

is connected

with

the whole

development of humanity and Keligion. Co-existent


the
love

Science, Arts, Government,


this love of
the

with

knowledge

is of

of external
appears the
not

action.

Hence,
the

development

humanity
and

only in
of
*

cultivation of the intelligence


the

of consequent unfolding

sciences ; but

also in the construction

implements
Ed.

and

machinery, and

Ency.

18

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

into
quarry

music

he

takes
forms

the whose
seem

and chisel,

from

the

marhle
jestic ma-

springup
; he

beauty
born with

is divine ; and
them
as

temples, which
habitation
colors takes

their it in

fit the

the

pencil,and
every

of

heaven, imitates
herself
:

form

dipping of life, and


and

advances

beyond
draws into and

Nature
out

he

affirms, reasons,
from his
out

believes ;
; advances ;

pure and

abstractions searches

thought

Nature,

laws

for her
:

phenomena
a

thus builds up systems of science

he invents

method
to
veal re-

of

analysis, and, in
her
more

the

laboratory, compels
;

Nature

secret

processes

and, not

content

with

this
his it

has lightedhim to world, the light of heaven, which makes and labors here,he seizes upon his minister, as reveal
to
more
"

him

the

worlds

from

whence

it has ascends and


an

travelled.
up
to

Still

from is

these
a

finite

forms, he
of

the

Infinite of

; he

worshipper
had

God,

expectant

immortality.
"

Imagine a beingwho and days of the universe,


external hands ancient of surface

been

present at the earliest


life ; who it
came

of human

had forth

seen

the
the

of the
and

Earth,
seen

as

from

Nature,

looked had

upon the the

all the

beauty

of those which
which

times

; who

beautiful melodious

forms sounds

Nature she then

presented,and
uttered ; in
a

heard

word, a being who had been a spectator of the first exhibition of the primitiveworld, and who the prodigies should return at the present day amidst of our it and arts ; would our industry,our institutions,
not
seem

to

him

in

his astonishment

as
man

if he ;
as

no

recognizedthe
of
a

ancient

of dwelling-place
had transferred it ? "
*

longer if beings
to

superior order
and had

their

abode

the

Earth

metamorphosed
Generate
a

Or

contemplate an
M,

Introduction I.
"

l'Histoire

de

la

Philosophie, par

Cousin,

Lee.

Linberg'sTranslation.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

19

mighty development of mind in a individual, appearingfirst on the shore of this world single and in less than a century assuming the a feeble infant, of a Newton, a Leibnitz, character Milton : and as an a in the condition illustration of the changes made of the invention world by human and skill, take the history of Mechanics, of the Needle and the Telescope. In contemplating these developments and changes, what enquiry springsup, yea, irresistibly springsup, in the mind ? Do we all this came not ask, how to pass, and these under why the developments and changes came up forms 7 Do we not particular ask,why did man change the face of the Earth ? Why did he create government 1 and Why did he give birth to science and art ? Where how did the development of his mind begin ; and how did it proceed? What of his thought, the the laws are the forms of his reasonings, ground of his knowledges and beliefs, of his investigations and ? What the methods and passions the laws of his emotions ? What the are are and what the laws of his will ? capacityand force, Enquiries like these evince the workings of the philosophic under found some form, in some spirit ; they are mind. take in that Few, indeed, degree,in every human velopmen whole field of enquiry,which embraces the complete deof humanity ; but whether in the child, in or the adult,in the savage, or in cultivated man, you perceive after the originand of things after reason questionings efficient and final causes earnest an prying of the mind into something beyond mere visible and tangibleforms, the workings of the philosophic impulse you there perceive The the $L\o(ro"f"ia. This is the dawn of philosophy. and of philosophy to impulse to know do, the elements spontaneouslyat work in the mind, lead forth the developepitome
" "

of the whole

"

20

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

ments

and
causes

changes
and
reasons

above

mentioned.

The

enquiry after
and

the

of these

developments

changes,

they have in any degree taken place,is the higher of the form and leads forth the mind to the "PiXoao"f)ia, construction of philosophy as a system. the first Under form, the mind appears intent upon its objects, thinking, to appear feeling, doing,and making its inherent energies in external effects. Under the second form, it turns back itself,that is,makes itself its own objectby an act upon of reflection, and finds out its own reach and limits, its
"

after

own

aims

and

laws.
to know

the

from expressing the impulse "f"i\oao$la, of man, and consequent causal activity after the

and

from
taken

ing, express-

development

of

humanity

has

place,

which impulse to seek after the laws and principles these to express have governed this development, comes laws and princithemselves. laws and principles These ples, like the simple desire of knowledge, act spontaneously in the development of humanity. They are in the highest elements from of our sense philosophical being,inseparable as a plastic it,and energizing within,and as such power from distinguishable philosophyas an expressed system in books, or in the lectures of the without, laid down of course, givesbirth to the second,as The first, schools. thought givesbirth to language. verted, have adIn that earlyperiod of humanity to which we it could not exist as a developed system : it was and a power, under which he thought then in man as a light the which he did not reflect : Thus and acted,but upon led him to change the face of nature idea of the useful, idea the ordinaryarts : The and to originate of justice, led him to constitute government and law : The idea of led him to the creations of painting, the beautiful, sculpthe

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENEKAL.

21

ture, music, and poetry : The


he

inherent

laws

of Ms

gence, intelli-

because guided him in his reasonings ; he believed, like a and faith appeared in him could not disbelieve, and divine instinct
:

sublime the

When he

he

looked

out

upon causes,
:

phenomena
he could finite from

of the
not

world,
mind

assigned them
without
up

because And

think

of "them

this relation
to

being,his
of
a

rose necessarily
"

the

conception of
under

the Infinite

Being

he became

worshipper

the energy

spontaneous and irresistible idea.


"

length reflection began when it began we know the birth of philosophyas a not, but its beginning was system developedand recognized.By the act of reflection, and the mind back upon turns or self-consciousness, itself, makes itself the object of its own contemplations. All the phenomena of the mind, are presented in the field of its consciousness the sensations which caused are by the ;
"

At

external
"

world
must

"

the affirmations

of the

reason

"

the be

tions voli-

all alike appear

there,in

order to

known.
sarily neces-

There

is

an

consciousness ordinary
man

which
a

belongs

to every

; but

reflection is thence called

and consciousness, which appears

and voluntary special a sciousness, conphilosophic

only when by
an

the mind
act

becomes

the

objectof
Now

its

own

observation

of self-determination.

consciousness, philosophic the mind questions itself respecting the grounds of its the forms of its thinking, knowledge and its faith respecting and the modes of its investigation the respecting grounds of its decisions in arts, morals,government, and those very enquirieswhich : it makes we religion nize recogin ourselves, the progressive when, reviewing development of humanity, we are struck with wonder and admiration has accomplished,and at what man at what has man
" "

in the exercise

of this

22

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

himself

become.

The

results of these

enquiriesform

tematic sys-

philosophy.

Let
to

us

sum

up

here

the

so precedingobservations,

as

present a
1. of

succinct

definition.

Philosophy,from knowledge
with
the this,

$t\oao"f)ia, expresses
human mind desire

the
as

inherent

desire

in the

; and Under

closely
the pulse im;

connected

of action.

of these
and
to exert

desires
his from

man

begins to acquireknowledge
materials in

in appropriating the causality

suppliedhim
and in 2. After
a

the

earth

"

working in

various

arts,

modifying the
time he

face of nature.

begins to
facts
and
a

reflect upon
has
:

the

ment developthe

of his works
or

mind,
own

the

he

observed, and
now

of his of

power

skill
new

and

the

love

knowing,
out

takes

and direction, forms

QCkocrofyia, impels him

to search

the

causes,
own

laws,and
and forms

of the various

velopmen de-

of his 3.

being.
laws

These

causes,

existed subjectively, really


he

from inseparable them the

before himself,

began

to

make and

objectof

his

thought

and

curious

inquiry:

of his being, and as governing they, as the first principles the substantial of philoelements its manifestations, are sophy,

4. These
or reflection,

first principles of his

being are
when with

known stated clear

through
cally, methodidefinitions

self-consciousness
proper

; and

under and

and divisions, Didactic

form expositions, The


term

Philosophy.
at

$i\oGo$ia,which
love

first

expressedonly the
all the

desire of in the

knowledge, or
human

of truth

ing spontaneouslywork-

mind,

is thus and

grand

results

of this

high

employed to express glorious impulse.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

23

SECTION

II.

DISTINCTION

BETWEEN

THE

PHENOMENAL

AND

THE

METAPHENOMENAL.

Consciousness

is the
our

common

field of

all

our

mental

activity. All
and

our sensations,

perceptions, thinking,

and fancies, our our emotions, reasoning, imaginations and alike appear, and determinations, volitions, passions, here. These affections of our being are not are recognized the movements in their of them. of
an

insensate mechanism
we

: we
as

know

them

going on,
there is

and

know

ourselves

the

subjects

importantdistinction to be drawn here. the immediate of consciousness, The distinction between objects and those objects which, although known, or at least sciousness. supposed to be known, yet lie without the sphere of conThe immediate objects of our consciousness these only are phenomena ; while those axe phenomena, and lie beyond immediate sciousness, conobjectswhich, by supposition, are metaphenomenal. "What the immediate of consciousness, or of are objects what are we immediately conscious ? This is the first enquiry. Let us begin with our sensations are The sensations. affections of our the inner being, and unquestionably are immediate But there are of consciousness. objects many nection perceptionsand judgments which come up to view in conwith the sensations, which, togetherwith their
Now
an

24

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

are objects,

entirelydistinct
are

from

trie

sensations.

The

bare

sensations

those
heat

of

of sound, of fragrance, color,


and cold,of titillation, of

of taste,of

touch, of
In

and
are

pain

and

pleasure.
the

these

contained

what
:

are

monly com-

called

of secondary qualities be
made from
mere

matter

but

this

designation cannot
We
have in the
our

the
internal

bare

sensations.

sensations
own

or experiences,

movements

of

inner

being. We substance, or
We
may

are

not

conscious
;
"

of matter, conscious action


the
cause

distance, space,
of

cause

we

are

of sensations

only.
our

be conscious

of the

of other faculties existence of

or perceivbeing, affirming ing

; but

the bare I think


a

body, distance, space, substance,and sensations are no such affirmation, or


it must
if be
we

perception.
will above

plain
had
no

to

every the

mind

that

reflect

that little,
we

only

sensations

mentioned,
world

should

have

knowledge
drawn
are

of

an

ternal ex-

whatever.
conclusion
must matter.

The the

same

be

with

respect

to

of primary qualities But

These immediate
extension

extension

and is

resistance.

resistance to
and experience, There

consciousness

only an
of this

internal

only a repetition
this

experience.
a

is

nothing in

experienceto

give

knowledge of any thing external : time, space, inward substance,and cause, are not contained in a mere of our modification a mere own experience, being. In the have immediate we primary qualities, no sciousness contherefore,
us

of that
we

an

external
an

world.

It thus

appears,

in

eral, gentain cer-

have
or

immediate

consciousness
of
our own

only of

affections

modifications
to

being.

What

immediately
are

appears

us, what
are

we

immediately know,

these be

there

time,and

trulythe phenomenal. If external an world, if there be substance,space, they are not phenomenal, or immediately cause,
" "

affections.

These

26

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

are

the

phenomena,

while

the

relations

and

truths

are

metaphenomenal. Again,
addressed God is

invisible

He

is

neither

as

substance
the

to

the

senses,

nor

is

he

manifested

to

sciousness con-

as

modification he
must

of
be known

our

interior

being

but

still,
:

if

known

at

all,
the

by

these

modifications
but known

He

is

not

phenomena

of

consciousness,

througli Here,
the

them.

then,

we

have

the

broad

and

clear

distinction

tween be-

phenomenal
and

and

the

metaphenomenal.
acts

tions, Sensa-

emotions

passions,
acts

of

perceiving,
and

judging,
volition
"

reasoning these,
as

and

imagining,
immediate

of

choice

the

objects
causes

of

consciousness, emotion, affirmed,


choice and
or

are

nomenal phesion, pas-

; the

but

the

of

sensation,

and

objects
of

and

truths

perceived,
of

deduced,
volition
"

the

objects
not

the

imagination,
the

these,
are

being

immediate

objects

of

consciousness,

metaphenomenal.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

27

SECTION

III.

OF

THE

REALITY

OF

THE

METAPHENOMENAL.

The have
and

reality of the phenomenal is not


certain

questioned.
and
and

That

emotions, passions, sensations, perceptions,


is immediate
the

this volitions,
:

knowledge
these acts

ness conscious-

of

experiences and ence, independent existpositive, being have a real, my be and nied dethis may has been questioned,and even of the metaphenomenal has been : The reality tioned quesand

but whether

objectsof

denied. that by readilygranted by all, the


; and

It will be
we

tion imaginathat
seem

can

create

objectswhich
are

are

unreal

in
to

our

actual

perceptionswe
we

often discover

mistaken, and
to have
we no

what perceive
to be
a

afterwards

or reality,

very

different all

objectfrom
has ;
"

what

thought
and

it to be.

But, beyond
which
I
out

it this,

been that

contended

that there is no the


no

whatever objective reality


now

the

tree

house ence existwhich


same

see, and

which

everybody

sees, has

of,and

independently of,the perceptionof immediately conscious


external ; and the

I and

everybody are
whether objects,

of all

It is undeniable

that

men

of the

metaphenomenal
ever

internal truths. or things, ality generallybelieve in the renay, that only a few speculative it.
to

have philosophers,

denied

Now,

the

aim of
our

of

philosophy is

explain
man

the

actual

development

being, of

all that

has

thought

28

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

and

done.

Hence

even

the

errors

of
erred

man

must

be

plained. ex-

men If,therefore,

have

in

their belief in
be shown

the
that

of reality
it cannot

the

metaphenomenal,
how
men

it must have
come

both

and exist,

to entertain

this universal

but

erroneous

belief.
of reality the

Those
are

who

believe

in the

metaphenomenal
how

indeed

to show, as philosophers, required,

it is legitimat

attained

but,

on

the

other
a common

hand,

those

who

deny
are

this

in opposition to reality,

sentiment,
sentiment.
its Its the

justlyrequiredto explain this


The denial of the of
the explaining
as

common

metaphenomenal
attainment

had

originin
was reality

mode

of it. but
a

at first assumed

unquestionable;
the denial
as

explanation

given,finally developed
The that with the

quence. legitimateconse-

cardinal
the mind

principleof
could

this

mode,

was

the

tion assump-

perceive only by coming

in contact posed supact

in accordance with a object of perception, nisi cum, et ubi est, axiom, nihil agit, nothing can and where law in it is. This
was principle

except when

suggested
can

by
law

an

apparent
another is
now

physics,viz. :
actual
even

that

one

body
truth
an

act

upon

only by
the
were

contact.

The

of this actual

disputed,and
between law

the

of impossibility

contact

of particles

bodies

firmly believed.

But
on

if the what

unquestionable in respect to physics, it be taken law of as a legitimategrounds can


in explaining the validity the mind
can

equal appropriatenessand
of the mind ?

ceptions per-

That the

perceiveonly

by coming
be the be
a mere

in contact

with

assumption. perceivingas
assumed

must objectsof perception, Besides,by the physicalanalogy,


as

mind

well

the

object perceived must


aim
now

material.

Having

the

law, however,the great

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

29

naturally became
mind
In

to

explain how
was

the

contact

between

and

its

takes place. objects

the first place,it


material

plain that
the

mind
come

and

the

ternal ex-

do objects

not

immediately

in contact.

The

mind

not therefore, perceives,

material

objects

themselves, bnt
which ideas.
were were

certain

of representations

these

objects,
Various
that
enter

variouslycalled species, forms, images, and


what
are

But

these

forms representative old Aristotelians

the
are

explications. The
made up

held

they

of fine material of sense, and


the

which particles themselves there

the different organs

form

into the
the mind

required image
comes

in

brain, and
them.

that

in contact

with

After the age of Des and


made

this theorywas Cartes,


was

abandoned
an wax

the
upon
no

image
the

or

idea

spoken
made

of

as

impression by
the
a

brain

like that

upon

seal. brain

Here

material organs

were particles

received

into

through the
upon

of

sense

the organs

from

but, impressionsbeing made without, images were shaped upon


; the external

the brain

to corresponding

objects.
once

It is evident
must

that

the
a

representative image
fruitful tended
to

mitted, ad-

become

subject of speculation.
one

These
result
"

speculations, however, all

.result
"

proclaimed in part by Berkley, and fullyby namely, that above mentioned, the denial of the phenomenal.
If
we

Hume
meta-

know

images only the representative


then
we can

affirmed

to

be in the of any
to

mind,
out

have ;

no

knowledge legitimate
in all
our

thing
all

of the

mind
are

as for,

attempts

we approach exteriority, are

met

merely by

these

they

that

Berkley, on this affirms," The existence

possibly attain to. be confuted,when cannot principle,


we can

images, Hence,
he

of

body

out

of

mind

perceiv-

30

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

is ing it,

not

and only impossible, and possible,


ever

contradiction
were

in

terms,

but, were
the mind in his
ever

it

even

it real,

impossiblethat
is
ent equally consist-

should

know

it."
"

Hume
"

sweeping
to

affirmation mind but

Now,

since

nothing
since

is all
to
as

present
are

the from

and perceptions,

ideas the
to

derived

something antecedentlypresent
'tis

mind,
conceive from

it follows
or

that
an

impossiblefor
Let

us

so

much

form and
as

idea of any

ent differthing specifically


us

ideas

impressions.
much
as

fix let

our
us

attention chase
our

out

of

ourselves

possible ;
to the
a

imaginations to
universe
nor
can

the

heavens,or
advance really any kind

utmost

limits

of the

;
we

we

never

step beyond ourselves,


but
narrow nor

conceive have

of existence in that

those

ceptions per-

which

appeared
of the

compass.

This
idea

is the but The

universe

imagination ;

have

we

any

what denial

is there of the

produced." metaphenomenal appeared under


the
two

forms

"

First,that
of the

of Idealism.
were

Here
as

facts of immediate the

consciousness
universe

taken

the

only universe,"

Here
as

ism. imagination." Secondly, that of Materialthe sidered representative images were merely conmaterial and thence

arisingfrom
organs,
now a

objects,and
receives

impinging
the
are

upon

material

the brain,or affecting


next

sensorium.

What

is the form
a

soul which of

impression but
sensations
? There
at

finer

matter, and
of the

what

its
ganism or-

and

ideas

but

movement

internal

is

class of who and

and philosophers,
to

Keid

may

be

placed
of

their

head,

endeavor Materialismman

dissipatethe
the
stern

dogmas

both

Idealism Sense.

by

voice

of Common
"

Every

believes truth
sense

in
man.

and reality objective Here


common

metaphenomenal it exists for every therefore,


:

in the

pauses

but

the

philosophical

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

31

impulse opposition

still
to

urges Idealism

to

the and

enquiry,
Materialism

Is

there
? Is

not

reality
not

in

there

ality re-

independently
first
are

of

mere

subjective which,
in belief
on

persuasion
its received
to

The

forms demonstrates

of

philosophy
conclusions

ciples, pringeneral

opposition
of

belief. itself

And

is

the

general
the itself

incapable
of its

explaining
?

by

demonstrating doggedly
affirm

reality
in

objects
to

Must

it

merely

opposition
it
in ?

the the of
two

phical philosounited

diagrams
efforts of the both
I human

paraded
mind

before
end

And the birth

shall

great
ing, affirm-

parties,
"

occupying

absurd
I do
not

positions
"

the
"

one

prove,

although
I

believe ?
?
"

and

the
not

other,
prove

"

believe, believe,
It is
now

although
and believe

cannot

prove
prove

May

we

and

and I

evident,
must

think,
the

that

the

cardinal

aim If

of the

philosophy
existence
then

be

to

reach

metaphenomenal.
can

of the facts for.

the of

metaphenomenal consciousness,
the

be

demonstrated,
are counted ac-

phenomenal,

32

INTEODUCTOKY

VIEW

OF

SECTION

IV.

THE

OBJECTIVE

AND

THE

SUBJECTIVE.

In

determining
two

the

actual find
the

development
ourselves subjective, its
at

of
once

our

being, in
introduced
the
tive. objec-

its various
to

we relations,

forms
The

of

being :

and

under subjective,

form, is myself ; and the form, comprehends whatever


me,
or

simplestand under its objective,


is not

most most

unique

general

myself. Again, objective, when,


it the

the

expressed in the term comes myself,besimple subjective,


an

in

act

of

I self-consciousness,

make

objectof

my

thought.
is not the

And

tive again,the objecbe

or general,

whatever

myself,must
is not

subdivided
The

into

and purely objective purely objectiveis that which

the

subjective general.

only not myself,but


"

unlike totally in
common.

myself
"

different in kind

The

embracing myself,is like propertiesin


connected
common :

having no properties subjectivegeneral is that which, in kind having myself the same
"
"

distinction
but

of

of personalities, ing be-

and laws, causalities, with in

sympathies"

yet agreeingin
the in kind

in implying personalities,

presence
to

of
the

mind,
I will
a

and

being capable of being referred


infinite mind. I have

finite and

the

ness consciousdeveloped to my own will or free causality, and a rious vathinking principle,

explain :
and

emotions
or

as

tuting these,either as constipersonality, being inseparablefrom my own

passions;

and

34

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

but their way.

be

involved

in

some

way

in such

and explication

conception is
the

since personalities, impossiblein any other

But in the
no

what be
or

is then

pure

or objective,

that

which

can

sense

? subjective

Whatever

is

known directly

by

senses,
see

by

the
a

muscular flower the


"

organism, is purelyobjective.
that

and

smell

is,I
in

have

certain my

tions, sensa-

which
and
a

arise from substance I say


not

correlation

between and the

senses

certain

lying
that

space

exterior

to

myself. Now,
here substance

I could

form

judgment
the
terior ex-

without expressed, which I

subjective principles ;
name a

but

flower

in

expressing this
as a

judgment,
and life,

I conceive

of not life ;
as
a

as

but life,
as
a

product
power,
a

of
a

upheld by formans, Again,


hands.
but
a

not

formative

forma
it in

substance

informed,
me, and

forma
I catch

formata.
my

ball is tossed

towards

In other here

I doing this,

have

the

sensation
muscular

of
sistance. re-

hardness, or, in Now,


have but formed the
or

words, I experiencea again,


I do
not

say

that

could

this

judgment

without

subjective principles ;
as

or body, ball, as a

I conceive

of not
but
as

itself a

resisting
such and the

cause,
a

gravitating power,
power
to
are

that in which
while but
cause

cause

and

habitant

; and cannot

power

belong

the

I subjective,
to
:

assign

gross material
are

phenomena
nor are

not
:

me,

like
not
a

me

purely objective. They formative or they are not life,


or
a

the

power
sense

they

force
we

law.

"

In

the
sum

material
total of
sequently con-

of the

word far

Nature,
as

mean

by
the
to

it the
our

all

things,as
of
*

they

are

objectsof
"

senses, and

possibleexperience
All that

nomena. aggregate of pheand

is exterior

me,

phenomenal

Coleridge.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

35

to the

outer

senses,
"

and

which

does

not

account

for and
to

explain

itself
"

as, for

example,

effects

require causes

explainthem, is purely objective. But not only are all material phenomena purely objective of consciousness which known are ; all phenomena of the thinking, and merely as acts or movements willing, sensitive faculties all which that is, into the concomes sciousness sations through the outer senses, and thence called senis presented in the activities of the ; and all which internal faculties, the perceptions, tions, reasoningsand imaginathe acts of memory and fancy, and the volitions, likewise. are emotions, and passions, objective The distinction between fore, therethe subjective general, and the pure objective, is co-extensive with the metaphenomenal and the phenomenal. But in this point of view, it is a distinction in the kind or nature of the particulars The compared. metaphenomenal is subjective, because it is that upon which the development of our being it because ultimatelyrests : the phenomenal is objective, is that in which the development of our being appears actually taking place. The development of the Intelligence must ultimately In the process first truths. rest upon or ideas,principles, of this development, appear its perceptions,reasonings, and so on. imaginations, The ultimately rest development of the Will must
" "

upon

the laws

of the Keason. choices


and

In

the

process

of this developmen

appear The
rest

volitions.
must Sensitivity

development
the

of the

ultimately
In the cess pro-

upon

laws

of the

Beason,
appear

likewise.
the the various

of this

development passions.
when is,

sensations,

emotions, attained,
"

and

When

subjectiveis fully
known, all laws

that

all

are principles

36

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

obeyed,

all
out
our

fitting sensations,emotions,

brought
of is

going

on,

regulatedby reason, being is complete. While the phenomenal, or the


and the
seen

passions then the development this development is purely objective,


and and

thrown

out.

But, although
we objective,

have

phenomenal is always that the subjective can


in

only

come also be-

objective ; but former, arise from a change


of
or position

this last distinction difference relation.

does not, like the

kind, but

merely

from

Every intelligent personal


"

make all else objective make to itself nay, can can subject itself objective to itself, by an act of reflection. To sum have all poswe sible up the preceding distinctions, and forms of being embraced the subjective under the objective, follows : as 1. The subjective simple,or myself ; 2. The to mysubjectivesimple, taken as objective self;

myself; 4. The objectivegeneral,divided into the subjective the first comprising general and the pure objective ; whatever is metaphenomenal the second whatever is phenomenal
or objective general,

3.

The

whatever

is not

"

"

The the and

explained above, give us and enable us clearly leadingphilosophical conception,


to succinctly

distinctions

made

and

ing leading problems. The leadphilosophicalconception is that of explaining the


state

the

development
me,

of my

being.
or

Now

this

development
to
can

sents pre-

First,the phenomenal,
consciousness.
the
or exterior,

what

appears I

my

diate imme-

This

consciousness contains contains


mere

divide into
; and

that

which

sensations

the

or interior,

that which

the movements

of my

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENEKAL.

37

phenomena, whether of the constitute the pure jective obexterior or interior consciousness, because they lie before the reflective power. Secondly,I have the metaphenomenal, or that which lies beyond the phenomena : and this admits likewise of a division. The twofold metaphenomenal in the world for the sensations ; and the without, which is to account for the acts metaphenomenal within,which is to account which take place upon the sensations. phenomenal Now, the metawithout and within, constitutes the subjective f because it lies under and sustains the phenomenal general, the ground of its possibility. as Hence main a we announce problem in philosophy, and the forms of the namely : To determine the validity and to show its relations to the objective. subjective, Again, in the development of my being,the earliest conviction at which I arrive is the Ego sum, I am. Now, with this conviction, I find that all which I know, starting I know but also not only in the field of my consciousness, and activity I find in the determination of my personality. a simple,unique subject, thus, that I am lying in some all being whatever, determining the mode and sort under and even of its cognizance, its reality. extent Hence another problem in philosophy, we no announce less important than the preceding, namely : To determine of the objective reality objective general, ; or the reality of that which is not myself. first problem is disputed by the sensualists, The or those who derive the materials of all cognition from experience. those The second is disputed by the idealists, or of knowing who, like Berkley and Hume, deny the possibility
own

faculties.

Now,

all these

"

an

external
*

world.
and

Ob

jaceo.

t Sub

and

jaceo,

38

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

Once
reach

more

The

subjective general,

simple

which
also
to

attempts
reach
to

to

the
it

objective
can

attempts
itself form
of

itself. itself.

This
Hence

do

only
new

by
and

making unique
or

an

object

arises of

knowledge
; and

through
thus
laws
we

the have

power the

reflection To

self-consciousness
the

problem

determine

faculties

and

of

the

simple
These

subjective.
three
will be

problems
apparent

cover

the

whole

field

of

phy, Philosoits

as

when

we

come

to

consider

cardinal

divisions.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

39

SECTION

Y.

REASON

AND

SENSE.

In the
as

present developedstate of

my the

I know faculties,

self my-

Body

and

is Spirit. Spirit wills.


a

subjectivity within,
material
bernacle taternal ex-

which

and thinks,feels, of the


nature
:

The

body, the

is spirit,
it is the

part of the great system of


same,

mechanically
all other It is the

and

cally chemi-

; and

it lives and

decays like
? spirit
matter

thingsliving
curious and

What

is its relation to the mediator between

wonderful the

and

spirit. Through
senses,

nerves, the

distributed
muscular

into

five

external sometimes

and the

through
"sixth the

organism
sense

called

sense"

and

the

of

nature resistance,

reaches
?

spirit. What
and

is the
more.

product
No

of this union

tions, Sensa"

nothing

thought, no

knowledge

simply an
touch, and
is not
from

fragrance, experienceof sound, color, sapidness,


resistance.
It

But is

the

cognitivefacultywithin
to

unfurnished.
whence

prepared

know it is the

the

world,
to

the

sensations

arise ; and

prepared

know
ways
:
"

itself.

Sensation

conditionates

reason

in two

First

"

In

in sensation,
to

common

with

all the

subjective
here

it faculties,

wakes

self-conscious
and

activity. It
materials of

gins be-

to live its

knowing
Sensation

life. thoughtful

Secondly
"

furnishes

cognition ;

40

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

or

signs which
in The lower the

the

reason

appropriatesreadily and
world. it were,
reason

miliarly fa-

reading the
of the

external

as faculty,

singsa joyfulmatin
; then this

song

under

window

the awakes, and lookingout, recognizes laws of God's works, and the Great Maker

gloriouspower reality, beauty, and


himself
the ; and

then, turning back


Divine is and wisdom

upon love.

sees itself,

there the

image
into every

of the
mind ;

and

In

knowing

world, the

developed,and
as

all its faculties

brought

exercise

consciousness the mind

necessarily accompanies
is likewise revealed
and spirit

internal

movement,
The

to itself. nature

first knowledge of both

is spontaneous.

Afterwards, comes
reflection upon
are

the and

period for philosophical philosophicalobservation


natural

upon

the

one,

the other ; and born. As


our

then, psychologyand
become

science

faculties

unfolded
take

in

their The

relations
tions sensa-

with

nature, important changes


and muscular

place.

which resistance,

could originally

rectly dinow

of transformed

themselves
into and

give

us

no

knowledge, signs
of all

are

apt and

familiar

external
of

bodies,forms
and
now color,

qualities. The
with and almost received
we
an

different shades
and

light thing

associated

bodies,forms
seem

qualities,
So also
us

readilyrepresent them, by
the the eye.

to

know
sense.

every

It is
sounds

now

universal the

different

by

ear, enable

to

tinguish dissame

persons,

things,places,and
all the made
senses.

distances.
The
reason

The

principle appliesto
them servitors

has appropriated
and have

and all,

them
we now

such
seem

quick
to

familiar
an

of"knowledge, that

mediate imother
sense

perception of hand, Keason, having


which

the

outer

world.

On

the

from

the

first

of activity
powers,

the

opened

the

play

of the mental

entered

upon

42

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

SECTION

VI.

SENSUALISM

AND

TRANSCENDENTALISM.

We

now

arrive

at

the

point of departure of
Taken under

two

great

tems sys-

of

philosophy.
Locke
may be

their

modern

ments, developKant

said to represent the one, and

the

other.

Sensualism, concentratingits thought


conditions
are

in

the

sensuous

of

knowledge,
and radical

loses

sight of
on

the

truth

that them

they
as

merely
the
us

conditions

; and

goes elements

to

expound

the

primary

of

knowledge

itself.

Hence

utmost

development
combination
reason

of the human
and

intelligence

presents
elements.
at

only the
The

is

expansion of these incapableof arriving absolutely


or

any
not

truth

whose

generating
the
measure

constitutive
The
senses

elements thus come be-

have

first entered
sources

senses.

the

and

of all

knowledge.
no

Transcendentalism
sensualism.
"

begins with
opens his

sensation
work with with

less than
tion, affirma-

Kant all of the elements


our a

great
But

the

That

knowledge begins
doubt." then

experience,

does does

not not

admit
make

transcendentalism

the sensations, of

radical, generating and

constitutive which upon ideas

under knowledge ; but conditions, the cognitivefacultybegins to act, and suggestions, force,and according to its own "which,by its own

and

laws, it
views

forms the

cognitions.
two

The

which

systems entertain

respecting

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

43

the

state primordial

of the

mind,
before

differ

widely.
takes
a

Locke

presents re-

the
a

state

of mind paper,
or

sensation

place by

sheet

of white
no

and

Hobbes of

there

is

idea

element

in which slate, knowledge, bnt merely a

by

of being written susceptibility

upon.

To

this view

all the

adherents

of this

system conform. represents the mind


and
as

Transcendentalism the possibility,


within

having

the

scope, the law Whatever with is

the form

of all knowledge its it be in the


to

itself.

the mind whatever

be, whatever
elements that

faculty of knowing, and it furnished, primordially


act

easilyconceivable
the
reach

of

knowing Now,
of

it

bringsthis facultyand
to

these elements of the

bear.

in order

determine

nitive cog-

and faculty, elements

whether

the mind

have primordial really


our

knowledge, we need knowledges. The sensations can


if

only examine
of

actual

be analyzed : easily

and
will

they

be

the

primary elements
in
mere can

appear

every
:

where

the

knowledge, they composition and deduction


preserve

of the
;

thought
and

for every

composition must
show

original elements, and


every

new nothing absolutely

deduction

must

keep

within

the

measure

and

kind

of the But

startingpoints.
our so

if in

actual
far

knowledges, there

be

found

ments ele-

which,
in their nature

from

belonging to
these And

the

sense,

appear

and

characteristics then

to transcend

the utmost

capacityof lay claim


before the
this
to

the
a

sense,

elements if these

unquestionably elements,when
and held
up

higher origin.
our

from disintegrated
reason,

complex knowledges
and readily recognized

are

reaffirmed

by
may

facultyas

necessary,

universal
as

and

absolute,then
this

be they legitimately

claimed

the

product of

faculty

alone. Now the sensations


are

those

of the eye,

of consisting

44

INTKODUCTOEY

VIEW

OF

of the various consisting sounds ; of smelling and tasting, consistingof odor and sapidnessin their endless varieties ; of touch, consisting of simple and uniform ever wherthe nerves impressions upon consisting they are distributed ; of muscular resistance, and smoothness and roughness; of hardness softness, and, in the last place,the sensations of pleasureand pain,

light

and

color ;

of

the

ear,

and

of titillation.
But
our

actual

knowledges bring
ideas which
no

to view

substance,
the
mere

cause,

and time, space, truth,justice,


"

many

other ideas of

similar characteristics sensations


can

of analysis

ever

unfold.

And

while

these

ideas
now

can

be that

brought they
are

under

the observation
no more

of the senses,

even

known,
out

than the

they
reason

could itself

at

the
are

first be

evolved

of

them,

to

they

tively intui-

and true, universal,

necessary.

When the
but and

we

of speak, therefore,
we

transcendental
of

truth

in

just philosophical sense,


of that which both in its relations makes

speak

nothing doubtful, certainly known,


is

in itself is most all other the


term

knowledge possible.
transcendental
venient con-

The

application of
and

it appropriate, because tells the simple fact,that the human of impressionsfrom without susceptible
organs of
sense
"

is

descriptive. It
while it is

mind, by
an

means

of the its first

impressions which
afford materials
"

conditionate
for

development,
itself those those
first

and

important
contains of

partment de-

of its

knowledge,
of

nevertheless
forms and

within

elements

truth,those
all

knowledge,

of principles the with reach

thought
senses.

which reasoning,

transcend

of the

connected
communes spirit

that with

facultyis corporealorganism, through which It occupiesthe sphere apnature. propriate


does its work well. The

The

lower

to

it, and

higher

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

45
; and

facultyof
as

the pure its

Keason

has its

sphere also

is just

capable in

the
sense

sphere of announcing primordialtruths, the and the laws of reasoning, as forms of perception, in its sphere is of givingforth sensations. this it is evident that the metaphenomenal and From
with the transcendental.
name

themselves identify subjective Locke is


a

great
him.

and

venerable But
an

; and

no

one

may

of speak lightly
some

excessive claim

veneration

has led

who

disclaim

sensualism,to
in those
sources

for his doctrines where he

certain

savingclauses
as no one

passages

speaks
be

of Eeflection There of
and
one

of the

of ideas.
not
as
bitious am-

is

school of
an

as retaining,

philosophy that might such a man authority,


how
any

Locke

;
a

cannot

well

conceive
love

thing

less than any


one

supreme
to

and

honest his

of truth

could

influence

dispense with
For
my

authority.
say clear

part, I
and

can

from
and

my

heart

that

I admire

and

love Locke.
sense

His

his penetrating intellect,


; his

good

manly

candour and

strong English heart,


moral and

his pure

English style;
air he

his decided
him

religious
he wears,
mon com-

principles, always quietlyabout


like the

like the coat


tones

breathes,like
the admire

the familiar

of his

and discourse, I face, altogether


"

prevailingexpressionof
and love

his honest standing notwithto read

him.

And

the and

errors

of his system, I shall continue him.


our

admire Locke
and

and

love

refers all Eeflection.


the

knowledge
The
as latter,

to two

sources,

tion Sensadoubtedly un-

he
"

defines

it,*is
former

interior
the the mental

consciousness,
faculties
:

it embraces
the All

the

operations of equivalentto

and

is

exterior consciousness.

that appears

Book

ch. 1, " II.,

4.

46

INTKODUCTOKY

VIEW

OF

to

us,

therefore, appears
there appears, the

in

the

consciousness

and

all

which
the

consists

of the

and simple sensations, is revealed in


or

operationsof
the

mind,
the Locke
we

and

whatever Now
so

by

of operations
will go with But

mind.
;
come

far the is
no

Transcen-

dentalist whatever.

so

far there
to

difference
the mental

when

consider

themselves,we find the great point of departure operations ties, faculof the two systems. According to Locke, the mental
when and in

they point of

go into time and

not only begin conditionally action, with but sensation, they also derive

all the

materials
from

elements

upon

which

their

activity

is

expended,
mental
acts

of the
with

the

and the conscious experiences sensation, activityitself. The sensations, together ing, of " perception, thinking,doubting, believall the

and reasoning, knowing, willing, of which


our
own

different actings
elements

all

minds," are the first radical possible knowledges are formed.


the

from

Now,
of the
are

introduction

here
no

of the
means

ideas of reflection

or

the interior

consciousness, by
; for

changes the
the the

ter charac-

system

these,no
The

less than

sensations, mind,
the
as
"

merely phenomenal.
as

operationsof
of succession
a

well

the

are sensations,

conditions
the

knowing
of of
are

tran-

scendental
as

truths.
of

Thus

thought, as

well

the succession

is sensations,
most

condition truths

knowing
revealed

time.
upon

Indeed, .the
condition
But

important
the
contents

of the

of the experiences that

interior

ness. consciousand
flection, re-

recollect
to the

of sensation

they are mere ditions conof conceivingtime, and so space, substance, power, and his school they are the simple ideas or on ; to Locke of which elements out abstruse these,and all the most
truths
are

while

transcendentalist

compounded,
*

or

drawn.*
1 and

Book

ch. 12, " II.,

"

8.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

47
sensation and

The

transcendentalist
or

can

say

that

flection, re-

the

exterior and
our we

interior
;

are consciousness,

the

only

sources we

of

knowledge
know
acts

all that

know

understanding by this that either upon the experienceof

scious knowing, of which we are con; but this is a very different thing from making the ments elesensations and the acts of knowing the materials or all that we know is compounded. I out of which between have alreadydistinguished the mere ing act of knowand that which the first the phenomis known, calling enal, and the metaphenomenal ; and the second just as tinguish broadly as that distinction are the two systems to be disSensualism nomenal merges every thing into the phetranscends : Transcendentalism or passes beyond the phenomenal, and reaches the universal and necessary truth, the substantial and real being ; that which is the rational ground of all phenomena, without which they and without could have had no existence, which, now that they cannot be explainedand accounted for. they exist, and in daily Men most even philosophers, generally, with the phenomenal thought and occupation,are more the familiarity than the metaphenomenal, and thus from to be regarded as more of use, the phenomenal comes questionable unor sensations,

in the

of

"

and

certain
a

than

truths

of pure

reason.

think,however, that
this illusion from
that mental
"

little quietthinking must mind. How


and do
we

every

reach

dissipate the phenomenal

is,our

sensations Is it not

the

faculties ?

of be a form namely, consciousness? knowing adapted to the metaphenomenal, why do we not But there is such this as well as the phenomenal ? know the direct perform of knowing, namely, Intuition, or a ception and of insight Keason
; and
we are

simply by a Now, if there

operationsof our form of knowing,

conscious

of

48

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

the

exercise
of

of the

function implied in this form


intuition. Is not valid the
as

"

we

are

conscious

knowing by
we are are
are

act

tuition, of intion sensa-

of which of which
we we

conscious, as
conscious? of

the

Nay,
the

more,

is not

the

truth, which
of the which form
the

conscious

knowing
as

in the

exercise
act

intuitive

function,as
To

valid

conscious

by
a

it is known? of

immediate
and

as consciousness,

knowing,
form This of

we

refer sensation
To the
we

the

operationsof
of
reason,
as

mental

faculties.

intuition
refer

another truths.

knowing,
whole

the

transcendental
matter. the The

is the

account

of the it that the

sensualistic immediate
"

school will insist upon consciousness


the

objects of
ledge of knowthat

alone

are

elements

while

transcendental
are

school

affirm

the
sciousness. con-

fundamental

elements

found

beyond

immediate

But

the

on principles

which of all

transcendental

truths

are

denied, involve beyond


ideas of pure

the

immediate

whatever, reality objective It is not consciousness. merely the


denial

reason,

which

lie

beyond

immediate

sciousness con-

; all the

pure

mathematics
world

transcend transcends

it likewise.

Nay,
must

the

entire
not

outer

it ; for all the


external

allow,that
are

the

received

objectsof

world the

immediate

sensations
in

but objects of consciousness, only deed, supposed to arise from these objects. Inway
were

this very

Berkley
of

and

Hume

led It

to

deny
the

all

out objectivereality,

consciousness.

is

plain that they


I conclude

deduced

their doctrines

from legitimately

system of Locke.
here
as

by remarking, that
that which

the

denial

of the

metaphenomenal
consciousness
If
we are

transcends

immediate

must

involve the destruction


to
mere

of all
can

philosophy.
account

shut

up

phenomena,

we

for

50

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

SECTION

VII.

IDEAS

AND

LAWS.

The

word

"idea/' according to
we

the

usage

of

presses Locke, ex-

word what

usage

immediately conscious of. The "idea/' accordingto the usage of Plato, expresses be immediately conscious In the of. cannot we of Plato, however, "idea" does not express any
are

whatever

thing
itself. Locke

transcendental

of

consciousness

in

the

external

world, hut
And has

only the
here said
we

metaphenomenal, lying in
see

the
all

mind
that word ; for and be

at

once

the ideas.

of fallacy

respectinginnate
ideas cannot
be

in his usage,

that

Taking the is a truism innate,


mere

nothing
acts

is

more

evident,than
that

that

sensations
cannot

of the
"

mind,
exist

is, mere they

phenomena,
appear
not

innate

they
His

only as
other be of

in the reach the

ness. consciousthe

does reasoning, therefore, On


the but

point

in debate. usage, those and


are

hand, "ideas," in
the

Platonic
expresses

cannot

innate, since
absolute mind clear

word

primordiallaws
those necessary

knowing, thinking and reasoning, elementary truths


which

and the
a

from inseparable In order


to

itself.

form

conception of
let
us recm

idefbs in
to

the tinction dis-

Platonic,or

transcendental

sense,

the

of the

subjectiveand

forms

simple,or mind, is of being,lying out of mind,

jective objective. The subdirectly opposed to all supposed and

the

comprised in

the

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENEKAL.

51

phenomena
world

of

sensation,and
with their

whatever

in the

exterior

production. It is the opposition of the spiritualsubjective, myself,and the unexterior to myself. Now, the true spiritualobjective, views every thing existing transcendentalist Platonist or beside mind, as made by mind, after the laws of mind,
is connected and

received, heartily that one design of the great Creator,in forming the countless tribes of animals, was of to multiplythe forms hath its sphereof enjoyment. Every sensitive creature its bountiful and its term of happiness. life, provisions, But irrational creatures comprehend neither the world in which they subsist, the curious workmanship of their nor its exact own organism. The world, in its wise designs, for them. It order,and its beautiful forms, is not made is made for them of only in respect to the gratification their mere under animal But all these higher wants. pointsof view, it is obviously made for rational beings. Our indeed, finds its fittingprophysicalconstitution, visions
to

for mind. primarily It is a kindlydoctrine,and

be

and

accommodations To

in the world is
a

; but
vast

we

are

not

confined exhibition

to these.

us, the world

and

sublime

causative and regulativeforce, skill, design, harmonious and beautiful forms. relations, We conceive of a period when there was can as yet and the Creator dwelt alone in the immensity no creation, of his being. Now but believe there was cannot we form of being, arrayed before his mind, every possible of a universe,every possible every possibleconstitution varietyof life ; and there,also, lay the map of the worlds which were ordained actually In his mind all to be. was the science and art, according to which, the Universe was to be bodied forth : and that creative there, too, was

of

52

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

energy,
stand

which forth
in

had

but

to

exert

and itself,

Creation Now

would the

all its

glory and
and

magnificence.
part of the
ideas

preconceivedlaws, forms they lay


ideas.
the in the Divine Viewed

relations of the
are a

as universe,

mind,
and

Divine

in relation to the

Eternal

Keason, as giving
are

originalthought
in

law, they
Divine

simply.

as giving imagination, and forth definite forms relations, ideals, they become models, or archetypes. Divine ideas,as the originating be exhausted thoughts and archetypes of worlds,cannot is infinite. in the actual for God creation, Again, there be in the Divine mind must thoughts and conceptions

Viewed

relation

to

the

which Such

do
are

not

take which

their

embodiment

in material science and


moral

forms.
ernment. gov-

those

relate to pure thus

Whatever
the

lies in the Divine

mind,
another be

tutes consti-

Divine
the This

ideas.
infinite mind
to

Suppose
like

constitute
must

mind

itself.
as

inasmuch
to

mind, it is mind, it
which

of course,
must
are

finite ; but

have

the

same

ing accordideas,

its measure,

found
not out

in the be

Divine in

original.
a

These

ideas, perhaps,
and

could

given

fully
quences conse-

developed state,that
upon the infinite ; but

is,drawn given in

into

all their appear


to

for applications,

this would
their

border

be unfolded thus

by the active and constituted. gloriously of,as


without existing and

free Such
a

elementary state, to thought of the being


a

being
and

may

be
of

ceived con-

body

organs

sense

"

pure

spirit ;

although thus

without

and sensation,

to have no knowledge of a real world, in supposed even its pure thoughts and imaginationsit might have, not only

mental

but activity,

emotions

of such

beauty
emotions

and

grandeur
even

quisitely exare

delightful. For
awakened in
our

now

minds,

without

callingin

the

aid

of im-

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENEKAL.

53

mediate of the

when sensation,
we imagination, are

in

dreams,

and

esthetical forms
sense

efforts

entertained the
power

with
mere

of

ness greatactual and

and
But now,
"

beauty beyond
suppose would this
not

of

to reveal.

being to
the from the

be introduced

to the

creation,
the
outward

of possibility the

its

knowing
Would the
a

comprehending it,arise
realityand
the
law

correspondence
?

between it not

ideas within far


as

understand

real

world, just so
other

it had

conceived pre-

and

archetype within?
another

At

to least,

being
exist. That

destitute Let
a

of

sensation, no

possible way
Divine it be
sense
"

could
:
"

us,

then, make
be constituted
a

supposition, namely
mind
; but

being

like the

instead with
a

of

as existing

pure with

that spirit,
organs

connected this

material

body,
a

of

body

itself
; and

forming
that become powers
its

part of the
to

system

of
are

things
such

without

relations conscious

this

body

that
the

it cannot

of

nor existence,

until

sensations

without. impressions forms of knowledge conditions


are

play of its are produced within, by corporeal Shall the law of perception and the begin
be

now

changed,
The

because

sensuous

demanded

for their

development

It is and

impossible and
law of

inconceivable.
must

originatingpower
in the
new

thought

still remain This

they
new

of

necessitybelong.
to

last

to which spirit, form of being,is

only in respect
and

the

conditions

of its

beginning to
the

act,
with

the

mode

and

conditions
; while

of its communication the


and possibility,

the

external

world of its

determinate

form

knowing,
Divine

still lie in its inherent


and

and faculties, spiritual

its necessary

constitutive
; and

ideas.
now

The
cannot

universe
but

represents the
the

thought

it this

represent

thought given
we

likewise
man

to

highly endowed

creature, whom

recognizeas

him-

54

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

When

man,

was therefore,

placed
the

upon

the

smiling

outspread earth,and
he did not
mind and

beneath
a

find himself
heart

bright starry heavens, stranger and out of place. His


to

responded
in the
to

the

works

of his Creator.

His he

drank spirit
was

living beauty
the he

because of all things,

formed

know

beautiful.

He
was

saw

the

wise
with order

design of Creation,because
a

himself
and

endowed
out

designingmind.
heavens and

He
the

searched

found

the

of the

laws, because
of
a

the

earth,and the great and all-regulating of science, the foundations principles


own

law, were
the

laid in his

intelligence.We
and adaptation

have

illustration of striking
in

this mutual

mony har-

science

of

mathematics,
reason

This

science is
science

drawn

from directly
to

the

of

man.

By
The

this

he is enabled Divine
these

measure

the

planets.
the

Great

and
to

Mathematician

made

universe

according
his
and

loftyand
the and

exact

principles. He
construct
man

then gave

ture crea-

capacity to
thus
earth
of the
to

this pure
a

unerring
he
can

science ;
mount

has

ladder

by

which

from

heaven.
are

If ideas

reason

embodied

in the

external

world, determining
what
do

its

and forms, relations, thus embodied


Force
or

movements,
The
answer

they
one

become

when
"

is given in
in
the

word

Laws.

power

has its

origin

Divine

causality; but
governs

that

which

appropriates, laws, regu*


determine
our

and compounds, directs,


to the

is Law, answering force, become

Divine

idea.
in the

All ideas do not

latingForce
Some
ideas

exterior sphere of their manifestations,


law
to

give the
:
"

and perception,
the law
to
*,

knowledges
determine the law

others
forms free

give
of the

the fine arts,and

the

beautiful
the

others,again,give
all go
out

to the

or casuality

and responsiblewill, these

determine

moral

rectitude, But

intq

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

55

some

form in

of

law.
to

Law the

and

idea

are

thus

the

same.

Viewed
and

respect

reason,

originating, conceiving,

we projecting, speak of the idea : viewed in respect and to the movement we sphere of determinate action, speak of the law. of science be to ascertain the laws Now, if the ohject of the universe, how it depends upon, and must we see grow out of,philosophy. There is a periodin the development of mind in relation observation and thought first to external nature, when It is a period of spontaneous communication awake. between the soul and nature, springing the relation up from

between A the soul

the ideas within without

and

their embodiment the


soul

out. with-

voice from

calls to

within,and

back. In the very impressions answers joyfully made by nature, the occasion appears upon the sensitivity in order to know when the ideas are required, and comprehend. is noticing The reason and struggling to carefully, comprehend : in the very effort of earnest thought it perceives and immediately ideas,vaguely,perhaps, at first, carries them efforts to
out to nature to
as
a

tentative

law.

The

first

assignlaws
be

nature, ancfto expound her great


wild imperfect, and reason limited,
and

system, may
because

crude

and

observation

is

developed; but the process is the same of science, and at its gloriousnoontide. dawn
union of ideas and

imaginative, only partially in kind, at the


It is the be

observation. Awakening,
the

This

first

periodmay

called the
The

Time

of

second

period is

Time

of

Prophecy.
what reflection,

The

mind
wants.

now

realizes in clear and

decided

it

out the system of to, make proceeds, therefore, nature their forms, by mapping out the related bodies, them and assigning forces and magnitudes, and relations,

It

56

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

laws.

In this

work

the

mind
of

is prone
the the and

to

become

cated intoxiof the


pleted com-

by

its first
to

glimpses

grand

mechanism

world, and
:

imagine

that pauses, has


:

great discoveryis

here, then, it
In

gives itself
arrived
made
at
a

up

to

matizing doga

realityit

only

theory, or

tentative
or

system

of nature

it has

prophecies more
vation, ObserDissatisfied

less
The

but clear, third

nothing yet
The
and

is established.
Time
of

period is

Elaborate

Experiment,
with the mind
more

Calculation.

and preceding results,


now

yet taking advantage of them,


work
reason

sets

itself at

afresh.
more

It

endeavors

to

think
to

profoundly,to
from observe

and logically,

thus

escape
to

empty
more

conjecturesand extensivelyand
observations
and
not to content

fallacies.

Now

it
the
venient con-

aims
same

at accurately,
an

time

reducing its
:

exact

and

classification
nature
as

with
own

the

facts

of

they present
facts

themselves

of their

accord,by
out
new

ingeniously contrived
more

experiments
from
the

it forces

and veiled pure

curious

hitherto

silent

and

bosom

of nature. it may which

cultivates Now, too, it diligently


construct
come

that science,

formulas

for the

solution

of

the

problems
The fourth Now

thronging in.
the Time
of

period is

Determinate the ideas


true

ence. Sciof idea

imaginary conceptions, and


are

merely possible systems,


finds its
Thales

set

aside,and

the

correspondinglaw. belongs
to to

the ;

first

period ; Pythagoras
and La Place has
to the

and

Ptolemy
Brahe
In

the

second

Copernicus, Kepler,
and which

Tycho
fourth. in

to the

third

; Newton

the

amazing

advance
in

been

made of

terminat de-

science,and
the four

perfectingmethods
any
new

tion, investigabe

in respect to periods

subjectmay

58

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

SECTION

VIII.

PRIMARY

AND

SECONDARY

PHENOMENA.

The primary begin with the exterior consciousness. These are in phenomena are the simple sensations. themselves themselves incapable of projecting beyond the But when the ideas are added to sphere of consciousness. them them, moulding and appropriating by the laws of then they become ments judgmerged into positive perception, bodies, in space with forms, qualities, respecting

We

shall

distances, magnitudes, and movements. now habituallyare not thought of as


the
in

The

sensations of

simple affections
mind is in space.

sensitivity ; but

whenever

the they arise,

busy
of
tual acsations sen-

noticingthe goings on of when we speak of phenomena


we perception,

the world in this


mere

Hence,
state

developed

mean

not

the

appearances
have
we now

and

changes
such

of

but sensations, bodies,of which and

the
the

become their

apt
hear

familiar

signs that
bareness. and priate appro-

lose
as

sight of
in

simplicityand original
we

Just

language,when
or see

the familiar

sounds,
once

the

familiar

to be

present to
the and

the world

of

at seem symbols, we thought and imagination.

Now and

phenomena

transferred
as

from

the

sensitivity,
of
an

characterized

classified

the

phenomena

outward

world, constitute
similar

the

secondary phenomena
takes

of the

exterior consciousness. A transformation

place

in

the

interior

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

59

consciousness.

Here

the But

primary
the and ideas
we

phenomena
here
to

are

simple
selves them-

acts,

or

movements.

also know

add
a

to
a

the

phenomena,
endowed
mere

come

subject
and

"

personality,
The back into bare

with

power, could but of

intelligence
not

freedom.

phenomena

carry

selves themwould of the

spiritual reality,
of appearances

themselves the field

remain

flow

through
the fountain

consciousness, they
came,
or

without whither

telling
they
were

from But in

whence the
very

tending.
in under the the then

giving
ideas

forth

of their
and

the

phenomena

consciousness,
form the
of
an

the

make

appearance affirmation
;

intuitive knows self it-

perception
as

and

mind and

spirit

endowed

with and
more

reason,

power
movement.

freedom,
forward Thence-

and

perceives design
there
are no

law

in

every

bare

phenomena
and

but

it ; the

is

the

reason,

knowing,

designing,
;

commanding
alive with itself

will and

exerting causality
passion
;

the

sensitivity
mind

emotion in powers its

the The

glorious
acts

exerting

proper
are

sphere.
secondary
The

and

affections of the is

of definite

the

phenomena
above think

interior
an

consciousness.
one

distinction
of

important
their
:

for

men

generally
in
the

phenomena
state

under

secondary
many,

form

developed
fall into
as some

of

the

mind
when

therefore,
is

might

confusion in

the field

phenomenal
of

represented
under its

lying wholly

the

consciousness,

primary

presentation.

60

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

SECTION

IX

This

is what

Cousin

and styles Chronological,

Logical

Antecedence.
The first is the antecedence antecedence
not

of the of ideas.

primary phenomena
the conditions,
would alone under well
as

the

second,the
To
a

mind

placed
To

under

sensuous

phenomena
antecedence

of the interior consciousness


in time. man,

claim these of the the

who

is mind

the phenomena conditions,

of the

as exterior,

interior

claim consciousness, alone


no exist,

this

antecedence.

Did

phenomena
existence ideas within

question respectingnecessary
in the actual

could the

arise ; but

manifestation

of be

sphere of thought, this questioncannot


held
to view

avoided. The and

distinction here

up

is very In the

important,
actual velopment de-

not really

difficult to
our

comprehend.
of time

of
must

being, the primary phenomena obviously


in the order ; for sensation

first appear

is the
the is
we

awakening of conscious existence, phenomena are and immediate consciousness objectsof consciousness,
first the first form of

knowledge.
the form But of

The

knowledges
of

to which
are

attain

through
under Keason.

consciousness

phenomena,
or

sented premade son, Rea-

the

judgments

affirmations
as

by

the
are

these of the

judgments,

acts

of the
;
as

phenomena

interior consciousness

phe-

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENEBAL.

61

something antecedent ; but for sensation is not sensation, this something antecedent and does not stands only in the relation of a condition, contain the elements of the judgments. Upon analysis, found these elements to be ideas. are then, must Ideas,
nomena

they

must

rest

upon

have

the antecedence in
a

of necessary of

existence.

Mere

tion, sensa-

volving being,may exist without inideas in the sphereof that being ; but antecedent judgments or knowledges formed upon the basis of ideas, their prior existence ; and involve ideas as necessarily their antecedence be must be traced to nothinghigher, can that of necessary Sensations existence.
a

form particular

existence, only previous necessary antecedent all phenomena demand as causality. But the in addition to phenomena of the interior consciousness, constructive reason. demand a this,
Sensations
as are

demand

known

before
cause

cause

is known could known idea


reason

; and

yet
isted, ex-

without
so

an

antecedent

they
been

not

have under of

neither

could

they
the

have

the

causal

without relation, of the into


a reason

antecedent

cause.

Affirmations ideas these would


come

appear,

before the

and

its
not

the

field of reflection ; and

yet, had

had
not

necessary
been

prior existence,the

affirmations

possible. point in the Experienceis the conditionating starting order of time. Ideas are the determining starting pointin the order of rational judgments. Experience marks the time when the knowledgesbegin. the knowledges possible. Experience is Ideas alone make tells the hour the dial-hand which of the mind's morning it awakes when necessitate the moveto thought. Ideas ment
have

of the dial-hand

itself.
sensuous

Again

As

the

experiencesof

the

exterior

62

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

consciousness

conditionate

the

reason

in the

order

of time
the

in the
external

development
world ;

of those
as

ideas

by

which

it knows the

and

the

of experiences

interior

consciousness

conditionate

it in the

order of time it knows the

in the
lectual intelof

development
world necessary

of those ideas
:

by

which

while,on
at
:

the

other

hand,

in the

order

ideas prior existence,


so,

determine

all the

ledges know-

arrived formed
universal

the particular likewise, judgments in either world, conditionate the objects respecting

truths in the order of time order of necessary

; while

these

truths,

determine the priorexistence, judgments. For example : in the external particular world the particular judgment that a given body is in space, precedesin time the universal judgment that every be in space ; while the universal judgment body must must comprehended in the ideas of space and substance, have had a priornecessary the existence in order to make other possible. And in the interior and intellectual sphere, be assigned although the affirmation that all phenomena must would have until a been formed to causality, not in the instance of causality had appeared ; still, particular order of necessary the universal truth must priorexistence, in the inherent idea of causality, embraced have been or the particular a particular phenomenon judgment assigning have been impossible, to an as appropriatecause, would having no basis on which to make its appearance. in brief : In the development of To sum up the whole our being,the phenomenal as to time precedes the metathe latter precedes phenomenal ; in necessary existence, The the former. phenomenal is first known, but it could
not

in

the

be

known

at

all in

its actual

state,unless
as

the

meta-

phenomenal had had a priorexistence : and belongsonly to the metaphenomenal, the

the universal and

universal

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

63

particular
The known of

come

into is unless first

the

same

conditionating
and been

relations. could be

particular
at

known,
had The

yet
a

it

not

all

there

necessary
are

prior
first them

ence exist-

the in

universal. time the

phenomenal,

ances appear-

metaphenomenal,
power. of The

cause

by
isted ex-

oecessary
out

spontaneous
of the relation

metaphenomenal independently
this the of then

time,

and in

it the

when condition could this

the

phenomena
was

were

given
under

relation,

supplied,

which,
act

metaphenomenal standing
in

be relation

apprehended
also.

by

an

of

knowing

64

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

SECTION

X.

IDEAS

THE

LAST

AUTHORITY

OF

ALL

JUDGMENTS

OR

KNOWLEDGES.

judgment

or

knowledge

is

an

affirmation
becomes
a

of the

reason.

When

expressed in language, it
then passes

proposition ;

because,it

beyond

the

sphere of
to
a

the individual

and consciousness,

is

propounded
of

generalthought. subject and


of the
that

Every propositionconsists
The

predicate.
The The

subjectis that
that is either
or

of which which

the affirmation

is made.

predicateis
affirmation of

is affirmed

subject.
an is,

or negative positive ;

tion affirma-

agreement
the

disagreement.
upon the that
"

Fixing
which it
can

mind

disagreement,it
be If

is evident

question of agreement there are only two ways


deduction
or

or

in

determined, namely, by
the
means

by

intuition.
are

by deduction,then
of ;
or a

subjectand predicate
or

compared by they both


agrees. other

third

middle
one

term, with

which the

agree This

with the

which

and disagrees,

forms
a

analysed hereafter.
agreement
then
to the
seen one

But

of the

two

terms

which will be syllogism, respectingthe question arises, with the third, : respectively
"

Is this known
we

by

deduction
had
a

have

tion, by deducprevious comparison subsidiary


or

by

intuition

If

in hand.

But, again,how
"

was

the

agreement
tuition ina

in this ?

previouscomparison, by deduction,or by by deduction,then


there
must

If

have

been

66

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

Take, for example, the propoforegoing cognitions. sition, here the cogniWe have tion Every body is in space. of body, and that of space : Now, if it were granted that body is derived from a preceding comparison, it is In plainlyimpossible that space could be thus derived. then, we have a simple originalcognition. The space, must same appear in tracingback every cognition. These be the first elements of thought, whatever they be, must foundations of all the subsequent cognitions.If, according to Locke, these first elements were merely the phenomena which the immediate form they objectsof consciousness, undoubtedly would be the foundations of all the subsequent
son

of

knowledges, as

he has the
are

representedthem.
transcendental
ideas
or

According to elements original reason, given upon


of them. The

system, however, the


of the pure
out

sensuous

simpleintuitions but not conditions,


latter since

formed

truth

of the
our

system appears
this

upon

the

last

analysisof give us
next

knowledges,
the

analysis
rior exte-

does not

bare

phenomena
the
to

of the interior and

but ideas, as consciousness, We their take


or

constitutive
the

elements.

may

view

subject and
other.
are

predicate in propositions

relation particular
a

each

Here either

two-fold

designation. They
Here

Analytical

Synthetical. the Analytical.* First, predicate ; and, in the form


the
the

and

contains the subject of the proposition, the predicate is wound of it. Nothing more is really said in out of predicatethan what is implied in the enunciation subject; but for the purpose of definition or explanation, that which is implied in the subject, is stated fully we clearly. For example : when say, Body is ex~ the

AvaXvw,

to

unwind

or

unravel.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

67

than extended affirms nothing more tended,the predicate without what is implied in Body, for body is inconceivable The immediate basis of every analytical extension. sition propobe must, therefore, the in cognition expression up
the

subject. Then
basis of the carried
or

the

questioncomes

next, What

is the

And itself ? we are here,as before, cognition element lying in the reason, back to some original
or

in the sense,

in both.
elements

But

as

the

sense

cannot

ply sup-

the constitutive
we condition, as are

of the

led inevitably basis

the last

authorityand

but only its cognition, the idea of reason to assign of all propositions of this

class,
the Synthetical.* Here the subject does not Secondly, contain the predicate, but the latter contains a distinct which is added to the former for the enlargement cognition, of the thought. For example : when we say, every body has iceiglit, the predicateis not contained or gravitates, for body, as a resisting or necessarily impliedin the subject, and extended substance, is a possible before cognition the knowledge of gravityis attained ; and this gravity is new a cognition,attained and joined to the former, in other way. some Now, there are but two ways by which the new be attained, viz. : by observation, can cognition Hence arises the distinction of synthetical or by intuition. into a posteriori and a priori. propositions That every body gravitatesis a synthetical proposition because ct posteriori, we gain the cognitioncontained in the predicateby observation, or sensuous experience projected into the outer the secondary world, and revealing But even this predicate timate does not find its ulphenomena. in the observation since the obserauthority itself,

to put together, 5uj/Ti^Mi,

68

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

vation

could

not

have

been

moulded and

without The

the
a

priori

of cognitions

space, the

cause,
sensuous

substance.
fact which

posteriori
first in
a

only gives us
succession
us

appears

in the

relation

of time

; while

the

priori gives

the

constitutive

idea. those whose


without For dicates prethe
:

a priori are Synthetical propositions are

attained of any

by

direct

and intuitions,

intervention

sensuous

experience.

example

Here, not only is Every phenomenon must have a cause. the predicate but no obserfrom the subject, vation not unwound of phenomena in any succession whatever afford can phenomena reveal only any suggestionor type of it. The phenomena to observation : but these being given, the and reveals the idea of cause reason by its own supervenes insight and authority. Hume, indeed, very consistently demanded affirms that there is no cause or really existent, because he admits no elements of thought beyond the phenomena But unless we themselves. ment adopt this bare statebe called make for philosophy it cannot must we of cause in the above the synthesis axiom, by intuition of that is, alone either the predicate is nothing, and reason the proposition absurd,or the basis is an a priori principle. of propoIt appears, then, from the precedinganalysis sitions, in the comparison consider them that whether we of which of the subjectand predicate, they are composed, of the terms in in the deduction taken or or separately, the particularand interdependent relations of the two in the last result led to the ideas terms, we are inevitably the last authority on which of the reason as they rest. when inasmuch But as every form of knowledge and belief, it expressedin language, takes the form of a proposition, basis of all knowledge and follow that the ultimate must
" "

"

belief must

be

the

ideas of the reason,

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

69

In
in

making
reverence

our

last

appeal
the Great before revealed his
he

to

Keason,
God him in
our

we

are

not

ing want-

to

Maker. the

On

the

contrary,

we

are

bowing
ideas

with

profoundest
are

homage implanted
when

for

the Him

our

reason,

there And yond be-

by holy
above of

"

are

own

voice

within

us.

by
and

prophets
that

sends is

us

special
naturally it,
Keason both

revelation in the because

which

given
receive

stitution con-

our

reason,

we

it

claims

to

come

from

the

Infinite the

by
and

attending
because and but vision when that it ties, du-

signs
contains

and

wonders

addressed in marks It is its

to

sense,

everywhere,
the

great

truths,
which
we

provisions
cannot

resplendent
source.

by

nize recogthe the

its
whole

as

if, seeing
vestibule

with of

clear

pathway
of Heaven

up itself

to

the is

Heaven,
we

gate
are

opened
for

upon

us

know visions which

we

witnessing
us,
we

no

illusion,
assured

although
are

new

burst such

upon

feel lead

they

those

to

pathway

must

us.

70

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

SECTION

XI.

DIVISIONS

OF

PHILOSOPHY.

depends upon the subjective the phenomenal objective Hence the latter, as upon the metaphenomenal. and accounting for the former, the mabecomes terial sustaining of philosophy. Now, in the most general conceptionswhich we form of the subjective and metaphenomenal, we have, with faculties or functions, First : Substance, endowed
pure
"

The

and

causes

or

forces.
or

Secondly : Laws,
the

that which
and
movements

determines

and

lates regu-

manifestations

of the first.
accordance

Philosophy in
old usage,
The
we

relation to the

in first,

with

shall call Metaphysics.*


"

second,

if

we

may

venture

to frame

term

"

we

shall call

NoMOLOGY.f

I." METAPHYSICS.

Metaphysics treats
and

of that

which, as actuallyexistent
the

lies beyond the physical, or productiveor creative, merely phenomenal. I think, feel,and will : What that which
and feels, thinks,
* +

is

wills ?

What

is that

which

Merer

QvaiKT), i. e.,

beyond

the

physical.
of law.

No/^os Xoyos, i. e., the doctrine

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENEBAL.

71

lies and

beyond

the

mere

phenomena

of the

thoughts, feelings,

cular Again : through my senses, and my musorganism,I attain to an exterior world,whose forms What lies under I call material. or beyond these primary and these various forces ? What and secondary qualities, for these changes these perpetual modifications? accounts In the development of my being,I am presentedwith the What is the physicalor phenomenal ; and the enquiryis, metaphysical or the metaphenomenal, which is to account for my development in this direction 7 The answer is givenby Psychology, to these enquiries These Dynamics, Anthkopology, and Ontology. may visions subdiand be considered as the divisions of metaphysics, of philosophy.

volitions ?

"

psychology.

* is that which accounts part of metaphysics Psychology in so far as they are for all the phenomena of consciousness, of the subjective modifications or manifestations simple. have the whole being of man In Psychology,we given and in its relations to in its inherent powers and faculties, effect the analysis God and the world. In Psychology, we

of the reason, In

and

arrive at its eternal

and

absolute

ideas.

thetics, find the basis of Logic,Eswe therefore, Psychology, of Science and and Morals, Politics, Keligion, generally. That the above is strictly true, any one may of his the operations realise to himself by reflecting upon ever, mind, when endeavoring to attain to any knowledge whatwhen or when endeavoring to execute any thing,or of the pashimself to any state or condition disciplining

Vvxv

hoy

os,

the doctrine

of the soul.

72
sions. his
and

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

and all thinking, purposing,and willing, lie within of the passions, his consciousness, discipline from Whatever he may himself. tain atare inseparable exterior to himself, becomes to as really his,only by

All

his

some

modification What is the

of himself

in relation ?

to it.

method psychological

It is to examine
to

the

facts of

and consciousness, compass

by

these

arrive

at

the

faculties and

sciousness being. It is by facts of conthat we arrive at every thing ; and yet there be no facts of consciousness without can bringing to view the simple subjective.My aim may be to arrive at something belongingto the subjective general,or at something but belonging to the purely objective, I, the simple still, there there permeating the whole I am am subjective, thinking,imagining, remembering, comparing, generalizing, or reasoning, determining, exertingcausality, ting put-

of

our

"

forth

emotions

and arrive

desires

and

whatever
a

else I may

arrive at, I do not of my


more own

at it without

further

ment develop-

without faculties, do I the

about

myself. Indeed, I myself,however


assume :

knowing something not only in this way


may

see perpetually

be

engaged, but
ing measur-

my

own

faculties
me

to

me can

importance of only upon


; and

to

the have may

universe
the be

know

condition however

that

faculty
the the

of

knowledge

abundant
and

perfectionof

objects of knowledge, the number depend upon the cognitionsmust


science of
in
some

faculty. capacityand vigor of the cognitive But although Psychology, as embracing the
our

mental all

constitution

and

its

embraces faculties,

sort

since science,

whatever every
are a

is known, is known
act

by

these

and faculties,

since in faculties

of

or knowing, feeling,

doing,

these

brought

to

light,
"

still it is

as distinguishable, clearly

branch particular

of Philoso-

74
known

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

me,

and
as

by their correlations with given through the five senses, and by


to
me

the sensitivity
muscular

resistance.

Kow

it is

plain from this,that Dynamics


energy

expresses

in
terial ma-

relation to this life and


masses,

working

in extraneous in relation

what

psychology expresses
the substance
between

to the

faculties

working
here the

within

of the

mind.
and

suming Asterial imma-

distinction
may say

material

substance,we
of the faculties
or

of Psychology that

it treats

phenomena
and

produce or develope the powers which given in connexion with immaterial substance ;
that

of

Dynamics, produce
with
or

it treats

of the

faculties

or

powers

which

develope the phenomena


substance.
arrive at the We may In both
we

given

in

nexion con-

material
and

begin
the whole

with

the

phenomenal,
for the

subjectiveas
sum

ing account-

phenomenal.

up

by

saying,that
of the

mind

faculties Psychology respects the subjective of ; Dynamics respectsthe subjective powers

matter,
ANTHROPOLOGY.

Anthropology*
and

takes up

man

in the union of his


a

ual spiritmal ani-

simple subjective being, with organism.


in his
mere man

physicaland
and

life and
View and he

animal

nature

functions,
The

appears

different from

all other

animals.

the animal within,modifies, spirit enlarges and ennobles he is the most of all without gloriousand interesting
"

animals. This animal


nature

is also affected

variouslyby

the

external world

with

which

it is

linked,and, indeed, of

m$ AyQfwiras

Aoyos, the {foctrme of humanity,

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENEKAL.

75

which

it forms

part

natural climate,

scenery,

food,and
at

employment, all act upon it. It is thus time by the spirit and by same within,
without. On the other

modified influences

the from

ing communhand, the animal thus closely with the spiritual reacts spirit, sphere. The upon most susceptible pointof this reaction is the sensitivity, become throughwhich the emotions and passions strikingly modified. of human In every theatre, passion therefore,
"

in

social

the arts of

in government, life, beauty, you may see But inasmuch

in war, the
as

in commerce, of the

in
ternal ex-

influences
man

nature.

is

unity, this

modifyingaction cannot without reaching in some so that his thinkingand


even

his moral surround

sensitivity, form and degree his entire being; his free activity, and reasoning, character, gain a tone from the objects
be exerted upon his and show the

which which him.

him,

complexion
which

of the

sun

and shines,

the

atmosphere
a

breathes

upon

Psychologyand that part of Dynamics which informs the science of physiology. it is hardlya pure philosocultivated, Indeed,as actually phy,
but natural rather
a

Anthropologyis thus

union

of

mixture
In

of

philosophy, physiologyand

determining elements, however, it is strictly philosophical,


history.
ONTOLOGY,

its

belonging of being, as distinguished to the pure subjectivity from the phenomenal or the pure objective,^-we next tp come consider the substance of being, The idea of substance,
like the wrong, ideas of time
and

After having considered the

life and

forces

space, of cause, and. of


reason.

rightand

is intuitively given in the

76

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

sign phenomena, we not only asthem also assign and laws, we them substance. causes Substance is therefore metaphenomenal, and belongs to in general hence the consideration of subjectivity ; and substance forms a part of philosophical speculation. * as relatingto substance,is Ontology. Metaphysics, To Ontology belong such questions as the following : from Is substance distinguishable What is substance ? and ? its properties Do substance propertiesnecessarily
"

Upon

the observation

of

imply

each

other ? be

Is the

relation

between the

substance

and

to properties
cause

from distinguished

relation

between
and tions rela-

and

effect?

What

are

the

distinctions

of material?

and spiritual

material

substance?

Is the with

soul the

Is God

in

his substance
?

identified
are

world, or
between
or

is he extra-mundane infinite and

What
?
to

the

relations substance
or spirit,

finite substance

Is space
matter
or

attribute ?

Is it to be referred of both ? Does

is it

independent
his
essence

the
to be

omnipresence of
diffused

God
all

suppose space ?

of substance

through
in

Questions of Ontology do, undoubtedly, exist


human
answer.

the

mind No

; and

because

they exist,they require an


is to be

set arbitrarily aside. If its aim be an it must be proved impossibility, to be so, but as long as a hope of its solution remains, it remain vain and must as a question. Now, a great many idle questionshave come losophy phiup in Ontology, but it was itself that exposed them, and set them aside. On the other hand, many questions of the very last importance Whether the soul be material are presented here. God be identified with the world, immaterial or ; whether

question of

the mind

Optos

and

Aoyos, the doctrine

of essential

being.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

77

the as trifling questions, If Ontology history of philosophyabundantly shows. its negative decisions could arrive at nothing positive, would for ever giveit an importantplacein philosophy.
or

be

extra-mundane,

are

not

We
;

which

the subjective and the objecdistinguished tive the latter the phenomenal, the secondary and dependent that which consciousness directly and recognizes, it to someto be accounted thing for, by referring requires antecedent The former, the metaphenomenal, pri: mary, * not sciousness, directly recognizedby the conindependent, does not in like manner and which requireto
"

have

be accounted The pure

for.
accounts

subjective generalis that which objective.This is their relation.


for all choices and
as

for the
counts ac-

Thus is

the will

volitions ; and the

in subjective

relation to them

for all the

tivity, objective.Thus the sensiaccounts with its external in connexion correlates, taken to them the sensations ; and is subjective as taken

for all acts of accounts objective.Thus the reason is subjective to knowing, and reasoning ; and perception, taken them as physical objective.Thus the extraneous for all the phenomena of matter account ; and are powers taken as the objective. to them subjective jective, to the obthe relation of the subjective In considering as above, the former accounts for we say generally still come But the enquiry may the latter. up, How, or
here exclude the fact,that both
the
are

I do not and
the

mean

to

powers

of

our

own

minds,

extraneous
:

physicalpowers,
I
mean

requireand
and

dependent upon

the

First and

the Infinite

only

the

inherent

of constituted sufficiency

these in relation to their proper

phenomena.

78
under what

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

forms, does May


are

the

former

account

for the latter?


latter

Is it sufficient to say

it accounts
not

for the

simply as
be sented pre-

the

subjective?
under there

the

subjectiveitself
to

different

relations
two

the

? objective

questiona Unmay

different relations relation of


cause and

which
substance

be named
and

and

viz. the distinguished,


and be the

properties,

relation of
as

effect.
or cause

The
the

subjective may

taken

either substance

objectivemay be taken as either property or effect. and contingentactivity. Cause is self-determined, creative, at least, is fixed,and, relatively istence. exSubstance necessary
Cause
can

be

thought

of

as

having potentiality
connected with any

to

without varietyof effects,


as

being

particulareffects
cannot
as

its necessary of without fixed exists.

manifestations.

stance Subperties pro-

be

thought

implying certain Property


Effect

its necessary
be

and

manifestations.

Effect

begins
with
cause

to

after from

cause

is co-existent is related
to to

substance

its

beginning.
is

contingently. Property Again


Substance
cannot

related

substance

necessarily.

involving If it be finite substance, in some the idea of cause. way it is caused. If it be infinite substance,causality is conceived material imfrom its unity. Universally, of as inseparable mind involves causality. Material substance or substance, besides being itself caused, is the vehicle or of the manifestations medium either directly of causality, if physical powers be taken as or : indirectly directly, if they be taken as the procausality ; indirectly, perties proper the former of substance. On hypothesis, the absorbs the supposed physical, and is allDivine causality pervading and omnipresent. On the latter hypothesis, the Divine causality is taken as having produced a certain
:

be

given without

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

79

form Divine

of

substance, substance,
fixed and

that
and

is,material, different
constituted with these On

from

the

physical
the former

as forces,

inseparableproperties.
is

matter hypothesis,

represented as

inert until

permeated
activities. from
ter mat-

by
For

activities ;

on on

the the
and

it is inseparable from latter, is distinct former, gravity interfused


cannot

example
as a

cause,

by special constitution;
be conceived But
;
cause

on

the

latter, matter
involve the

of
not

without

nor gravity,

gravity without
idea Cause be

matter.

only

does

substance the idea

of

cause

also

involves from

of substance. mind both


cannot

cannot

be

separated

mind,
This of

and is true

conceived

of without

substance.

of

as Will, directly such, and recognized

physical powers,

when

taken

as

causes

proper.

Taking
Substance

the

Subjective,then, as
the
as Objective,

divided divided
the

into Cause into Effects

and
and

; and

the Properties,
accounted

latter

from springing

former, and being


to

for

as

existent,by being
do the

referred

the

former,
the the and

the

enquiry arises,How
what

latter action

spring
of cause,

from

former, or

regulates the
?

development

of substance

IL"

HOMOLOGY.

This

at

once

introduces is the
treats to

us

to

the

Doctrine division

of of

Law,

or

Nomology,
the

which

second of the
cause

grand

phy. philosowhich
ties. proper-

Nomology
It also

laws, according to develope


of these

subjectiveought

effects and

violations explains the possible is divided


; and

laws.
;

Nomology
Somatology

into

the

Morale

j Esthetics

Logic.

80

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

THE

MORALE.

comprisesthe laws which ought to govern the what command is the laws of duty, the laws which Will what due ought to be done in moral relations. If all then the Morale is reis resolvable into Will/*" lated causality whether to all creations, by the infinite cause, or by
This
"

"

finite

causes.

The the rules

laws of
in

from duty, however, must be distinguished what The first enjoinupon art. us ought to of moral is due
or relations,

be done

our

in

our

relations to

mind,

embracing
The
or

what

to

second,point out
esthetical

how

and to God. to others, ourselves, useful, ingenious, any rational, effected.

designis

to be

ESTHETICS.

Esthetics
the

may

be

defined briefly

the

Beautiful.' As the Morale relates to As the Morale relates to the sensitivity. ought to
what be done in the moral

Philosophy of the will, this so


determines

'

what

relations ;

so

this determines
the
dition. con-

what is really or ought to please, agreeable to in its unperverted and sensitivity rightlydeveloped

There Morale
the upon and

is in

some

sort

an

interchange between lays down


The the rules

the of

Esthetics.
to

Esthetics

fine arts the

the

executive proper the

will.
moral

Morale
and

enjoins
desires.
of the this

the sensitivity

emotions

Esthetics

comprises
of the

principlesand
of

laws

beautiful,or

or agreeable,

taste, (for all

has obtained,) not varietyof designation


*

only in

relation

Doctrine

of the

Will,p.

294.

t Aiadrjais, perceptionor sensibility.

82

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

which
own

they
earnest

dwell

in rapture ; but
"

they never
vision
that

their satisfy

cannot

reveal

aspirations, they have a to others ; and they find


not

which
the

they being,

world, as
its forms

presented them,
but
and also that

only is not

the

measure

of their
make that
as

all the
even

efforts of art

cannot

materials the

truly representativeof
remains with
have

being;
a

and

beautiful perfectly which

them
to

pure

idea, of
In

they
the

only been
mind

enabled

give a

dim

reflection. Esthetics
human seeks
to

solve the

tery mys-

of the and their the

arts ; it

enquiresafter
seeks to

their

their laws, origin,

method

; and

comprehend

their

reach,
far

and

grounds
is that

of their limitations. beautiful man,


to

This back talian Nine


"

philosophy which
there
converse

leads
the the
true

us

into the

of spirit

to

find

Cas-

and spring, as livingand

there
real

with

"Sacred

inspirations

SOMATOLOGY.

Somatology *
that which the

holds

relation

to

Dynamics
laws the

similar hold

to to

Morale, Esthetics,and

Logic
which former

Psychology; it comprises the necessary the changes and motions of bodies,as


necessary
It is

govern
do the

laws

which

govorn

the mental

activities.

however, in its present development, to difficult, and of pure philosophy, represent Somatology as a branch to distinguish it clearly In from the Science of Nature. the Morale, there are necessary of the and absolute laws of the beautiful ; in Logic, of intuition good ; in Esthetics, and ratiocination : but can we positivesay with the same
*

2w/iara and

hoyos, the doctrine

or

law

of bodies.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

83

ness,

that

there

are

necessary

and

absolute of bodies?

laws for determining The

the relations and of the pure which arise

changes

cation appli-

mathematics

in

solvingthe problems

bodies ; the limitations which are respecting fixed to the possible of forces now laws existing for that force should the centripetal example, the necessity the square, and not inversely as as the cube vary inversely or any higherpower of the distance ; the fact that great before they calculated minds, like Newton's,preconceived before they indeed, that all minds must preconceive calculate ; and the necessary nite conceptionthat,amid indefivarietythere still must exist fixed laws, go to show
"

"

that

absolute

and

necessary

laws of

must
course

somewhere

exist
must

in respect to be
a

bodies,and
real

that

Somatology
with

and possible The

philosophy.
of

in difficulty

the way

determining

ness exact-

this branch of It cannot

pass philosophy,arises from the vast comadmissible. the indefinite diversity nature, and be doubted, however, that Somatological ideas

of

in the form

of

direct propheticsuggestions, These ideas unite


which

of science.
the

with

investigations phenomena in
the in

inductive
were

process the

through

science is determined.

of Newton preconceptions the law of gravitation of Davy ; and safety4amp.


LOGIC.

These

in

determining inventing the

Greek, Aoyos expresses the facultyof reason the verbs and ^vWojl^o/acu are or intelligence. Aoji^ofiai, latter being expressing the action of this faculty ; the
In

the

ing appropriated to express this action in drawparticularly conclusions from premises,that is,syllogizing or ceeding proof the ZvXkoyco-to the law and formula according

84

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

fjuos,the

Syllogism. Aojikt) (je^vrjor


expresses

stood), undereirlar^fjiT),

the

science

and

art

of

Reasoning, or
a

Logic.

Aoyifcr), or Logic,has, indeed,been


mere

represented as

art, or
as

at

least limited the

to

such

forms

of representation

It is art. impression of a mere it must however, that under its highestacceptation, plain, refer to philosophical principles ; for if in relation to any to by the ^c\oao(j"ta part of our being we are stimulated of its action and enquire after the laws and the method in relation to the development, we are thus stimulated
to

convey

XoyoSy or
The

reason.

Reason expresses

is the

faculty of knowledge Reason, what


what

in

general.

Logic

in relation to the

the Morale
presses ex-

expresses

in relation to the in relation


to

Will, and
at

Esthetics

the

Reason Sensitivity.

perceives
what
are

and

knows

; seeks

and

arrives

truth.

But

are

the laws
methods

which which

? regulateits perceptions

What

the

seekingafter truth ? What the ultimate are grounds of its knowledges and beliefs ? have answered have When these questions, we we Logic completed as a branch of philosophy. Logic takes precedence of all the other branches of The others are all dependent upon it. Laws, Nomology. whether or belonging to the morale,esthetics, somatology, all based ideas of the reason. But Logic determines are upon the legitimate and characteristics of ideas processes the reason themselves. Again, wherever acts, there must and be laws to determine regulate its action. Logic, is co-extensive with these laws, for the province therefore, of logic is the laws of the reason. But acts as reason wherever it acts in every department there is intellection, of philosophy permeates the whole. ; and hence logic
it pursues
in

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

85

Logic Logic
and is

permeates, present
to

but

does laws

not

absorb

the

whole.

give
but

to

thought,
are

investigation,
and spective irrefore, thereand of

ratiocination of still
the

these

laws

universal Each

particular
its distinctive still aims the
and

subjects.

subject,
characteristics the faculties

retains

position,
to

aims.
the

Psychology
mind union
;

determine of

Dynamics,
of
man

forces

nature

Anthropology,
reality
of and

the

nature

Ontology, Morale,
the

the laws

distinctions

of the bodies. is the

substance laws These universal of

the

duty
the but

Esthetics,
laws Reason of

the do

beautiful sink

Somatology, Logic
;

not

into

as

organ

of

philosophical
the

construction,
and

Logic
of

is

everywhere

present

as

light

atmosphere

thought.

86

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

SECTION

XII.

OF

THE

RELATIONS

BETWEEN SCIENCES
AND

PHILOSOPHY,
ARTS.

AND

THE

Philosophy
terms.

and

Science

are

often

employed

as

identical

Philosophy,indeed,is

science ; and

if not science,

connected with it. The word is closely philosophy, science is strictly used in the sense of systematicknowledge in relation to a given and defined subject ; and as in every such system, particular phenomena are accounted for and explained, the science puts on of the very much air of philosophy. But tion what, then, marks the distincpnre

? One obvious distinction is that philosophy is this, while in


a

versant con-

simply with principles ;


are

science, ples princiscience of


cause

applied to
substance

nature, for
of effect,
cal

particular subject. In the ideas of example, the philosophical


a

and

and

laws, are
The

applied to

and generalsomatologiproperties, class of phenomena. a particular the and tions phenomena, as the condiwhen the phenomena are and

science

begins with
:
causes

of its
reduced under

development
common

laws, then general.


and laws

the

science
count ac-

is determined for
the

and

fixed.

But in be

philosophyis taken, to
the First
: : causes

phenomena
there in
must

that affirming

by Secondly,

by laying down

of induction, inveslogicthe principles

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

87

and tigation,
causes logical

deduction and

Thirdly,by conceivingsomatoto laws, and applying them tentatively


:

the

of make objective up the sum all knowledge, actual or possible.Philosophy finds its of the elements in the subjective, so that the determination of philosophy. Science is is the determination subjective with the objective conversant by directly ; but it proceeds the the aid of the and subjective.Its aim is to distinguish into particular under parobjective spheres, ticular laws. the
to subjective

phenomena. and The subjective

the generalize
causes

and

We
"

will suppose
we

have

been
own

mined deterties, faculworld

will suppose laws


"

the

mind

to

know

its

and substance,

and

to know

the external

in its

making this supposition, do not mean is thus to imply that the subjective we antecedentlyand primarily completed before science begins. On the contrary, the developments of philosophy, the constructions of science, and the inventions and workings of art, all go on together.But for distinctness of conception, and in order to show forth clearly the relations as well as
the differences of the two,
we

and substance,forces,

laws.

In

supposition. I bring myself into possession In making this supposition, of Psychology, Dynamics, Anthropology, Ontology, Esthetics, the Morale, Somatology, and Logic. I have named guished will, and affections I have distinmy reason,
may
"

make

this

material

and

immaterial life in nature

substance
"

"

I have
and

ceived con-

of the universal
"

of powers

forces

their action. I have in the regulating Morale the just, the benevolent, and the distinguished I have conceived true ; in Esthetics, of the absolute laws of beauty, proportion, and sublimity; in Somatology, I have determined the necessary
laws

and

of

laws

of bodies ; and

in

re-

88

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

lation to the

Keason,

I have

laid down

the

formulas

of

rigid logic. Now, what the objective ?


Science
and

is the passage We

from

the
to

to purely subjective

shall endeavor into the

give the

answer.

is divided
the

pure,

exact, universal,

absolute, and
The

mixed, contingent,limited, and


the
are

variable. first embraces sciences of sensible pure mathematics. The

mathematical formed because


out
never

pure,

because

incapableof being
are

representations.They
never

exact,

the transcending which they are based. and axioms on principles They are because never universal, admitting of exceptions. They tion, because it is inconceivable are absolute, that,in any relaor by any they are capable of being changed. power, the contrary, is mixed, because, Natural on science, of although admitting, nay, demanding the application the principles and still it has such of exact science, pure material and to the pure properties, propertiesso foreign of these printo prevent the strict application as science, ciples. forms in its conBody is in space, and assumes formations, and moves through lines in performing its which, in the way of analogy,may be called revolutions, lines may be taken as geometrical ; and these forms and important conclusions deduced by means grounds of many mer astronoof geometrical principles ; but the mathematical full well,and takes care ference, knows not to neglectthe difbetween

short of,and falling

the

pure

and

absolute

geometry of his

mind, jagged

and
lines

the

of rough sphericity If

of their orbits.

and the planets, a phy, philosogeometry were

the

then

its difference

from, and

its relations to, natural


of the

would science,
and

form

an

illustration intelligible

tinction dis-

relations of

philosophy and

science.

90

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

ception of
a

the

reason

"

not

as positively ontological

ing defin-

particularsubstance,but
the

negativelyas
of substance.

a defining

quantity absolutely independent Having


to
use

pure

quantity thus given,we


purpose

may

now

gin be-

it for the
come

of scientific construction.

And
"

now

in

the

other

elements,viz. philosophical
There and are, 1. The
"

those

belonging to Logic.

axioms of

"

the and

conceptions of agreement inequality of a whole and


"

difference
"

equality
and

its parts formula.


space,

of

measure

proportion.
As
pure far
as

2. the

The

deductive

conception of
of the
But when

of the

of point, goes,
to
we

the

quantity,and
of this pure their

elements logical
we

have

simply philosophy.
out to consider

proceed
definite
to

construct

quantity a varietyof
and

and figures, them

and particular relations,

apply to
of

the

axioms logical

formula,for
in the
birth
to

the of

purpose

eliciting
It is
sal univer-

conclusions particular
or

form

regular propositions
science.
are

theorems, we
and

give

determinate

true, indeed,that the conclusions

of geometry it cannot
be ;

absolute, and
is
a

therefore

questioned
theless, but, neveras

that

geometry

most

science philosophical
a

it is justlyconsidered
are principles

inasmuch science,
to
a

cedent anteor

applied they

material particular

subject,which
of the and and

principlesare
which
are

true, wholly independently

subjectto

applied.

All

the

axioms
;

the the

logicalformula,are conceptions of there,although


a

manifestlyof

this character

point,and

of pure

ginning quantity bewith

more

immediatelyconnected

the

may

geometrical constructions, dent indepenare, nevertheless, and general: A point a line" a surface a solid, be thought of independently of all particular forms,
" " "

and relations,

propositions.
and philosophy

While

thus the

the science

are

distinct,

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

91

the relation between The of the the

the two

is most

intimate the

philosophy may
the

exist without

important. development
without

and

science ; but

science cannot

be formed

philosophy. The philosophy does not require the it more for it,or to make either to account science, plain; back but the science refers directly to the philosophy as the only means of its expliits only basis, and affording cation.

SCIENCES

OF

DISCRETE

QUANTITY.

in like manner, have their algebra, basis. philosophical They do not begin with absolute unity in forming their quantities ; the idea of unity as a idea,is antecedent philosophical to, and independent of, these quantities ; but althoughtheir unit,always assumed variable and ever cannot variable, represent the absolute and inof unity as a conception unit, still it has its origin in the absolute and idea. versal Here, also,we have unipure of abstract quantity, of equality, axioms,conceptions and and formulas. measure difference, proportion, logical When and independent to apply these antecedent we come elements of thought,and to the relations primary conceptions, of a particular class of quantity to discrete quantity, for the purpose of arriving solutions and at particular science ; and, indeed, we a theorems, we construct may be almost said to invent art art of representing an an and relations, and deductions in detail, of giving quantities of solvingproblems. the philosophy Here, again, the distinction between and the science is clear, and portant imwell as the intimate as relations between the two. It must be evident, ideas and also,that the same principles, philosophical of geometry in the case give birth to distinct sciences, as and
" "

Arithmetic

92

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

and

arithmetic. upon
the

The

distinction

of

these

sciences

is

grounded
The

distinction

of their

subject matter.

in both is quantity ; but in one it is matter subject continued quantity ; and in the other, discrete quantity ; is quantity,beginningat an absolute limit, and the one or itself by extension in space ; the other is quanincreasing tity or unit,and increasing beginning with any assumed diminishing itself indefinitely, by addition and division. In the one, we of consider the relations of figuresformed lines and surfaces ; in the other, the relations of numbers, abstract and universal quantities, as capableof representing whatever, on condition that these any real quantities be divisible into units. In respect of both, we quantities have the same generalideas,axioms and logic.

NATURAL

SCIENCE.

general designation, embracing Mechanics, Astronomy, Magnetism, Hydrostatics,Physical


as
a

I shall take

this

Dynamics
I do
not

in

general,Chemistry, and
to

so

on.

intend under

convey

thus

embraced

this

idea,that every thing tific scienis strictly designation,


I

the

; there is much all under

that is still theoretic.

comprise them
to

this

because designation,

they refer

phenomena,
All
cular mus-

which these

relations are of one hind. psychological phenomena, are phenomena of sensation,or of


in their

The pure

with sensation. which is closely connected resistance, quantitiesof geometry and arithmetic,and of the dependen mathematics have an existence wholly ingenerally, of the
senses

; but

all the natural the


a

forms,movements,
are science,

and

phenomena
in the with

of generally,

made

known

consciousness the senses,

by
or

correlations of external resistance


to

substance

by

the

mus-

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENEKAL.

93

organism. By careful and repeated observations, jects that is, to their correlative obby addressingour senses and without," by investigations experiments, we phenomena, acquaint ourselves with the various sensuous and their characteristics. These phenomena are next classified by resemblances and by common and differences, relations ; and are attempted to be explainedby the assignment of causes In making this assignment and laws. the causes and laws : at first merely hypothesise we may the system built up in this way is merely a theory,and science. A theoryis taken not demonstrated up for the time being, with the understanding that it is subject either to be confirmed,or to be wholly set aside, ingly accordextended as more experimentsand observations shall enable us to decide. A science has for its basis, not mere and and laws demonstrat causes hypothetical laws, but causes
cular
"

and

fixed. have
course re-

Now,
1. We space
;
"

in

both

natural a we constructing science, and to pure science. to philosophy have recourse to philosophy. Ideas of and attributes
;
"

time and and

and fect efportion pro-

;
"

of substance of law ;
"

of

cause

of

quantity,relation, measure,
lifeand distributed

; ideas of distributed

causality ;

of

and central, and

diffusive movement

jective ; distinctions of the sub-

and of personal and impersonal objective, manifestations ; the conception of genericwholes, and differences ; ideas of unity,multiplicity, and tospecific tality
; the

the

relations and

distinctions

of the finite and

the

infinite ;

formulae ; a knowledge of knowledge of logical mind, as the seat of all power, wisdom, design,and government all work together in the scientific construction. It is impossible to step forth into this wide field of natural phenomena, without having metaphysical and nomologia
"

94

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

cat

questionscrowded
to build

into the mind


a

; and

every

attempt,
upon

whether

up

theory or

is science,

made

the

basis,and
the mind

in

the

and ideas,principles,
one

light of philosophy. These are distinctions, presumed by


science under
are

first every

;
"

elaborates
where

their spontaneous
and

even influence,

they

not

defined

hended compre-

in 2.

known, philosophical systems.


have
recourse

We
The

to pure
are

or science,

the mathematics.

mathematics

the
the

science of pure absolute

quantity
and of selves themmove

"

of

simple extension
number.
But

from

point ;
upon ; and

abstract

physical bodies

take

forms lines

analogous to geometricalforms

in

lines : their distances, analogous to geometrical magnitudes, densities, velocities, temperatures, attractions,
paratively capable,also,of being represented comIt is evident, therefore, that by numbers. are

times, "c,
mathematical
of

principles may physicalrelations


drawn
on

be and

employed
laws. But

in the

mination deter-

should still,

conclusions

bodies,assume regard
of them
as

the

principles respecting perfectgeometrical form of bodies,or


and in
exact

mathematical

pure
error

there would, quantities, The abstract

be necessity,
are

the conclusions.
pure space and

tics mathemanumber
;

conversant

with

but

entirelyforeignand peculiar. properties the determination of physical science, there is but matical conditional applicationof mathenot an a absolute, tics mathemaprinciples.It is thus that the mixed are produced. that the material It thus appears, in natural science, of the construction is that part of the objective, embracing the sensuous phenomena ; that the ultimate grounds of lie in pure the construction or subjectivity philosophy; for the construction are experiment, that the preparations body Hence, in

has

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

95

and observation,
organon

classification ; and is the

that

the

immediate tive Deducin the


struction, conare a

of the

construction

mathematics.

and

inductive but
not

logic are, indeed, employed


as an

immediate

organon

they
"

and part of the all-penetrating

logicpervading the of every and the inductive appearingin the determination from particular observations. general principle losophy PhiLet us now sum up the precedingobservations. is the knowledge of the subjective, the absolute, ledge the primary,and the universal ; is the knowscience of the objective within spheres,under particular in and with laws determined philosophical conceptions, relation to particularphenomena. plete Philosophy is combe constructed without phenomena : Science must out of phenomena. Philosophycomprehends : Science is comprehended.
deductive
"

governingphilosophy the mathematics throughout,

CONDITIONAL

AND

UNCONDITIONAL

SCIENCE.

Geometry
exterior these

can

have
"

no

relation

to

phenomena
constructed

of the
out

consciousness

it cannot
to the
"

be

of

phenomena.

But

phenomena

of the interior
out

consciousness

it is related

it is constructed

of these

have that after the formulae of seen phenomena. We of a point, the conceptions the idea of space, and logic, and of quantity, in one, two, and three directions are given,as the necessary and the absolute ; the mind proceeds in space, and to construct to certain definite figures ready alconsider their relations in the light of the principles developed ; and so, also,with respect to discrete it proceeds to the formation of signsand symquantities, bols and their general of these quantities as representatives
"

96

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OP

relations ; and This

proposes

to itself various

problems
of the

for

lution. so-

and particular
us

definite action of the

gence intellisciousness. con-

presents
The

the

phenomenal

interior

and conceptions above referred to, are principles independent, primary, and necessary ; and the action of the intelligence in comprehending them as knowledges, is accounted for only in the fact that they are essential and cannot elements of thought. The intelligence inseparable think without sation, senlogic: it cannot form cognitions upon without
the

space

"

and

the very extension


"

idea of space involves in three


"

point absolute,and
"

directions ; is
no

number necessary

as

the

one

"

the many The

the

total

less

element. conditions

within intelligence go into action it should go


on

its actual without


to

lations re-

and But

cannot

them.
the

it is not

necessary

that

form

the circle, the sphere, the polyhedron,and triangle, blems proin discrete quantity ; when it does so, it presents which demand to phenomena to the interior consciousness be accounted the for by something antecedent ; and when antecedent are principles appealed to, these phenomena
become
are a

material

out

of which

exact

and

pure

sciences

constructed. Reflection
will show

the

analogy between
the and mind
"

this

case

and
sciousness. con-

that

of natural

in its relation to science, and substance Cause effect,


and

exterior

attributes,
we

space, suppress the

law, designing
the

governing
the

cannot

ideas of these amid form


Neither
to

cannot intelligence

its

phenomena of nature, pendently simplest cognitionsindethe

of them.
be

could

objectsof
these.

our

nitions cog-

supposed
and

exist without

But

these

primary
without

ideas
our

be supposed to exist can principles and their objects. Now, cognitions particular

98

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

To

this may
of moral

be

added

the

science
for the

of

or ethics,

the

determination which
to
are

laws particular and

tions particularrelain to

responsible beings stand beings.


formed As these
the the

G-od,

each

other,and
so

to inferior

relations

immutable,

the

science

by

of

general philosophicalprinciplesto
must

application phenomena
also

appearing in them,
The
to be

be civil

immutable

likewise.

science

of the

is law, or jurisprudence,

ranked immutable and of

among

unconditional relations.

sciences, because,based
The

upon ethics

moral

distinction between ence is the sci-

jurisprudenceis simply
wrong, in its

this ; Ethics

right and
these

to application

the relations its


a

of moral
to

in beings universally ; jurisprudence,

tion applica-

relations
in
a

as

they

appear

under The

particular
of ethics

government,

particular state.
man

laws

belong
to
man

to
as

man

as

; the
an

laws

of

jurisprudencebelong
In herent his incannot

the

citizen of
of

organized commonwealth.
man

the

constitution

government,
of principle of

lose

nature, and, consequently,cannot


to violate

be

pelled comlawfully

any

necessary

rectitude

but, is,

in still,

the

constitution into

government,
marked scope within

he, as
of

moral It

being, comes

peculiar and
in the
utmost

relations.

indeed, true, that


would The
not

ethics, prudence jurishas sciences,

be has

comprehended
the

its definition.

usage

which

the distinguished

two

separated or opposed

cardinal

principles.

II."

CONDITIONAL

SCIENCE.

This

exists
remain

on

condition

that

the

relations of the
natural
or

sciences

are

of

unchanged. All the this description. The

phenomena physical
of As-

great laws

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

99

tronomy, for example, accuratelydetermined


and

as

body of forming a stupendous and glorious only while the constitution nevertheless, science,
remains
as

they are, science, are,


of the

universe be

Now, it We bounds set no to can place,to an indefinite extent. Omnipotence in modifying the forms of physical being and the constitution The tions distincof planetary systems. and of truth,justice, of rightand wrong, the nature God himself than benevolence,can be changed no more be changed ; but can our thought does not attach the and necessity immutabilitv to natural forces and laws. same

phenomena changed, and the present science is destroyed. conceivable that changes might take is plainly

it is.

Let

the relations of the

ART.

We
"

have shown

defined the
to

Philosophy
"

we

have former
to

defined
to

Science latter ; relation

and

relation define hold

of

the and

the the

but which

it remains

Art,
to it.

show

the first two


common

Art, in
to

usage,

is confined

to express

the

tion exercording ac-

of human

for the causality and rules. principles

modification

of bodies

enlarged idea of art is given in the work of creation itself, by the Almighty and Allwise Creator. The creation everywhere exhibits design, law, and skill. We without any figure of speech, call God may, therefore, the first and Great Artist and Mechanician. He created, and rules arranged, and finished, accordingto principles which his own exhaustless intelligence supplied. The the number, the nice and elaborate the variety, perfection, and glory of his works, exceed not only beauty,benignity, actual knowledge,but the utmost of our imour flight
most

The

100

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

agination. From
of the extent
are

the the
to

glimpseswhich
continual the

astronomy furnishes
of
we creation,

and

advance

led irresistibly
new

find

objectsto
art

that the mind will conviction, observe and admire, throughout its

immortality.
Human
copy

is

a feeble, comparatively yet

beautiful

of the their

Divine.

God

formed which

the substances human

together

with He

properties, upon
under

skill is exercised.

fixed the laws We

which the

this skill must of

accomplish
or

its ends.
upon
we

imitate

beauty

nature,

improve

If these properties and laws. it,only by observing ing attempt to do violence to them, we are not long waitand demonstration of our for a rebuke of our folly, a of nature, suggestions and rules on which according to the principles and been constituted,then the arts of utility But if we fall in with the rich and with

weakness.
and

work has

she

beauty
become

will appear,

manifold,and
the

the human
an

will

both of

co-worker

Divine, and

ment instru-

its

completingits projections. Now, in analyzinghuman art, we are led to perceive and science. with both philosophy connexion
1. With

philosophy.
There

This

appears the

in the ideas under


or

which

it works.

is,in

mechanical
"

useful of improving

the idea of utility itself arts, generally, upon


and
or

the

idea

the actual forms

of

adapting
This

them

more

arrangements of nature, to our perfectly wants, actual

and

fanciful.

idea is the

forecasting thought,and
and itself, hence is an

the ment ele-

propelling energy of the reason of pure philosophy.


In the fine arts
appear and symmetry, congruity,

the ideas of

proportion, grace,

harmony

idea upon

of

beauty. beauty

This

idea

forming the complex leading to all improvements


"

the

of the

existingforms

of

nature, as

in

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

101

for example ; and to the creation of landscapegardening, forms of beauty, as in statuary, architecture, new ing, paintmusic, and poetry, has its originalso in the pure element. a philosophic reason, and is,therefore, science. Science being the determination of 2. With the laws governing the relations of phenomena, as they the artist, when springforth in succession from causality, he undertakes is a work, either of imitation or creation, and in the arrangement bound, in the use of materials, of parts, to observe these laws. He not only works under the inspiration of pure ideas,or, in other words, the conception of the ideal,but working in the field of nature, he works fixed in obedience
to

her In

material

constitution

"

her

he works under architecture, ideas of proportion,congruity,grace, and dignity; but, of his at the same time, he must regard the properties and pay the utmost laws. materials, respect to mechanical In musical composition, he is, indeed, led on by the ideas of melody and harmony ; but in producingand arranging
and properties

laws.

the sounds

which

form

the material

of the

art, he

cannot

laws. dispensewith physical

Similar

illustrations may

be

given in
That

relation to the other fine arts. the

mechanician, and
their

the

inventor

of arts

of

base utility,
no

operations upon
are

scientific

laws, requires

illustrations. Rules
of

expressed explicit specifications, in language, and clearly by diagrams, and numbers, with proportion,combination, and respect to form, measure, the how in simple terms adjustment. They lay down execute a They direct the causalitymust given work. skill. applicationof physical and individual be a crude An raw philosopher, may he may, by long in science ; but and uninstructed still,

Art

102

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

practice,

acquire
and

the the

skill science

of

obeying
in is

rules the

of

art.

The from

philosophy
which
the

implied
he

rules,

and

rules does

were

deduced,
even

incompetent
; but

to

plain, ex-

and

not

comprehend

skilfully
under

and

readily
simple
or

adjusting
directions and Such

his of the

physical
rules,
the

instrumentality
he
rears

the

the

stately

temple,
of the

fashions

arranges
men are mere

curious

machinery
or

watch.

copyists

mechanics.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

103

SECTION

XIII.

REASON, Philosophy is the

THE

ORGAN

OF

PHILOSOPHY.

knowledge of mind and nature in their and laws ; and the knowledge substances, forces, faculties, of as independent of all being. of truth conceived Science is the knowledge of phenomena, as accounted reduced under, and regulated by, these faculties, forces, for, and Art is reproduction, imitation, substances, and laws. and skill, under the light and causality creation, by human authorityof philosophyand science. the immediate are Phenomena, or the purely objective, of consciousness or periences objects experiences ; and are either exof the action of pure reason, and simple choice and volition, of sensations or depending upon correlative objectswithout. The metaphenomenal, or the subjectivegeneral,are do not form the the realities of being and truth, which but known immediate are experiences of consciousness, mediately through these experiences. structing Philosophy relates to our whole being : but in conphilosophy as a system, our whole being does form the organ not of this construction. Philosophy is
not
a

creation
and

of the

will

nor

is it is but

an one

outflow

of the

emotions
can

passions.
the organ

There

facultywhich
that is the

claim

to be

of

and philosophy,

Reason.

104

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

The

Keason

is the

faculty of by
the

all

perception,whether representationor
the exterior
or sciousness; con-

by

immediate

or intuition,

mediate
or

deduction

; whether whether

of

interior

of the
or

past, the present,


the
or possible,

the

future; probable

whether
or

of the

actual

of the
or

the

impossible;
; whether of

whether
cause or

of

phenomena,
All

of

being and
and

truth

law.

perception

all

knowledge belong
Now
or

to

this

one

faculty. perceive the


and
movements

that

the

Reason other and

should

phenomena
in the

of the

and faculties, the

assignthem
that
as

their

laws

Esthetics forms
to

Morale;
truth

it should

perceive all
seems itself,

of

being
no

and

taken
But

to objective

present
; and

difficulties.

how

does

the
own

reason,
acts
or

while

perceiving all else,perceivelikewise


while

its

phenomena

giving out
own

the

laws

of the

other

give out, likewise,its faculties,


? here difficulty in the

laws, thereby
be

constructing Logic
The consists
own

presented, it
the order
reason

will
must

perceived, perceive its

fact

that

phenomena, while, in
is

to

develope phenomena regulate its


these
other

it itself,

engaged give

in
out

perceiving something objectiveto


the laws
to

itself;it engaged
some

must

which

own

movements,
in

while, in
exercise

order laws

develope
some

laws, it
its
own

is in

determining

for

faculty,or
own

similar

upon

that

which
can

lies without my

immediate
and

subjectivity. How thoughts, and


that be the the

I observe which of

ceptions permy

laws the

regulate

perception and thinking imply


And if the

thinking, when
reason

acts

perceivingand
upon

is intent
to

objects?
itself from

reason

supposed
of

withdraw

objectsfor
how
can

the

purpose

examining itself, then, again,


itself without

the

reason

examine

callingitself

106

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

reallyintermit

the

exercise
of its
own on

of its remarkable

of function,
these
ments move-

knowing
are

the

laws

movements,
in reference

while
to

actuallygoing
itself. These

that

which
are

is

to objective utmost

diagrams they
of Under

and

charts

of the
more

importance,

because work

render

reflection

easy,

the by presenting
as

and investigation these

tion deduc-

already completed.
in the
no

circumstances,
the

the

renewal

consciousness

of the thus

original processes
reason

is effected with
to bend

and great effort,

is

abled en-

its

strength to
The Euclid

acts

of reflection and
may

sophical philo-

insight. of,by supposing


the abstract and

difference
to have

be conceived easily engaged in determining of deduction ;


or

universal

laws

during
to

his

first efforts at his of the

geometricalconstruction
and then
to have

have

pleted com-

geometricalconstruction
in this laws

under

the upon the

spontaneity
the tions operaof

reason, of his

reflected

reason

for construction,

purpose

universal eliciting

of deduction.

Taking
how
are we

the
to

reason, decide

then, as
when
we

the

organ

of

philosophy,
a

have

attained

genuine highest
I ; I

philosophy? appeared.
have
am no

This
a

question, undoubtedly,is
great many

of the

importance, for
In

have spurious philosophies


to

these

prolegomena

my

main

purpose,

opportunity to enter into minute only indicating thoughts. It would

elucidations be
no

ordinary

the criteria of a true to determine undertaking,by itself, be accomplished in a few philosophy: What, then, can But where he is not in a condition as an artist, pages ! to give a finished work, can still, by a few lines and
" "

touches, give
least
as

to make

go

and

striking outline,so at to attract contemplation,to stir up thought, and the beholder desire a perfect rather to or picture, examine the original, be it a quiet scene of hills
an
"

and intelligible

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

107

and
and

plains
cataracts,
;
so

and

flowing
or

rivers,
noble few

or

of of
and

wild old

rocks and

and

woods

the

ruins hints

an

mysterious thoughts ingenious perhaps


to

temple
thrown

here,
may

rough-hewn by afresh,

out

serve

good

end,

leading
and

readers

to

put

forth

their conclusions.

thoughts

correct

their

past

108

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

SECTION

XIV.

THE

CRITERIA

OF

TRUE

PHILOSOPHY.

All

that is
course

it,of

secondary to philosophy,and dependent upon other ground. Philosophy accounts no requires


beside itself
"

for and

explains every thing


there
are

it is the

final

authority. Hence,
There men,

is
a

of testinga philosophy. empirical way multitude of knowledges abroad among


an

generallyreceived
so

and

believed:
"

nay,

received

and

believed

that confidently, be

he who

should of

question their
common

would reality, and unfit

regarded as
duties and
appears ultimate
a

destitute

sense,

for the

of society. responsibilities
to

philosophywhich
"

uphold

tions these favorite convic-

to be

the
as

and

unquestionable ground philosophy.


and

of

them, They
certain

is taken I would

well-attested

Now,
have

not

these empiricalcriteria. utterlyreject


an

their

use,

eminently practicaluse, large.


and

one

adapted

to the

people
of
a

at

There

are, for

example,
which
life of

convictions the

moral

religious nature,
and
are are

widely pervade
the
and
common

human

mind,
Men

the

very of

social

system.

tenacious
close and

these,

that

for the best

of reasons,
to all that

the viz.,

connexion

in which
It is

they
which

stand

is most
nature to

dear
to

valuable.
any

just and
beliefs.

worthy

in human

clingto high
and

losophy phi-

clearly appears

sustain

able invalu-

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

109

stillinsist must we But, while making these admissions, lying farther back, and which, indeed, upon other criteria, are implied in those which we have above adverted to ; teria The empiricalcri: First, plain reasons in themselves. This have no legitimate can authority is evident, to since the secondary knowledges are assumed establish that,without which they could have no reality. The secondaryknowledges by hypothesisrequirean mate ultibasis sarily they are not self-evident, they are not necestrue ; but their ultimate basis consists of philosophical and the very principles which they are employed principles, to establish. Now, we may not prove an antecedent by a it is granted that this consequent, and that, too, when basis the very antecedent for its own consequent requires and that for two
"

which And

it is taken

to prove.

if it be admitted convictions

that those
to which
we

spontaneous

and irrepressible have alluded, are upon do

firm
an an

it will be found authorityand basis in themselves, that the spontaneous convictions accurate analysis arise from the

not

phenomenal and secondary,but from the absolute and primary, which penetrates and sustains the phenomenal and the secondary. For example : One man of money, is observed givinganother man and the a purse and firm conviction that the observer has an irrepressible act is right. By why has he this conviction ? Because, he knows that it is given in benevolence, by supposition, in payment of a just debt. or Now, the payment of a
debt the
cannot

be taken

to prove

the

givingof money to prove the ; but the principle of justice the payment of the commands debt, and the principleof benevolence,the relief of the needy. From observingthe benign influences of certain that philosophywhich elevates them acts,I may commend

of justice, nor principle of benevolence principle

110

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

into immutable effects


account
we

moral

principles ;

but

then

these

benign
order
to

require the
arrive
at
a

existence

of such

in principles

for their manifestation. but principle,

By inductingphenomena
the

may

must

principlearrived at in order to render the phehave had a pre-existence nomena be forgotten that philosonot possible. It must phy
with incorporated
our

is

proper when

being ;
we

and
not

enlightens, recognize
it
as

guides,and
it

determines
are

us

even

do
to
name

and by reflection,

too

unlearned

mally for-

laid down To
natural
one

in

systems.
in

untaught
to

systematic philosophy, a springup


in favour informed of that
some

very

would prejudice named

losophy philay at

him,

if he

were

it

and beliefs ; feelings in reality, but it is perfectly plain that this philosophy,if, dividua of these mental lying at the bottom phenomena of the inbe that which in question, would really gave rise be satisfied This individual to these phenomena. may from its supposed connexion with his beliefs and with it, determined be legitimately sentiments ; but it could never We determine must independently of by such criteria. whether his beliefs have a true basis ; that the individual, : they are philosophicalor unphilosophical is, whether hence the proper criteria must be independent of the phenomenal the bottom of his warmest and noblest of the

individual

mind.

Secondly, The
in

determiningthe they
do

empiricalcriteria cannot be legitimate truth of a philosophy, in themselves because,


first
error

not, in the
of

againstthe
it is
a

introduction

place,sufficiently provide place, ; and in the second


have been actually

matter

of

historythat

errors

troduced in-

in this way.

they do not place, provide against the introduction

In

the

first

in themselves

sufficiently Opinions
and

of

error.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

Ill

beliefs may other

be connected

in
an

the
innate

human

mind

with

many-

philosophy. They may of nation,family,and sect ; with prejudices be connected with pride,ambition, favorite pursuitsand pleasures. If innate an philosophyalways governed our opinionsand pendent then they would always rise above, and be indebeliefs, But so far from this of,these other connexions. being the case, these other connexions do often exclusively determine them, and in spite of the innate philosophy. and beliefs are that if actual opinions It is plain, therefore, ultimate it will not only have an to settle our philosophy, which is absurd in the very enunciation, basis beyond itself, will be just as various, basis also, but this ultimate ble, mutaselves. and passions themconflicting, impure, as human It is impossible, then, in this way, to settle what is a true philosophy. that But, in the second place,it is a matter of history,
besides particulars
errors

have

been

introduced

in this way.
be

The

instances
a

of Gralileo and that

Abelard, may

taken

as

types of

tude multi-

Both were might be sought out and adduced. which had severelypersecuted for resisting philosophies their origin in the prejudices of a learned unthinkingness ; and in the pride and ambition of a corrupt hierarchy. The current different philosophies from opinionsdemanded those broached and expounded by these great apostlesof freedom of investigation and thought. holds certain opinionsin common with his Every man nation, his family,his political sect. party, or his religious Are these opinionsall based upon sound philosophy? No would contend for such an absurdity. These opinions one conflict with each other ; they cannot, therefore, all be true. But if the mere and the zeal in advancing strengthof an opinion, the sure criteria of it,are to be taken as among

112

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

philosophy,then
at
secure
war

we

shall establish each

multitude all upon

of
an

phies philosoequallyand
mentous mo-

with

other,and
a

basis.

Philosophy is
and he of who

word

of such both

awful

import
old and opinions, the
venerator

that authority,

he who

advocates
new
ones

attempts
both

to introduce

;
former re-

both

and unchanging institutions, ;

the

and both and

revolutionist

orthodoxy
be ambitious

and

heresy ; titles,
this

bigotryand
of

will liberalism, under

of its

marching

its banners.

From

this Babel-like

confusion the
to
a

of tongues
and and
steam

"

from

light rendered
we conflicts,

murky by
must

dust calm

of furious

retire

elevated the

region,

where

quiet thought dry"


and

has its home

; and

where

"light"

is

"

pure.*
criteria of
a

I will philosophy, the name one thing not, perhaps,reallyranking among criteria strictly defined,but yet, the invariable attendant of such a philosophy : It is the qualitywhich izes characterthe spiritof the philosophy. Philosophy is truth, nothing but truth,and truth immutable, arrayed in the glory and majesty of her own eternity. Now, that philosophy has developed itself in a mind which which loves, takes fears,and adores truth, with a filial spirit ; which
true
"

In

introducingthe

"

up

its

cross

and all

follows

truth

with

an

entire be

devotion the

which

counts

whether things else,


nation
"

they
creeds

dices prejuwon

of in the of

family,sect, or
of
or

or

old titles of honor and the all

service

powerful and
of the

honored
"

dogmas
lency excel-

the

church of the

schools,
"

but

for loss,

knowledge
her all

of truth with

and

confiding in
endure

counting truth heartiness, fearing no


and joyfully

gain,
"

evils

willingto

and trials,

excertainly

"

Lumen

siccum."

"

Bacon.

114

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

of

ignorance, or
has

impose

new

labors,or
of

are

opposed
in

to

dearly cherished
great work,
and human

prejudicesand

passions. Bacon,
new

his

exposed these enemies truths,where revolutionizing


The
"

tions, investigalie in the

they

heart.

Idols infirm

of the human

Tribe," or
nature

those

dices prejuthe

which
"

belong to Den/'
or

generally ;
"

Idols

of the

individual

prejudices
of
set

the

idiosynthe

cracies of the man;


the

the

"Idols
with

the

Market-place,"or
of

prejudicesconnected
of mistaken

forms
"

speech in
"

announcement

opinions and
for grave

dogmas
truths with

where

venerable of the

phrases are
but idle the

; the wild

Idols

connected Theatre," or prejudices theories. When


can

and
are

these make will the


no

"Idols"
new

startling, worshipped
them.
ing read-

by

he philosopher, then

unless discoveries,
to

by accident,and
When

he

be

prone
"

distort the is,

they prevailamong people,those


ways, and who with
are

people, degrees
friends

that

seeking for gain

information
of

in different
"

different
can

interest, solid
and slowly,
are

and

rational

truths silenced

but

liable to be rebukes

of the

the by the authorityof publicopinion, church, or even by the force of civil law.

It holds the
sower

true

in

as philosophy,

well and

as sow

in

that religion, but

may

go

forth

to

sow,

none

good
labor

seed, and
will be in

yet if the

hearers
the

be

the impracticable, will be that

vain,and
the

seed precious

lost ; and
truth finds

it
a

is

only in

good
whose
an

and

honest

heart

proper and

in soil,

rich

depth
direct

she sends

forth

her

roots,

springsup
In
a

immortal
to

fruit.

proceeding
true

the

enquiriesrespecting the
cannot

criteria of
as
"

we philosophy,

well

leadingthought, the subjectof the the Organ of Philosophy." Keason


must

adopting tion, preceding secIf


reason
struct con-

avoid

philosophy, she

be

immediately conversant

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENEKAL.

115

of all knowledges, faculty in determining them. she must be the last authority But shall these criteria be sought for? We where be empirical. Experience that they cannot have shown be the condition of their development may suggest may be subjective. losophy Phithem ; but they, in themselves,must and metaphenomenal. The criteria is subjective and metaphenobe subjective must of a true philosophy menal the criteria must likewise. It is evident,therefore, with these
as
"

criteria ; and

she is the

be

sought for in the pure Eeason I will begin with Logic as an


of all ratiocination. this respect,attained But
a

itself. illustration. how


true

Logicgives
when I

the laws

do I know

1 I do philosophy of men ous variconcrete not go to the common, on reasonings believe their current subjects. They may confidently them of the utmost conclusions they may deem tance importhe aim of Logic being to test the legitimacy : but criteria. it cannot of these conclusions, as go to them ? Why, to go What, then, is my only remaining resource these principles and ask it whether to the Keason itself, their falsity whether is conbe otherwise than true ceivable, can ? The Keason or givesthe answer, from possible there its perfectinsight or intuition ; and beyond this, of determining be no appeal. Is there any other way can

have, in

"

"

the truth be the

of the

"

dictum

de

omni
"

et nullo

f"

Whatever

conception whether substance, philosophical cause, be the harmony, space, or time ; whatever proportion, law whether of Esthetics or the Morale, or philosophical and truth can belonging to Logic, its reality evidently What the be settled only by an appeal to the Keason. Keason and intuitively perceives, undoubtingly affirms, and The truth. be reality must only legitimateway of the Keason is to question at philosophy, : and arriving so,
" " "

116

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

testingany system is to bring it in its parts, its claimingto be philosophy, in its constituted and view relations, wholeness,under the reof the Reason, as the faculty of intuition of original insight. I may remark in the determination here, that we are claiming than what tician of philosophy, the mathemano more
true
"

likewise,the

only

method

of

claims shall
we

in the

the

determination

of his

science.

How
"

test
a

definitions and

axioms

of

Geometry
?

cept ex-

by
in every from

direct

appeal to
the

the

intuition of

of Eeason

Nay,
out

step of

long

chains

reasoningdrawn
exact

these

definitions and

axioms, the
of Eeason.

relations

and

dependencies defy the


themselves
to the

of possibility

error,

by submitting

intuition
a

There

is such
and
our

thing,then, as
more

Eeason,
is

a receiving reply of

to appealing directly authoritythan the


our

hearing of

ears,

or

the

seeing of

eyes and it up
more

; since what

generallyreceived as the most exact holds of all the sciences, continually


If it

unquestionable
to
our

view. it belong

belong to
to

the

mathematics,

much the

must

which philosophy,

furnishes

ultimate

grounds method,
dering wan-

even

of this science.

Philosophy,when
becomes

taken

up

accordingto
It is and

true

rigid, exact,
from

authoritative.
that

only when

this

method,

vague

mutable

theories

which belong neither to heaven nor earth,but fancies, which losophi phiseem grotesquelyto partake of both, become called. so Indeed, so rife has this tribe falsely duce of vain and fanciful theorists ever been, that we might ad-

and

in illustration of the
a

emptiness which

current

is but

opinion,the very an ever-changing mysticism, which


mould
to his

belong to that phy philosogeneral opinion,


may every
new

adept

may

peculiarfancies.

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENERAL.

117
called

philosophers, and composed of The in all ages. one, very numerous, The other,generally these vain theorists. embracing the from the former,first, by few, and plainly distinguishable deduction from from a mere ence, experiphilosophy elevating an or a mere end, to expedient created to answer of a system formed out of the and permanency the dignity of pure Eeason primary and intuitive perceptions ; and, of the system itself, secondly, by the identity exhibiting that the same and the clearly conception of philosophy, transmitted from age to age, if not in same method, was mind books, yet in the elemental working of the human and showing the true itself; philosopherto be a most natural and genuine,although a rare of humanity. manifestation
There have been two
The

classes of men,

criteria

are

all embraced affirmation.

in the

fact
are

of the

son's Sea-

authoritative of

They

ever, capable,how-

enunciation. a specific receiving I. A philosophical truth,in its very nature, is incapable of being defined and demonstrated by any thing going before. The aim of philosophyis,as the ultimate ground of

knowledge, to define, demonstrate, and


in its nature is

account

for that

which

account

of standingalone,and requires incapable to define, something antecedent demonstrate, and for it. There be such primary truths,for must
were

if there of

not, there would


in the labor of ultimate

be

an

infinite retrogressus

thought
be
no

definingand
for the repose
must

proving ;
of

there

would

ground

enquiry.

clear,and perfectly with no doubtfulness. attended It is incapable of being defined and demonstrated, both because it is primitive, and because there really is nothing clearer than itself by which demonstrate it. For example, the to define and
truth philosophical

II. A

be

118

INTRODUCTORY

VIEW

OF

idea

of space

not strated,

incapable of being defined and bemononly because there is nothing before it,which
is therefore itself affirm

comprehends it,and
also because
That If I space I exists,
to

adequate eminently
the

to

but it, defining certain.

it is in

clear and

with

utmost

confidence.
to its

attempt

represent space by body, or

to attain

utmost

stretch

by
from the

the

or multiplication

enlargement
; but

of

bodies,my mind not arises,


space, the but from

soon

becomes
any

confused

sion this confu-

obscurityinherent
attempt
to

in the idea of
der un-

absurd

represent that
is not
attained

phenomena

of the senses,
antecedent

which

by

and sensation,

is indeed

to, and

independent
of the it must of
no

of,all phenomena.
III. A Keason.
be

truth philosophical
It must with

is

pure

intuition
"

be
a

seen

without

doubtfulness

affirmed

positivenesswhich
the

admits
it

rational

questioning in
But these

mind

in

which

developes
intuitive

itself. truth.

characteristics

belong only to

truths being in a high and peculiar Philosophical of thought, cannot remain unproductive sense, elements where truth thought is going on. Hence, a philosophical make its appearance somewhere in the development must of humanity. If we seek for it,we shall find it. This well be confounded with cannot the empiricalcriteria, have alreadybeen urged. These againstwhich objections criteria suppose to begin with us phenomena as the basis construction. of the philosophical Here, on the contrary, we begin with the truth as an affirmation of the Keason, and seek

IV.

for

its manifestations.
to those
a

This
a

criterion
because

is

pecially es-

useful the mind


a

who

seize

truth

it fills

with

sort

of

and inexpressible delight,

kindles
un-

it into

loftyenthusiasm, without

calmly bringingit

PHILOSOPHY

IN

GENEKAL.

119

der

the eye of the Keason. and

It will

serve

to

this dissipate

enthusiasm

of the

edness, and to bring about a sober-minddelight, to call upon such, to search for the manifestations sciousness. supposed truth in the actual phenomena of con-

V.

Philosophycannot
truths
woven

legitimately present
Keason into
a

itself under hence it

the form

of isolated truths.

is

one

; and

its developes Unity.


as

system, and constituting


be
most

That

cannot therefore, construction,

received

which legitimate,

does

not

exhibit

the

perfect
pear ap-

agreement with itself. It will be faultyif its parts

confused,so
whether
or

that
any

there

is manifest

in difficulty

terminin de;

system is aimed

to be constituted out

if the

brought parts being clearly


are

and

arranged,
; it

and they fail to work together, VI. Philosophy accounts


even

incoherent.

for all the

phenomena
; but

counts ac-

for

error.

Not

that

error

is the birth of losophy that, Phithe of


count acson rea-

the

Keason,
is

for this is

manifestlyabsurd
to

giving an explanation of the causes, and the modes grounds,the possibilities, A true philosophy, error. as a system, will therefore,
adequate
for the alone other.
The
can are

universe

as

system.
the
one

Of

course,
accounts

the

judge
thus

whether

for the

We

criteria
a

brought back above given must


genuine
in the and

to its

simple authority.
for themselves. their

speak
to

I believe
the who

careful reflection will lead candid of

approval

in

mind
have had

of every

philosopher.

If all

engaged
been
ere

work

governed

themselves

construction, philosophical there by these criteria,

would

have

little difference

among

them

; and

the

world, long

this, would
as

have

witnessed

philosophy
sessing; posare

taking

her
at

stand

the

Scientia

Scientiarum, and
and
exactness

least all the clearness

which

120

claimed

by
are

many determined

sciences

dependent
to

upon

her.
"

But

when

men

preserve either
the

their

Idols

"

at

all

events

they
or

are

prepared
make
her

to

discard

philosophy
of A their

altogether, prejudices
in

to

mere

tire-woman

and

accidental

and

floating
a

opinions.
creed in

theory
a

physics,
or
a

dogma
in

in

speculation,
a

religion,

name

degree leading herself,


in

mutable

world,
and hence

are

permitted
seek
not

to

give

the

thought
but order

they

for

philosophy
and

only
to

to

philosophise
the forms of

ingeniously
truth while
pose im-

speciously,
preserve the

satisfy
error.

they

body
"

of

They then,
should

are

willing they

to

upon

themselves,
upon others
?

why,

scruple

to

impose

PART

II.

PEELIMINAKY

VIEW

OF

THE

KEASON.

SECTION

I.

GENERAL

INTRODUCTORY

CONSIDERATIONS

RESPECTING

THE

REASON.

The

Keason with

can

be

comprehended
That which The

only by
knows very all idea

being

dowed en-

reason.

things
of

else,

must

know

itself

likewise.

objective

knowledge
The
acts

implies self-knowledge.
faculty
of in

knowledge
the is

can

be

known What is this

only through
are

of

knowing
The
to
answer

consciousness.
for You this there know mathematical the
"

these miliar fa-

acts?

easy,

nothing
book,

more

consciousness.
; you

this

chair,
; ;

this
you you

table know know


you

know law rule what


you

demonstration of bodies
as

this this know


set
sun

of of

nature

gravitation

morals
"

love

thy neighbor
that
"

self; thysun

happened
know rise
or a

yesterday
will
set

the

rose

and

what and

happen
;

to-morrow

"

that

the of

will
statue

you
; ; you

know know

the

ideal

beauty
first

landscape

axioms,
space and Look

principles,
If

and

generalizations ask,
What is it to

you

know

eternity.

you

know

reply,

124

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

within other

yourself
"

answer

can

what it is. What you read there directly what other answer can you you desire
"

obtain ? it is that reply, which knows if you the knowing substance, please; or, all it is yourself, far as you are a knowing being. In as it is evident that we do not advance this, beyond the fact of knowledge of knowing, and the conception of the faculty in general. But what, then, is the aim of psychological tions investigaIf you

ask, What
"

is the Eeason

? I

with

respect to the
in the

Keason

Does

not

the

whole fact

enquiry end
of

and simplicity

obviousness

of the

knowing? It is,indeed, true, that whenever, and in whatever the Keason is exercised, there is a perpetual recurrence relations, of this fact : a perceptionis a knowledge ; an is a series of axiom is a knowledge ; a demonstration knowledges ; and all the relations of the parts in the are making up of the whole ratiocination, knowledges. But there must the general fact of knowing, arise, upon tions, the various forms, the condienquiriesrespecting many the limits, the relations, and the the characteristics, of knowledge ; the knowledge of the actual, as certainty the from the knowledge of the possible; distinguished relative determination of knowledge by the inherent and forms and of the reason by the objects of powers j and intuitive, knowledge themselves; knowledge, primitive and knowledge secondary and deductive. All these and the like enquiries be related to the psychology must
of the The
as

Keason. Keason
may

be

regarded in
the mind. live and
we

certain
It
move

the cardinal in

facultyof

of view, points is by knowledge


and

and

knowledge that

have

our

THE

KEASON.

125

being.
and
can

That

am

"

that

there

is any

being
the

whatever of

"

all the be

interests, relations, aims, and

laws

being,

possible determinations, only on

supposition

that

to

facultyexists. Hence men are mind, generally prone, in representing Let Keason be speak of it simply as an intelligence.
to be

this

supposed
extinct upon
a

and extinct, Emotions

all other faculties and

are

virtually dependent

likewise.

passionsare
The
not

perceptionsfor
and

their existence.

Will, although
go into the action

cause,

could self-determined, aims be

without
on

objectsand
contrary,can
conceivable

of action.*

But

Eeason, emotions, "dry

the

supposed to

exist without
a

and passions,

volitions.

like Intelligence,

pure

is light,"

without and

volitions ; but emotions


are

emotions and consequential without intelligence, volitions,

inconceivable. The

Keason,
forms
or

in

its

full

various

which offices, mental

development, presents us by some philosophers are


faculties.

Consciousness, sensation, perception, judgment, abstraction, conception, have all been fancy, and memory, attention, imagination,
representedas analysed as
of the when largely,
true

distinct

distinct faculties.
some

In the actual
so faculties,

constitution

mind,

of

these

called,show
Will. This is

analysed,the they

action

of the

particularlyof
as

attention,abstraction,and
I take intelligence,

fancy.
to be

But all

far

as

express

them
not

comprehended

in the

Keason. the

These

are

properly
This
accustom

intellectual its different shall

faculties ; but

intellectual

under faculty,

modes,
look

and

in its different relations. In


the

presentlyexhibit.
to

the

outset, let
as one.

us

ourselves

upon

Keason

It

indeed

Doctrine

of the

Will, p. 138.

126

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

exercises various

offices ; it

it judges,it perceives,

draws
it and

and remembers it imagines,fancies, conclusions, is still the same faculty it is,in all these,the
"

; but
one

indivisible Keason.
The

Keason,
be

as

the
"

facultyof knowledge,
it must be constituted
But
"

must

have

constitution peculiar
"

for its office

it must

constituted
are

to know.

it cannot

know,
there

unlees

there

objects of knowledge
known
:

unless
is to be

is

something
must

to be

and

that

which

known,

constitution and properties. peculiar the one does not make its on hand, the Keason Now, if, on objectsin the very act of knowing them ; so likewise, make the Keason the other hand, the objects do not in The Keason and its objects the very act of being known. exist in relation to each other,but they exist also may I speak now of finite independently of each other. likewise have its Keason. In the of
or

Divine truth any


:
"

and

Infinite
have

being and before idea,


or

must

Keason, all possibleforms pre-existedin conception


or

actual

development
whatever

creation

appeared
or

in time

space there

And
ever

actual be

existence

velopmen de-

has
as

been, must
to

consequentialto
the

the

as forecast,

well

the

of causality,
finite

Divine

mind.
no

But

in the

constituted

and

dependence
form have
so, of
a

of its

for their objects

Reason, there is existence, upon itself.


beside

Every
would

truth, every form of being perfectexistence, although I

myself,
exist.

did

not

And

for my reason, no also, although there were objects real intelligence, have it would its fixed and a as still, Its development would, indeed,be perfectconstitution.
but impossible, it would the

nevertheless

be

there,ready to
should
be
a

be

developed whenever
This
may

requiredconditions by
the

supplied.

be

illustrated

analogy of

THE

SEASON.

127

grainof wheat,
up in
a

or

the seed of any there


can

granary,

and

let it have up had into

soil, light, heat,and

plant. Let it be laid be no germination ; but moisture,and there springs


full ear." before it was of But the seed introduced

"first the its


own

blade,and then the forms life and peculiar


and

germination. communicated The soil, and moisture no life, heat,light, distinctive forms: the seed, if wheat, was or perfect of its other seed,it was wheat in and of itself; if some in and of itself. The heat, and soil, light, kind,perfect
the circumstances conditions
"

and conditions moisture, only suppliedthe circumstances of its germination,growth, and So the fruit-bearing. Eeason in and of itself it has its own life, ; it is perfect and and distinctive forms inherent,inseparable, energy, of all exterior circumstances and conditions. independently The presentation is like soil of objects through sensation, to the seed ; books, conversation, examples, the regular of schools, like light, are discipline heat, and moisture : these are to its germination, requisite growth,development, and fruit-bearing; but all that comes perfection, forth of it, forth of its own and comes forms,capacities, the Keason. as richness, and instructive to think of Now, it is very interesting the principle of life and the distinctive forms of seeds ; and by the aid of the microscope to look within its storehouse of wonders its preparations for endless propagation increase ! and thus thinks and Surely, he who of nature, attains to more examines, knows more truth, than he who merely plantsand eats,without seeking any thing further. But of how much higher moment, to comprehend, if the forms of our own ! intelligence possible, I know the inherent Is it possible to attain to this can
" " "

128

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

forms Reason? what

"

the

fixed Can

and

independent
out

constitution

of
"

the with mind

I find

with

what

preparations capacities,the

pre-constituted
to

and

adapted

begins
The

know? earliest

development germination
self-direction
after its increased power of
to

of
of

Reason
a

must
sown

be in before
to
an

neous, spontathe soil. ledge knownite indefi-

like There
can

the be
no

seed

and has

forecast gone it
out

begins.
extent

But

Reason

among
and

objects,after
toward

has

germinated,
the

sprung

up, it has

perfection, unlike
of of

plant,
upon
at

the

of

reflection, or
and
"

looking

back
"

the
so

process

its

development,

separating
its

least

far

as

establish

enquiries
and make
to not

between

herent inthe

and

pre-constituted
under power
to

forms

capacities,and
their
appearance.

circumstances
It in

which

they

has

the

of

doing

in relation

what itself,

it does

relation

the
to

plant.
be
more

Nay,

may

its

self-knowledge
the interior

be

presumed

perfect,
it knows

since

it knows in the

plant
and

by observation,
most

while

itself

intimate
The

consciousness and

?
and
on

inherent
can

original forms
be
known

functions condition
to

of of
an

the
perience ex-

Reason,

indeed when

only they
not
are

; but

known, They
are

seen

have

priori existence. by
;
"

known known

"

priori,

standing under-

this

that
are

they
known

are

independent experience,
would
but
not

of
as

perience ex-

they

through
the

in

their

nature

prior

to

it, or

experience

itself

have

been

possible.

130

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

The

to attempt Philosophical Idea, that which leads man the explanation of his own development. This classification, however, does not preserve its particulars for the last class determine entirely distinct, nitions cog"

as

well

as

activities.

We

may

therefore the

adopt

second

method

of classification Part

accordingto
I.,Sec.
The

XI.

We

divisions given in philosophical shall then have, Ideas.


our

I. Metaphysical first determine

II. Nomological

Ideas.

conceptions in Psychology,

termine Dynamics, Anthropology,and Ontology. The second delaws in the Morale, Esthetics, Somatology, and Logic. In this classification we accept all Ideas as cognitive

in their character

; while the

the last division embraces remarkable

those

only which
of

have laws

additional world of

characteristic

becoming

in the

objective reality.*

FUNCTIONS.

I. Intuition,

or

the function

of

primary
First

and

ate immediin general,

knowledge. Ideas, Axioms, and the objectsof this function. are


II. Sensuous

Truths

Perception,
sensations
or

or

the

function

of

forming
terior ex-

cognitions upon

the

phenomena

of the

consciousness. III. Abstraction this function that


the
and

Generalization.
up

It the

is

by

Keason, taking
basis

secondary

phenomena,
then The makes

first views them


the

and qualities particular separately,

of extensive
then

classifications.
a

and qualityis abstracted,

generalizedas
VII.

com-

Vide

Part

I.,Sec.

THE

REASON.

131

mon

sign;
are

and

its

name

becomes and

the

name

of the

class.

species. To this function we indebted for a clear and distinct knowledge of things, are and the formation of a ready and convenient language. IV. Judgment, or the function of perceiving the agreement united two as or cognitions, disagreement between the subjectand predicateof a proposition. and apY. Invention, or the function of finding out plying of theorems, and rules for the demonstration principles of the solution of problems, and the construction machines tion ; and of making experiments for the determinaof Science. The imagination acts conjointlywith the images of diagrams, this, by calling up in the mind construction. and of models or archetypes of the outward VI. Mediate Perception, or the function of inferring as or deducing conclusions through a mediate cognition, formally exhibited in the syllogism. VII. Induction, or the function of examining and arranging the secondary phenomena, so as to determine their causes scientific and laws, and thus to construct
Thus formed
genera

systems.
VIII. Keason of the

Memory,

which

perpetuityof knowledge. The knows, retains its knowledges. A faculty


or

the

knowledge
name.

without

this

power

would

deserve scarcely

Perhaps memory
we can

is too of

identical with

the

tion simplestno-

Keason, to be called a function ; rather an inseparable characteristic. Kecollection The is more properly a function.
of recollection is based
a

form

it is

act

upon

memory.

Its aim

is to

bring

permanent
energy

The

knowledge within the field of consciousness. of the will in directing and holdingthe attention,
in this act.

is involved

132

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

Whatever termed

we

learn,we they

learn

in certain

monly comrelations,

association

of ideas.
appear
to

Hence,
in their them.

when

our

past

perceptions re-appear,
or

tions, originalrela-

in dim
some

relations

nearly akin
relations

Eecollection
to

implies a
in
the
comes

foreshadowing of
of these

the

knowledge

be

called re-

; upon

this foreshadowing,
the whole

until fixed, facultyis steadily cognitive


in distinct form and have

forth

fullness.
set

Attention,
the Eeason

which

some

down

as

an

tual intellecover

the is really faculty,

energy

of the

Will

exerted

in its several functions.

IX.

Imagination.

Under function

its first and of

simplest presentation
the actual of memory, the

this is the
have

knowing objectswhich
in every
act

form, or
no

sensible

when qualities generally, Thus the

sensations
and
were

longer exist. conception of

in every

where distant,
the senses, the

objects

known originally forms the and

through
sensible

imagination

revives the

qualities.
appears
as a

Again,
Senses.

Imagination
the world

tion mediatory funcworld of the


or

between
The

of

Ideas, and
upon the in

the the

Imagination forms
which Even and related. but

Ideas,Ideals
to

Archetypes, accordingto
are

outward

constructions
the
as

fashioned
we

respect
the

Divine

Mind,
took

cannot

conceive Universe

of this function before

ing forecastact

and

foreseeingthe
The in the in the and

creative
"

place.
This

finite artist and


same

mechanician

man,

duces pro-

his works
appears of

way.

Fine

Arts, where
constitute

the the

ideal
models

ceptions conor

beauty
the

grandeur
which
or

archetypes of
and upon the in the

forms

spring up
useful

under

the

chisel,
pears ap-

canvass, inventions

which

speak in poetry.
arts, and

This

of the

in scientific

discovery;

for

unquestionably, the

imagination

forms

THE

KEASON.

133

of archetypes The the

mechanical is not

construction

and

scientific systems. hence

Idea

and followed, always strictly

Imagination degenerates into a fickle and wayward where the Idea does become Fancy. But, nevertheless, this function productiveof scientific and mechanical results, must be employed. from Nor is the imagination excluded the sphereof in his various relations moral conceptions. Whenever man of thought,not only is the and duties becomes the subject Idea of right and wrong the determining power of thought ; but the ideals of character, under the different varieties also, of moral greatness and beauty, present themselves in the imagination the standards with which to compare as to direct the creations of genius. actual,or archetypes The highest form of the imaginationis the creative. Here the pure Idea generates an Ideal,which, surpassing the beauty of any natural form, inspires the artist to attempt is of corresponding a work perfection.Whatever The Imaginais created according to the Idea. created, tion is the creative function of the same son, faculty the Seawhich givesforth the Idea. the mediaThe Imaginationis thus the representative, tory,
"
"

and

the
none

creative

function. it when offended, and beautiful proportions


or
man

Let
man

be startled

is

said,that
than

produces more
Nature of and and

forms

nature.

are

both The

servants

of the Infinite

Mind
to

Beauty
and second

Wisdom.

first works choice the


or

according
ness conscious-

fixed

necessary

laws, without according to


:

; the

works

same

laws,but
forth
cause

with

choice and attributes


very

consciousness
as

the

one

shadows
to

the

Divine

the

effect related of the the Divine.

the

; the
not to

other is the

image

God, therefore, empower

Why thoughtfulhand

should of
man

134

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

certain bring to light committed


not to the

forms

of

beauty, which

he

has
?

not

insensate Useful
and

mechanism
stimulated

of nature

Has
make may

the

Idea
more

of the

industry to
?
to

nature not
more
"

commodious of the
?
not

bountiful Art inspire

And
make

why

the

Idea

Beautiful

nature

beautiful God
but when

has
has

limited him

man's
to

knowledge

to that

which

is ; and

enabled he

proceeds to
a

perceivethat which modify God's work,


a

may he

be ;
a

is not

trespasser and
power,
a more

but violator,

more

noble
a

instrumental
and

by

which

God
"

giveshis

creation

higher finish imagination beauty.


It and

perfectuse/'
is

Fancy

arbitraryimagination, or
and

not

governed by the pure Ideas of truth not Ideals, but us, therefore, images, created by laws, and incongruous Beauty and truth have
and therefore creations
as

sents pretesque gro-

humorous

intentional

violations of esthetical

their

very

combinations. disproportioned defined and perfect archetypes, in given kinds, a limited variety ciful fan; but have no can assignablelimit,inasmuch with all law and being consists in sporting

and

rule,

f Consciousness,
it
is that

X.
which

function

of the

Eeason

by

immediately
has

knows
an

phenomena. %
and
an

Consciousness
In the

exterior

interior direction.
tion sensa-

former
the

; in

it knows the phenomena of direction, the phenomena of the mental latter, In the

ties activisciousness, con-

beyond
we

sensation.
have here all

exterior

and

interior
we

phenomena
do the
of the

whatever, for
of
our

have

comprehended
If
we

all the

activities possible

being.

Whence enquire,
*

phenomena
130. Part

of conscious-

Doctrine 134.

Will,p.
\ Vide

f Ibid,pp. 133,

I., Sec.

II.

THE

KEASON.

135

ness

arise ? the

only rational

answer

that the

can

be

obtained

is,that they
and the

arise

from conjointly
"

simple subjective,

these form a objective general, that is,when and willing.There unition in knowing, feeling, be no can that is, act of knowing, no less phenomenon of knowing, unthere be both a faculty of knowledge,and an objectto be known, either in the world of pure Eeason of the or an Sense, at least, objectwhich shall be the foundation of the cognitions of the knowing faculty: even dreams, and the wildest imaginings, have some relation to objective unless there be both reality. There can be no sensations, and real correlative objects the a sensitive faculty ; and with same respect to emotions and passions. There can
" "

be

no

volitions ends

unless

there

be

both

will

or

cause,

and

and objects From

of causation.* of the
"

this unition
not

but unition,

contact

and subjective the phenomenal

the

objective
"

appears,

and

is

immediately
due

known then order.

by

the

Keason

in its function

of

sciousness con-

; and

follow all the other functions

in their

place and
to

Self-Knowledge,
antithesis
the

the affirmation
"

Ego

sum,

I am,
"

in

general the not myself is objective of consciousness, often representedas a form and thence called self -consciousness. This, perhaps, is more justly since the self is comprehended in the intuitive function, be immediately renot phenomenal, and therefore cannot cognized It is true, however,that the by consciousness. antithetical affirmation stated above,is the most primitive of all affirmations : in the very of the simple unition with the objective, subjective by which a first phenomenon is given, the Keason knows the two terms, and makes the
"

Doctrine

of the

Will, p.

138.

136

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

affirmation

; and the

with

the

consciousness is for

of all

subsequent
There

phenomena,

affirmation

renewed. continually

a valid ground is,therefore,

representing self-knowledge form of consciousness a as ; and if properlyexplained and inasmuch is striking, the representation as distinguished,
it expresses

the intimate

union
of its

of mind
own

with

itself when

it

awakes

to the

knowledge
is
a

being.*
form is
a

Keflection,
While
necessary the
common

subsequent
consciousness

of consciousness.

spontaneous
a

and

recognitionof phenomena,
reflection

and

necessary In

selftion, reflec-

knowledge,
my

is aim

specialand
is to know
one's
to

voluntary. myself ;
self
some

immediate
a

and

it generally

implies
of analysis first

proposing to
In order
state

particular
we analysis,

the mind.

affect this

reproduce a then, in
and
:

of

or consciousness,

renew

former
: objects newed re-

experiences, by bringing into


and this state of
we experiences,

view

the

correlative

or reproduced consciousness;

awaken This
must

the
state at the

reason

to

acts

of close

attention

thought.
mind

of mind
same are

is

complex it, the


the let still,

for the

time
to

exceedingly keep before


the
quired re-

correlative

objects which
and in bend their

awaken

phenomena, phenomena
it be and

itself to the work

of examining

subjectiverelations.
it is

But,
all

remembered

that

complex only as
In

thought
the certain
means

are investigation

complex.

investigating

objective world, we experiences or


of the the senses, in

do

produce within ourselves really phenomena of consciousness, by


while
to

and order

these

we exist,

apply
forms

to

them
laws

Keason,

determine

the

and

of nature.

Spontaneous
*

consciousness

embraces

our

necessary

and

Doctrine

of the

Will,pp. 1, 2, 3.

138

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

SECTION

III.

EXPLICATION

OF. IDEAS.

In much

the

"Introductory
has been said

View

of

Philosophy in General/'
I cannot
natural In

respectingIdeas, and
them

but
folding un-

hope

some

of explication

given in

the

of the line of
up

thought
this

there

attempted.
to

ing bringis,if
to

this
a

subject in
clear and

place directly, my
way

aim
answer

in possible, what has

simple

give an
as a

always been
:

regarded and
What
are

treated

very

cult diffi-

question, viz.
which
and

Ideas

The
the Here

difficulty primordial
all analogies

I think, from arises chiefly, exists,

character predeterminative
must

of Ideas.
and

be

exceedingly distant
form
the

since imperfect,

Ideas

precede every
Ideas
the
are

said that sensations

it is cognition. Thus, when of the understanding,and moulds


cast

of

materials the
most

in them

and

taking form, we
that
can

have, perhaps,
found
; the

strikinganalogy
vague the moulds of material

be tween be-

how but, nevertheless,

resemblance upon

plastic power

material

and the action of the first elements of thought substances, in determining cognitions phenomenal conditions ! upon

We

have

spoken
such

of several
as

Ideas

in incidentally

the

preceding pages,

Time, Space, Substance, Cause,


of Time Idea is of Substance

Beauty, Eight, and Wrong. Now, the Idea not Time, the Idea of Space is not Space,the
is not

Substance, and

so

also of the

others.

Nor,

THE

KEASON.

139

again, are
themselves. from which
are

the

acts

of

knowing
Ideas
nor

these
are

Ideas, the
the
acts
are

Ideas

That

the is,
are

neither

realities the

they
known.

named,
Time

the space

in which

realities
as

and

stance, realities ; sub-

the

is a reality being,is a reality ; ; cause finity distinction between right and wrong is a reality ; inrealities. They are, even and spirit are although I essential
not

do
mere

know

them.

But

how

do I know does
not

them

The

experienceof
knows them
to

sensations

Keason Keason

by

its

own

force the

The givethem. or capacity. The


are

begins
;

act

only when
not

sensations

rienced expe-

the only,by consciousness, sensations ; it knows, by intuition, these necessary realities likewise. But what is the force or capacityof the Keason the metaphenomenal truths ? We son to know say, the Keaconstitution as the faculty of knowledge, has in its own ideas of time, space, substance, cause, beauty,right and that the faculty and of so on ; meaning by this, wrong, these objective to know sary necesknowledge is preconstituted realities ; and that,that within itself which tates capacior adapts it to know each of them, is called the Idea of this reality. The word Idea itself contains no mystery or magical It is a word introduced by one of the greatest power. who ever philosophers thought, and using,perhaps,the most ever pressed. experfectlanguage in which thought was We
and
cannot

but

it knows

find

better word for other

tor

our

purpose

no is, therefore, good reason its original use, or substituting any

there

it from diverting
in its

place.
Ideas

We the

have

in the

preceding Section

divided

into

and the Nomological. The first express Metaphysical the Keality the inherent capacityof the Keason to know of Being ; the second, its inherent the to know capacity

140

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

sciousness, phenomena, apprehended by condo not give either. These phenomena, as we have tive reality without, and subjecseen, arise from objective But what is the relation between the within. reality Reality, Reason, with its Ideas prepared to know pure form and the phenomena known by consciousness which gins the conditions under which the knowledge of Reality be? Recollect Reality is of two kinds : the Reality of first and necessary truths and principles, relatingboth to being and law ; and the Reality of actual being,having terminat deunder constitution and and reduced specific qualities, law. Now, under the constitution of humanity, it is not intended that mind should attain to the Reality of truths,principles, and laws,separately from the Reality of actual being. As man is himself reason and sense* union of the two Realities above named, it seems a to be designed that both shall be developed in his cognition, The first and time. consentaneously,and at the same

Reality of

Law.

Mere

"

"

second

Realities

are

related

to

each

other ; and
man

in

so

much

as

the first is embodied


the

in the second

himself
two

ing betheir

type
When

of

this

union,

he
to

knows

the

in

union.
or

he first awakes
of the exterior

sensations consciousness,

phenomena

consciousness is connected sensation.


causes

first meet with These


upon

him,

because
and life,

thought

in

humanity
action

physical
tions sensa-

this fife reveals


the
"

itself in

arise from

of exterior without

his

suous sen-

organism
to the

the world

thus

makes

its approach for cognition.


"

Reason

within.

Here, then, is
had the
no

the

occasion

If the mind
a

cognitive power
word

of its own,
were
a mere

power,

expressed by

Ideas,
"

if it
a

then passive recipient,

there

would

be

mere

conscious-

Part

I.,Sec.

V.

THE

REASON.

141

ness

of

and sensations,
are

world,and
wherewith world laws
"

these sensations : but now nothingmore like telegraphic given from the outer signals has within itself the key or alphabet the Eeason
to

read

them. it of
can

The know

Keason the

can

know

the and in first forms

without,because
the first form without thus
"

great truths
are

Reality" which
form
we

embodied The
two

the world

the second

of

Reality.
the said, could
not

knowledges
of known
at

embrace,
the

as

have

Reality consentaneously.
all without The first
"

The

second

not

be

it would be

be

logically
the is

possible.

first would

not

known of

without

second,because,in

the constitution

humanity, mind

of the imprisoned in its tabernacle,until the windows be opened, and the signals of life and being come senses rushingin. Let me in this placeto a thought thrown out in recur The Great Creator, View, Section VII. my Introductory before he formed the worlds,must have had the Ideas of all truth and law, and all forms of being He knew, and then created. He foreknew all possible being,because he had the Ideas of all possible being. Man, the finite mind, knows after creation has taken place, and after he has received in his sensitivity, motions from that creation ; but in the made that he knows arises from a Reason at all, likeness of the Divine, and having pre-constituted ties capaciand necesIdeas adapted to primordial, sary or universal, the outer truths the very truths in which world, " the whole indeed world of created being, lives, moves, and has its being." That knows is explainedin the same man himself, well as of objecHe has the Idea of subjective, as tive way. the motions : And as reality given in his sensitivity from without, and known by consciousness, give the call
" "

142

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

to

the the

Reason action

furnished of the

with mind

its itself

Ideas,

to

look call

without look

so

gives

the

to

within The and


and

also.
two

forms

of

Reality,
afterwards

which

at

first

are

concrete

complicated,
by
It Reflection

are

submitted

to

Reflection,

distinguished.
indeed,
Ideas of Ideas
;

may,

require
but let

high
this

effort effort be is

of

thought
and

to

comprehend
the and elements itself. A Ideas the Reason whole

made,
so

in clear the

range

philosophy
are

there the elements the is

nothing
of

interesting.
of

thought,
of Reason

philosophy,
without the

because Ideas

elements

Reason

an

impossible

tion. concep-

are

cardinal

psychological

explication

of

THE

REASON.

'

143

SECTION

IV.

EXPLICATION

OF

THE

FUNCTIONS

OF

THE

EEASON.

The

Keason,
not

constituted
to know.
same

with But

Ideas,goes
the
not

into action. its

Its

great office is
are

of objects stand

knowledge
same lations, re-

all of the
nor

kind, do
same

in the Some
;
some

under truths

the

conditions.
and necessary

of these
are

are objects

absolute and-

nomena phe-

are immediately, contingent ; some while while others are mediatelyperceived precede, ; some others are are actual, gathered from observation ; some in time present, while others are only possible are ; some in time others past, and others again in time future ; in space-, are contiguous to the senses, while others some, distant. Hence arises the necessity of considering the are

variable

Keason

under is not

different

functions.
to

In every

its constitutive

Ideas, it
; it under

only adapted
power

variety of
its relation. relations

ledge know-

has, also,the

of

out searching

objects
It
can

every

varietyof
and know

condition

and the and

know them know


pure it
can

phenomena
; it
can

truths,and
and

between it
can

immediately

mediately;
space ; it
can

in various

relations of time

form
;

and cognitions cognitions, upon


go
out to

sensuous

conditions of the

the

actual,and

conceive

possible.
festly mani-

It has all these express the

different

functions.
scope

Its functions of its

varietyand

activity.

144

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

SECTION

V.

DOES

LOGIC

COMPREHEND
THE

ALL

THE

FUNCTIONS

OF

REASON

Logic laws

lias been which

defined

in the

generalas
receive

comprisingthe

determine this

and

govern

the activities of the Season.*

limitations, Logic reach to every function. mnst ever, howevidently Limitations, for them is palpable. and the reason exist, has general relations, In one respect Logic,plainly, the most viz. : in so far as it determines laws of original f thought and cognition, of particular But when we enter the domain functions, under other divisions that legitimately find much comes we of philosophy. which deterthose laws of the Eeason mine Logic comprises the processes by which it reaches the two forms of of Truth and of Actual Keality the Eeality Being. This domain. is its separate,unique, and peculiar But memory does not describe a process by which new truths are arrived at ; it expresses simply the power of the facultyto retain old truths,or truths already cognitive belong to Logic. Eecollection gained. Hence it cannot and fancy. is memory imagination, permeated by the will, than It evidently can belong to Logic no more simple
"

Unless

definition

memory.

It sometimes

even

becomes

mere

art.

Page

83.

t Page 84.

146

PRELIMINARY

VIEW

OF

Recollection,as
upon the memory. is often

voluntary process, When, however,


renewal which
a reality

is,indeed,
its

based

object

is Pure of

truth, there
arrived far the
at.

in

of the it
was

process

investigationor
In

ratiocination, by
this case, arises There from is
a

originally
how pure the

it is difficult to memory, passage


"

determine from

recollection

or

reasoning power.
which
are

in

Dugald

Stewart,
as
we

illustrates

this remark.

Sir Isaac often


at
a

Newton,
when loss, It is

told

by

Dr.

Pemberton,
on

was own

the

conversation that that

turned made but

his

discoveries.
on

probable
and him his

they
a

slightimpression pains
to treasure

his

mind,
in

consciousness

of his inventive

powers

prevented
them
up

from

taking
In

much

memory/'
Newton's
little aid that
trust to

mind from

the memory.

originalproofs were
And
men

renewed
farther
marks, re-

with

Stewart

while generally, for the

of little inventive

power guished distin-

memory for

recollection
are

of
to
as

truths,men
it.
is in

this power appears

prone others

rely upon
memory,

What, reality Logic.


the cesses pro-

often therefore,

to

reasoning,and consequently comes


The other for functions, of the the

under
most

the laws
come

of

part,
as

under

determinations

Logic,
two

inasmuch
of

they

contain attained.
the

by

which

forms

Keality are
to

It is not

necessary,

however,
there

give Logic
The few

farious multioften

divisions co-work of the

of these and

functions.
are a

functions

together;
ends of

general conceptions
them the and

Logic

which laws the

happily
which

embrace determine Truth

all.
processes of Actual

Logic comprises the


of

arrivingat Keality
"

Keality of
consider

Being.
we First,therefore,

must

the

laws

of the most

THE

REASON.

147

original through

cognitions,
sensuous

both

through

pure

intuition,

and

phenomena.
The

Secondly.
classification of which

laws

which

govern

the and

observation that inductive

and

secondary general
laws The laws of

phenomena
principles deduction,
of
are

process

by Thirdly.

obtained. inference. and the method of

The

or

Fourthly. proof.
This is the fill

evidence,

outline

which,

in

the

next

Part,

we

shall

attempt

to

up.

PART

III

LOGIC

PEOPEE

BOOK

I.

PRIMORDIAL

LO

GIG.

SECTION

I.

GENERAL

LAWS

OF

THE

EVOLUTION

OF

IDEAS.

In many
way.

the

prolegomena things As,


were

comprised
necessarily they
not
were

in

the

two

preceding
in
an

Parts.

anticipated merely
the
an

incidental
to plated contem-

however,
I may

preparatory

my

main

purpose, in this
to

mar

development
of

Part,
repeat
does

through
what

apprehension
already
be is
been

appearing

sometimes Wherever formal On


to and powers

had

announced. that
a

this and the with


to

happen,
announcement

it will

found

more

scientific

attempted.
difficult

subject

of

Ideas,
what

also,

it

is somewhat
to

mark what

precision Logic.

strictly belongs regarded


as

Psychology, determining
first
; and

Ideas,
do

the
to

of
so

cognition,
endeavoured the

certainly
to treat

belong
them this

the
the

I have

of In

in

explication giving
in

given
the
much

in

preceding
laws of the with
to

Part.

Part,
I

besides
shall
weave

general

their mode
their

determination,
and

respecting
together
more

conditions

of

their

ment, developmay pear ap-

characteristics,
to

which

justly

belong

psychological

disquisition.

152

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

At into

one

time, I had well nigh the Preliminary View


c '

concluded
; but

to

bring this
reflection
a

all has

farther make

induced
and

me

to

believe

that

shall
the

more

simple
on

presentationof satisfactory

subject, and,

the

all these particulars by comprising philosophic, under Primordial Logic. Lest any should object to this that to shew I thought it best to say thus much course, the same mind, and thoughts had occurred to my own that without the difficulties had been not passed over

whole, more

consideration.

being the union of body and spirit, life of the full-formed the life of thought, and the physical and constituted being, in the present sphere, begin, go on, and Locke end before birth,as together. Hence, even affirms,*there may be incipient thought,because, there sensation. is incipient But sensation although thought beginswith sensation, is not the determinative of thought. This power power
I.

Humanity

"

lies in the II. The


unattended

Ideas

of the

Eeason. of the Eeason is

first action

spontaneous, and

by reflection. Mind in humanity being finite and dependent, hath not its startingpoint in itself. The main-springis energisedby an invisible and infinite power. it has reached But when certain development, different a it now in different individuals, reflection begins, and back the path through which traces it has run its course. it analysesthe knowledges actually III. By reflection, attained,together with the simple sensations. By this analysisit does not find the determining powers and forms, all the materials of thought in sensation : but it nor even finds certain conceptionswhich, when separated from the
*

Book

ch. 9, " II.,

5.

154

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

and

laws. of
an

That

is, the

Ideas

determine
which
to

to

particular cognitions
universal

objective reality,to
in this way For
are

the the

is
of

related the of

"

and

determine

cognition
of

universal

itself.
and cause,

example, given

sensations

resistance,
ideas of of

colour,

form,
and with

; upon

this,
to

the

substance,
a

space, its
to

determine and

the

cognition

particular body,
in

primary

secondary qualities ; cognition by


determine
the
at

and

determining
of
sensuous

this

particular

the the

function
same

perception, they
function
of

time

by

the

of

intuition, to

universal
and of cause,

and
as

necessary

cognitions
within
the the

space,

substance, highest
form have

comprised
VII. In

first and of the

reality.
four
as

evolution the

Ideas of

we

thus

particulars :
conditions
within the in

First, time,

phenomena
effects
of

consciousness,

and of the

objective reality thrown


;

sphere
of

subjective simple
realities
of the

Secondly, Thirdly,

the the

cognition
absolute
determined

particular objective
universal

and

cognitions
;

intuitive the Ideas

function
selves. themof in ticular. par-

by
The

the

Ideas
are

and, Fourthly,
all in the of

Ideas

first of The

antecedence the

necessary like
manner

existence. is the
But in

cognition
of the

universal
of the

antecedent the

cognition
of

antecedence

timc^
our

the actual

reverse

order

takes

place.

Reflection, analysing
the

nitions cogthe the the the

first, separates phenomenal


universal in the the

metaphenomenal
;

from

particular

Secondly,
and and

it

separates
it evolves
in

from the

particular ; grounds
form
of

Thirdly,

Ideas Reason

as

necessary every

antecedents

of itself,

cognition.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

155

SECTION

II.

METAPHYSICAL

IDEAS.

I."

SUBJECT,

AND

OBJECTIVE

EXTERIORITY.

The

phenomena
are

of the exterior and in time. there

ness the interior conscious-

the antecedents

Among
is
one

the

phenomena
have and

of the interior consciousness the remarkable

class which

characteristics themselves

of self-determination
acts

freedom, showing
acts

in the

of

attention,or
All

appropriating the
of the interior
"

faculty. cognitive
consciousness
"

appear,

phenomena therefore,

the

either in

directly,

as

in

simple volitions, or
with by volition, these

as indirectly,

directed cognitions

remarkable

characteristics. On
the

other

hand,

the

phenomena

of the

exterior of this
but

consciousness

manifest

themselves

independently
appear

inward, self-determining They activity.


are

in me,

in

no

sense

produced by
the

me.

Upon
the Ideas

these of

phenomena,

the Keason

is determined

by

Subject and
an

Object
exterior

to

cognize

particularsubjectmyself, and
this universal

something not myself. From the initiative, it cognizes the as


interior
now

particular cognition,
tion distinc-

of the

subjectand
of

the exterior mental

object.
it becomes
must

Reflection evident had


an

the analysing

process,

that

the

Ideas

Subject and

Object

have

antecedent

necessary

or existence,

the several cog-

156

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

nitions could
whether us, in the

not

have

appeared
or

; since the bare

phenomena, only, as phenomena


the

of the

interior

exterior

consciousness, present
appearances

themselves,not
intimates.

but realities, The their the


two

name

classes

of

mentioned the Idea

above, with
on

different

are characteristics,

conditions
can

which the

bat take place, cognitions

alone

be

power

which

determines

the

form

of the

cognition.

II."

TIME

AND

SPACE.

That
or

part of
with of the

our

knowledge which
senses

is obtained

through,
nomena pheof
to to

by

means

of the

and Time

muscular
and

is connected resistance,
All the

Ideas
are

of

Space.
All

body
is

given
in time.

in

space. It

succession
us

phenomena
conceive of of

given

is

impossible for
In

body
I

without

space.

It is impossiblefor

us

conceive
to know

succession
must

without
have

time.
the idea have
are

order,therefore,
of space
:

body,

and

in

order

to know

I succession, and

must

the

idea

of time.

The
"

ideas of time
can

space

simple and
antecedent
"

primary they
can

they

be

resolved

into

nothing

are

intelligible directly ; they


any
are or

neither

nor require, are

receive

definition.
necessary,
not
no

Their that been

characteristics
cannot
are

obvious.
not

They
to

is,they
;

be

supposed

be,

to have

they
can

infinite ; and be

they

admit

of

that representation

addressed
have the

to the

senses.

It is

impossiblethat they
Neither bear the any

should

their

origin in
book in

sensation.

secondary nor
resemblance
to

primary qualities
This
are itself,

of bodies
which space I hold

them.
hand Form

in my

hand,
are

and
not

the

; but

clearly they

space.

and

solidity

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

157
be

must

be

connected

with

space, have

and

cannot

thought

of

without
space,

space, but
and

they

nothing
space.
under

in

common

with conceived

of under is still in

nothing analogous to and any modifications,


space, of and

Body,
any

enlargement,
space. The tion limita-

distinct totally
are

from

characteristics
"

body

contingency,form, and
those of space. forms
a

the

very

oppositeof
be

Time,
the senses,
or

if

at representable

all under

addressed of

to

must events.

representableby
But here
we

succession
same

nomena phe-

find the

Time, taken as in which I here the sense employ it,is necessary, without as form, and unlimited simple duration it is eternity. Any succession that may be given is contingent it may be supposed not to have that is, to be, or not and it must had have been : it is limited a beginning, be it may have an assigned termination ; and lastly, may representedin space, by the revolutions of the planetsand be in time, but is plainly must a dial-plate. Succession distinct from time. totally have their As the cognitions of time and space cannot be assigned to the their origin must originin sensation,
" " " "

of cardinal

characteristics.

opposition tion simple dura-

pure

Keason How

itself.

arise in the Keason ? Are they cognitions The just replyis, innate ? has no innate that the Beason of forming or developing those ideas, or inherent power when the proper conditions are supplied. The conception, act of intelligence, be said to exist before it apcannot or pears in the consciousness. But the Keason, undoubtedly, in the potentiality these of its substance,contains ideas constitutive forms of thought : and with these forms is as ever prepared to give out true knowledges or judgments, whenthe sensations shall be suppliedwhich form the occado these

158

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

sions
are

of its action.
to

Sensations
the

and

muscular of these

resistance ideas ; but

conditional
pure Hence Keason
we

development originof
time
inherent

the

is the

them.
and space
are

affirm,that

to

be

set
"

down

as

originaland Reason,
so

forms

of the

Reason;

meaning by this,that
nature

it is of the
to think

essential and
form

necessary

of the ideas ;
come

and

under cognitions and


casions ocan

these

that the

whenever Reason

certain

conditions
as

up,

moulds,
the

it were,

into

exact

knowledge,
If
we were

the
to

sensations suppose
and

which

otherwise

were

fleeting.

Reason what

incapable of
would come be-

developing the
of all
and notion
our

ideas of time notions of the

space,

forms,magnitudes, motions,
would space
how

velocities
of

of bodies ?
itself?
so

What
and
:

become
seem

of the
two

body
"

Time

very

simple

ideas

and

they

are

but

vast

and

tous momen-

their

relations

and
we

bearings!
represent these
do
not
mean

When,
forms
and of space

however, Reason,
no

ideas
affirm

as

inherent that

the

we

to

time
:

have be

existence

independently of
the

the

Reason

this would
the and
are
as

to contradictory

Reason Reason

itself ; for in

development
space necessary,
an

of these

ideas,the

assigns time
and space of

independent absolute,and

existence.
and infinite,

Time
are

conceived

mind to recognize no although theie were existing, them, and to contain their ideas as forms of its thinking and knowing. Time and space are independent realities, which do not impress themselves through upon the Reason the the ideas of which, Reason sense potentially ; but the contains within itself as knowing power, and brings whenever out into consciousness, sensations or any phenomena hold to them actual an there,whose causes appear

relation.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

159

III."

THE

INFINITE

AND

THE

FINITE.

The

very

objectof
the it knew

judgment thought, it
"

which
is

the
"

mind

passes

upon

any

infinite
the

for how

of a conception finite, implies could it affirm, it is finite, unless


"
"

infinite ? the
say

If it be infinite the

said

that

the

finite is

and positiveidea,
to equal propriety,

only negative
may

of it ; with

we least,

call the infinite

the

and positive,

the

finite the have of any


the
a

negativeidea.
distinct
and

Does

not

the

mind

positive cognition
Take is that space

when space for

it affirms
:

thing,it
mind

is infinite ?

example
it not

when
mean

affirms

does infinite,

limits cannot
no

limits,
"

it
we

When
say

than that its something more ? be assigned Truly we say, space can have and absolutely is necessarily infinite. can we assign certain limits to an object,
we

simply it

is finite ; when still we


are

conceive
to

that

there must
we or

be

while limits,

unable
no

assignthem,

call

it the

indefinite ; but
we

when

limit is conceivable

missible ad-

say, it is infinite.

primaryor secondary, be a cognition of pure present us the infinite ; it can Keason alone. Phenomena, indeed, are the conditions, of the finite can since no multiplication but nothingmore, realize the infinite. Now, when through reflection we for this judgment of the mind, we to account come are led to assign the Idea of the Infinite, in the inevitably and Keason, as the determinative only sufficient power ground.
no Plainly,

phenomena,

whether

IV."

QUANTITY.

with the idea of connected,also, Quantity. Quantity comprehends Unity, Multiplicity, and Totality, or, One, Many, and All.

Our

knowledges

are

160

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

Unity Many
is of unities.

is the

foundation

of

every

form

of

quantity.
total
sum

All unity repeated indefinitely.

is the

What

is the idea of

unity?

Absolute

unity is absolute
the of

indivisibility.
In

nature, there
there unit any

is
"

no

absolute is

unity in unity in

sense

absolute
In

matter indivisibility

continuously divisible.
this
But
sense

numbers,
assumed

is

no

absolute

;
"

every

is

continuouslydivisible.
or

in matter, may be

any taken
as

body,
a

mass,

any

organized system, supposed


system
:
or

to unity relatively

any
or

real in

plication multi-

of such any
sum
sum

body,
taken
a

mass,
as

and

numbers,
any

may

be

to unity relatively

larger unity
other

of which up In of

it is

fractional

part.
a we

Here,
part of
have In

every
some

is made

parts, and
and

is itself but
in

unity.
and

matter, and
no

numbers,

only parts
we

wholes;
the

absolute

unity.

geometry,

point,but this is not reallyquantity, of quantity that but the negation of a particularkind extension It is where begins.* A line is, is,extension.
"

have

indivisible

indeed, often representedas composed of of points; but the point in this case
of
not

an

infinite

ber num-

extension
a

and indefinitely has neither

a degree really immeasurably small ; and

is

point which
A
to

length,breadth, nor
cannot

ness. thick-

negation of
compose
a

all extension

be

multiplied
number

so

as

line.
is of
a

number Infinite precludesthe idea unity. Number diminished


:

idea contradictory well


as

; for

as infinity,

the

lute idea of absoand

may
can never

be

continuouslyincreased
reach the infinite. in the
same

but

it

When

and infinity

unity are
*

united

idea,

Part

I., page

78.

162

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

divided,that is,distributed
is
that possible ; but the

into
may

genera admit

and

species. It
a

its

phenomena
such
be

of such

bution distribe
ceived con-

substance spiritual
any

itself cannot

of under
Neither
can

distribution.

mind
any

numerically divided.
number
; and

It cannot since it cannot

be identified with be resolved

abstract

sion, extenphysicalparts, nor into mere tions be represented by the relations and condiit cannot and of abstract numbers. Numerical multiplication division do not apply to it. of "We indeed, have a numerical multiplicity may, of minds ; but this has no minds, and a numerical totality of the mind bearing upon the question of the substance

into

itself. A

metaphysical division
a

is equally out

of the

question,

for such

division

in itself, is, impossible. A metaphysical


either
a

division would
or itself,

imply
a

division of the attributes


the mind

substance spiritual from


to

division of the

the the

stance subditions con-

but of

the first would


and the
remove

reduce

body,
; and and

last

substance each

attribute
cannot

sideration metaphysical confor is metaphysicallyimpossible, imply mutually and necessarily

it from

other,and
It is to be

be

conceived

of

as

divided.
and
not

remarked

here, that
well
as

time

space, and admit


of

God, being totalities, as


the that idea
we

do unities,

of

multiplicity. It is, therefore, only in


idea

ourselves

gain the
idea of

also, the

perfectunity,and yet admitting, of totalitywithout and multiplicity,

of

absoluteness. Absolute
upon from and and totalitybased multiplicity be gained cannot it,and absolute totality, plainly, the These senses. give the continuouslydivisible multiplicable.

unity,and

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

163

Upon the experienceof my own and doing,I affirm thinking,feeling,


I
nor am

in personality, that
are

my

am

one, that

neither is it

sum

of parts which

separable units,

for me of parts. A to become a sum possible collection of beingslike myself will constitute multiplicity; will constitute : and a complete collection totality upon this judgment respecting myself,arises the judgment of absolute unity and totality a one and all. an The originof the cognitionof absolute unity and totality unquestionablybe referred to the must, therefore, Idea. pure Keason, as constituted with the determinative But what is the origin of that unity which appears in of a kind, where the particular and many one ing representunity is itself divisible ; and of that unity which appears
"

in abstract The

numbers? the limited


must

relative and and have

the absolute latter should But and

unconditional. its in origin in the

It the

originin is impossible that the


of

have

its

former.

by

the
are

senses,

order thus

time,the

relative

limited

first given: and

divisible and limited

unity, in

is first given. But the were objects, unfurnished with the idea,or the potentiality of mind of the the absolute conception,of unity, the impressions could not lead even to the limited cognition : and senses antecedent thus the absolute idea becomes the logical of the limited cognition. This is a general exposition ; the is the particular the impressions : Through ceived refollowing conciousness of my to the by the senses, I awake these impressions existence the conditions and antecedents are In knowin time, of knowing,willing, ing and feeling. myself,I have the knowledge of a particular, finite, but absolute unity and this idea of unity,realized in myimantecedent of the limited, is the immediate elf, logical
"
"

material

164

PEIMOKDIAL

LOGIC.

perfectand
on

numerical relative.,

and

physical unity.
of the and absolute

But,
of

the

other

hand,

the

logical antecedent
the

idea

the

particular unity, myself, is


one and we

infinite

unity, the Now,


form

all.

when

affirm
we
mean

that

the

idea
the

of

Quantity

is is

of the

Keason,
absolute

that
comes

finite Keason
it itself,

so

constituted,that
itself
power
as an

when

it and
an

to

know

knows the

finite

unity, because
and

it has

of

conceiving of
to

absolute
as
a

infinite
and
as

unity

; it is

prepared
The

judge

of itself of
a

unity

in finite, well finite


as

the

tentialit po-

of infinite

judging
the
sense

unity
the

infinite

absolute.
cannot

comprehends
to

finite ; the

be the
cedent ante-

augmented phenomena
and numerical

infinite.
are

And is

so,

likewise, when
this

of

given, it
The

prepared, in unity

conception
numerical The

of

unity, to

form

cognitions of

material ; the

unity.
of

material

is concrete

unity
the

is abstract.
the

conception

of divisibility
that alone that

material is assumed

unity
as

arises upon
a

experience standing
alone

which
is
as

unity, because
each

in space,
; and
a

separable into
the assumed space ;

parts,
material and
as

standing

.in space
measures

unity occupies
the of the space
constant

and

portion of

occupied,
division

taken in
an

as

simple extension, is approximation


material

capable
towards

endless

the point absolute, so, likewise,

unity

is conceived
is divisibility

of
a

under

the

same

conditions.
the

Continuous after
absolute

struggling
Numerical the

of

intellect
a

unity
bear

and

continuous

multiplicationis
division
of the relation

struggling after multiplication


to the
crete. con-

absolute
to

totality.
the

"and

material

abstract

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

165

V."

QUALITY.

activity intelligential developesalso the idea of The qualityof propositions is the affirmation Quality. or negation contained in them : the nature or kind, that of a givenproposition, is,the quality, is,that it affirms or denies the predicate of the subject. But a proposition only expresses or represents a judgment : and hence, quality belongs to the judgment itself. Now, all judgments be either simple or must comparative. A simple affirmation or denial of the existence judgment is the mere of an object; a comparative judgment is the affirmation denial of agreement, relation, or or connexion, between two simple judgments ; the one being the subject,and the other the predicate. Comparative judgments do thus evidentlydepend upon simple judgments : the simple are the first outgoingsof the Intelligence or primitive, ; the comparative are secondaryand dependent. In the simple, judgment, the decision of the mind respects the primitive the negation of the object of thought ; and so in or reality the secondary judgment, the realityor negation of the agreement of the two objectsof thought compared. It will thus follow, that under gory, Quality, as the generalcateembraced the particular of Eeality and are categories gory Negation. In addition to these,a third particularcatewhich is in some of must sort a combination arise, the two, and that is Limitation. Every realityof the sensible world It is a reality, but has its limitations. and at this limit, only within a certain limit, negation takes the place of reality. It is plain, without that gation, nethis limit could be conceived, not ality, reas, without
"

Our

it could

not

be

demanded. that the conceived reality

Now,

let it be

remembered,

166

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

of

by

the

is intelligence of

not

the

mere

of reality
the

the

nomena phe-

by consciousness,
own

which

world

without, as
"

well

as

my

actual

are existence,

given ;

It is the
and
a

of objectslyingbeyond reality

the

phenomena,
if its whole

ing existmere

independentlyof
blank
and before

them.

If the

were intelligence

sensation

began
as
a

; and
mere

capacity
tions sensa-

office were
; then

described
never

of receptivity in

there

could

be

the

intelligence any
are

thought
not not

of

objectivereality. Sensations
:

jective purely subare

affections contained contained

external ; the ; not

causalityand
of reality
even

substance

in them in them

any

being or thing is
sensations
do not

is the
mere

of subjective reality

existence contain
and than
sense

contained the

in them
"

; for the

subject;
contain

the

sensations
more

of

seeing,hearing,
the

for example, no smelling,

contain

I,or myself,
even

they
of

any

external it is but

object:
an

and

the

experience, either subjective does not contain or reality. objective It is true, that without the thought of reality sensations, arise in the consciousness, would not as, indeed,no would arise no perience. knowledge no exthought whatever The sensations are conditional to the judgment the judgment of reof reality. But, then, whence ality, comes whether ? There is but one or objective subjective that can be given. It is an a priori judgment of answer the Keason, or a judgment determined by an Idea. son, Now, when we speak of Quality as an Idea of the Reais so constituted, that when that the Reason we mean sensations are given,it on its part givesout the judgments it does not, analytiof reality, cally, negation,and limitation from the sensations, them draw out cally, but, synthetithe sensations. The affirms them judgment upon of reality is its own, added to the experienceof sensations.
as resistance,
" " "

internal

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

167

of the sensations omy receptivity ; its own inherent form of thought affirms the existence of a real subjectand a real object. The judgment of reality chronologically, appears first, and object; but the and limited subject in the particular extends the judgment Keason, as the facultyof the universal, and affirms that all sensations to universality, must and object nay, that all phebe connected with subject nomena The mind is
a
"

of consciousness The

whatever

must to all

be thus
our

connected.

judgment
and

of

extends reality

ing, feelthinking,

volition.
:

Again
upon the absolute

the

Keason,

as

the

faculty of

the

absolute,
of the

and particular and unlimited

limited
or reality,

conceives reality, the infinite.

VI."

RELATION.

Kelation appear.

is another

category under
were

which

our

ledges know-

"

than juxtanothing more position, still follow that a priori judgments it would in order thus to comprehend objects would be necessary, ; for time and space, which are a priori judgments, would But relation is not be necessary. mere juxtaposition. in space and time is, indeed,all the relation Juxtaposition affords immediate which tiguity conexperience of the senses and immediate of changes, of objects, contiguity But when reflect upon the objects we forming succession. of knowledge, we conceive of them as lations, having interior re"

If relation

which
time and space.

are

not

represent able under


relations
are

the
:
"

forms

of

These
and

three
or

I. Substance Cause
and

Accidents,
3. Action
THE and AND

Properties. reaction,
or

2.
ciprocity re-

Effect.
BETWEEN

AGENT

THE

PATIENT.

168

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

I. External
in the
are

objectsare
other

related

to

the

human

tivity sensi; and

production or development
to each

of sensations

related of

in

the

production or
and the

ment developall

changes

in

form, appearance,
of

properties ;
new

these

last

being judged
The in the

again through
of many

tions sensasciousness con-

produced.
within

subject, also,is
the those

related internal

to the

development
"

its field of view

as

phenomena phenomena

phenomena of thinking,
which agency and
are

and feeling, marked the


as

willing; changes
as

besides

in external the

objectsfrom nothing
but
a

the

of their

such subject,

muscular while

movements,
is the

extended

sequents.
to

Now,
is

immediately

presented
the

the

consciousness
there
an

juxtapositionof
the

phenomena,

ment judgpriori synthetical


; and

respectingthe
the
are

interior relation
the

objectand
with

in respect of subject, affirmed


to

changes connected
and

them,
the
ternal ex-

be

Substance

Cause.
with the

Thus human

in objects,

their connexion

tivity, sensi-

the

as develope sensations which are commonly known result of propertiesin these and lidity sosubjects ; form the designationof primary properties, because, receiving

be conceived cannot them, the objects ; and and and cold,sweetness heat and so fragrance, sourness, the designationof secondary properties, because, on, receiving without without
can these,the objects

be

conceived, namely,
to the
ception con-

by

means

of the

alone. primary properties

Substance of the

and

property

are

thus

necessary each

and objects,

with So, also, and volitions,


as

mutually imply respect to the subjectand


"

other.

its

thoughts,
the ject sub-

emotions

we as

cannot

avoid

taking
that

substance,and

such the

developingits properties.
one

It is

on unquestionable,

hand,
were

unless idea

the

bare

phenomena

of consciousness

given,the

of

170

PKIMOKDIAL

LOGIC.

be must, therefore, Idea of

as
as

follows
the
a

The

Reason the

contains
and

the the

Cause, and,
the

faculty of
is the

absolute
an

forms infinite, and infinite of I make

pure
; and

priori cognition of
basis the
on

absolute I firm af-

cause
am

this

which
on

myself, I
any and

cause

finite ; and

basis

which
there

affirmation absolute

of

causalitywhatever.
so, there likewise,

As
must

is infinite
infinite and

cause,

be
are

absolute

substance.

Cause

and

substance

inseparable.
III.
or

The

third

is that particular

of action
two

and

reaction,
with
spect re-

the

reciprocity existingbetween
to any

substances
one or

change

which

takes
when

place in
one

both, from
upon
bounds, re-

their

correlation.
when
a

Thus,

body impinges against


of the the
a

another, as wall, and


in

ball is thrown action


wall

wall ball

and upon

there
a

is,plainly,an
of the

the it is

reaction

upon

ball ; and
the

consequence

of this
fire is
an

reciprocitythat
to
a

effect takes

place.
there
a

When

applied
of the

combustible
the

substance,
the

is both

action

fire upon

substance, and
stance, suband

action reciprocal
as

of the
into

of elementary particles
new

they
of the

enter

combinations

increase
cease

the

action

until fire,

its visible manifestations

in the

consumption. In all chemical is exhibited. combinations, this reciprocity


of appears the human with sensitivity in of all
cause

entire

changes
In the

and

lation corre-

external

it objects, of stance sub-

again.
and into

Indeed,
view.

the

developments

property, and

and

this reciprocity effect,

comes

The

conception of development
and

this relation
and

is,that
and action

in the

system

of
ate

realityand
the

being, substances
of

properties conditionproperties;
of
causes

substances
the

and ef-

causes

effects conditionate

and

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

171
conditionate

fects ; and each other. This

causes

and

substances

mutually
upon
and

relation
cause.
a

depends obviously
But
if substance

the ideas of substance


cause are an
a

and

thetic syn-

and

then priori,

this relation must

have

priori

ground.
The
the

indeed, could relation,


of the be

never

antecedence chronological phenomena do not contain


cause
"

known, phenomena ; but


ideas

be

without
as

the and
"

of substance

evolved analytically so, and the phenomena cannot there cannot contain, likewise, evolved from them, this judgment of a mube analytically tual conditionating. confine ourselves to bare observation, If we not we cession suconly fall short of the idea of cause, and rest in mere
as

these

last cannot

unaccounted of the
cause,

for ; of

we

also substitute

the conditions of activity admit the their


ditions, con-

development

substance,and
But

of the when
we

for the ideas themselves.

synthetica priori judgments


then place, is

of the Keason

to have
mere

the distinction between

the relation of

from the clearly distinguished to their developments and causes Finite substances is not
cannot

relation
and

of substances

effects. each other and the


:

and

causes

conditionate
nor

the condition the its substance

the substance reveal the


are

the cause,

yet
cause

its

nor properties,

without effects, Motives


cannot

condition.

antecedence of the chronological the causes of volitions, not and without motives. Sensations Keason
are

yet the Will


not

act

the

causes

of

and cognitions,

yet the
the

cannot
or

form
remote
cause

without cognitions

either sensations,

in immediate is not

antecedence. of the

The

wall

or

pavement
the

the

rebounding

of the

but ball,
some

rebounding

could not

take

place without

it,or

similar condition.

172
But of the

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

the distinctive idea of

condition, given in respect

antecedent finite, although a logical itself have an absolute must cognitions,


cause

relation of
cause

and

has effect,
:

its

particular ground. The ultimate ground in


our

of

infinite and

absolute

and

the relation of substance


in substance infinite

and

property has its ultimate


absolute. In like manner, have its ultimate
The

ground
the

and

relation in
an

of

reciprocal mind,
and
into
ating cre-

action must absolute


the

ground
at
once

infinite and

concurrence.

movements

of finite be

movements

of nature, cannot of the infinite and


the

resolved

movements
a

without absolute, all these


movements
"

system

of Pantheism.

But

must

be conditionated

by
"

the

infinite and
concur

absolute them.

the

infinite and
way have

the absolute

must

with

In this move,

it holds
our

true, that

in

God

we

and live,

and

It is
an

being." appears, then, that Belation,


of the Keason. the sensations it cannot its
own

in its three-fold

form,

Idea

From
son, upon

be educed and

; but the Bea-

inherent

fullness

forms capacity,

from cognitions and

the

property, cause
the

in the relations of substance sensations, and action and reaction. It effect, of

comprehends, evolves,and
when

employs the idea appropriate phenomena requireit,

relation,

VII."

MODALITY.

Modality contains,
Possibility
Existence Necessity
and and and

Impossibility

; ;

Non-existence Contingence.

of

Every thing which the mind conceives of,is conceived non-existent or as or impossible possible ; as existent,

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

173

contingent. Mode has respect to causality The a and substance. enquiry of the mind is,whether whether it is impossior ble given conceptioncan be realized, it is actuallyexistent, not : or to causality : whether of necessity, it appears whether or contingently? The of the mode to this enquirygives us manner or answer the conception. think of that which No one will deny that we we can know well as of the possible to be impossible, : that we as think of that which well as of that does not exist, can as
as

necessary

or

which

does

exist

that

we

can

think

of that

which

exists

or necessarily,

But with

how the

contingently. do we contrasted to think of the possible, come contrasted with the impossible the existent,
"
"

of that which

exists

non-existent
?

the necessary, these


are

contrasted

with

the contingent

Can

or sensations,

derived from the analytically a priori judgments of they synthetic, ideas


be

the pure I. The

Reason

are

Impossible. Our sensations are simple,actual phenomena ; they Whether ent nothing more. any thing beyond, or differfrom these sensations is a question which can exist,
and the

Possible

the mind

starts,and
but within
the

thus

shows
a

that

it has

an

idea of the
can

possible ;
supervenes

this idea
a

is not

nor sensation,

it be

comprehended
The the The

sensation

; it is

something which
its

from

mind

itself upon

the sensations.
but

idea of the
as

cannot possible

imply

opposite^

impossible ;
idea of the

the latter cannot

and possible

leapingbeyond the bounds from being confined to the bare sensations, it is not confined to the cognitions of the actual, formed upon sensations ; but multiplies of being in time forms

imply the former. impossible shows the mind far of actual experience : so
even

but

the and

174

PKIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

that is, such as in possible, possible, accordance with rational laws might exist ; and of the imfore such as imply a violation of all law,and thereor the inherent be supposedto exist. It affirms, cannot also, of certain conceptions, 4+ e. g., that impossibility space 5
=

both indefinitely,

of the

12. II. Existence


That
we

and

Non-existence.
as non-existence,

think of And of

well

as

of

existence,
that of ther neihas is

is undeniable.
under

that

we

form

of objects conceptions well


as

the mode

as non-existence,

under

is equallyundeniable. A pointwhich has existence, length,breadth, nor thickness ; a line which

length,but
formed
and solidity,

no

breadth

nor

thickness
at

cube

which

of six

planesunited
bodiless ; the
a

but without rightangles, of a geometrical properties

realization in any material arch ; possible the conception of a shadow ; the conception of empty sity of the imaginationin endless diverspace ; combinations of nothing; and ; the conception of creation out all these, annihilation of creation and again,the possible arch without
"

the like

of conceptions, imply the opposition of thought. a mode as non-existence, But it is quite obvious that non-existence be contained
not

existence and

could

never

in any

mere

sensation.

As

our

sensations do

neither do they give us nonexistence. directly giveus reality, refer to the pure Keamust we Here, again, gives out ideas, son, which, from the fullness of its own the forms of knowledge. and supplies cognitions III. Necessityand Contingence. when the Two mutually imply each other, conceptions be thought of or defined without the other. cannot one
and ence possibility" impossibility ; with existand non-existence ; and again,with necessity and contingency. It is thus

with

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

175

That
we

these
are now

conceptionsare speaking

in the

mind
That

is
we

cause plain,beare tinually con-

of them.

is equally plain. There cannot applying them be more than between one straightline drawn any two be that is, it is impossible. But points there cannot how there is no impossible? Is it impossible,because line ? skill adequate to draw than one or more No, power in itself it cannot it is impossible be conceived of under it is necessarily impossible. any conditions sary, Again : we conceive of existence absolute and necesbe supGod cannot namely, the existence of God. posed there would be for if he did not exist, not to exist,
" " " "

no

existence
necessary There
are

whatever.

We

have

thus

necessary

truth

and

being.
also necessary of any relations. The relation tween be-

the substance
go
to make

The it
a

up our relation between

being and the attributes which conceptionof that being, is necessary.


Infinite

Cause

and

the effects which relation between effects


stituted con-

is wills,
finite
cause

necessary.

the So, likewise,

and determiningitself to effects, necessary

the

determined, is
energy.

when

these

are

both

in its

Necessity
condition. The mathematical
of the

is

absolute,when
when relative, God is

there there is

is
a

no

conceivable
dition. con-

It is

conceivable

being of
truths
are

absolutely necessary.
The
;

Pure
ments move-

absolutely necessary.
are

planets
to
move

relatively necessary
condition
:

because of
it

they
nature

continue remains
be

upon

that

the system
that

unchanged
of

but

it is conceivable

may

changed.
idea opposite That which

The likewise. both


as

applicable contingency is clearly


which
as

but is,

may

be

conceived
to

of

not

having been, and

having begun

be, un-

176

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

der

the

that possibility

it

might
is volitions
natural

not

be, is

contingent
istence. ex-

existence.

Hence,
distinction

whatever

created,is contingent
are

Hence, also,all
The which is between has
a

contingent.
and moral

necessity,
sity Necesthe of

been

frequently attempted,
the natural the and the and ideas

is absurd.

simple idea, and


between between without ; for that

entirelyindependent
moral.
the of natural the

tinction dis-

Besides,the
cannot

distinction made
out

moral

be
tingency con-

implying
alone be

necessityand
is free ; and

is moral

which

that

which
terms

is free cannot
moral

necessitated.

Hence, again, the

necessityare

contradictory.

;]

178
makes
makes The

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

all material
all minds

forms
one,

one,

in the

in the

unity of
senses

unity of system ; thought and love. yield us


But
in These

it

observations
and

of the

only limited
have

successions
an

recurrences

of

phenomena.

antecedence

in the

order

of time. antecedence
an

Law, eternal,
the order It of

and absolute,

has universal, is the

necessary the Idea

and existence,

Idea

of the

Eeason.

is

of

Ideas,under

Nomologicalconception.

II."

MATTER

AND

SPIRIT.

at

the negation of Matter ? With equal force, Spirit is the negation of Spirit. we least, may say, Matter

Is

Do

we

know

one

better
we

than

the other
are nor

Then

do

we

know

Spiritbest, for
without
in the
us.

ourselves

Spirit,and

Matter

is

But

neither

phenomenal.
the and

Spiritare contained Here, again, the phenomenal is


Matter
antecedent
a

merely
But
an

the condition,

in the

order

of time.
upon

Matter Idea

Spiritis
Reason.
and

founded generalcognition
an

of the

It is

Idea

which

comprehends
cause

the

whole

actual

possiblesphere

of

and
or

law.

Whatever

exists and

is governed,is either matter

spirit.

III."

PERFECTION.

Where
we can

phenomena
compare

are

compared
"

"

nothing else it is of relative perfection, unless there even and archetypes with which in principles the objects of experience. For compare
of this of the It particular,

by experience impossible to judge


and be the

in the first

mind

place to
we

how

shall
the

say ;
or

is

more

beautiful

than

other be
a

this,It
mind
a

is

wiser,more better, just,unless there conceptionand archetype of beauty, and

in

con-

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

1*79
trie

just, by which the intrinsic character in to determine of each particular, order to judge of their comparative perfection But ? the conceptionof Perfection appears not merely in the comparison of qualities in particular objects. We think of an absolute justice, truth,wisdom, and goodness,an absolute solute beauty, an absolute order, harmony, and fitness. It is ablaw attainingan think absolute development. We and measure of God as Infinite Perfection of being a form to which nothing can be added, and from which nothing But of being, we be taken. in finite modes can ceive coneven of a Perfection which relatively to their archetypes, There is absolute. is an absolute beauty of the human action ; and in human form ; an absolute truth and justice absolute loveliness in nature, which, if not realized in an is nevertheless experience, representedin the imagination. We of being, to the mode deny absolute perfection may
ception and archetype of
trie

good

and

"

because
as

it is finite

but

we

can

represent it

to

ourselves

out its measure, as glory, reaching the excellence, filling and beauty of its archetype. the form under Now, so far from absolute Perfection, of the senses, not even of the Infinite, being a presentation in finite modes is it such a presentation. Actual ence experigives us the limited and variable phenomena, and yond But how do our minds to leap become nothing more. the actual realities of finite being, and to shape out of truth and beauty ? How do they unseen an perfection There ascend up to the conceptionof Infinite Perfection ? is but one in solution : the Idea of Perfection satisfactory

the

Keason.
Thus

when constituted,

the

antecedent

conditions forms

in

time Ideal

are

the supplied by experience,

Keason of the

those

through cognitions,

its function

Imagination,

180

PKIMOEDIAL

LOGIC.

which

to inspire

works deeds
sees

of

and art, to self-cultivation,

to all

great
created

and

good

; and

stretchingits
himself

eye

beyond

all

being,
Idea human

the

Infinite

in

his

ineifable

greatness and
The

beauty.
of Perfection thus attaches itselfto the whole
In the

sphere of

activity. It

is the
we

leading Idea.
have

particulardevelopment, however, shall proceed to consider. which we

several

Ideas

IV."

EIGHT

AND

WRONG.

This have
two

antithesis is

recognized. Men, indeed, universally


to particulars

disagreedas
terms
"

to the

be

placed under
others

the

some

placingunder
; but the
two

the

first what

place
cessarily ne-

under

the

second

terms

themselves,as
universal There

and all
men

think

absolutely opposed, is a of Eight and Wrong.


men

conception: also, many


the
same

are,

which particulars
term

agree
:

in is
a

placing under
code of ethics

of the

antithesis

there

embracing

cardinal

which principles,
:

is well

nigh

universal.
which that
ist, actuallyexerror

Again
can

the

diversities of sentiment the


same

be

explained in namely,

way

human

is

explained on
and general,

subjectsconfessedly admitting
the
want

of exact education

terminat de-

of sufficient

in
and

the

want

of the the

examination requisite

thought
The

in

respect to
has

unbiassed particularsubject,

by
The

prejudiceand passion. Eight


is
an

been

confounded
a mere

with

the Useful.

Useful
If the

Idea,or
bare

it is

induction
cannot

of consequences. with
can

then latter,

it certainly induction and

be identified
we

the

Eight.
attain
can

By
an never

of consequences,

never

to

absolute be

fixed

judgment,
the

since

the induction of

complete.

But

judgment

Eight

PKIMOKDIAL

LOGIC.

181

and

Wrong
any

is

and absolute, fixed,


two terms
can

universal. be

The

Reason and

affirms that
where

the

never a

transposed;

has particular
to
one

received
no

clear and

signment aspositive

of the terms,

change its character. cruelty, blasphemy, adultery, murder, and many have received an assignmentwhich is
ever

can possible consequences Thus, lying, injustice, malice,

other particulars,
seen

to

be

necessary

and

unalterable.

And

the

same

is true

of the

virtues. opposite But of if we take the Useful


as an

Idea ; the

impossibility

it with the Right is equallyapparent. Ideas identifying are Now, the Idea of Utility distinguished by their aims. aims at the improvement of the external world, so as to in his and comforts of man multiply the accommodations But the Idea of Right and Wrong physical relations. God aims to fix the great law of duty in respect to both and man, in the imperishablerelations of moral obligation. what determines will minister The one to physical comfort and enjoyment ; the other determines simply what is of all physical Right,in distinction from Wrong, irrespective and comfort the enjoyment. Nay, it commands Right in oppositionto physical comfort and enjoyment, and exalts self-denial into one of the most gloriousand majesticforms of virtue. It indeed promises to persevering in the ultimate issue ; but it at the virtue ample rewards time reveals virtue as pursuing its end, charmed same by and and in this convictions sweet its own consciousness, and establishing alone gainingits title, its meritoriousway then could be The judgment of Right and Wrong ness. of derived from experience only as a distinct induction since Utilityas Idea transcends an rience expeconsequences, of consequences being inadequate ; but an induction its actual characterisfor this judgment, with to account

182

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

tics of
to the

necessityand conception of
an

we universality, Idea of Eight

are

here

again
in

led
the

and

Wrong

Reason.
Phenomena

comprising the
time

volitions of
their
to

free and
the

sponsible retecedents an-

being,togetherwith
in

sequents, form

conditional
with

the

development
sooner

of the
an

Idea. of such

Constituted
a

this
in the

Idea, no
it is the

does

act

being appear it,it


free is

than consciousness,

the Reason

affirms of

Right, or,
it forms

Wrong.
axiomatic
must

Upon
be

this

particularjudgment, Every act or Wrong


its
own

judgment. Right recognize

of
:

and

responsible being proceedsby


and

and

thence

reflection to

Idea.
Idea of

The relations

of

Right

in Wrong, projected
a

the various ernment gov-

humanity,
law is that

determines

moral

law

for the

of human of
a

conduct. made

The

highest determination
the Divine

moral

by

Reason.

moral

fail

in respect to its origin, law, thus determined,is called, The Divine law. human Reason, although it may to determine,of itself, an theless, adequate moral law, neverno

sooner

reads it beholds bows within


to

the

Divine marks

law

with

clear and

and

open

eye, than

the the

of eternal and awful

sary neces-

truth, and
The moral The the Divine Idea

august

authority.

determines

to the

voice which

speaks from
walked which

out. withrecognition and the voice of Sinai, men,


to

Word,

who

among
seem

find
connect

their
our

echoes

within, in thoughts
a

being with

past Eternity.

V."

FREEDOM

AND

RESPONSIBILITY.

and

Right and Wrong responsible being

can

be

affirmed

of the acts of

free

alone.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

183

The

conceptionof

Freedom

is involved

in that of ConA free

tingence,which has already been with the power being is one endowed the oppositeof a ; that is,
*

considered. of

mination detercontingent

necessary

tion. determina-

is involved in Freedom and gence. IntelliKesponsibility A being who knows Law, and is capable of obeying for his acts ; and is is bound to account or disobeying, to the account which or worthy of praise blame, according he legitimately renders, f affirmed Freedom and Eesponsibility son are by the Seaof self-determining the consciousness cause acts, beupon it is constituted with the Idea of Freedom
and

sponsibi Ee-

The

Law,
is

of

the momentous Ideas of Moral Reason, as evolving and Responsibility, Right and Wrong, of Freedom the Conscience.

called technically

VI."

PERSONAL

IDENTITY.

selves, phenomena of consciousness present us, in themPersonal neither Personalitynor Identity. They The flow of variable appearances. are a bare personality is the subjective simple,in whose consciousness all these knows himself both as pass along ; and who appearances The identity and recipient of them. of this pera cause sonality and propertiesin all is its unchanged substance amid every varietyof phenomenal time and circumstances, visible presentation. It is the conception of identical and indiThe oneness. phenomena here again take anteThe

Doctrine

of the

Will, Ch. II.,Sec. III. and


I.

VII.

f Moral

Agency, Ch. III.,Sec.

184

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

cedence

in time

; while

the

unchanging subject holds


make their

the

antecedence When the

of necessary
the

existence.

conditional

phenomena
with

ance, appear-

Keason, furnished
itself and
The its

the Idea in

of Personal

tity, Iden-

knows
oneness.

cognates
The

their
not

and simplicity appear under I the

cognitionof Identitydoes
of

any
now

limitation
am

time. have

Keason

affirms,What
shall

always

been, and

always

be, in

whole

circuit of my

being.

VII."

IMMORTALITY.

It needs

no

argument
be
a

to

satisfy any mind,


a

that

mortalit im-

cannot

conceptionof experience. Indeed,


even

many

affirm that doctrine

it is not

truth

of

philosophy,but
to
me

purely a

of revelation.

It appears

that

the the

historyof

this doctrine

affords unanswerable is

proof that
the human

conception of Immortality independently of


as a a

developed in
not

mind

Divine it

Eevelation.
was

But, by
the in

if in

we

grant
the man hu-

matter

of

fact,that
it
was

developed
that

mind

until

formally announced
necessary
to the

Divine Idea
to

velation, Ee-

it is nevertheless

of Immortality make
can

should
the

belong
the

Keason,

order

acceptance of
to

doctrine

unless possible,
elements
new or

it of

be

shown

be

comprehended
the
senses.

within

thought
is

furnished us, must of

by
be

Whatever
under facts

doctrine

taught
forms
sense
fessedly con-

contained which
us we

and principles, the If,therefore,


"

thought

alreadyhave.
and if have

cannot

give
within
a

the
"

conception of Immortality
we no

as

it cannot
or

constituted
cannot
us

principle
be

Idea ;
a

to

then giveit, law


cannot

the doctrine be

taught
there and

us

just as
Eeason

moral
or

taught
with

unless

be

Conscience, furnished

Ideas

of law

186

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

The

Useful

relates

to

the
can a

well-beingof
The

creatures

that
to

Beautiful

relates
creatures

physicalsensibilities and enjoy and suffer. peculiar class of emotions


with Reason
"

belonging only to
constituted stand in
a

endowed

son Rea-

with

Ideas

which determining to cognitions


to the

causal

relation

emotions.

The

Useful

determines
in

the
to

constitution, forms, physical life


the
to

and

relations of bodies

respect

and

ment. enjoy-

The

Beautiful bodies
are

determines
in

and forms, relations, its

propertiesof
These

respect

peculiar emotions.
sciousness. con-

emotions

explained by referringsimply to
from distinguishable clearly
latter

Emotions in that this,

are

sensations,

the

cognitions. Emotions
arise out

precede,while the former follow of beauty obviously, cannot therefore,


sensations.
A

of

simple

judgment
the
we

of

forms,

and properties, intervenes between relations, The simple cognition of objectswhich the general laws is made on beautiful, tion. The questionis, Why do we add
are

two.

pronounce j)ercep-

of the

sensuous

jugdment, they

? beautiful
It may be
we replied,

emotions experiencethe peculiar this

to

we which, likewise,

apply

epithet;
these

and and

then, by qualities

analysis,ascertainingthe
which
are

peculiar forms
with

connected invariably

emotions, we

them the Objective accordinglypronounce Beauty. Even the conception is not derived accordingto this, from
are

but sensations,

from

emotions.

But
not

the

emotions the nitions cog-

and preceded by cognitions, of the beautiful

these

merely
laws forms of

objectsby
those

the very

perception;
as

but

of cognitions

ordinary and ties qualiIt inis,

which beautiful,

produce

the emotions.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

187
claim

deed, true,

that

the

experienceof
a

the emotions

tecedence an-

particular judgment of beauty the appearance of a result of a mere of assumes analysis the conception which springs up in the properties ; but and determinin mind, is of the Beautiful as applying universally
the We
was

in time

; and

forms
as

to
a

which

the

emotions which
are

correlate. Creation of
we ceiving con-

think

of

Beauty
and

on principle

the

constituted of
a

ordered. far

We

conscious which

Beauty
the

transcending that
in nature.

hold. be-

Nay,
of still

Imaginationforms
unrealized

ideals and The

forms specific

archetypes mind proceeds

farther,and conceives of an Infinite and Absolute has its constitutive Beauty. The Beautiful,therefore,
in the Beason.
The

Idea

genericform of the Idea. It is and the Perfect, determining outward forms, relations, But in respect to the esthetical sensitivity. properties, when to the particular we come spheresin which the Idea forms. find it under several specific goes out as Law, we Beautiful with the objects of two The is connected senses, the Eye,* and the Ear. of the Eye becomes The Beautiful in the World cifically speBeautiful
is the
:

1.

Symmetry,
into
an

or

the proper

relation determined
human
seem

of the parts

tering en-

organic whole,
the
in size and

by

common
are

measure.

Thus,
when

parts of the
form

body

metrical, sym-

they

to melt

into

visible

Thus, too, the parts of a building are the dimensions, in relation each to symmetrical, when and other,and the pillars ornaments, in relation to the
*

harmony.

The

Eye,

of course,

is assumed

to

have

been

informed

hy

the

muscular

resistance

distance respecting

and

motion.

188

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

main

structure,flow into
as an

one

common

unity and
the Ideals of of

Symmetry,
Mathematical

Idea,determines
the

harmony. the Imagination,


the Artist.
to

which

constitute

Archetypes

ratios and

proportionsare
and

employed
eye, would

termine de-

measures precise

rules of mechanical
Idealized

execution.

These, however, without


a

the

present
lines

stiff and

outline. ungraceful
"

II. Grace.
are

Grace
a

appears

in motion.

Graceful

those

which

animated beautiful,

body naturallyand
the

describes in space, from spontaneously Grace is symmetry energizingwithin. does the expression of Grace
actual

moving always

power

in motion.
not

theless, Neverdemand

motion relates has There

; it appears
to

no

less in attitude. expresses

But

this

always
motion

motion.

It

the is

ceased, and
is Grace
the

where in
a

motion

point where just about to


the it is grace,

begin.
attitude

motionless which has

statue, because

expresses
the

motion
which

been, just as
to be.

passing into
this moveable A
every

motion
*

is about

This

beauty body

is the
a

life of

painting and
total

ture. sculpfinal

dead

has

heavy, painfulbeauty, because


There is here
a

muscle of

is relaxed.

and

cessation

motion,

and

no

prophecy

that

it shall

begin

again.
III.

Kegularity, Uniformity,
of

Variety.
to

"

Eegularity
and
tions relaand

is the indication disorder. which


is

law, and
the

is

opposed
the

confusion

Uniformity
indicate

expresses presence

recurrences

of extended

system, and

opposed
three

to isolation and

accidental

production. Variety
of the beautiful.

expresses

the
are

multiformityand
ever a

richness

These is
no

united

in beautiful
"

productions. There
and regularity uni-

beauty

in

line, straight
*

it has

Schiller.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

189

but formity,
is all,
:

no

variety.
A

But

curved

as line,

it possesses ful beauti-

beautiful.

simple

color cannot
as

be called
a

for

example, look
a

at colors

disposedin

paint-box.

Nor
when
as

yet is
in

It is jumble of colors beautiful. beheld in connection with form,and regularly blended, the rainbow, and the man huthe flowers, the foliage, The face divine/ that they claim to be beautiful. confused
"

great system of Nature


cal Ideas.

is constructed

upon

these Estheti-

IV.

Determinate curved

Form. lines.

"

All forms curved

are

composed

of

straightor
The

The

line is beautiful.

line is a compositionof curves. The straight spiral in its simplicity, is indifferent, it is the line of or line, gether lines are joined totwo or more utility. When straight in the construction of regularforms,the esthetical ferent properties begin to appear. But, what determines the difforms of bodies and
the

lines

of their motions laws


enter

somatologicalnecessities and Unquestionably, into the determination. The world extensively because it is designed for use. it is, This is one
but
mere

is made

as

solution,
how

not
use

of itself sufficient.

It is not without
a

difficult to show thousand


and
man.

might

be

attained

particulars
Man
to

which but

appear

both the
well

in the works

of God
when

is

copying

Great
as

Maker,
The The

he

aims

make is the

as beautiful,

useful.

union
Idea

of the two of the

of perfection

the universe. the mind


in the

determinate
all the ties varieare

form

of

beauty, in
nor are

of

God,

evolved
These

of beautiful

form

creation.

forms
use

not
are

arbitrary ;
the
reason

they merely
of the Idea
; and

the best

for

they

proper hath

forms
the

beautiful

likewise.
it both

The

human

same

hence,

recognizes
of

the

beauty of

actual

new form, and projects

forms

beauty

in the creations

of Art.

190

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

Y.

The

Sublime.
The the

"

This

is

usuallyembraced

under the

Esthetics.

fundamental

Idea, however,

is not

but Beautiful,
are or

Infinite.

gained,when
to the

the Infinite of the

esthetical properties Strictly, unites itself to the Beautiful,

higher Idea
form
; and

Perfect.
reason

common

hence

the

This,indeed,is why the emotions


Esthetics.
the

the

of

are grandeur and sublimity assignedto Beauty Infinite Perfection, these are
" "

Infinite

highestsources

of the

Sublime.
in scarcely distinguishable world,usage has appliedthe
extent.

Sublimity and grandeur are


the
one

emotion.
to the

In

the

natural the

Those
are

and lofty, of objects

other to vast

either kind which

awaken the

the

emotion,

which objects suggest the conceptionof of their magnitudes, or the amazing reason which they display. or perfection The Moral

by Infinite, power, wisdom,


same
a on

Sublime
upon the

can

be traced

to the

element.
sense

Prometheus its
own

rock,fillsthe
nobleness

mind
we

with think

of the

greatnessand

; and

in

lost in long track of our immortalityuntil we seem being. The and beings of our cannot objects experience
to
us

infinite

reveal

the

Infinite

directly ;
greatness
"

but
a

when

presented under
surpasses tively instincown

forms the

of indefinite

greatness which
"

ordinarystandards forward to springs


seems

of

comparison

the

mind
of its

meet

the realization

Idea.

It

gloryof the Infinite. Majesty and dignity belong to the same category. of mental in the and greatness, They are expressions power
to
see

the

skirts of the

corporealperson Painting,they are


Thus far with

of

man.

In

the Arts

of

Sculpture and

qualities. capital
respect
to

the

World

of the

Eye.

We

proceed to

the beautiful

in the

World

of the Ear.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

191

relates Beauty unquestionably of sweet


into together The

to

sound.

The

tions emo-

music
one

and

of the

melt of loveliness, sight

harmonious

emotion. in

manifested of sound are qualities three ways : in Music, in Language, and in Tone. Beginningwith Music, we have, As a constitutive Idea,it determines I. Melody. esthetical
"

the in

of beauty in cognition succession ; the laws


and the
movements

the relations of sounds which of the


are

on flowing

govern the succession ; Creative function in endless


to

musical

production.
"

II. Harmony.

The

Idea
or

of

Harmony

determines

the

cognitionof beauty
on flowing

in two

more

successions

of sound their

in the

same

time ; the laws which in


new

govern varied

union

; and

the creative function

and

ductions. pro-

give the judgment of melody and derived from the mere harmony. If the judgment were it would But emotions sensitivity, belong to the emotions. are always preceded by cognitions tions ; and the cognicannot must

Sensations

have

their determinative

Idea. The Idea of

Language

has

sound

for its material.


of

Language likewise. in the selection of elementarysounds,their This appears combination into syllables and words,and the arrangement of words in propositions.Smoothness,euphony, elegance, and energy of style, all proceed from this Idea. Bhythm, whether in music or verse, is comprehended in the general Idea of melody. It expresses the relative of sounds as measured proportion by time. Verse is language,which, while used as the proper vehicle of thought, and retainingits laws as such, is wrought into the highest form of melody, of which the of the constituent sounds will admit. capacities melody

determines

the construction

192

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

Tone,

music, respectsthe

intervals of of

sound, and

is

comprehended under the generalIdea Tone, in speech,comprehends the


of
and

melody. language
the
to the articulate

universal

thought

and

passion, superaddingitself
sounds of

conventional

language

; and

contains

esthetical
the

of Oratory. Accent, emphasis, and all properties inflexions accompanying the expressionof thought ;

and majesty,melody, tenderness, words

force, accompanying
Ideas.
and

the

of

make passion,
end
we our

up

its varieties. of the Esthetical


It is

"We

here that

outline and these

by

these

know

enjoy the beauty


as also,

sublimity
of creative

of Nature.

It is

by

the
are

powers

thought, that

all the wonders

of art

produced.

The In the

Ideas

which

follow

next

are

the

Somatological.

Part

classification alreadygiven in generalphilosophical difficulties attending the to the I.,I have adverted of this class of Ideas.*
an
or indication, a an

determination
to be
a

What

follows I wish
rather than full

regarded as pretensionto
would

attempt,
were subject,

be

complete
me

evolution.

Besides,a
it the

development
limits of

of this very

extensive
to

ble, possiproper

inevitablylead
an

transcend

elementary
of
be

treatise.
the
not

strictly primordial
which

logic,also, requiresmainly
determination
so

laws

Ideas,and
necessary

their

regulate the application, except


of illustration

far
a

as

may

for the

purpose

and

clear

understanding.
to

Before the

ought giving SomatologicalIdeas,we Dynamical Ideas alreadyto have been


*

pose sup-

deter-

Pages 82,

83.

194

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

The under

of causes apprehended and described diversity nomena. Dynamics arises from the diversityof the phehave But in reality all this diversity, we, under than
one cause

more

in nature

"

cause

universal

Admitting this,the diversityof phenomena arises from the various spheresin which cause acts, and the various laws which direct and govern its activity. And then, in evolvingthe Idea of Cause simply,we have reallygiven all necessary consideration to pure dynamical philosophy ; and what remains is the evolution of to us legitimately, the Somatological Ideas, or the Ideas which go forth into the world of bodies,and give the law to all its forms, relations, and changes. All Ideas form of realityanswering to have some The great law of them, although not adequate to them. first move their development is,that the reality must tain cerand then phenomenal conditions in the consciousness, the Ideas come forth to determine and laws. cognitions be in the human veloped, There Keason, Ideas yet undemay the realities to which because they relate have within the field of Experience. And not yet come cially espemay
where there
not

this

be true
vast matter

in respect to
and diversity
as

the world

of bodies

is such

Mind possibility. Hence

does

penetrate
of bodies

it penetrates itself.
two

the laws

appear

under

kinds

or

degrees :

THEORETICAL

AND

POSITIVE

LAW.

The of

first is the
one

conception of phenomena
Will, pp.

constitution possible and


account

bodies,and
number

which of the

will embrace

for
But

certain

presented.
and 294.

the

Doctrine

of the

30-32

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

195

Mind be

still remains
in any

in

whether doubt, first,

its

conception
;

realized

system,

or

be

mere

appearance of universality "While these

the secondly,whether, if realized, and doubts


can necessity

elements with the it.

be connected
to relatively

remain,
or a we mere

it is view

Mind-judging,a
we

Theory,
When
to
a

taken

for the occasion.

speak of possible systems,


observation. We think

speak

ing accord-

limited

of vast

diversity

spheres. In the great only in particular possibility be but one universe there may possible system determined by absolute and necessary laws, comprehending the whole, and and all : particulars yet permeating the minutest be but parts of this grand system, apthat we see may pearing because these are imperfectly imperfectin particulars, from the whole. in their separation seen Space is thus the infinite field in which the Infinite Being plants of worlds,which, under the perfect elements perfect and laws, are led forth to perfectdevelopments in necessary long successions in Infinite Time. if there be a diversity But of principles on possible, which worlds can be projectedinto being,and linked together this extended must believe that not we on scale, the Infinite and Perfect Being has chosen the best ? Can ? his work be less than the best and the perfect laws if such they be which The absolute and perfect have their correspondembodied in the Creation,must are ing Ideas in the Divine Mind far as we as ; and therefore, constituted have their corto apprehend them, must are responding
and
"

"

Ideas

in

our

minds

likewise.
law

According
under The

to this

view, every
of

realized will appear

the first it

characteristics
must certainly

and universality the last


can

necessity.
be
pended sus-

have, and

only

upon

the

question, whether

Somatological

196

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

laws

in the Divine
are

determination

are

of fixed and absolute

or perfection,

of law

and of various degrees of perarbitrary, fection. And again,on the other hand, every conception if supeven appearingunder these characteristics, posed
to be

not

realized
"

in any

known
some

system,
other be

must

find
space,

its
or

somewhere, reality
in
some

either in time
;
"

part of
a

other
or

period of

it must such
a

of the could

distant be

the future.

But

prophecy propheticIdea
some

developed only in
? I think

connexion

with it.

form

of

in some reality called Theory

degree symbolisingwith
the mind would

Could

this be in it
as

repose

mind grasped something higherthan Theory. Newton's before he verified it. He did the great law of gravitation law of our to it as the actual not yield system, until he lain to me to have had verified it : but it always seems from its first conception, which must in his mind as a law It was find its verification somewhere. a law penetrated by an Idea. is an ingenious conjecture a tentative Theory strictly after a law, determined nascent act a feeling by the mere the purpose of genedevelopment of an Idea, and serving ralizing the phenomena, reducingthem and preto order, paring for exact them and proportionate expressions. in the Theory of Atoms, employed to This is exemplified finitie afproportionsof chemical represent the determinate
" "

In cal

attempting
shall

an

enumeration

of cardinal

Somatologi-

Ideas,I

beginwith

IX."

THE

USEFUL.

I have between

alreadyintroduced
the

this Idea It

it and

Beautiful.

distinguishing comprehends the final

in

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

197
endowed

end with

of Material natural
and

Creation
"

in

respect to
with the

creatures

sensibilities

enjoyment
to the

suffering. The

constitution and perfect under this point of view. The far as presented to our as observation, universe, When reflect upon the this Idea. does not fullymeet we and the beneficent designs character of the Great Creator, which
every where

capacityof physical Useful, as an Idea,reaches development of the world

appear,

taken

in

connexion

with

the

glorious prospects opened to our view in Divine Kevelation,we must believe that the universe is constituted upon this Idea, and that all things are tendingto its realization. Nay, may it not be already realized in other parts of the
vast

whole

; and

is not

the

Christian's

heaven

those

fected per-

worlds

This wonders.

Idea Man he

has

stimulated

human
a

industryto
uncultivated He

work

its

finds the world

rude

ness wilderfills it

before
with

begins

to

exert

his

industry.
it

comfortable

harvest thousand

transforms dwellings, its mineral fields, appropriates useful

into

smiling
in
a

resources

arts,and
his

even

controls He

its

powerful

ments, ele-

to

accomplish

designs.

refines and

plies multiplies multi-

his wants, and


his

to gratifythem, by contriving enjoyments.

God

has made of

his

highly endowed

creature
a.

the skilful which he


not not

instrument

has filled with

for kindly uses, perfecting Human ample resources.


:

world

industry has
are

yet attained yet exhausted


in store. The of
the

its limit
:

the

resources

of the world

this beneficent

Idea

has

new

wonders

yet

world

was

made

under

the ;

Idea

of the

as Utility,

one

constitutive
are

elements whether

and

improvements
in their

which

in progress,

laws by physical

198

PKIMOKDIAL

LOGIC.

necessary

development,or by
this Idea.
; and But

human

by

this Idea the

industry,are is general and


to

erned govprehensive com-

gives only
We

most

general form

of the

Somatological law.
Ideas which determine

have

yet

enquire into

its interior

and forms,relations,

qualities.
X."

CENTRALIZATION

AND

DIFFUSION.

The

Idea and

of Centralization The
and
a

is that of

of

perfectdependency
involves is the whole

union.

conception
whole.

body
no

conceptionof parts
without
If there
were

But

ble possiof

centralization. but
one

vast

Whole
But

a existent,

law

centralization
are

would

be sufficient. into
a

if distinct wholes
mutual

to

be

arranged

system with
one common

relations universal

and

dependencies, and
must

with

and

dependency constitutingthe unity


there
be

of the

system ; then

likewise the law

law

of

diffusion, harmoniously

opposing itself to
a

of

universal the

consolidation. universe

and preventing centralization, This is the grand Idea upon

which

the or Gravitation, of centralization Centripetalforce and law, is the great principle of the Centrifugal force, the great principle ;
"

is constituted.

diffusion.
That

it is

an

Idea, and
be

not

mere

theoretical

tion, concepof it.

cannot

well

questioned; beyond
and the

for the characteristics

and universality In the

necessityseem
worlds
all the

plainly to belong
utmost

to

wide

space,

limits
may there

of observation,
we exist,

whatever under believe,

systems
a

force of
on

commanding
two

Idea, to
and shows

be all-

arranged and
sufficient

governed

these

stupendous
science

principles.The

history of

the

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

199 the

constant

tendency
:

of the human
now

Keason

to

evolution
can

of this Idea admitted


as

and

that

it is

evolved,no

other

be

the Idea

of the Universe.

XI."

AFFINITY

AND

KEPULSION.

This

is akin within

to

it.

and perhaps comprepreceding, hended There is this important distinction,


:

the

however,
relate
to

which cosmical

is obvious
masses

centralization

and

diffusion

and whereas, affinity

repulsion
enter

relate to the constitution of the and particular which


are

of the minute

varieties generic and specific


masses

which

into

the great wholes is Affinity


matter

of two
;

kinds

governed by : First,the

the former. cohesion geneous of homofirst is

secondly,chemical

affinity. The
of

permanent
the second

affinity, existingindependently
takes

change ;

place through change.


of two
The

Repulsion
;

is likewise

kinds

cal First,mechanito

secondly,chemical. by
mechanical

first relates

the motion the motion

of bodies

force ; the

second, to
is the of

of chemical No

decomposition.
and necessary

less universal and

of principle

finity Afand and

Kepulsion, than
One is the Idea

that of the

Centralization

Diffusion.

great harmonious
Idea and

all-comprehendingsystem ; the other, the minute and interior composition of the forms
of

of the

orders which tution consti-

the laws determines One bodies. particular respect to their interior grasp the wholes, without
; the

other

determines

the

laws

of this interior

constitution.
XII." LIFE.

Life bodies
are

is the

Idea

of the

from distinguished

Organic Organific power. inorganicin three ways:

200

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

First, they forms, which


the

possess remain

determinate, generic, and unchanged


enter

specific
flux of the

amid

the ceaseless

particleswhich moving particles ;


of

into here

them.
tends
to

Secondly,
an

actuating or change
and
are

power while
to

unceasing
tend
to

mechanical
to

forces

chemical equilibrium, then made


or

composition or simple
cohesion

decomposition,
accretions
of

pause. either

Thirdly,in inorganic bodies by


a

matter,
inherent

by

simple

union in

of

homogeneous determined by particles,


new

affinities ; while

organicbodies,a
cohesion and

power,

acting from by
a

within, resists
of

affinities ;

and,

process

assimilation, projects,as
into
own

from

centre,

distinct and

particles metamorphosed
forms

substances inward Under

of

ties quali-

determined is the
law

by

its

law.
the

Wonderful varieties of its


the

of life ! animal

myriad

vegetable and
Observation

bodies,it only the


think

still preserves

identity.
law is and

gives us
We
It

phenomena
as a

metaphenomenal.
necessary.

of it too

law
an

universal Idea

springs therefore

from

of the

Eeason.

XIII."

POLARITY.

as Polarity,

thus

far

determined, is magnetic, electric, optical.


kinds
; and

and chemical,crystalline,

It

is the

conception
the
pose, re-

of

and disturbance, repulsion, union of like the

separation, produced by
of

attempted
That have been

harmony

and

produced by
an

actual

union

of unlike

kinds.
which their

Idea made

lies behind

all the

observations

respecting polarity,determining

processes

has

is manifest that the concep: and results, tion of polarity, as an attempted expression of the Idea, been the guiding star to the most eminent philoso-

and

202

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

law all-comprehensive It is mode of


a

of

the and

mere

animal

nature

is instinct.
a

universal

necessary
a

law, governing
Idea.

being, and

springingfrom

constitutive

XV.

REGULARITY,
AND

UNIFORMITY,
DETERMINATE

VARIETY,
FORM.

SYMMETRY,

These relations.

have

already been
to to

considered in

in their esthetical

They
a

exist likewise
the

They

bear

relation

somatologicalrelations. tion useful, analogous to the relabeautiful.


and of in

which

they

bear

the

They

all

sarily neces-

result from
appears

determinate the action

yet diffusive law.


and centripetal

This fugal centri-

palpably in
vital the

in forces, In

and forces,

crystallization.
will not and appear in In
flict con-

they absolutely perfect,


the
two

under actual

Ideas

of
to

Beauty by

Utility.
do

the in

nature

submitted the
arts

observation, they
man,

appear

conflict.

In

cultivated

this conflict is
and is
a

constantlyexperienced ; for example, in the form of buildings. The Grecian Temple development
is
a a

portionm appure

of beautiful

symmetry
of useful
art

commodious

ing-house dwell-

development
human

symmetry.
unite in
a

There
two

is

constant

strugglein

to

the union

; and
promise. com-

they

appear

together,in

consequence,

of

The
as scale,

determinate in the

form

of nature

viewed

on

grand
bits, or-

shapes of

the

the planets, of the

line of their

and
us a

the vast

arrangements
of the

starry heavens,present
It is

perfectunion

two

Ideas.

only in

the

details

of the

and these

orbs that we particular in the sphere of especially

perceivethe tion, opposihuman activity. In

we details, a

Geology,that

judge under the lightof Astronomy and mighty progress is making from lower to

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

203

The intelligential higher states. activity, too, in being is at brought to task itself in the field which it occupies, the same time developing its own greatness, and reaching forward to its ultimate destiny.

XVI."

IDENTITY,

DIFFERENCE,
are

RESEMBLANCE.

Identity and
Resemblance

Difference
union

antithetical

conceptions.
or

is the

of the

two, in

two

more

jects obsame^

compared together.
ness

Personal

Identity is
and

the

of the individual taken

being in
and

substance

essential properties, times

in different

distant indefinitely

and

places.
In material

particlesor
under

parts,
the The

there

is

no

necessary

for matter, identity, is liable to indefinite

forces and

laws

of nature, bodies is an

change.
forms and and

of identity

identityof
substance
"

certain forms
be flux

ences qualities, admitting differan

in other

qualities. Here
the
reason

identityof.
above

cannot

for considered,

stated

the

constant

of matter.

Identity and

Difference

actually existingin nature,

lays the ground for the classification of bodies into genera, Generic forms and qualities and individuals. are species, those which are the most generaland comprehensive ; thus
animal, for example, embraces
which
all distinguish But
as

only the
from

forms

and

qualities which,
kinds
or

animals
and

all other

livingorganisms.
added

in man,

forms

are properties

him differentia, distinguish

from
same

all

other

of animals,and", at the species individuals of his own : species

all time, identify in the individual added

the
man

while

are George, or Thomas, forms and properties distinguishhim from every other individual him with no one. and of course identify

which

of his

kind,

204

PEIMOKDIAL

LOGIC.

It has

been

said that

genera

and

are species

names

of

which we generalconceptions, may that consequentlythey ; and

form
have

and
no

realities.
and real

It is indeed

true

that

we

have

pleasure corresponding such living no


vary
at

being as animal, comprising only generic forms and qualities and real being as man, ; and no such living forms and qualities.It is true, comprising only specific that we can also, widely vary our classifications by uniting under new points of agreetogetherdifferent particulars ment. animal But let it be. recollected, that the words which exist : and man do express forms and qualities really The forms indicated found and are by animal qualities the forms animal in every particular really existing ; and vidual and qualities indicated by man, are found in every indiwhen And we are we man. classifications, vary our for our classification stillcorstill conversant with realities, responds
to

real

identities and

differences.

We

indeed

view

and invent new to names relations, views ; but, nevertheless, cannot we new represent our relations. view them out of actually existing The forms and qualities truth is, that the determinate difference ; and of bodies exhibit both these and identity the possibility of all classification. in their universality constitute If there were there would be all all difference, and of course classification. On the other hand, no variety, all identity, be no variety, if there were there would and here again no possibility of classification. enables Identity to bind us together in classes and systems : Difference enables us to separate the classes, : systems, and particulars their view still assign them so we that,when parts, we tinguish generalrelations : and when we view wholes,we still diswhich and comprehend the particulars go to make them We thus know the harmony and variety of the up.

them

in different

Universe.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

205

If any would
as

one

were

to

remark,

that

universal

identity

not

be

incompatiblewith
and and

some

inasmuch diversity, be

the

identical forms

qualities might
space

presentedin
be sufficient

different relations of time


to

; it would

that as we should in this case have continually reply, in reality be unwould the same able we perception, recurring different different points in space, and to distinguish periodsin time. inclined to merge On the other hand, if any one were it the most into mere identity resemblance,by calling fect perof the utter possibil imresemblance,he might be convinced of this conception, that resemblance by reflecting, be without constituted cannot identity. There in some be sameness forms or qualities, must to enable us to bring them ness together; and the union of points of samein fact, with points of difference, makes resemblance. and The their conception of Identityand Difference, relation in resemblance,is a universal and common sary necesit not only to what conception. We extend we see, As a necessary it must know we pervade all worlds. soit must find in the reason its cormatologicalconception, responding and constitutive Idea. Hence, when phenomena are given as the requiredconditions and antecedents under the Idea in Time, the Keason this constitutive Idea from which forth the perfectsystem and the manifold sprang of the Universe begins to cogniseresemblance, variety and to seize upon the objects of perception, the to classify amid the glorious unity reigning diversity. glorious
" "

XVII."

DESIGN,

FINAL

CAUSE,
ways

MEANS

AND

END.

These Idea. The

are

only different

of

expressing the

same

great Architect

of the

Universe

forecasted

his

206

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

design ;
cause

this

is design,contemplatedby himself, Creation


and means, ; and the

the
a

final

of the
means

Creation
the

itself is
means

great

system of
and the

ends, in
in
a

which

are

ends,
nious harmo-

ends

long chain
which

of linked
with the eye

and
an

and subordination, end which

all connected upon

ultimate

is not

means,

of God

poses re-

in infinite and This human Idea


reason.

quiet delight.
Infinite

of the

Keason,
more

is found

also and makes

in

the

Hence
the

nothing is
of

natural
mind

taneous sponafter in

than
final the
causes

enquirieswhich
structure

the

in the order

plants and

animals,nay,

whole

of Creation.

As
of Final

the conception of philosophical research, principle in respect to orCauses has been adopted chiefly ganised because bodies,
here
more

manifest achieved alone

and

certain

and

here

unquestionably it
the

has

stupendous
are
a

sults, re-

of which attestation. The


necessary
as

labors

of Cuvier

sufficient

conceptionof
and

final causes,

like other universal

and
ses sen-

conceptions, accepts the


antecedent alone Idea of the

observations
in time
as

of the
it
can

its condition
an

; but

rest

upon

Eeason

its constitutive

ment. ele-

Phenomena

confused,are
and beautiful

and and fleeting apparentlyirregular to orderly grasped by this idea and reduced

relations.

And

it is not

only in
watchful

fields of observatio composes and tant expecthat

that actuallypresented, phenomena, and educes system ;


eye, it is
ever

it arranges
as a

and

looking about
its
own

to find

phenomena
is
a

shall fall in with

prophetic thought, which


Where there is
no

preconceptions. It wanders through


can

necessary universe.
assurance

the

observation

reach, it

has

full

design.
close my

I here

view

of

SomatologicalIdeas.

However

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

20*7
end I have in

brief and

it will answer the imperfect, namely, Logical Construction. I will complete this outline, with

view,

the

LogicalIdeas.

XVIII."

TRUTH.

Truth The

is

an

antithetical idea of the Keason govern

its opposite is Falsehood.


:

great aim

is Truth the Keason

and in

prises Logic com-

the Laws in after, Truth


"

which

its searches

the processes

by

which

it arrives with the

at, Truth.

highest form of Keality with absolute and necessary Keality ; and it is the parent of all other reality the Eealityof actual objective Being. The Ideas,and the necessary and universal which immediately springout of them, are the conceptions Actual essential body of Truth : Being is the exterior
"

in itself is identical

embodiment Keason When

of Truth.

Hence

Truth

is that in which

the

and securelyreposes. ultimately, necessarily, the Keason, contemplating Ideas and necessary

in the constiand their exterior embodiment tution conceptions, of the Universe,gives the judgment of Truth, it

does

so

under
no

the

great Idea of Truth.

Mere
no

phenomena
sequently con-

contain

truth,because they
cannot

they contain
contain the

and reality,

judgment

of

Truth.

tecedent phenomena being given as conditions or occasions anin time, the Keason under the Idea of Truth of the subjective forms the conception ities Realand objective it affirms that they are true. Falsehood is the oppositeor negativeof Truth, with In the highthe appearance of being Truth. or est pretension well find the pure regionof Truth, Falsehood cannot have such place. Ideas,and primary absolute conceptions, decided characteristics that it is difficult to imagine how a
" "

The

208

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

falsehood
are
a

can

disguise itself
and universal,
on

in

their

habiliments. How The


it
were

They
can

necessary,

clear. intuitively
of

falsehood

put

the
to
a

appearances
an

these ?
If

very so,

suppositionseems
could Is not
and
a we

involve
certain

absurdity.
between when

ever

have

and

infallible test
a

of truth ?
truth
to

this the

great distinction
that falsehood, their
as a

presumed
up

presumed

carried

the

primary conceptions and quietly flows


The the

determining ideas,the congenial


to seek

first
the ?

into these

essence,

while

latter is repelled and

flows back

its home

elsewhere

the universality, the necessity,

intuitive
character

of clearness,
of

conception,are
Unless
Truth absolute In

what

give it
these

the

absolute
be

Truth.
absolute but be

it attain
; and

characteristics
attain here

it cannot

when

it does

them,
then

it cannot be
cluded. ex-

Truth.

Falsehood
a region,

must

this pure

mind

may

mislead

itself
and

by bringingalong with
baseless and But

it the
it has

gross

the prejudices, in the


a

wild

which theories,

collected with of
a

lower

region,
and and
trance en-

dogmatically investingthem
it is
a

attire

of Truth.

wilful But

act to

"

the

act

professed Sophist
find

Sectarian.

the of

humble, sincere,open-eyed, Truth,


the
human and falsehood and
can no

pure-hearted
among in the lower and that Here falsehood the
sense

child these

primary
itself
"

ideas

principles.
of human field
to

It

is

region
finds
may and

region
natural

duction, inobservation,

deduction, of
a

will and

passion,
walk and

wide

in.
the

be

deceived

by
the

appearances,
"

intellect the

amused the

led

astray by

Idols

of the

Tribe,
takes The

Den,
But

Market-place, and
is its is the

Theatre."
the Keason

in whatever

regionof Knowledge
great
and

its Idea

stand, Truth
of Truth

legitimateobject. activity.

spring of

all its

210

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

it may
the

be

contemplated separately from


the other

all

phenomena
connects

philosophical Idea, on phenomena,


as

hand, always
the Truth is the

itself with

determining
them.
; the

of activity

the

Intelligencein respect
Idea Idea of Primordial of Inductive and absolute every

to

cardinal cardinal of the Idea

Logic Logic. thing

the philosophical, is the the

Truth

simple

Idea

primal
of

authority;
under

the philosophical,

reducing

that

authority.

XX."

INTUITION.

Intuition functions

has

already been
Keason
"

represented as
function this

one

of the
sight. in-

of the

the

of immediate
the
an

Now,
the

connected

with

function,is
such

Idea

of

perfectand the Hence we assign the

absolute
name

authority of
of the the

insight.
the

function,to
the
are

express function

corresponding Idea. only three, dimensions


and necessary
or one

Thus

Keason, by
there

of

Intuition,perceives,directly,that
in space.

three, and

Such
this
:

is its immediate is
a

perception. Now,
instance any of

particular perception,
upon

Intuition

but,
is

this

one

instance,or
universal

upon

similar

instance,there
Intuition
an

appears absolute

the and

that affirmation,

perfect law
is
all first
are

of

cognition,
"

that

whatever

is known
All

by
axioms

tuition, In"

ultimately and

known. certainly

and principles,

all But

primary
the
an

sensuous

perceptions,
or affirmation,

thus

legitimated.
reposes of the Idea

universal Idea the

conception,itself namely,
and
most

upon

of the

Reason,
and

"

Intuition,as
form

primal

highest
Idea

authoritative Primordial

of

Cognition.
governs all its

This

permeates

Logic, and

particular

determinations.

PKIMOEDIAL

LOGIC.

211

XXI."

INVOLUTION

AND

EVOLUTION.

Besides truths
In

there Intuition,
or

are

two
are

other forms Induction and

of

ing cognistion. Deductruths

realities.

These

the inductive

form, we

cogniseuniversal

through particularphenomena in which the truths are In the deductive embodied. form, we cogniseparticular truths through universal truths which comprehend them, The and of which out two forms, in they are evolved. lowing the folbe representedunder relation to each other,may
formulae
:

( a,

b, c, d,
is a,

"c.

are

Induction

b, c, d,

"c.

(Therefore
ZisX Deduction -l a,
or

Z is X.

5, or

c, a,

or

d, "c. b, "c.

is Z is X.

( Therefore
The first is
an

or

involution

of inducted

into particulars,

general expression. The second is an evolution of the determination. generalexpressionto a particular it is evident that the According to these formulae, ter Induction must precede the Deduction, and that the latis a return of the former. to the elementary particulars If the mind be supposed to be placed at the point of observingthe particulars, then, by the Inductive formula, it arrives at the general expression. If the generalprinciple, be alreadygained by a previous Induction, or expression, and the mind be placed at this point,then it can each particular formula. through the Deductive perceive be started, But here the question may what value is

212

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

there in the
to

Deductive
were

formula, since

it is

mere

return at the

which particulars
?

grasped by

the Inductive

outset

First.

There

is

more

generaltruth when viewed relation. reciprocal does not Induction, as an inference, Secondly. The itself by the Induction,as a mere measure bringing in of The made the facts. grounds of the general inference, will be hereafter the limited coEigation, explained. upon But is this general inference upon the limited colligation, the necessity of deductions,subseshows quent the fact which which establishes the generalprinto the induction ciple the deductions from which made since all are ; for, the particulars not reallybrought in and were colligated, when the general principle, becomes an once established, for conclusions respecting not particulars authority nally origiinducted.

perfectcomprehension of the the two under forms, in their

Thirdly. The
connect

Deductive the
not

formula

does

not

invariably
exhibited.
of Inductive

itself

with

Inductive, as
the universally
a

above result

General

are principles are

but inferences, first of principles

often and

priori and
mathematics

intuitive.
are
as

The

morals

palpable
"

instances.
and

These

principlesare
; and
are

established

intuitive
and

judgments
momentous,
In the

then evolved

priori sciences, cated, vast, compliby


the Deductive

formula.

Fourthly.
without and

there affairs of life, practical


are

are

ceived re-

which principles
anew instituting

constantlyapplied by all men, enquiries respectingtheir origin


who
are

basis. the

Indeed, multitudes
unfitted

are principles, through which they were

for

capable of applying the investigations


This

obtained. originally

practi-

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

213

is made in a series of deductions, application which, although not assuming,in the common language of men, the syllogistic form, nevertheless admit of being reduced cal
to it.

These of the The

considerations

are

sufficient to

show

the

value

Deductive

formula. Ideas of the of the Inductive of and tive Deduc-

fundamental

and formulae,

modes
and

which cognition On the

they
one

represent,

are

Involution does not

Evolution.

contemplate any phenomenon be colligated fact apart and isolated. It must with or and and other fact, these again with others, some so on of facts bound until we have a mass together in the unity
hand,
of system, and On
the

the

Keason

involved

in

great central law.


the

other
or

hand,

when

Keason
does
not

seizes upon

any

law, axiom,
as

It

it principle, ever or dormant, unproductive, Idea feels impelled by its own first

contemplate
out

it

within revolving
to

itself.
an terior ex-

look

for

spherein
in manifold The Eeason and

which

the great truth

shall unfold

itself

varieties. takes these two hence manifests directions here and necessarily native again the determi-

universally ;
power

of Ideas.

XXII."

ANALYSIS

AND

SYNTHESIS.

ception Synthesisis the congeneraldefinition, of the composition of systems of systems of Truth and formulas ; and accordingto logicalprinciples systems of bodies according to natural and mechanical laws : while Analysis is the conception of the decomposition of systems reversing and the order of the Synthesis, and formulae, running back in the chain of principles,

According to

"

214

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

laws.
and

Geometry
consequences.
"

is

completed synthesis of principles taught, the


instructed
a

When

syntheticalorder
how
to

is observed
the upon

the

pupil being
in

put

gether to-

several theorems

way

to show

their upon

ence depending preced-

the

axioms

and

and definitions,

demonstrations of the

accumulating in the progress constantly chinery, synthesis. A watch, also, or any piece of mawhen

its

separated parts are


the laws the of the

taken

up

and

put

together accordingto
us a

synthesis.
remotest

On

the

deductions
rest

mechanism, presents other hand, we begin with may of Geometry, and enquire upon

what

grounds they

will prove

to be other
:

grounds, in part at least, deduced from something propositions


we

; these

still going before


the whole
we
we

in this way of

may

continue

to unwind

concatenation arrive
at

dependent
watch

demonstrations

until

the in

self-evident

wise, principles. So, like-

may

take

piecesthe
we

in the

order

of the

mechanical

dependency, until accomplish an

arrive at the

main-spring.
a

analysis. He that has knowledge of Geometry, and of the watch, can kind synthesiseor analyse both ; and the same
We
thus enables him and
to do
one
or

perfect readily

ledge of know-

the other.
to

To

one

ignorant
of mode ; for

of

Geometry,
step

just settingout
is the
true

gain a knowledge
certain

mode it,the synthetical every here

and

to established principles according which and demonstrations, are evolving. Here continually the analyticalmode, by constantlyreferringto previous which demonstrations not yet comprehended, is liable are In respect to the confusion. to produce perplexityand make an safely ingeniouslearner would more watch, also, experiments in putting together than in taking apart.

is made

In

the

construction

of

scientific

systems,
the

and
neces-

in

mechanical

a constructions, synthesisof

parts

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

215

sarilyprecedes an analysisof mode of constructingis likewise


But where

the

whole.

The mode
as

natural of learning.

the natural

wholes
are

are

presented us,
to us,

in

piecesof
isms organbinations com-

machinery
such

which
as

strange
and

and
in

in natural the subtile

animals

plants,and

analysis of necessitypreaffinities, cedes at once synthesis. In such cases analysiscannot proceed with the nice accuracy of geometry and the watch,

of chemical

precisely how where to separate, because to begin, and they know the beginning, the continuity, and the completionof the wholes before them. Instead systematic and the organic of this,many and even destructive and futile tentative, experiments are made before the laws and the harmony
where the

geometer

and

the

mechanician

know

of the

construction

appear.
not to correspond

Analysis and
and

Synthesis do
but

Induction
In geometry
constant

Deduction,
there

precede or

accompany

them.

is,in

the progress

of the

a evolution,

synthesisof axioms, definitions, previousdemonstrations,


and
must
new

forms
made

and relations.

The

to a accordingly there is an ingenuityexercised in the combinations and ordering of the parts, for the purpose of eliciting conclusions or evolving proof, which is not provided for in the rules of deduction. This belongs in reality to another function of the Keason, which have named Invention* we with Analysis precedes Induction experiments which often the startingpoint ; and then accompanies it,by are and important evolvingin the continued experiments new phenomena. Synthesisalso accompanies Induction, arranging and

be

puttingtogether less, logic: but nevertherigid

whole

Supra, p.

131.

216

PKIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

combining the
and harmonious

discovered

truths

so

as

to

form

compact
tion Induc-

system.
thus
to subsidiary

Analysis and Synthesis are


and
to
see

Deduction.

The

Inductive the

Function manifold

is

striving

the

general truth through


it is

particulars

in which Deductive
remote

manifested,in
is

the

Function conclusions

strivingto
The

The unity of system. the particularand see in the

comprehended
also.

general truth, in Function, by


of

the

unity

of system

Inventive

its the
and

and analysis Inductive

media synthesis, presents the requisite and

Deductive

and preconceives cognitions,

suggests
All these

the

systematicconstruction.
are as

functions

related

in

their in

operationsto

the Intuitive

Function,
and

will appear

subsequent
Ideas in

velopmen de-

Analysis Keason,
the
are

Synthesis,considered certainly nearly akin to, if


and

as

the

not

identical

with,
be

Ideas

of Involution

Evolution.

If the

Ideas

regarded as Identical,then Analysis and Synthesis are Ideas distinguishable only conceptionsunder the common
from Induction
and

Deduction

by

the characteristics above

given.
It appears
are

to me,

however, that Analysisand Synthesis


; while Involution

distinct Ideas Evolution


and

determiningInvention
Induction
are

and

determine
Evolution

and which

Deduction.
determine

volution Inthe

Ideas

conceptionof phenomena running together and colligated in general laws, and general laws reciprocally governing the development of phenomena ; and the conception of
truths particular and

conclusions truths

comprehended
into
the and
a

in

general

truths, and
truths taken
as

general

evolved

particular Synthesis,
system
of

and

conclusions.

But the

Analysis

Ideas, determine

conceptionof

218

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

course

of since

reasoning
truth,

can

be its

conducted

independently
is

of and

them,

in

very

nature,

analytical

synthetical.
I

here

close

the

outline of those

of

Ideas. and of

Next

in

order

will

be and

the

consideration definitions
"

axioms,
which thus

primary
to

cognitions
Intuitive

belong

the

Function.

We

shall

complete

Primordial

Logic.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

219

SECTION

IV.

PRIMARY

SENSUOUS
THE EXTERIOR

COGNITIONS,

OR

COGNITIONS

OF

CONSCIOUSNESS.

in general, those are cognitions, formed which are intuitively by the Eeason, respecting the exterior world, through the force of its constitutive in the impressions Ideas, and upon condition of sensuous The

primary

sensuous

exterior When

consciousness. these

received in the exterior are impressions the Keason, under the Idea of objective consciousness, This is its first conceives of an outer world. exteriority,* sensuous cognition. under the Idea of our Exerting the muscular activity and experiencinga resistance in this personalcausality, the Ideas of cause, outer world, we now, under space, and substance,cognisebody. In this cognition limitation, involved at once what are are commonly called the primary or qualitiesof body, namely, hardness resistance, extension and form. prise They are primary,because they comthe necessary of the cognitions. Indeed, contents is now the cognition are complete. Secondary qualities bodies through the appropriate cognised in particular law. organs, under the Idea of Cause, or of determinate

Supra,p.

155.

220

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

body is known, then the sensations of which we referred to causes are are immediately conscious, inhering in bodies,or to their specific with constitution, correlating the human sensitivity. The cognitions of body involving the primary qualities, thus primary sensuous intuitions. are The forms, of relative magniknowledge of specific tudes, and of relative distances, in impliesacts of memory, made the muscular connectingthe successive impressions upon organism, in handling bodies, and in locomotion. There also various acts of calculation, and inferences are from comparison. Introduced into the external world, phenomena now put on their secondary" form : we are no longer engaged with the simple sensations of our being, but with the realities from which they spring ; and which, in the case of the secondary qualities from the of bodies, we name habitual sensations which they supplant in our very thought. Next in the order of this development of sensuous nition, cogis to
made

When

be

noticed

the

remarkable

transfer

which

is

lar belonging to the muscuknowledge originally dary organism, as the medium, to the organs of the seconqualities, and, as chief of these,to the eye. The come and the varieties of lightand colors of objects, shade, beof bodies, earlyassociated with the primary qualities with their specific tances forms, relative magnitudes, and disthat, the simple sensations of color become ; so familiar signsof the external world, that such ready and Next to the know we now every thing by the eye alone. is the ear, in this acquired system of "eye, in importance,

of the

Supra,p.

59.

PBIMOEDIAL

LOGIC.

221

signs.

The

other

senses,

however,

play

part

by

no

means

insignificant.
Thus,
internal him of and

by

the

power into

of the

Ideas,
world these

man

steps
is

out

from

his

sensations

which

correlated that

to

so

appropriates
becomes
an

sensations,
of

every

act

consciousness

act

observation.

222

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

SECTION

V.

PRIMARY

SUBJECTIVE
INTERIOR

COGNITIONS,

OR

COGNITIONS

OF

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS.

which formed intuitively are by cognitions the simple subjective, the Keason, respecting through the condition of the phenomena force of its Ideas,and upon which arise from the subjective activity. When these phenomena are recognisedin the interior the Idea of subject,* the Keason, under consciousness, conceives of the simple subjective, or the Me. determined Under next the appropriateIdeas,we are the spiritual to cognise the Me as substance,antithetical which have cognisedwithout. to the material substance we the Here remarkable transfer of phenomena, same which have noticed in the preceding Section in respect we takes to bodies, place in respect to the spiritual f being, no we longer think of bare Having cognisedthe subject, but of effects and festations maniphenomena of the consciousness, faculties ; and the intelligence, of spiritual ality, causwhich constitute our triune being,are and sensitivity known and distinguished.The Ideas of personality, Eight and and Wrong, Freedom, [Responsibility, Immortality, and attributes ; clothe this being with lofty now glorious of interior phenomena, and through the simpleconsciousness have the intuitions of self-knowledge. we as conditions,
These
are

the

Supra, p.

155.
.

f Supra, pp. 56, 57.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

223

It
to

will

be

understood intuitive their

both

in

respect
that

to

sensuous,

and

subjective
point
of
out

cognitions,

when and

undertake the
fer trans-

to

progressive
from realities
"

development
consciousness

;
to

phenomena
subjective
the in
causes

the

the

objective

and with them

thus

associating
them,

the

phenomena
of

which field do
not

produce
their
to

instead

viewing
I
"

the

of

immediate that this

manifestation,

nevertheless

mean

aver

progressive
in

velopment dethe

and consciousness of of of time the the but in

this

transfer
to

are

really
and

recognised
marked order and in

relation
to

successive the dawn

periods
relations the world and

only
In

indicate

logical
of
our

facts.

the

very

being play

senses, ;

our

faculties

open

their
to

unitedly reflection,
But when

harmoniously
find ourselves
to

and

ere

we

begin
already
we

exercise

we

in know in

world

realized.
must

we

attempt
to

ourselves,
clear

of the

necessity logical
we assume

represent
of the

ourselves

propositions
In

order

cognitive
of the there time sake

development. corresponding
of
to

doing
order

this,
of

periods
for

the

this in

development
relation
to

distinctness,

while

yet,

time,

was

actually

simultaneity.

224

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

SECTION

VI.

AXIOMS.

Axioms

are
nor

those
upon

truths

which

depend

neither

upon
are

duction, In-

previousdeductions
determinate
that

; but

which

tuitivel in-

cognisedunder
It is evident
must

Ideas.
are

before deductions

judgments expressed in be judgments must of necessity


or

be

there possible, Now these propositions. either


itions, into intu-

resolved
the

into Inductions.
we result, come

If into
to

even latter,

then,

in the

last

since intuitions,

all facts of

whether observation,
must consciousness,

belonging to the interior or exterior ultimatelyrest in simple intuitions.


of

phenomena, if regarded as a form is manifestlyimmediate of perception, and intuitive. But and subjectivecognitions, beyond this,the primary sensuous
as
we

The

consciousness

have

seen,

are

intuitive

likewise.
:

The

Eeal

is not

an

induction ; the

from
an

the

phenomenal

The

latter is a

condition
But and be

former while the

Intuition.

Axioms,
on

Deduction confounded
or

they are independent of Induction one hand, on the other,must not


"

with

the

primary cognitionswhether

suous sen-

primary cognitionsrelate to relate to the Reality of the Reality of Being ; axioms A becomes Truth, f a primary cognition expressed, pro*

subjective. These

Greek

'Altw/xa,Authority, Worth.
cannot

Hence,

an

established

principle
"

one

the authorityof which

be called in

question,

t Supra, p. 140.

226

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

Ideas,not only determines the Keal, but here likewise affirmations respectingthe
axiomatic
and science,

the laws makes

which

actually govern
and of law. absolute These

universal forms

necessary

affirmations constitute

reach the

the

spheres

of determinate the scientific

starting pointsof

construction.

METAPHYSICAL

AXIOMS.

I. Axiom
son

of

Substance

and

Attributes. and

"

The

Eea-

not

substances particular only cognises such

attributes,

but

the chronological as particular cognitions stance the universal conditions, makes affirmation, Every substance. implies attributes and every attribute implies subupon
;

II. Axiom

of

Cause

and

Effect.
upon

"

The

Keason

first
ditions con-

cause cognisesa particular

certain

phenomenal

; and
turn
as
a

then

upon

it condition,
cause. of

particular cause, taken in its affirms the axiom, Every phenomenon


this
and no

implies a
III.
sensuous

Axiom

Body

Space.
sooner

"

Body
the

is

primary
be in

cognition ;
the

but

does

take cognition
must

place, than
space.

Eeason

affirms, Every body


and

IV. of
some

Axiom

of

Time

Succession. is the

"

The

particularsuccession
upon this
the

conditional

cognition starting
succession

point ;
must

Keason

affirms,Every
and the

be in time.

V.
and the

Axiom
and

of

the

Finite
are

Infinite. the

"

Time

Space

the In

Deity

cognisedunder
of

Idea

of
and

Infinite.
are

the antecedence

Time,

the limited

finite

indeed

first

of the Infinite that

cognised ; but it is only by the Idea for us to affirm of it becomes possible

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

227

any

thing,It
becomes
The

is

finite. Thus
to
us

Finite

Infinite.

axiom

in the order of

instance of the particular condition of the judgment of the a which immediately follows this judgment finite. Time is,Every Finite implies the Ina

VI.
"

Axiom

of

the

Objective

and

the

Subjective.

The

in

and dition Objectiveare cognised on the conSubjective of particular phenomena, and their relations seen But firms, afhere again the Keason instances. particular implies the Subjective. Universallythe Objective

YIL

Axiom
and

of

Universal the

Being.

"

The

Keason then

nises cogon

matter to

All affirm, These


are

in spirit being must the

and particular,
or

goes

be either matter and


most

spirit.

physical general metaaxioms. My object, however, in the above, as well as in what is not to give a complete enumeration follows, of the axioms, but only so far as shall serve trate to illustheir peculiar characteristics, under and the law The characteristics of axioms which they are determined. manifest : they are, absoluteness, are independency,and is equally universality. The law of their determination clear ; they are affirmed prehension by the Keason, under the comand force of its Ideas. ready In the general view algiven of the evolution of Ideas,* the axioms will be recognisedin the separationof the universal from the particular. have the phenomenal, In the order of time, we and the real, before we the particular, have the Axioms

fundamental

and

Ideas

but

when

we

have

arrived

at

Axioms

and

Ideas, we
of truth

perceivethat
Ideas
are

in necessary
those

existence
universal ; and

antecedence. which

determine

they claim judgments


these univer-

expressed in
*

axioms

Page 154.

228

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

logically cognitions judgments make the particular possible. For example, although I cognisea particular bodyin space, before I affirm the axiom, Every body must be in the potential existence of this judgment space, nevertheless, in the Eeason of the parconstitutes the possibility ticular tual cognition. This two-fold order, the order of acmination, development in time, and the order of logicaldeteris the all-important principle to be kept in
sal
" "

mind.
NOMOLOGICAL

AXIOMS.

I. Axiom this Cause

of

Universal
in the

Law.
same

"

The
way

Idea

of Law
the Idea

termines deof

axiom,
the
are

that

determines

axiom

of

Causality.
Idea

When

ular partic-

phenomena
to the

given, the
of
a

of Cause
; and

determines then
upon
must

assignment
the
: so

particularcause

this determines

affirmation, Every phenomenon


when here,likewise, Idea of Law

have

cause are

particularphenomena
to

given, the
of
some

determines
upon
must

the

signment as-

law

; and

then

this determines
have
a

the
The

affirmation, Every phenomenon


Eeason is
as

law.

does
an

not

admit

the

of possibility

chance. A

No-Law

great
*

absurdity as only in
even a

No-Cause.
case

violation of law
therefore upon

is conceivable

the

of

and free,

moral,
itself
a

agents
form

but
"

here

the

violation

takes

of law

law
of

of evil.
the

II. Axiom
in the

Uniformity is that
and of

of

Nature.

"

volved Inand

Idea

of Law

order,harmony,
are

system.
the

Order, harmony,
The

system
there

the

ments developon

of law.

not only affirms Keason, therefore, must

presentationof phenomena,
*

be law

govern-

Moral

Agency, Chap. VII., Sec.

1.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

229

ing

them
must

; but

still farther, these

present uniform

phenomena, thus governed, and adjusted rerecurrences lations.


formed is
as

The absolute the


as

judgment
itself.

thus The

universal obtained

and
as

law

axiom

which

has

of this judgment is as follows : Nature is expression uniform in her operations. By this axiom, we are led to the bring together the homogeneous phenomena under laws ; and the reappearance to expect with of certainty phenomena. III.
Axiom
of

Universal

Design.

"

This is
as

Axiom follows

is
:

determined Whatever

by

its

exhibits

appropriateIdea, marks of design,is


'

and

the work

of an

telligen In-

Creator.
The Ideas of Law and

Design being developed, upon the condition of particular phenomena, the Axiom is comes thereupon immediately affirmed by the Reason, and bethe startingpoint and guide in all subthenceforth sequent observations and experiments. This Axiom lies of the so-called at the foundation posteriori argument
a

for the existence this argument basis of all is

of
an

a
a

God.

Hence

the

ultimate But

basis

of

priori principle.

the ultimate
we

and ratiocination is, as cognition composed of a priori principles.

have

seen,

IV. Reality.
or

Axiom
"

of

the

Correspondence

of

Ideas

and

Every
;

Idea

of Truth

and

implies a Realityof Actual Being Being or of every Reality of Actual Every


some

Truth, implies an
in connexion of the let
us

Idea.
with

Idea

developed
* Reality,

oped is develfort the ef-

form

of

in

Reason

to grasp

Reality.
world of

On

the

other

hand,
all
our

place ourselves
at

in the

Reality,and
us

attempts

rational

explanationlead
Supra, Part
II., Sec. 3.

back

to the

Con-

230

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

stitutive Ideas. this two-fold universal Ideas


must must

Now,

upon the

the Keason
we

instances particular
supervenes with above. All

of
the All

movement,
attach

affirmation

which

have
to

given

themselves Ideas. It

Realities.

Realities Axiom of

pure

correspond to Philosophy.
Y.
Moral

is the

cardinal

given the cardinal moral Idea, namely, the Idea of Right and Wrong; but have of the not, for obvious reasons, entered into an explication tained particularIdeas of Justice,Benevolence, and so on, conthe under transcend it. It would, in like maaner, of this elementary Treatise to attempt, in detail, objects I will only remark, a presentationof the Moral Axioms. and that the Divine Code announced afterwards at Sinai, of men, is expounded and exemplifiedby the Redeemer
Axioms.
"

I have

in

truth
are
same

collection

of the under

fundamental
the form

Moral

Axioms.

They
at

indeed

given

of

laws,but
of

they,
versal unisponded re-

the

time, contain
re-affirmed

the affirmation the Infinite the

great and
and

truths, uttered
to and

by

Reason,

by

Reason

of every

moral

being.
VI.
the Idea Esthetical of

Axioms.
and

"

These
the

are

determined

Beauty,
Science three.
I propose

comprise
of the will
answer

first

by of principles
of illustration.

Esthetical

and

rules of Art.
the

I will adduce end

only two
1.

or

These

And

nothing further.
form

Beauty of every speciesand Archetype in the Imagination.


2. of

has

its Ideal

or

Every particularform variety.


Art
are

of

Beauty presents
; but the

union

and regularity 3. Nature and the

homogeneous

former

does not

limit

latter.
*

Supra, Part I.,Sec.

10.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

231

VII.

Somatological

Axioms.

"

of these would
I Here, also,
am

strictly belong to aiming only at


an

complete exhibition Philosophyof Nature.


illustration of the great

determiningAxioms by the Ideas of the Keason. This Axiom is 1. Axiom of the Inertia of Bodies. and not a determined by the Idea of Matter, as a passive, Our actual experience is limited ; substance. self-moving part of the Axiom, we have no experience nay, as to one whatever, namely, that a body, when put in motion, will in the line of the impulse, continue to move on for ever with resistance from another force : for we unless it meet have no example of a body moving on without meeting with a resistance, tendingeither to bring it to a state of Besides, repose, or to change the direction of its motion. and absoluteness "f the entire affirmation the universality of experience. must carry it beyond the possibility The 2. Axiom of Action and Reaction. equalityof is an affirmation reaction to action in an opposite direction, of universal and necessary truth,and therefore transcends the reach of experience. It is determined by the Idea of
law of
"
"

Kelation

under

the third form.*

3. Axiom has its centre

of
of

the Centre
or gravity,

of Gravity.
"

That

every

body

supported,all the parts of is unquestionablya force, gravitating

point,around which, when the body are balanced by the


a

universal could

and
not

sary neces-

conception. By
;
nor

mere

experienceit
ever

be

termined de-

has

any

one

attempted hand,
the

to determine

it

but determine cannot Centralization, it. It is a truth with which we begin our investigations in Nature, and of which renders no subsequent experience
us more

by experience. On and Reaction,and

the of

other

Ideas

of Action

certain and

confident.
*

Supra,p.

171.

232

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

It

will

be

seen

by
be

reflecting upon
adduced is
from
as

these

and

other

axioms,
that the

which
order

might
of

mechanical
:

science,

development Reason, by
of

follows

First.
comes, in

The the

its function
in connection

of

consciousness,
with the

order
external Its

time,
world.

nomena phe-

of the

Secondly.
sensuous

constitutive

Ideas

now

form

the

original

cognitions.
Thus
the and

Thirdly.
Ideas determine

introduced universal convenient


of

the Realities, particular pressed judgments, which, when exto

in clear

language,
Science.
"

become

axioms.

VIII.
the

"

Axioms

Pure
are

These

belong

to

Mathematics. of the
Eeason

They
and

universal
two

and

intuitive
of

ations affirm-

respecting the
discrete*
of these

forms

quantity,

namely,
The
laid

continued
most

remarkable in

Axioms treatises Ideas

are as

those

ally gener-

down and

mathematical

Axioms
determine

of

Equality
these

Inequality.
are

The

which

Axioms

Quantity, Identity,and
diminution of the Idea

Difference.
are

Unity, multiplication,and conceptions


are

the
:

mental funda-

Science
of

of Numbers

and

these
is the ; and

contained

in the

Quantity.
and

Equation Algebra
an

fundamental
this

conception
in embraced

of

Geometry

is

given

Identity. Proportion, as by
of the
same

equation
and
to
a

of
is

is ratios, but
a

conception

Ratio
common

comparison
remains

quantities in respect
remarked up under

unit.
What class will
to be

respectingaxioms
the

of this

naturally come
*

following section.

Supra,

p. 92.

234

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

given

applies

to

this them
the

class

of

Axioms
the

likewise.

shall

cordingly ac-

adjourn remarking,
whatever is that

to
"

appropriate
de

division,
et

only
that
"

Dictum denied

omni

nullo,"

affirmed

or

of
or

any

term

distributed, of
every ticular par-

or,

taken

universally, comprehended

is

affirmed it,
of
"

denied

under

which

Aristotle is
"

employs
a

for Axiom

explaining
of this

the

validity

Deduction,

cardinal

class.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

235

SECTION

VII.

OF

THE

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

AXIOMS

IN

GENERAL.

of the appeared in the course and precedingsection ; they are Universality, Necessity, and Deduction. to Induction My Logical Antecedence them in a separate section, principal object in presenting is to meet certain objections which have been urged against them. It has been said that Axioms of merely statements example, that "Every body
are
"

These

characteristics have

For general observations. be in space,"means than that must Every nothing more body," as far as observation goes, is in space ; and that If the same the Axiom, be added to or equal quantities their sums will be equal,"and all the equal quantities, other Axioms of Equation, are merely of the same nature of general observations, unattended by any expressions that universality is exception. Here, it will be perceived, able merged into generality ; the necessary into the inconceivabsolute truth into phenomenal conditions. ; and is thus merely a fact in That Every body is in space the experienceof all men that any ; and it is inconceivable body should not be in space, because no fact of this kind firmed has ever appeared in human experience. And if it be afin opposition that our thought at least surto this, passes observation when our passingbeyond the possibility of actual observation beyond all visible stars, we think
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

236

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

that
space

if bodies
;
"

be

there

they also,

must

there

also be

in

that we make to ourselves in replied this case of facts, which an are imaginary representation and of real facts, that we still in thus are merely copies The the region of observation : imagination takes the it goes, it only represents place of the sense, and wherever
"

then

it is

facts of the

sense

;
"

wherever

it goes, it still makes It does not

self for it-

and particular facts. locality


nor

fillimmensity,

grasp

and

universal, it is only extendingobservation, multiplyingfacts in another way.


"

the

The does
not

above appear

is the
to
we
me

argument
difficult.
can

fullystated.
the

The

answer

First.
as

Before

determine

of validity

Axioms
termine de-

necessary, the

and universal,

intuitive
Have
so
on

we truths, we

must

of validity
the

Ideas.

ideas It

of

Space,

of

of Necessity, that is such if


an

and Infinite,

seem, space

we

have
one.

any

does,indeed, whatever, cognition positive


our

is Equally positive

cognitionof
and infinite,
we

its characteristics.

Space
has
no

is necessary form.
not
mean

and when

having
that

no

it limits,

And

affirm

it is

we infinite,

do

to express

of conceivingof incapability
of limits.

limits

; but
we

the

merely our utter impossibility


that
our

And, again,when
do
not
mean

affirm

space

is necessary, of

we

to

express

merely

pability inca-

of no space, but the absolute being conceiving of space To independently of all conception whatever. make all cognitionspersonal and relative derivingtheir characteristics from the individual is to deny constitution, Then to Truth any independent and absolute foundations. are know, only entertained with shadows, we, for aught we and without of Eeality. But we not canany fixed certainty yieldto such doctrines ; because we have that within which of their falsity. Our cognitions us are assures us
"

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

237

which are explained, and can only be explainedby facts, to the Ideas of the Reason. referring Secondly. It has been shown in the precedingpages fection that the primary phenomena are simplesensations and afof our own being revealed to consciousness ; and their secondary character as manifestations that they assume of Reality,only through the superventionof Ideas. attain substance, Ideas we should never "Without cause, or The law, nor the exterior sphere of their manifestation. depends upon Ideas cognitionof Body, therefore, very it with which connect assignit substance and qualities, and form and place. Not even causes, and giveit limits, in space without Ideas. a particular body can be cognised Now, when we have the Idea of Space and the Cognition the Keason of Body with their opposite characteristics, but affirm cannot Every Body must be in space/ It is affair of observation and induction it an by no means does not depend upon looking that body, at this body and whether in order to see they reallyare in space, and observations thus from multiplied clusion drawing a general conthe contrary, no sooner do we : On cogniseSpace affirm absolutelyand and Body, than we necessarily, i Every Body must be in space/ So far from requiring actual observation beyond actual observation, imagination itself is anticipated.
(
"

reasoningwill apply to all other Axioms. If equals be added Take the Axiom, the sums to equals, will be equal/ This Axiom is not a generalconclusion from repeated trials and observations ; but no sooner have of Quantity,Identity, and the so we cognitions on, under this and the kindred Ideas,than we make corresponding
The
same
'

affirmations

as

universal of

and

necessary

affirmations.

again, instead

multiplyingobservations

Here, by imaginary

238

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

cases,

we

pause the

for

no

observation

whatever, but straightlines


meet

directly
intersect

determine

Axioms Axiom

by
:

the
i

Ideas.

Take
or cross

another each

If two
never

other,they can
go
on

must

for ever/ diverging

again ; but if produced, Now, having formed


the the

the

drawn in space in conceptionof two straight lines, above we position stated, requireno observation along
course

of their in

either actually or production, nation, by the imagiorder to gather facts for a generalconclusion : the

the of

instant

thought

is fixed

upon

the

lines at the
the

point

the intersection,

affirmation

is made

under

teristics charac-

of
The and upon

and Universality
a

Necessity.
conclusion
a

distinction between
and observation,
"

gainedby
at
once
a

extended

careful

truth result

which
of

flashes
out

the mind

between
an

the

long

drawn

and induction,
"

immediate The

determination

of the

Eeason,
the
:

is clear and
such
a

palpable.
truth is

under phenomenal conditions,

which

given,are

easily separablefrom
contain
nor

truth

itself ; since
the

they neither

measure

it

for
to

example,
our

sensation

of hardness

which

is conditional
nor

cognition of Space, neither of Space. Again, the universality


the truth
or

contains
such
an a

measures

truth

is

clearly
;
"

from distinguishable the is affirmed

of generality

observation

for

without

limits
space ;

exceptions,as
but
an

of admitting the possibility that be in 'Every body must that of the and rising
ting set-

"

as observation,

of the

sun, of
can

and

tides,admits Omnipotence
but
not
even

of the risingand falling the possibility of limits and exceptions. change the whole order of the system,
can

that

of the

Omnipotence
the also

form of
a

body

not

in space.
sity neces-

Once

more,

inconceivableness

Truth, are when inconceivable,


a

of

and the fact, clearly distinguishable.A removed from the

fact is

it is both

sphere of

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

239

our

observation,
observation.
and

and Thus

unlike
a

any

fact

which

has within

come

under

our

person

residing
cannot

the of

ics, Tropfreezing

who The

has

never

seen

ice,

conceive Newtonian

water.

Cartesians of
a

rejected
bodies,
can on

the

doctrine that it is

of

the

gravitation
that

the
act

ground
it

conceivab in-

body
a

where

is

not.

Their made the The

error

lay

in

adopting
a

theory
of

of

causality

which

causal

activity

matter

sensuous

conception.
as a sensuous

Newtonian
causes

doctrine
act

is inconceivable the be
contact

fact,

if

only
was

in
to

of

material
on

particles. grounds
force itself.

But than A

the the

doctrine

determined the

other

possibility

of
on

observing
the
an

attractive is not
nor

necessary

truth,

other observed
:

hand,

received,
because

because its site oppoit and be


a

it is conceivable is absolute

as

fact,
It is

simply
and

inconceivable fixed
as a

received of the

because

is its in

cognition
That
'

Keason,
must

opposite
space,
are

impossible.
that
'

Every
cannot

body

Two

straight
because
are

lines
seen

enclose
to

space/
such if
you

necessary their that


an

truths,

by

intuition You may

be

that

opposites
their intense it with

impossible.
are

say,

please,
term

opposites
and

inconceivable,
sense, the
to

taking
and,

this

in

superlative
:

indeed,
is

identifying

the

impossible
and facts

but

term

tionable, objecpure

because intuitions of the

ambiguous,
Keason with

liable of

confound

observation.

240

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

SECTION

VIII.

GENERAL

RELATIONS

OF

AXIOMS.

I.

Axioms,
and

in

themselves,primary
related
as

universal

and

sary neces-

intuitive universal

truths,are
necessary
us
a

logicalantecedents
truths. The
science

to

deductive
and perfect

of of

Geometry

affords

stupendous example
as

this relation.
antecedents to logical ' be in Axiom our cognitions. The Every body must to cognise we come space' offers an illustration. When of necessity must particularbody, we cognise it in any the we can cognise it in space only upon space ; but be in space/ ground of the Axiom, ' Every body must of the cogantecedent As the idea of space is the logical nition affirmation of the body, so also the universal is the for a parantecedent of any particular logical designation, ticular The tion sensadesignation impliesthe general truth.
are

II. Axioms

related

also

of resistance is the
or as

antecedent both

in time

"

the

condition
:

occasion

of the

cognitionof
the

body
their

and

space
to

and each in

comprehending
The

in cognitions
'

relation
must

other, appears
space/
c

the
same

Axiom,
course

Every body

be

of remark

to applies

the
'

Axioms,
To

Every phenomenon implies a Cause/ and impliesa Law/ and other similar

Every phenomenon

Axioms.

242

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

have
out

already
of

shown

that

science the aid of

in Ideas

general
and

is Axioms.

structed con-

phenomena

by
the

In
to

the

pure interior

Mathematics,
consciousness

phenomenal
that
"

material is

belongs
in in reflection

the
and

is,

given
few

comprises
and

"

particulars

comparatively

number,

simple,
In

definite.

physical
to

science,
exterior

on

the

contrary,
that
and

the

phenomena
are

belong sensation,
In the

the
and

consciousness, complicated,
observation

is,

given

in

are

various,

multitudinous.

latter,
and

therefore, extensive,

and

experiment,
And and here

nice,
it is

laborious,
that Inductive

are

required.
its widest

Logic

receives

most

portant im-

application.

Part

I.,

Sec.

XII.

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

243

SECTION

IX.

DEFINITION.

The

end

or

scope

of all

is definition,
more

to make to

any

given
gence. Intellipresent re-

and plainer, objectclearer, Adopting the usual

distinct of
or

the

division nominal

we logicians,

definition definition is the


name

as

either

real. for be

nominal
"

one name merely substituting substituted being supposed to

another,
stood. underof the

better
nature

real definition aims

to

explain the

its classification, by enumerating its parts,assigning thing, and its properties pointingout its substance,describing or fixingits limits and distinctions. relations,
"

real

definition

may

be

accidental those

or

essential.
or

When

it explains merely accidental,


an

accidents of

of properties and
name,

objectwhich
it
can

are

not

constitutive
;
"

it,

without

which

be

conceived

for

example, the

time, place
are

of

birth,and
When
an

accidents.

essence

and

of properties
which

vidual, employment of an indiit explains the essential, objectwhich are constitutive


be

of

it,and

without
and

it cannot
are

conceived
an

;
"

for

ample, ex-

mind
man.

body

essential parts of

individual

when it assigns Again : an essential definition is logical, the object its place, under generical and specific defined an classification. Thus is logically tual intellecman

"

animal

"

animal

being

the

genus,

intellectual

the

244

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

or differentia,

that

which

him distinguishes

essentially

from
"

all other An

animals. is

when, where the physical, objects admits of it,the physical parts are enumerated, meaning by physical parts those which are presented to
the observation
"

essential definition

of the

senses.

An

essential definition is
and

metaphysical,when
the

it

signs as-

which are taphysical meobject, meaning by metaphysical that which is not known by observation of the senses, but by intuition of Keason for example, Man is a spiritual being ; body is ; From this it appears that a logical substance. a resisting definition is dependent upon and antecedent, physical, metaphysical definitions. " must we Now, it is plain,that in order to define, have In a some prior conceptionsby which to define. ready nominal have must we a mere definition, prior word alessence

propertiesto

"

"

better define.
In
a

understood real

than

the

word

we

are

about
a

to

we definition,

must

alreadyhave

clear

knowledge
may

of the
use we

essences, for
at

make
which

of
are

this

and accidents we properties, A fore, theredefinition, purpose.

this moment

either which

by

definitions

framing,must already made, or by


admit of antecedent

be

ceded pre-

tions concep-

do not

requireor

tions. defini-

"

When these

present definitions
antecedent

presume

antecedent be

nitions, defi-

other
not

antecedent

preceded by or definitions, by conceptions which do


of antecedent

definitions must

requireor
not

admit

definitions.
to

We

must,

in therefore,
do

all cases, at

length come

which conceptions

of antecedent definitions ; for a requireor admit of definitions ad infinitum, is an retrogression absurdity.


"

These

starting points of thought


"

these

primary

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

245

to account and beliefs, are logically conceptions necessary other knowledges. They and define all our for,explain, like the light, are which, while it reveals all objects of find nothing by which it itself can be more sight,can That cannot we analyse light proves plainly revealed. cause benothing against its existence : we know it must exist, of it. Indeed, we all thingsby means must we see affirm in general,that whatever is clearest to our minds, and really best known, must be incapableof explanation, demonstration or were definition, ; for if these requiredin reference follow to the objectssupposed, then it would be something beyond these still clearer, that there must still better and planation, known, namely, that by which the exis to be effected, demonstration or definition, " which is contrary to the hypothesis."
"

The

distinction

above

made

between

nominal

and

real definition is

of give the signification of another is widely one more word, by means familiar, different from pressed pointing out what is designed to be exreal definition a as by the word itself. But inasmuch is designedto point out what is expressed by the definition can word itself, it has been contended that no of a thing ; but be said to explain the nature properly of a word the appropriation : Thus, to only to determine of man, but to define Man is not to point out the nature show what is intended to be expressed by it. the appropriaNow it seems that to determine to me tion of the to defining the nature of a word is equivalent tion definiTake the usual thing for which the word stands. A circle is a figure con* for example ; of a circle, which is called the circumference, tained by one line, every

palpable ;

for to

'

"

Poctrine of the Will, Ch. II.,Sec, 1,

246

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

pointof
cannot

which

is

equally distant
Here
in other

from

common

point
circle

called the be

centre/

it is evident

that the word

defined,or,
without

termined dewords, its appropriation for which


it stands.

that explaining
we

In

give also two nominal line the circumference, when call the containing we definitions, We also and the common point the centre. may bounded nominally define a circle by saying, it is a figure But taken by a circumference/ together as above, we
the
course
'

of this real definition

have

real definition
an

of circle.

In this definition

we

have

undoubtedly

fining expressed ; for in decognition it is an actual magnitude. a circle it is impliedthat We indeed define that which has no real existence, may then it is understood as a griffin, a centaur, or a harpy ; but that we are referring to imaginarybeings. Keal in so far as definitions, they contain or imply This is true of judgments of truth, are authoritative. with the exception of those which geometrical definitions, are A surface is that which has length merely nominal. intuitive
'

and

breadth because

without

height or thickness/is
and

real definition, in

it points out

affirms two

dimensions
extent

space

; and

it is authoritative

just to

the

of this

affirmation.

nominal definitions can be made out Strictly only by synonymes or by a circumlocution. A real definition is complete or incomplete.It is complete,

only
which that
'

when

all that

is comprehended

by

the

word

of thought is expressed. Thus represents the object


Man

is

rational animal

'

is

real

still an

incompleteone ; for the object of 'Man' than by the word is comprehends more expressed by the genus Animal/ and the differentia
( 6

but definition, thought represented

Kational/ Definitions
are

varied

to according

different ends

pro-

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

247
when
c

posed.
the
end
'

The

definition is To

always adequate
*

it meets
mal ani-

proposed.
all other

define

Man

'

as

rational

is sufiicient in from

him which

ordinaryclassification animals. According to


of the

to
a

distinguish
distribution

Cuvier he found

made

species of
to define
c

the Man'

Animal

dom, Kingreal,
both

it necessary

"amammifeare :

rous

animal

having two

hands." what

Both

definitions Man

because
are

giving in part
and

really belongs to adequate


when

considered incomplete,

in respect to the whole

subject
in nically tech-

'Man;'

yet both

are

considered
are

ends. respect to their particular called

Indeed, what

of necessity, must in numerous definitions be incomplete, ledge knoweither from our imperfect instances, of the that
a

subject, or

from

its manifold be

richness ;

so

to

give a complete

definition would

equivalent to
tions definifectly perthe

scientific In

disquisition. Geometry, and in all


complete. They

absolute
a

the science,

are

express
name

complete
to the

and

clear

and givea cognition,

of object

line is the shortest distance cognition. That c a straight which line is one between two a curve points/and that clear changes its direction at every point/ are cognitions tively distincwhile the objectsof the cognitions and full, are
'

named. could
not

Were

not
as a

this basis

the

case,

the
exact

definitions and

be received

of the

rigid

scientific construction.
There is
an

one

enquirywhich
from
a a

yet remains.
and

What An

tinguish disAxiom

Axiom
to be

real Definition ?

has been

shown

universal Ideas.

necessary

termined truth de-

immediately by

A real definition is the

of a cognition representedor expressed by explication word or tive some phrase. Cognitionmay be primiparticular and
or intuitive, secondaryand

derived.

If the

latter.

248
it

PRIMORDIAL

LOGIC.

But it be the be axiomatic. cannot plainly suppose former, like the definitions of Geometry ? Then, in this authoritative tuition inan as original case, it is unquestionably and of a curve the definitions of a straight line, : of a rightangle, of a paralleloof a circle, of a triangle, gram sequent be rigidly adhered to in all the suband so on, must demonstrations ; but stillthey are only cognitions, of certain magnitudes. Now, an Axiom does not respect magnitude, but comprehends all alike. particular any it is affirmed that Thus when thingswhich are equal to the same thing,are equal to each other ; that, if equals will be equal/ no to equals,the wholes be added respect is had to any particular magnitude or quantity : the alike of all Geometrical Axioms true are magnitudes,of all real quantities, of quantitiesrepresented generally or We under Algebraic Symbols. have thus a very plain the distinction between distinction intuitive an original and a universal cognitionin relation to a particular subject, tion judgment limited to no particular subject. The definiof a circle is authoritative, but it is so only in relation the Axiom, " If equals be added to a circle ; while to sal, univerequals,the wholes will be equal,"is so manifestly and independent of any particular that it not subject, only appears just as clear in the generalexpression as in the particular, but really takes logical antecedence in the and determines general expression, by its authority the truth of the particular. I here complete the view I proposed to take of Primordial Logic. Next in order is Inductive Logic. Before have we truths and must can proceed to Deduction, we from which to deduce. These furnished principles are Hence the two correspondby Intuition and Induction. ing forms of Logic,
"

'

"

250 if

'

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

reason

be

given for
to every

its

and truth, be
seen

it be
to be

minutely-

it must analysed, itself and

mind

true, not in

of all antecedents, but true, independently because something goingbefore and upon which it depends, is true. So also an inductive truth, althoughknown by the power of an Omniscient mind, must be directly known in all its relations and dependencies ; otherwise it is not trulyand perfectly known. It thus appears, that when Deductive and Inductive we speak of Intuitive, refer not merely to modes of knowing, but to we truths, the intrinsic character of the truths themselves.
are What, then, are

those truths and

arrived at in the way of Induction what is the field of Induction 1 The field of Induction is that

which knowledges, ? In other words, find the

in which

we

secondary phenomena. The primaryphenomena are simply the conditions of the primary cognitions. In these we attain objective Then, the phenomena thenceforward recognized reality. terials as the phenomena of objective reality become the ma" "

of Induction.

Phenomena
The

have Cause

and

Law

as

necessary

dents. antece-

phenomena
and Law

do not the

make by generalization Cause and Law


are

the Cause

; but

up the

classificationof ground of the phenomena. The mere for the and Difference, phenomena under Kesemblance a common name,- is widelydifferent purpose of affixing In attemptingto them Cause and Law. from assigning and difference, of course for the resemblance we account
to Cause and Law proceed neither the one nor itself gives us and In the Divine Mind, cause were developed. Here was

have to

; but the classification

the other.
law existed before

nomena phe-

the actual necessary

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

251

antecedence. conceived and

The created

mind from
the

which its
own

conceived

and The

created,
Divine and

plenitude.
in the The and

Mind,
law
must

therefore,foresaw
it contained
connected

phenomena
itself.
cause

cause

which have

within with the

phenomena
law in
to
see

been

the the that

Divine

Conception,
of
the

since

connexion

is necessary here the


we

completeness
the order of

knowledge.
is identical

But with

knowing

order

of

sary neces-

existence. It is conceivable constituted


to

that minds
and

the with

Divine such of the

Being

might
as

have

finite the
causes

lofty powers Universe,

directly through Now,

know
the

laws and

and

them that

appropriate
causes
can

necessary

phenomena. attained,
of space

these
them

and be
no

laws in

are

phenomena
where in

through
eye has time

known

regions

the

yet made

observations, and
in the the
causes

predicted
And laws
the

periods lofty

of

lying
in

far

away of

future.
and grasp upon The

these

minds,

possession
in and

by

superior

intuition, might springing


not
a

like

manner

phenomena
But
man

out

of

depending

them. order of

is

being

thus
us

constituted.
"

his
:

ment developSecondly,

presents
the

First, simple objective


world

sensations

realization
the

of

the
:

by

Ideas

ing appropriatof

sensations of this laws.


as

Thirdly,
world

the

observation in order
to

the

nomena pheits field


to

objective Now,
before

determine have
the

causes

and Induction

under

the
:

last, we
the

of

stated the

and

great point
of

be the

determined
causes

is, how
laws
are

by

observation
at.

phenomena

and

arrived

252

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

SECTION

II.

CAUSES

AND

LAWS.

and Cause distinction between Law is philosophical clear. Cause is that which for the exaccounts istence perfectly is that which of being and phenomena : Law counts acfor the order and relations of being and phenomena. be divided into two grand classes, Cause spiritual may or mental, and physical; the former presentingtwo grades, the latter presentingthe finite the infinite and the finite, only. the only enquiry that strictness, Now, in philosophical the physical arise here respectingCause can is,Whether the spiritual.In respect to distinct from is really cause all our enquiries into the constitution of the objective by granting at once world, every end is answered First, there that in every finite intelligence is a proper Cause which for all the voluntaryacts : Secondly,that accounts all causality in the universe of matter is resolvable into the First and all-comprehendingCause. Physicalcauses, viewed in philosophical invisible powers are simplicity, ing lybehind the phenomena of the universe. Whenever we these,we in reality classify only the attempt to classify phenomena which are received as the signs or expressions

The

"

of the

Causes.

Phenomena,

and

phenomena
and

alone,are
difference.

classed

into

genera

and

species
a

on

the

grounds

of resemhlance

We, indeed,speak

of

mag-

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

253

What

are

termed ordinarily
are

causes physical

are

merely

phenomena
or
sun

which

stated

and

invariable
:

antecedents,

fixed conditions
and
moon

of other

phenomena
of the
as

for

example, the

in the
; water

changes
and
steam

tide ; visible fire in

combustion

of conjunction

substances

in

propelling powers, the chemical changes ; light, heat,


cause,

netic cause,

healingcause,
to

consuming
;
"

and

so

on

; but

these

entia differof healing,

reallyrefer
and

the

phenomena

the

phenomena
each

of

magnetism,
Cause actual
same as

of

from combustion, all differing


of that which
accounts

other ; but

is

one

simple
of
ducing pro-

Idea, the

Idea

for the
can

possibleand
of the Divine in the
to
one

existence
cause as

these various them and


do

phenomena.
all ;
as

Indeed, we
we

conceive

when

conceive

of the and

Being
case cause

the

universal
causes we

sole Cause.

This
a

is possible : plainly
vast

of second
; the

attribute actually

varietyof phenomena
to

phenomena
retains

being capable of being reduced


all its
"

genera

and

while species,

the

cause

simplicity.
power, taken
can

Human ; it is

under
be

any

point

of view, is any
form

one

of
can

plicity perfect simneither


; it be

nothing that

described

under

; it

physically separatedinto parts,nor


manifests
"

distributed logically various


are"

into

genera

always

itself by volition ; and


of which

yet how

the

phenomena produced
!

the
"

phenomena
There may,

volition be

is the immediate in

antecedent
one

however,
and

differences than
in in

degree ;
; and

cause

may which

produce produce
be

greater varietyof

phenomena
act
"

another
to

thus,causes
substances

certain

phenomena,
of
as

relation
power

certain

only,may

conceived

simply limited
I
were

without of

implying

difference

in kind.

for example, If,


or

giftedwith
of my

the power of

regulating my
my
ears

tions, funcdigestive after the


but
manner

the
or a

circulation

blood,or
argue
no new

moving
power
now

of

dog

horse, it would
of

in kind, differing

merely

the

extension

my

causality. My
and
cannot

volition

is limited to the movement


move

of certain members, I
do

influence would

others ; if I could do
one

my

ears

as now

my
of

hands, then doing.

my

volition

thing
Now,

more

than

it is

capable
"

Again, water
water to

is known

to

hold

salt in solution
of

if

we

were

to

pose sup-

have

the additional
would in water

power
not
:
"

dissolvingwood
our

and

holding

the

potassium
or

in

we solution,

be We

in altering

conception the
the solvent

nature

kind

of solvent that

power if
we we

would

only be enlarging that


of

power. of

It is manifest
water

had

made

the with
as as

experiment
much
reason

power

only upon Will, pp. 31,

sugar,

might

conjecturethat,if
dissolve salt."
"

ther fur-

it would tried, the


32.

dissolve wood,

that it would

Doctrine

of

See also p. 301.

254

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

air,and
out
a

moisture science
what
we we

in

vegetation,and
it is

so

on.

In

making
mated, intito be ;

of nature

immaterial,as
real universal

before
causes cause

conceive conceive

the invisible and

or

whether

of

only one
On
a

ducing prothe

all this very

varietyof
and

effect.

the other

hand,
upon

determination the order

of such

science of the

depends
do
not

serving obBut

relations

phenomena.
aim of

the

order

and

relations of the but


to law.

phenomena
the

long truly be-

to cause,

Hence

Induction,
to arrive

when
at

expressed with
but
not

is philosophicprecision,
at laws.
so

not

causes,

to arrive

Thus

in

the gravitation,
nature

great enquiry did


cause,
as

much

respect
steam

the

of the

the

fact of the

regulated
with
must
are

central

determination
; and
sequents con-

of bodies. other

The

expansion of
are

is

phenomenon
as

phenomena
:

connected

it
be

invariable

We
"

know

there
we

cause
"

lying
whether

behind it be
a

the

phenomena

of this

satisfied

physicalcause, distinct and measured the all-pervading universal Cause or


of interest
the order
to
us

in
:

its
the

own

sphere,

but

great points
are

in

science
of

and the the

practicalmechanics phenomena
evolution
; in

and law

relations

other

words, the
If interest
an

which

governs

of the

mena. pheno-

the

the undulatory theory of light be established,

of the

thing does
; but and in

not

arise from

having
new

arrived

at

ultimate wider

cause

having gained
more

phenomena
laws.
An lations undu-

with

relations
we

comprehensive
; the of and light, ; and ;
"

ultimate

cause

have

not

attained

ethereal the thus


we

precede the
of the
sun

sensations

presence have
a

precedesthe
of
related

undulations

succession
arise

phenomena

while
sun

enquiriesstill
and the

respectingthe
elastic ether

correlation of the which


may

vading all-perante-

bring to light other

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

255

cedent

phenomena.
cause

The

real

enquirythen

not is,

after

the ultimate

but after the whole succession light, of inter-dependent with the sensation phenomena connected under all its phases. Throughout the whole sion succesof phenomena there is cause cause developing acting, the phenomena ; but that which after the seek we characteristics of phenomena, their order and is relation, We universal conceive of one can comprehended by law. fulness every cause variety of producing from its own of phenomena ; but this variety itself denotes diversity of law. design and therefore diversity The attraction of gravitation draws bodies towards the of the .earth. ascertained that an centre Suppose it were of subtile ether exists between the particles exceedingly by which matter, having in itself a central determination
"

of

all bodies
we

are

made

to tend
a

toward

the

centre

Then

deed in-

should
but
no

have

new

class of antecedent of bodies towards


far

mena phenocentre
cause

the
more

tendency
would

the
as

would

be

explained than only


; and

as before,

is

considered back in
our

we

be
we

carried

one

step farther

of
an

quiries might now institute enthe force actingupon or in the particles respecting such the subtile ether. Unquestionably, however, were ether should we discovered, enlarge our view of the

observations

laws

and To

order

of creation.
to

light. By the common off are supposed to be thrown theory,luminous particles lines from the luminous in straight body, the phenomena of this emission being the antecedent phenomena deemed sufficient to account for the consequent phenomena By all the the undulatory theory,the sensation of light and phenomena are supposed to find their sufficient antecedent of the elastic medium phenomena in the undulations ;
revert

the

theories

of

256

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

that

is,the

ethereal

undulations
to the

antecedent
of these

being granted as sensation of light, and


as

the
the

variabl insation ces-

undulations the absence

the

invariable

antecedent

of darkness
movement

or

of this
will

of these

undulations

sensation,then the to explain all serve


theories
in
we
a

the

phenomena of vision. In both part a hypothesis of phenomena, and


of actual the
cause

have
statement
so

in

part
both

phenomena
actual

; and

the

objectin
as

is

to not

nect con-

hypotheticalwith
of fine
in

the actual
but

to exhibit

the

of the

consists and

phenomena, thrown particles


with

the

law.

That

light
bodies

off from
an

luminous

moving

lines straight

inconceivable itself with exhibited

velocity,
the in

is

theory which

connects legitimately

nomena phe-

of reflection and

refraction
so on.

as

specucan

lums, prisms,lenses,and
also be

These

phenomena

connected legitimately

with

the undulations

of the

imponderable
deemed with the last

medium.

Other
be in
cause

phenomena, however, are


connected legitimately neither of the of

by philosophersto theory.
But the constitute

only

pothes theory do the hyactual phenomena,


manifestations.

but If

only the required conditions


now

their

we

conceive

of

the

great

and

all-comprehending
of

Mind

designing to produce the phenomena whether by his direct agency, or by vision, permeating
manner

light and
causes

second

and

acting

in

material

then substances,
are

the each

in which the

different substances
fixed order the and

related of the

to

other,and
Great for the
theories

dependency
of the
own

mena, pheno-

become

to

us

exponent

Designing Mind
governance

ordained

for his

law, which the or efficiency,


The of
two

of the
in
two

secondary
two

powers. orders

present
and hence minute

us

part,

different laws of

mena, phenovision.

different

light and
of these

In

the

and

complete

determination

laws,

258

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

In
to

the

third

place,

arbitrary
He

choice is the
cannot

cannot

be

ascribed
of

Infinite

intelligence.

who

Fountain
be

truth,
of
as

law,

beauty,
the

benignity,
universe Ideas.
find

and otherwise

order,

thought
the

creating
his Eternal
we

than

under
come

light
into of
the

of his

And

when the

we

to

look marks

works,
and

everywhere
our

resplendent

law
more

the

farther

observation
and

penetrates,
do
these

varied,
The
or

resplendent, axiom,
every
"

positive
every

marks presumes
of clear

become.
a

that

phenomenon
is
the in

law,"
sign, dethat the

that is

phenomenon by
the and

result
the

intelligent insight
decided

affirmed

Keason
not

Infinite

Intelligence,
of Nature.

arbitrary

choice,

system
There

might by
which laws

indeed

have
or

been

variety
and

of

systems
a ception con-

governed

more

less the laws

benign
various of

perfect, by

we

allow

in

theories

which
; but nitely infi-

we

attempt

to

express
we

the

given
to not

phenomena
that have all its
an

nevertheless, perfect
the When
to

are

constrained
could

believe
but in

Intelligence
system,
into
so

projected
relations.
not

best
we

possible
look

taking Nature,
; but

it

therefore

we

expect expect

only
to

find

laws

properly
and
most

called

we

also

find

the

wisest

benign

laws,

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

259

SECTION

III.

THE

HUMAN

REASON

AS

RELATED WORLD.

TO

THE

OBJECTIVE

The

great and
The

all-wise

Being,who
not

constituted is to

the outer

world,constituted
laws. Made Mind

also the Mind does go

which
to

its investigate unfurnished. likeness forth ;


"

iis work
"

after the likeness of the Reason from whose

Creator

after the sprang

of that

Ideas

all law thus into

constituted of law
law

therefore with it itself, and

Ideas,and
go
out

having
the world

sources

within

cannot

where

without realized, waking up the which recognition. Having eyes to see, the light glorious is embodied in upon it
seems

pours

not

strange,but
mind mind. is As

an

expected and
know
prehends comprehend com-

visitation. genial
a

The its

human

preparedto
an

world

which

had

originin

artist of
man

the works the works


I have

of art, so of God.
the

does

the mind

in already,

precedingParts, said
that I need here far

so

much

of the Ideas
to the to the

of the

Reason,
call it up

barely allude
as

or subject,

again only so

to

apply it
does
ality re-

matter

in hand. of the
have but
are

The
not

development

take

Ideas,as we from Reality ; place separately


to which

seen,

when
to

the

is present in relation

they

act, then
is spon-

they

manifest

themselves.

The

manifestation

260

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

taneous

"

the

earnest

outflow

of

the

mind

to

reach

its

proper In

objects.
the first

place,Ideas

of

cause

and

law, and

of

sequent con-

system and
as tological, soon
as

order,Ideas phenomena

psychologicaland
are

soma-

given,determine
hold up the

the

mind
to be

to undertake

and investigation,

objects

attained.
inasmuch
as

Then,
of the

Ideas far
as

comprehend
in the

the

constitution

universe, just so

presence
are

of the

con-

ditionatingand
does there appear

quickening Keality they


a

developed,
as

prophetic power of and suggesting,theorizing,


to

the

Intellect

conceivin pre-

sometimes,
at
once

in

the

case

of

Newton, seeming
spontaneous
modes

grasp

the

great
to

system of things. It is impossibleto express


which the
or

the

extent

inspirationof
of their

Ideas Like

carries

the

mind, mind,
in

all the

action.

the
masses

tion forma-

and

growth

of

common

Language
of Music
without

in

of of art
lads bal-

like the

development
or

rules rude

popular tunes,
to the

Iliad

of of
we

growth of Poetry from Homer, like the spontaneous


man

the

inventions

and

discoveries
the results ; but

before

he

began
there

to

philosophise,
exact

from

feel assured

is law

and

beautiful

as still,

in the fine vibrations

of the

and air, of lies


so so

in the

more

subtile oscillations of the is possible : representation


all

ethereal The

medium

no light,

movement

far behind
more

ordinary and
and
subtile

familiar than

forms, and thing


In the
we

is

much

delicate
to

any
to

are

tomed 'accuswe

handle, to speak of,or


which
to

represent, that
fine influences
us no so

can

find and work and

nothing by growth
of which the which he
can

convey many

it.

germination
are

of

plants,how
the
command of

at

physiologist presents by
no

diagram,
likewise

formula

in

mind,

germs

thought, their

first

springing forth.

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

261

and

their infinite and


memory,

beautiful

complexitiesin reasoning,
and

invention,

imagination,
the

taste, while
presence of

ing exhibit-

in their result the The finest

commanding
analyst.
some

law,

pass sur-

skill of the

superior power
reasoning
may in be

which

minds for
are

displayin
the

ductive inmarkable re-

accounted

mainly by
with

degree
mind,
the
result

which

they
and

endowed

three

Clearness,Candor, qualities,
of exact
and
to

Patience.

Clearness

of

and

laborious

discipline, prevents
and
periments, ex-

uncertain, confused,
and Candor
an

inapposite
accurate

observations
sound

leads

and
"

judgments.
makes it undistracted in

the purifies

mind

from

all

idols,"and

honest

truth-seeker.
and

Patience

disposes to
in

attention, quiet
and

protracted thought,
until

cheerfulness

undertaking labors,perseverance willingnessto


of
But Ideas

overcoming difficulties,
the

wait

shall ripen investigation

harvest

knowledge.
not

only impel
suggest
at

the

philosopher to
he
he

undertake and also

and investigation, foreshadow determine There method I.


the the
are

the

route

is to pursue,

results

which

is to

arrive, they
"

Method
three

of

Investigation.
relation
to

particulars in
be

which

this

requires to
The

expounded
of
and

induction
into

phenomena phenomena
of
a

for

the

purpose

of

them classifying

genera

species.
for the
purpose
a

II.

The

induction
the

of

of

arriving at
order absolute

expression
but

general fact,or

general
and

of

sequence,

without

determining

fixed

law.
The

III.

induction of
a

of
and

phenomena
absolute law.

leading

to

the

terminat de-

fixed

262

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

SECTION

IV.

GENERAL

VIEW

OF

CLASSIFICATION.

Classification When

is

dependent
first

upon
are

abstraction realized

and under

alization. genertheir

phenomena

secondary form, the

be that of an impressionmust totality.By abstraction the mind fastens undistinguished and separates it from a qualityor feature, particular upon This quality, is then noted in other the mass. or feature, objects; and at length generalizedas a common sign for the whole class to which it belongs. In the next place,a is given to the common which thenceforth comes bename sign,
the
name

of the

class.

"When be

there

is but

one

the qualitygeneralized,
and

described

in
narrow

we qualities,

exceedinglygeneral, add on great incompleteness. As we the limits of the class, and at the
with

class must

same

time

describe

greater completeness.

The Genus
the

most

and

general arrangement of classes is that of The Species. Genus, or hind, expresses only
which
all the
prehended comspecies

in or particular, particulars, under

it

are

identified.

The

Species,or

the

particularforms
and in addition
to

of the hind, express all of the Genus, the differential, ence or this, points of differand species the

between divided into

one

another. addition last

The of

Genus

is thus

Species by

qualities.Every
Individuals.

Speciesis

made

up, in the

of analysis,

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

263

An

individual all the

is that which

admits

of

no

farther

division,
posed sup-

because

objectare to it. to be indicated assigned by the name follows : be conveniently above may as represented Genus=The Essence or Quality. common
qualities belongingto
the

The

Species
=

Genus

+ Differentia.

Individual=Genus+Differentia+

Accidents. individual
:

By Accidents
We will illustrate Genus

are

meant
an

the

peculiarities.
or essence

by

example
common

Animal=The

property
animals
are

by

which from

distinguished

vegetables.
All the

SpeciesMan
Individual

Animal

+Kational.

Ca3sar=Animal+Kational*f which from him

ties qualimade

Caesar distinguished
men, and

all other

Caesar. particularly
;

There be
a

are *

different orders of Genera in relation relation


may
to to
some

for

genus

may
a

species truly in
Animal

higher genus, comprehended


a

while
under

genus Thus

orders

it.

be

said to
any

understanding by

Creature

of Creature, species thing created ; Vegetable The


a

be

being
arises

another

species of
a

creature.

distinction thus

between

Maximum
a

and

Proximum is not
a

Genus,
"

Maximum Proximum

denoting
a

genus

which
a

and species,
not

genus

next

highestgenus.
we

It is
not
on

but yet species, evident, however, that in our


to
a

above

the

fication Classi-

are :
our

limited necessarily

certain number
cording ac-

of divisions
to

the

contrary,we

can

multiply them
we

convenience.
and

Hence

find
to

naturalists Genera and

making

Orders

Classes,in

addition

Species.
*

here Species

is taken

in

an

imperfectsense.

264

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

Classification

is either

Natural,

Scientific,

or

trary. Arbi-

I. Natural

Classification.
which appears

This
in

is
all

that

taneous spon-

Classification
of

language,
Thus and all

dependent inthe in

scientific
as

investigation.

objects of nature,
their
are

Animals, Vegetables,
and all the

Metals,

different

kinds,
and

products

of human

art,

distinguished
II. Scientific

classed.

Classification.

This

is the
appears
terms

result

of

scientific and of Science


are

elaborate

and investigations,

in books here
ployed em-

and

Natural

History.
purpose, because

The and
remote

invented
to

for the

are

intelligible generally un-

the

vulgar,

from

common

use.

Scientific

Classification
; that

is

strictlynatural, also,in
to

one

point

of

view

is,it

is conformed

the

actual

tem Sysarises

of

Nature.

Natural

spontaneous
and

Classification
view take and

from
which

that all

striking,palpable,
men

outside

of
:

Nature,
Scientific

readily
arises from of

and
a

unavoidably
more

Classification
an

intimate determined

curious,and

interior and

view

Nature,

by philosophical
down and

aims upon.

principles, formally

laid

reflected

III.

Arbitrary
violation of

Classification.
natural

This
and the

is

an

tional intenIt

identity
distinct
an

difference.
two

consequently
forms of

is

altogether

from

preceding
grotesque

Classification. of

It is

incongruous by
the

and

assemblage
for humorous

particularsproduced
and

sportive fancy

witty

effect.

266

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

alive

In Addison, we have genuine wit and humor. of this fact. a strikingexemplification After pointing out the Ideas which lead us to classify which it still remains to explain the on principles all,
to

the different classifications arise.


The

conception
other

of

general Classes,such
such
as

as

Genera,

the concepSpecies, tion until we arrive at of divisions and subdivisions, Classes composed barely of individuals,naturally arises of the unity and variety of system. But out of the Idea do we the particular question to be determined is,How

comprehending

Glasses

select the

distinct

characteristic

of the

Genus

and

the

? In other words, Why, amid identities Species many and ones? ^.x upon the particular do we differences,

I. We

have

seen*

that

the

Idea

of

Determinate into
and
as

Form,
the

both

and esthetically

enters somatologically,

structure

of all

things.
appear

Hence
in
more
no

the

identities of

diversities of the limited


eye
more are

world

the forms obvious

things
common

in space.

Nothing

is

to the

than

these,and

therefore

classification animals
and

springs up
and

readilyand spontaneously. Thus known, distinguished,arranged,


of Determinate and Form
within

plants
The pares pre-

named. mind

Idea

the actual

human

knowledge of the forms of nature. The generic and specific conceptionof the determinate of objects, forms however, is connected with that of interior functions and even properties ; and the most unreflective and in spontaneous judgments, the two not the distinction are entirely separated. Thus the animate between and inanimate lies wholly in never form, but in the Idea of Life,as an organific power deter*

predisposesit

for the

Pages 189,

202.

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

267

tween And, again, the distinction belies wholly in the form, animals and plants never but in sensibility, locomotive activity, voluntaryappropriation and various functions belonging only to and skill, the former. There is,in fine,a conception of different laws governingthese different forms of life. identitymay be defined by the form alone. Specific It is the Identity of the outline drawn and limited in and of mechanism, space, and the Identity of proportion making togetherone distinct picturefor the imagination. Generic Identity, the contrary, lies not in the collective on outline of form, but in the outline of capital parts, with this, in the oneness and in connection of relations, ends, and functions. The Individual embodies the generic and specific and superadds all the lineaments,shades,and identities, which combined constitute the finished and expressions, unique picture. II. Another ground of Classification is found in the

mining the

difference.

Identities and
sequence

differences of the

order

of antecedence ideas

and which
we

of here

phenomena.
are

The Law.

important
But

govern have

Cause
mere

and

nevertheless

not

in

the
causes

the classification,
and

determination

of specifically
and

laws, but only the


from the
antecedents

arrangement
that

naming

of

phenomena,
immediate

fact

they

uniformly precede as phenomena,


sequent
s. or

certain other
as

uniformly
visible for

succeed

them

immediate

This,
and
were

like
:

form,
attention

is

classification would

although
still they

the

principleof ordinary uniformities imply Law,


a

not

excite

unless
not
a

the

Idea

of Law
in particular
to
es-

in the

mind,

are

contemplated
view
at
once

reference

to

Law,

or

with

268

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

tablish

Law,

but

simply

to

obtain
a

convenient

ment arrange-

and

nomenclature. the

Such

classification is indeed
of Law
"

subsidiaryto
process of the

determination
moment.

preparatory
a

highest
its

We
well

have
as

striking
mere

of exemplification

importance, as
the

of its

in subsidiary character,

historyof
from

Chemical
the age

Science.
of the

Experiments alchymists,and
sequence

were

multiplying
the observed

uniformities

of the

menal pheno-

became enlarged and they continually classifications and terms. new modified, suggested new
as

The down it ; and

facts ;
new a

preserved,disseminated,and handed had distinct objects before meditation philosophical


were

thus

had investigations

their

obvious gave
a

startingpoints;
still more late ing invit-

widening
and

avenue

of it
to
was

knowledge

prospects.
Dalton

But

at reserved,

period,for
indeed

Faraday

propound

Theories
the

which, if
where end

theories, approach very near into law, and proclaims the merges thought
III. attained.
The of
a

still

line

theory

ultimate

of human

highest ground
fixed law

of classification and

is the

ception con-

comprehending
forms of bodies

governing

the

phenomena.
The

determinate

spring from
from
a

some

law, whether
of both likewise ; and their

or somatological

or esthetical,

union have law is

the law

uniform

sequences

of

phenomena
any

somewhere.

Now,

before

have repreconceived as we of,the classification, distinctly sented, marks of likeness and untakes place by the mere likeness sequences. in

form,
Thus

and arise

the the

mere

correspondency of
which

the

classifications

obtain the the

which and are expressed in commonly among men, also arise generalterms of ordinarylanguage. Thus earlier

classifications of

Science,while,by

various

tenta-

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

269

stupendous and sure have results. But no sooner conceptionsof general and mind become fixed laws the human developed, than classifications from a higher point of view. attempts Now the law which is conceived of as binding together the widely diffused and multiform parts of an extended designations system, gives the generical ; while the species of formative powers, whether show the complete unfolding force impressed from without, or by an organby a plastic ific energy actingfrom within. If the laws which govern the widely extended systems in their unity, and those control the specific which ness, developments in their completebe accuratelydiscovered, then the classification will attain its highest perfection.And cal just,as under theoretithe towards an conceptions, approximation is made point of accurate discovery,will an approximation be towards made a perfect classification a classification and the which at the same time is the most philosophical
tive it efforts, is
way
to
"

gropingits

most

natural. The

historyof
of the referred

Natural progress

Science of

affords

us

abundant I
have

illustrations

classification.

already
afford
account

to

Chemistry.
most

Botany

and

Zoology

perhaps
of
at

the

the
once

becomes The

since on striking illustrations, classification multitude of particulars, an object of paramount importance. these sciences
were

earlier classifications in

formed

particulars accordingto their external as they were merely descriptive parts. Hence ; and and description must according to the accuracy vary new variety of the observations, continually systems were another. appearing, and endeavoring to supplant one henceforth Linnaeus,by introducingthe sexual principle, the classification of plants a to phytomological gave

by arrangingthe

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

and character, Science.


in
as

advanced Cuvier With

Botany
him

to

the

dignityof
similar

minate deter-

accomplished a
the harmonious Under

tion reforma-

Zoology.

interior

wise and a manifesting great objectof research. only arranged the tribes but
the
even

organization, the design,became


he
not

this great Idea


at

of animals
and

present existent,
rational symmetry,
and

called forth into beautiful

fossil and

fragmentary

remains

of ancient

extinct

the apprehension of the rational generations. It was law, which led these great design and of the organific immortal ments. achieveand to their invaluable philosophers

of classification, principles into next we proceed to enquire particularly may the distinctive characteristics of genus and species. I have already remarked, that we not are necessarily and confined to the particularclasses of genus species. In wherever have number of particulars a reality, any common characteristic, they may be classed together on this ground. And so also,on the other hand, any point of difference between a as particularsmay be assumed some ground for separating them, and seeking for them cardinal
other

the Having distinguished

distribution.

But

we

have
vast

seen

that

there of
even

are

principles,which,
constrain Besides
and
we

amid
a

the

number
;

possible
taneously sponto

demand classifications,
the

limitation mind
have
a

and
to

common

conform

it.

genus

and

which species,
seem

universally obtained,
natural

which have

therefore Orders of

to

be

most

division,
ter, charac-

widely comprehensive character, again, Orders


The of
a

includinggenera
included

; and

limited

under

species.

comprehensive orders,

however,
limited

of genera, and the only a higher description orders a varietyof the species ; so that an exposiare

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

271
the main

tion of genus of

and

speciesmust

include

principles

division. logical
I shall

begin with Species. In respect to form, I have a already defined species, nation: completed picturefor the imagiIf law
we

take

the

on species

the

higher ground
same

of

working
of the

in the

interior

the organization,

tion concep-

completeness species we

becomes

the the is
no
a

In

have
course,

governing conception. completed organization. completed organization.


or

of Every individual, But the individual which


every do may he

contains
not

organism, powers
to
as
a

perties, pro-

belong
taken

the

individual
which

be

species. Indeed, of the representative

lection is but a colspecies of individuals identified in the whole organism, and in all the powers and properties which go to make up the distinct and its organific and complete being under tinguish determininglaw. The individual is justly said to be disfrom the speciesonly by accidents,and not by essential constitution and accidents properties. These and either circumstantial are separable,that is,they stand around the individual, describinglocality, position, and exterior relations generally, but forming no part of the essential being ; or they are modifications of the essential and constitutive organism and propertiesof the tive species. The clear conceptionsof Identityand ConstituLaw enable and limit the to compare us species ; and the equally clear conception of difference enables us do not which affect those higher modifications to detect the identity of the and species, only form the accidents These which the individuals. to distinguish ceptions conserve in fhe their proper Ideas are developed under There is process of making comparisons of phenomena. thus the union of a certain tact acquired by experience,

speciesto

belongs ;

and

the

272
and

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

It is this priori determination. which classification truly philosophical. makes under speciesare based upon The orders formed

of rational

union

fications modi-

more

remarkable, yet
the

not

destructive

of the

pable pallast

identityof
G-enus
expresses
a

species. speciesin this,that


while
the

differs from

all the essential and completed organization, dividual in the inand is capable of full representation properties,

and

tion comprises only a part of the organizaits take the individual and cannot as properties,
the former is

representative. It by
must

true, indeed, that the


united under individual the genus

common one

mark genus,

which be then

several found

species are
in

in every

of the
in

several the

species ;
all

but the

it appears

individual

unity of
from

parts, while
The

in the

it is abstracted

them.

all-importantinquiry here
the

is,what
1

shall govern

us

in

selection of the

generic mark by

Having

clear the

conception of speciesas
constitutive essential law of the
we properties,

determined

the

identityof
idea of the and

and complete organization, now, under the

of the

system,
several it is

the proceed to consider species. Here identities

relations
are

between

also them

perceived;
as

possibleto
But of
we

select
an

any

one

of

the
a

generic mark.
certain number how
can

suppose

identitybe perceivedin
respect
to
a

with instances, be certain

particularmark,
We mark
cannot

of its

? universality it be The
a

be certain
is the
ponent ex-

of its

unless universality, of
a

which

universal of

law.

occurrence

of the mark
extent

in

great number
would therefore becomes

and instances,
us

to the

of

our a

servatio oblaw
;

lead

to

suspect
and

the

presence
as a

of

and

the
a

selection

of this mark wise

genericdesignation

convenient
a

are

enabled

to

reach

expedient,until we higher ground. A proper generic

274
been
and

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

formally

laid

down,

have

as nevertheless,

current

generallyunderstood authorityand
A
statement

judgments,
all

formed

the

ate immedi-

guide of
of the

fication. classijust and philosophical

leading axioms
part of
up
our

and

definitions

longing be-

here

will close this

subject.
identified particulars

I.

Every
or

universal

is made

of

either in their

determinate

form, or

in their cardinal

perties, proin all

in their

or organific

constitutive

law, or
a

conjointly.
is comprehended within Every particular by the identityeither of determinate form, or
or properties,

II.

sal univerof cardinal of all

of

or organific

constitutive

law, or

conjointly.
III.

Species is
where

the

identityof
or organific

determinate constitutive
so subject,

dinal form, car-

properties and
all these

law,
that

jointly, con-

exist

in the in

every its

is essentially particular complete species.

the

of description

IV.

Genus

is the

identityof

several

speciesin

dinal car-

the

form, property, or law, which unity of system.


V.
The

comprehends identity;
the

them

in

unity of

nature

lies in

varietyof

nature

lies in difference. Where difference in the


at

VI.

consists in the

oppositionof
and in

terminat de-

forms

organisms compared,
the
same

tial essen-

while properties, in
some

time

there

is an

identity

constitutive

law of

comprehending
in

all

there alike,

arises the

distinction
Where the forms

species.
the

VII.

difference consists
in the

opposition
of essential

of determinate

organisms,and
some

without properties,

identityin

ing generalcomprehendof genera.

law, there

arises the

distinction

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

275

VIII.
order

Where

several

genera

are

comprehended
which binds
under

within
them

an

or

higher

genus, also but in then

the
the it

identity
several

together, particular

appears
;

species
alone
lower

each

genus

appears in the

in classes

the the

higher
other

generalization, points
of

leaving

behind

identity. Species
in is As
an

Scholium. is the
advance

identity
the

throughout.
of from

Genus

an

identity generalization
to

part.
advances.

points
Thus

identity
the
to

diminish,
we

individual the

the

species,
proximum
like
a

from

the the

species
maximum.

proximum
The

genus,

from
law

the sits

to

versal uni-

sovereign
it in
a

in multitude

lofty

state,
of
and

regulating

all

but it

having
binds

under

subordinates,
harmonious

which

together

an

intimate

co-working.

276

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

SECTION

VI.

DISTINCTION

BETWEEN AND

GENERAL

FACT

AND

FIXED

ABSOLUTE

LAW.

The
in
a

relation between

Ideas
*

and

Laws

has been there


name

treated

of
are

preceding
that

Part. alone

If the views is entitled

presented
of law Moral
freedom

just,then
finds its thus
answer

to the
an

which laws and

correspondent and
to the

basis in

Idea.
wrong,

Ideas

of

right and
of the
so,

and responsibility, personalidentity, tical laws


answer

immortality.

Estheits

to

the

Idea And

under beautiful,

different laws
must

modifications.
answer

likewise,somatological
This I have

to their

appropriateIdeas.
Primordial

attempted
of proper
must

to exhibit

under

Ideas

are

spheres.
be necessary

Hence
and

teristics Logic. The characin their necessityand universality the axioms, definitions and laws,

universal

likewise

in

their

proper

spheres.
The

Intuitive

Function, in
laws.

connection
The law

with is
to
seen

sufficient
to
prehend com-

observation, perceivesthese
the the

facts of

and observation,
a

thus
to

be the law universal

of and

facts ;

while,as

law, it hand,

is

seen

be

necessary.

Now,
statement

on

the other of
a

general

fact

is the

mere

series of

facts, appearing to
I.,Section
VII.

the extent

of

Part

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

277
of sequence.
to

our

observation

in

uniform

relation
even

We
a a

may

proceed to give a theory,or


facts ; but this is another series is neither here

determine Taken law.


as

law
mere

of the

affair.

generalfact,the
But
a

theory or

the

enquiry may
differ from

be

made, How, then, does


and

generalfact

7 Generalization on species in the ground of identity the which of assigninga common forth thencepurpose name, may be employed in our the as thinking and reasoning, sign of all contained under it. But the general fact is the itself as a truth belonging to affirmation of the identity class of things contemplated. The the whole identity affirmed in the general fact, however, is not always the is based. For example : which the generalization one upon upon
we

under generalization genus is a grouping of phenomena for one or particulars, many

the observation
have

of certain

identities
under

and

differences

classed certain animals

the terms

sheep,ox,

deer.

Upon they

farther
are

observation

find that

they
all

deficient in the We extend in

that

ruminate.

find that ruminate.

animals,deficient
upon these
as

animals,we teeth,and upper cutting and we our observations, the upper teeth, cutting
we

of these

Now,
is the
that and

identities

may

class together But the

all these animals

ruminating animals.
that all

generalfact
and
so on
"

affirmation

sheep, oxen,

deer,

is,all
in the

animals
"

already classed by
this additional

certain

identities of

differences

have

identity,

cuttingteeth ; and again, that all animals thus deficient, ruminate. So, also,in chemistry,we call all substances which change vegetable into blues into red, acids ; and those which change them green, alkalies ; but the general fact is the affirmation these all acids, and all alkalies, that respective possess alkalies neutralise properties ; and again,that acids and
upper

being deficient

278
each

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

other. of
a

In the

generalfact
or

is contained
upon

tion the affirmawe we

uniform

order

of sequence,

which
g. when

may

base

classification
that

not, as

we

please,e.
described
as

serve obwe

the
no

animals

above

ruminate,
ruminants
:

are

under
we

them of classing necessity


do
one so case or we

but In and

whether
in fine,
name :

not, the

the

in the of
a

other, we
law. To

general fact remains. are aiming simply to arrange are affirminga truth and
name

the
the

semblance

all animals

which

have

above-mentioned

characteristics, ruminating animals,


from

is

generally,all animals affirming, the upper which want cuttingteeth ruminate. I call the general fact the semblance of a law, for the it But, nevertheless, general fact,as such, is not a law. the most answers important ends in callingbefore the between mind the stated connections phenomena. existing cattle-breeder, observed, in a Bakewell, the celebrated of individual beasts,a tendency to fatten great number of others, the absence of readily; and in a great number plainly different
"

this

constitution he

in every
a

individual

of the

former

scriptio de-

observed

certain

peculiar make,
Those of the

though
latter

they
in
were

differed

widely
no

in

colour,"c.
less in various from

differed description

points,but
These them

agreed
facts
the

being of
his

different make
:

the others.

data

from

which, combining
Nature is

with

that general principle

steady and

uniform

in her

he logically drew the conclusion, that beasts proceedings, of that specified make have universally a peculiar tendency to fattening."* This the general fact at which was Bakewell moment to all a fact of great practical arrived, cattle-breeders. But as announced by him, it was no law,

Whateley'sLogic,Book

" 2. IV., ch. ii.,

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

279
let that

because the

connected

with

no

Idea.

Now

us

suppose

in respect to climate, make connected was one peculiar food,"c, with the freest and most genialdevelopment of the of life ; and also, that it combined the organific power finest esthetical proportions, that the conclusion so might have been announced The most culture as follows : genial gives the highestanimal beauty, and the highest animal exhibited beauty is connected with the highest animal utility, and a tendency to fattening. in strength, activity, Should not here be advanced we beyond a general fact to the conception of a universal law, and that because we have brought in pointsof consideration connected ately immedi"

with That

Ideas? bodies fall to the


saw

earth,was
the and

fact of

servatio obgeneral
as men a

before Newton

apple dailyuse
had
the the

fall ; and among

eral gen; but

fact,it
it
was

was

of eminent

not

until this of Newton gave


to

general fact
that it became

been

elaborated of
a

in law. of
a

the mind But law ? what

exponent

now gravitation

characteristics
"

Was

it not
and
a an

the Idea
necessary

of centralization

the

Idea
in
no

of
der or-

the universal
to

arrangement
The Keason

of matter is

form
upon

system?
Idea without

law centrifugal
sees

less

based

; for the
a

with

intuitive

that certainty united in space with

diffusive movement
matter

harmoniously
could
not

the

central movement,
masses.
*

exist

in separate

Chemistry has, until


the great advance
made

very

been recently,

science

of

an generalfacts, and, therefore,

imperfectscience.
labors of

Now, Dalton,

by
and

the

combined

Davy,
and

and

Faraday,

acute

reasoningsof
*

especially by the investigations the last, are just an advance from


Supra, p.
198.

280

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

mass

of the
to

generalfacts
force of
a an

to

comprehensive law, developed


:

under

Idea

at

it least,

is

near

mation approxi-

such

result.

The

identification
a

of chemical

and the

electrical attractions
Idea

is

loftygeneralization.But
not
use

and

the

law

are

if indicated, or, to
an

in the

" conception of Polarity, in the conception of "

fullyexpressed, guage, Faraday's lanof power

axis law law

having
of cosmical have the
stitution con-

equal
the
masses

and

oppositeforces."
in
or Polarity,

In have

the the

of

gravity and
the
we

centrifugalforce,we
:

of

the

axis of

power,"
the

dawn

at

least

of the

law

which
are

governs the

interior
of the

of bodies.

These

great laws

verse. uni-

The

method It

of

at generalfacts arriving

is the

cal empiriof of

method.

is the

method

of the the mind

earlier processes

science,and preparatory to On many subjectsthe human


these From have been

determination

laws.
yond beample. ex-

has not of

advanced

generalfacts.
accident found
to

This

is true

medicine,for
effect ; until been

and

certain investigation,
a

substances
at

possess

remedial have The

length something
for the
treatment

like

general rules
diseases.
conflict of

instituted

of various
a

whole

history
a

of
of and

Therapeutics exhibits

and theories,
more

mass

but conjecturesoften sagacious, The loose. subject is one of of the into the multitudinous
account. to

wild frequently
on difficulty,

extreme

account

influences Even
at

which

have

to be

taken

the upon upon

present day, more


individual any rience, expe-

perhaps, is reliance, judgment,


have been

be

placed
and law

and

tact, than
but has

established

general principles.
may

Curious
no

hopeful generalization
as

made,

yet appeared.

Supra, p.

200.

282

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

only

another

form And of the

of

empiricism,
even

or

loose

and

insufficient the
noble

observation. constitution of
law

yet,
human the

these mind

errors

show is
the

for
to

it
draw

strong

sense

which
wherever

creates

tendency
sequences

general

sions, conclu-

uniform of of

appear.

The observation is

importance
in
to

establishing arriving This,


at

principles
general indeed,
To

and and

rules

of

view

facts

laws,
in the

apparent
the
In

every

one.

comprises,
we

main,

Logic
the

of first

Induction.

this

shall of

now

ceed. proin

place,
facts
;

we

shall in

speak
the
next

observation in

respect
to

to

general
The
to

and

place,
two

respect
I

laws.

distinction

between

the be

which

have
It

attempted
may,

draw,
be
summed

think,
up

will

not

misconceived. General the facts uniform that

indeed,
uniform
and

as

follows

are

the

sequences

of

phenomena
of without

"

or

pendence de-

involution exist without from it would


and

phenomena,
a

so

given
nor

consequent
a

cannot

certain
certain

antecedent,
consequent

given
in

antecedent

involving
the
accounts

Law,
which the

distinction

orderly
for been

sequence

itself,
without

is

that

governs
sequence

it,

and

which

not

have

possible.

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

283

SECTION

VII.

THE

LOGIC

OF

GENERAL

FACTS.

The

great Francis
the

Bacon,
Inductive

the first who

labored

at

full

expositionof

Philosophy, himself give an


facts which he has
:
"

signally
its
are

failed in all his attempts to


The principles.

of exemplification
left

cataloguesof
The
reason

of little
are

or

no

value.

is obvious

The

facts often

heterogeneous,mixed, scattered,casual, and


The

trivial.

observations definite As the


in the
a a

appear

to
no

have

been

governed
ideas
so

by

no

no principle,
no

aim,

prophetic thought, in
of facts and the

fine, by
are

Idea. demanded

observation

both

philosophyof Nature,
must

omission
to arrive

of

one

or

other

be

fatal to any

attempt
the
errors

at such

philosophy. attempted
he

Bacon

exposed by
it

of those He

who

had

this work

Ideas

alone.

himself

because failed,

attempted
us

by

observation

alone.
The
true

point now
fixed
we

before distinctly of

is to

ascertain

the
a

logical grounds

decidingwhen
antecedent
a

phenomena
and

have

real and
so

as connection, as affirm,

consequent,
thus

that

may

that they are fact, general

connected. The
and connection

of

phenomena,
exponent
to make

as

stated

antecedent
we are as

consequent, is the
to

of law.

Hence,

determined

the

observation

of

orderly sequences
order

and naturallypresented,

experimentsin

to

284

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

enlargethe
do not

field of observation

by

the Idea

of law.

If

we

find the law


"

itself, we
at

shall find its beautiful least that


we are

festations mani-

we

shall know

dwellingin
of universal axioms
are

the

lightof
The
Idea

its countenance. of law

gives rise Idea, ever


pry
to

to the

axioms These
to

law

and

of the

uniformity of
and

Nature.*

like the voices of the


as we

speaking
establish

our

thoughts
of Nature.

search

about

into the

phenomena
of Nature. and
two

Thus, then, in seeking


are

we general facts,

looking out
The
in the
or

for the

uniformities
we

phenomena
one or

which

examine of the

compare,

must

stand

the other
for
one

relations of antecedent
are

consequent,
conditionate

phenomena
another of

in

continual

flux,and
to

in this way,
and antecedents,

the

same

phenomena being consequents


consequents.
The is not
a

dents antece-

flux

of

phenomena, however,

ever presenting lengthening chain of succession, where the end but is composed of cycles, new particulars, into the beginning : and the complexity of Nature returns cycle, cycle crossing presents us cycle winding within cycle, and all in perfectharmony; for not only are the of each cycle related, but cycle also is related particulars The acid which vast system. to cycle in the unity of one is itself a consequent of the union of two simples, returns lation, by one cycle into these simples again ; and by another rebecomes antecedent and in another aids an cycle, in double its movements, elective affinity. General as be more less extensive. The or facts,therefore, may and sequent conperpetual relation of a particularantecedent is in itself a general fact ; an established cycle of antecedents and consequents is a general fact ; and

Supra,p.

228.

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

285 different

the

established form of

connexion

between But the

cycles

is

another
same

generalfact.
the

are principles

the

which

govern

whole

; for the observation

in all
quents. conse-

is the

observation

of

recurring antecedents
here

and

worthy of being remarked, we are seeking for the stated consenamely, that when quent of an antecedent,we may employ experiment as well as observation, since being alreadyin possession of the antecedent,we can place it in different relations in order
There is
one

thing

to
on

see

what

consequents
we

are are

connected

with

it ; but

that,

the contrary,when

for
we

how

cedent seekingfor the stated anteof a consequent, we can employ observation only, the consequent being subsequent to the antecedent, cannot place it in different relations in order to see it arises, since it already is ; and, therefore, have we

to watch

for

new

instances

where

the

consequent

in question

is

with its proper antecedent. together presented Our object it being to establish the fact of uniformity, how many to settle, as a preliminaryquestion, necessary is
are

instances

demanded
exact

to

this end.

As
can

Nature be

is governed in
spect re-

throughout by
to any

law, if
a

it

shown,

that succession,
a

given consequent
be

does take
cedents ante-

place when
this

certain antecedent

is present, all other


if there

being excluded,then
one

only one

instance,

is sufficient to establish the


that
we

fact of the sequence. the combustion it becomes

Suppose, for example,


of
a

exclude,in
oxygen

metal, all antecedents


the

but

gas, then

certain, upon
the

axiom

of the
is

presence of oxygen But it does not appear of combustion. and

uniformityof Nature, that of this phenomenon. a* condition


this that oxygen

from

is

general
to

condition observe

We other

may,

therefore, proceed

experiment

combinations, excluding

286

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

oxygen

"

and takes

if we

find that in all such


not

instances

no

bustion com-

place,then,and general
Here is
a

until

then,we

infer that of this

oxygen

is

and
one

indispensablecondition
instance is not may be

phenomenon.

sufficient, since,
other stances subseveral and
same

although oxygen
which concur, known
no

supporter, there
same

act in the

way.

When

instances when all

the

conclusion
and

becomes

strong ;

observation is any

experiment give

the

result,

longer entertained,for the uniformity mine seems now fullydeveloped. The case in which we deterthat oxygen of combustion, and the is a condition in which we determine that it is a general condition, case since one instance is sufficient for the are widelydifferent, whereas be extended the induction in the must first,
second.*
cases

doubt

Wherein Is it not

lies the that in the

distinction first
case

between
we

the
a

two

antecedent,and
we

excluding from
circumstances be
the
can

it all other

given antecedents,
consequent
of
a

take

observe

it in

where, if
and second

any

ensue, that

it alone

condition the

antecedent
case,
we

consequent ; while,in

take

in a variety given consequent, and observe it as it occurs in all these cirof circumstances, in order to see whether cumstanc and but one there is a general difference, form unipoint of agreement, and that point the presence of

the oxygen

?
see

Here, then, we
the following
than in the

the
from

greater advantage
the antecedent In the

we

possess in the
quent, conse-

sequence

to

reverse as

order. before

first, having

the

antecedent, we
*

can,

remarked, by experiment
the

Oxygen,
was

for

some

time, was
In

considered

only supporter

of combustion.
to

This

the

general fact

until subsequent discoveries


no

brought
we

light other
the
sary neces-

supporters of combustion.
"

do fact, therefore, general

attain

this

belongs only to

law.

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

287
isolate it ; but
must

place it
the
the

in different

circumstances

and

in serve obin

second, we
with
numerous

cannot

experiment, but
the
:

merely

instances
an

in which antecedent
as

consequent appears
here the circumstances

connection
may order
on

and

be

so

to

require many

to detect

the

antecedent particular the antecedent

comparisons in required. But,


be

the other

hand,

itself may the

complex,

and

in requireanalysis

order to determine this

force of the

different
that
we

elements.
may

Where

is possible, so analysis
can

separate the
to

elements, we
air is necessary takes
may

reduce
we

the have

experiment again
established and gas
that afterwards

the

utmost

If simplicity.
to

common

combustion,
another
to
quire en-

find that combustion


common

placein
be led

different from
whether

air, we
is present in arrived
test at

this gas

common

air;
in order

and

when

by analysiswe

have may

the

of composition
to

the

atmosphere,we
whether

the

elements

determine combustion. But

one

element

alone

is the condition

of

it often

happens that
For in
a

we a

cannot

analyse the remedy


; now,

plex com-

antecedent.
to

example,

certain

appears

be efficacious
are

particulardisease
same

if all the
case

circumstances the

the precisely

in any

other

of
eral gen-

the

here be expected on the remedy may the disease, to be equally efficacious. uniformityof Nature creates a two-fold complexity of the antecedents

But culty. diffi-

Do circumstances
the

we

have

such

perfect knowledge
"

of all the

in the first case

the constitution

dividual of the in-

influences

of

regimen, "c., the


of the
to what
as

nature

of the of

disease

and itself,
as

the force

recuperativepower
extent,
an
or

nature,
the

to be

confident
to

even

if at
to

all,
the

remedy
?

is

be

taken
were

antecedent

recovery

And

if all this

granted,is our

knowledge

288

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

of all the minute


and

circumstances
accurate to
cases

in the enable ?

second
us

case

sufficientlyupon
the

to

decide

of identity
antecedents need

the two
are

Now,

it is evident

that where and


a

thus

observations complicated,

to be

multipliedin

order to arrive at

experiments general
ber numa

in expression It appears

any

degree satisfactory. from the preceding remarks, that


necessary
to

the

of instances

enable
upon

us our

to decide
success

upon

uniformity,depends prevailing
all the

in

nating elimi-

antecedents
we are

and

consequents foreignto the

particular sequence
of the treatment but in
a

of

the disease and condition


to

contemplating. If,in the case eliminate every thing we can disease, the remedy, then we shall at once be
upon

decide

the the

sequence.

We

shall

to proceed, therefore,

consider

PRINCIPLES

OF

ELIMINATION.

I. General
in one

difference

with

uniform

agreement

point.

"

Here
to

we

suppose be

several instances

of

joined con-

antecedents each
all instance,

the

in brought under observation, antecedents being different but one.


a

Now,

if in all these
appears,

instances
we

particular consequent generalfact


with that the

formly univarying unsequent. con-

then

infer the

antecedent Two
axiom

is connected thus
us

the

unvarying
on

instances

agreeing would,
a

the
clusion, con-

of

lead uniformity,

to

conclusion.

This

however,
agreement
that

attains its greatest force

only where
and

the

is verified

by general observation
observation
and

ment, experiwhole

is,by

all the

experiment, not
also of the of

only of

the

individual

but philosopher,
course

engaged in the same fraternity Thus, if in several combinations

investigation.

of

elements,all differing

290

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

; sequents conjoined

remove

one

of the

antecedents,the

consequent which
Or of
antecedent
one

disappearswith
observe the

if we

consequent. particular stance indisappearancein some

it is its

of the consequents, and has also

find
we

that infer

certain

again the In the first case, we of the two. ment experimay sequence serve well as observe ; in the second, we can as only obcan quent compel the disappearanceof a conse; since we of its antecedent,but we cannot by the removal the antecedent Where act upon through its consequent. and in every we repeat the experiment or the observation, the disappearanceof, the same instance remove, note or sponding correelement, and in every instance find that the same antecedent or consequent is likewise wanting, tion. confirm the general fact by a wider inducof course we
disappeared,then
Second with
:

Let

there

be

several among

antecedents these

attended be

certain consequents ; and


a

let there

introduced

new
we

antecedent, the

new

consequent
with the
new

which
an*

ndw

appears

infer to be in sequence

tecedent.
wherever
we

and Let this be repeated in other instances,

if,
the

introduce

the

antecedent particular

the

same

consequent uniformly appears,


elimination of all

and

there

only, then

foreigninfluences is complete, and the under investigation firmly established. sequence the other hand, if, On several phenomena, a among new and if, phenomenon should make its appearance, upon antecedent should be found to be also examination, a new
between the two would be present,then a connexion the same If, in repeated instances, concurrence takes place,nothing seems wanting to the elimination. Third
:

ferred. in-

Let

there

be

number

of

antecedents,pre*
inde-"

or sentingcomplicated effects, concurrent, opposing,

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

291

pendent
trace

of each

other.

If, upon
to

examination,

we

can

certain of the consequents


we

particular antecedents,
their comes beWhat remains

then

may

at

once

subduct
sum

these consequents with


now,

antecedents the

from

the

total.

of new subject investigations ; and thus we may and consequents, until, eliminate antecedents successively will suppose, we only one consequent remains. Now, if there be only one fer inalso remaining,then antecedent we its connexion with the consequent. This remaining

consequent is

what I

Sir John borrow from

Herschel him the

calls the

residual

phenomenon.
"

tion illustrafollowing The of the comet return : predicted by Professor times in succession, and the general Encke, a great many good agreement of its calculated with its observed place of visibility, would lead us to during any one of its periods the sun and planetsis the towards say that its gravitation sole and sufficient cause of all the phenomena of its orbitis strictly ual motion the effect of this cause ; but when calculated and subducted from the observed motion, there is found would which
ances,
to remain
never

behind
been

residual

phenomenon,
ascertained
to

which

have small

otherwise

exist,

is
or

of anticipation of its

the time

of its re-appear^

time, which cannot periodic is therefore and whose be accounted for by gravity, cause would be caused Such an anticipation to be inquiredinto. disseminated through the by the resistance of a medium for celestial regions; and as there are other good reasons it has therefore been as^ this to be a vera believing causa,
a

diminution

cribed to such

resistance."
by

III. Elimination
intensities.
"

corresponding

quantities

and

Antecedents

and

sequents

may

be

brought

Discourse

on

the

Study pf Natural Philosophy, p. 15g.

292

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

conceptionof Quantity ; and as Quantity has its exact and antecedents science, sequents are reducible to precise expressions. Now, there are certain antecedents which and therefore we cannot never entirely disappear, effect an elimination stance For inthe preceding on principles. termine deis always present, so that we : heat can never appear by actual experiment what consequent would disBut if, withdrawn. if heat were by changing entirely the quantity of heat, we find corresponding changes in that a sequence the consequents, then we know, as before, We exists. do not remove the antecedent, nor change the essential order of the sequence, cedent, we only modify the anteand uniformlya like modification takes place in a stated consequent. Thus, we notice,in the first place, certain changes in our sensations with respect to heat and cold ; then, observing that as our we see sations senquicksilver, of heat increase in intensity, a pansion excorresponding of its bulk takes place, and that,as our sensations gularly moderate, its bulk contracts, and that this contraction re"

under

the

goes

on

as

the cold becomes


make
out
an

more

and

more

severe,

until at

length we

exact

scale of

temperature.

Now,

having
and
we

determined

that

pands quicksilverregularly exor

contracts, as the temperature increases

creases, de-

apply
the

the scale to then

the

observations bodies that


a

we

make

upon and

other thus

metals, and

upon

indiscriminately ;
all bodies
are panded ex-

general fact
we

appears,

by heat, and
same

contracted

by

loss of heat.

In the

manner,

may

determine
to
move

that all until

when bodies,
to
a

put
state

in

motion, will

continue

brought

by an opposing force, taking this in the fight of a and continue to remove as obstacles, general fact : We
of rest
the

obstacles is

are

removed,

the

time

of the

continuation
can never

of motion

and increased,

thus, although we

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

293

remove were ever.


"

all

we obstacles,

may

infer that continue

if all obstacles
to
move on

removed,
*

the

body

would

for

Sound

consists in If
a

impulses communicated

to

our

ears municated com-

by

the air.

series of

to it at

impulses of equal force be equal intervals of time, at first in


more

slow

we rapidly, hear at first a rattling noise,and then a hum, which by degrees acquires the character of a musical note rising too higherand higherin acuteness, till its pitch becomes high for the ear to follow. And from this correspondence between the pitch of the note and the rapidity of succession of the impulse,we conclude that our sensation of the different pitchesof musical in different notes originates with which their impulsesare communicated to rapidities our ears."f

and succession,

by degrees

and

more

There We
may

is another succeed in

form

of the

method

to

be

noticed.

the antecedent,but removing entirely the consequent, instead of disappearing with it,may only undergo some modification,perhaps a mere change in the degree of its intensity.If this modification of the but infer a real cannot consequent be uniform, then we
"

sequence

but

inasmuch

as

the

consequent is modified

only,and

with the removal of the antecedent disappear in question, it must be consequent to some other antecedent antecedents also. or This, then, becomes a of compound the only way to arrive case ; and sequence at the several antecedents is by tentative experiments, in

does not

introduce

this

merely
down.

as

an

illustration of the

process

of
"

elimii.ation
a

under
and supra,

the

laid principle

The

is reallyan proposition

axiom

sal univer"

necessary

determined affirmation,
219.

by

the idea

of matter

itself.

Vide

pp. 158

and

t Herschel's

Discourse,p.

153.

294
which the eliminate
or

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

we

various successively introduce


new

circumstances In

of this

phenomena,
we

circumstances.

way

at or enlargeour knowledge of the antecedents, length, by making the phenomenon disappearin conjunction with the eliminations, ascertain the entire compound

antecedent. IV.
ORDER which

Elimination
TO the DETERMINE

of

the

terms IS THE

of

Sequence,

in

WHICH

Consequent.
and

"

Phenomena be known

ANTECEDENT, AND may be invariably


to have
a

concomitant,
as

therefore
and
once

fixed

nexion, con-

antecedent may
not at

consequent, but the order of the


appear. the

sequence causal

Now,

inasmuch
to

as

the duction procan

influence

acts

through

antecedent
a

the

of the consequent, it follows that be made


or

consequent

to

disappear,or

be modified

modification

of the
or

only by the antecedent. Hence,


of the terms
we

tion eliminaif in attempting of


soon a quence, se-

to eliminate
we

modify one

hit upon

the

consequent,
to

shall

find

that
an

it is the consequent, antecedent in order

by being compelled to

introduce

accomplish our purpose : whereas, if we hit upon the antecedent,we shall remove the other term, and its or modify it without introducing removal the or modification,immediately acting upon
other We

term, will show


have
an

the order of sequence.

Theory of Dew, by the late Dr. Wells, and which Sir John Herschel,in his Discourse already referred to, introduces as throughout beautiful specimens of inductive experi"one of the most mental enquirylyingwithin a moderate compass." * We a as phenomenon whose invariable propose dew would ascertain. In the first place,we antecedent we
" *

illustration of this in the

Ibid,"c,

pp. 159-163.

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

295
of and fogs,

must

separate dew

from

rain and the moisture the


term to what

limit the which

of application

is

really meant,
on or

is,the spontaneous appearance exposed in the open air when

of moisture
no

stances sub-

rain

visible

wet

is

falling.Now,
which upon

here

we

have
a

analogous phenomena
or on

in the moisture
we

bedews

cold metal appears

stone
a

when

breathe

it ; that

which

glassof
which
or

water

fresh from
on

the well in hot weather when which

; that

pears ap-

the inside of windows air ; that

sudden
runs

rain
our comes

hail

chills the external

down thaw

walls,
on :

when,

after

a long frost,

warm,
one

moist

all these

instances
in

agree

in

the point,

coldness

of the with first

dewed, object
it." In the

comparisonwith
we a

the air in contact illustration of


our

above

have

an

there principle,

is here

with general difference

uniform
dent antece-

agreement
But ? the air?
say;
"

in

one

point.
fact that
the

with

respect to night dew, is this the real


a

Is it

dewed object be at But

is colder than
to

Certainly not, one


is to make
;

would

first inclined

for what

it so?

the

are analogies are

cogent and unanimous


their indications." argue
a

we and, therefore,

not

card to dis-

The the have

of similarity

the consequents In this case, to

of similarity

antecedents.

settle the in contact

question,we
with
the

only

"

to

lay a

thermometer
one

dewed

substance,and
made

hang

at

little distance

above been the

it,out

of reach of its influence.


; the

The

experiment
been

has

therefore
answer
an

question has
the
is

asked, and
the

has

been

in invariably

affirmative.Whenever
colder than concomitant
or

object
we

contracts

dew,
an

it

air.

Here, then,
But

have

invariable antecedent

circumstance."

is cold

the

the

consequent of dew?
it the

The "We

would vulgar prejudice collect must, therefore,

make

consequent.

296

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

more

facts, or,

which

comes

to

the

same

thing,vary

the

circumstances

; since every
a

instance

in which

the circumstances
must

differ is
note

fresh

fact ;

we and, especially,

the contrary

or

negativecases,
dew

i. e. where

no

dew

is

produced on the surface of both exit is very copiously posed on glass, in some the with their faces upwards, and cases last under side of a plate of glass is also dewed ; which the fall of moisture excludes from the sky circumstance second to our in an invisible form." Here, then, according is a general agreement with a of elimination, principle of the difference in one point, namely, the substance and glassto But what relation have the metal material.
"

produced." Now, 1st, no polishedmetals,but

is

the

invariable

concomitant ? Have

circumstance
we case

of cold the

in the and have

production of dew thus prevented the


we

removed of the the

dew,

cold in the

metal, or
?

removed

the cold and

prevented
metal

dew

tionably Unquesconductor within

the latter ; for the of

being a good
the heat its

heat,

has
from

continuallybrought
the

from

or itself,

earth
poor
"

beneath, upon conductor,has


This

while surface, its surface

the
to

glass, being a
become obvious.
most

suffered
scale

cooled.

done,
which

of intensity
are

becomes
to

Those

polished substances
conduct
most

found
worst ;

be

stronglydewed
conduct thus
not

heat

while

those which
have and

well resist dew that cold

effectually."
antecedent of

We

determined
dew the

is the

dew,

antecedent

of cold.

The

same

fact is confirmed

by
the

other

striking ments. experiheat


most

which Thus, rough surfaces,


are freely,

radiate substance

most

copiouslydewed,

remaining

Again, substances of a loose texture, such as dew cloth, wool, eider-down, cotton, velvet, "c, contract
same.

the

298

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

mena

the radiation
vapor

of

heat, and
The
cause

the

condensation

visible of inthe

by

cold.

(antecedent)of
may be

former
to be most

is

much

higherenquiry,and
; that

said indeed
a

unknown totally

of the latter

forms actually

important branch of physicalenquiry. In such a ultimate reach an we reason upwards till we case, when we fact, regard a phenomenon as fullyexplained ; as we
consider the branch of
a

tree

to terminate
a

when its

traced

to

junction with the branch ; or rather, rivulet retains its importance a as in the and its name till lost in some or largertributary, main river which delivers it into the ocean." Now, the ultimate fact upon which all enquiry reposes can, in respect to cause, be nothing less than the Divine volition ; and the ultimate fact in respect to law can be that law only We Idea. which rests immediately upon tinue, conan may ledge knowto enlarge our by observation and experiment, of the order and relations of phenomena of antecedents from one anteand consequents indefinitely, cedent reaching antecedent to another no mere phenomenon ; but givesa place for the repose of thought. The radiation of of vapor dents heat, and the condensation by cold,are antecetrunk, or

its insertion in the

twig

to

"

to

the formation

of dew. should

Could

we

now

discover

their

we antecedents,

for other antecedents calling but we want generalfacts,


and sequences
mere

only have new phenomena again, We thus accumulate still the centralising, prehending, all-comLaw. But An infinite series of fact be
a

necessary be. the

there cannot like

if the ultimate

antecedent

other

antecedents, that
and of

is,

uniformly preceding its consequent,


characteristic then
must

having

no

tinguish dis-

except that
here

enquiry cease
of Fate.

by

mere cease

being the last, decision arbitrary


because the mind

of the

Deity or

It does not

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

299

feels But

but satisfied, if the ultimate

because

it is

permitted to
a

go

no

farther.

phenomenon, but a law, in the lightof Ideas, what must be, not a thing affirming, but an then indeed must intuitive thought, of observation, of compulsion,but by a enquiry cease, not by a necessity itself. of pure Keason necessity that the flux of phenomena I have already remarked is not to be represented a as lengtheningseries of particulars, new back, is ever which, as it runs evolvingsome antecedent,until we reach an ultimate phenomenon ; but that, on the contrary, this flux goes on in cycleswhere the into the beginning.* In a series of the first end runs kind, the ultimate fact would be either an unconditional of phenomena phenomenon, which is contrary to the nature have be law as we defined it, removed ; or it would from the sphereof phenomenal development ; whereas the of law demands that it be everywhere rational conception present, permeating the whole development. But, in a series of the second kind, all the phenomena are both conditionated and and the law, as from a conditionating, out and governfilling centre, radiates into the whole cycle, ing
the whole. that theory applies here,also, ought to be remarked In the latter applicato generalfacts as well as to law. tion, the conception has already been given.f In the former we mean application, by it the hypothesis of an antecedent generalfact for the purpose of conditionating full and a known fact,and thus enablingus to give a more rational explication of the whole tion. consideraseries under cite the As instances, we undulating theory may Dalton's In of Light ; and Atoms. theory of Ultimate It

fact be not

Supra, p.

269.

t Supra,p. 194.

300

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

both

instances,we
with
to

have

antecedents

connected order

actual

phenomena.
are

hypothesisedand in We hypothesise,
a

supply

undiscovered

parts of
facts may

cycle
be

of

mena, phenowhich

the
are on

parts which
: or a

known

suggesting those

unknown

the unknown

hypothesised
other facts to

the basis of

theory or

law, which, already comprehending


certain

the known

demands facts,

complete
In
a

the

cycle.
may

we making observations,

hit upon

any

part of
relations

and cycle of facts, and

thence

be led

through
in the

the

of antecedents

consequents
the

to other

parts. Herschel
case

remarks, in respect to
"

induction

of of

dew, heat,

Had

we same

no

previous knowledge of
would have have

the radiation it known


to
a

this

induction

made
led

to

us, of

and, duly considered, might


many

knowledge
serve as a

of its laws/'
"

That In the

is,any study
of

part

may

good
we

starting point.
must
a

nature," he
to how
: we

adds, "
reach

be scrupulous as not, therefore, of such

to

knowledge
to

general
once

facts

provided,only, we
must

them verify

when carefully them

detected, we

be

tent con*

seize

wherever the may

they
at

are

to

be

found/'
moves

Now,
in
a

it is because

development

of

phenomena
or

cyclethat
lose

we

begin
we

any

point indifferently,

since, beginning
cannot

wherever
connected

please

happen to,
we

we

the

particulars.If

go

back

from the
to

consequent consequent

to

the antecedent,

last antecedent

becomes

of the
an

first consequent,
; and

which, relatively
go

becomes it,
to

antecedent

if

we

from
an

dent antececedent ante-

consequent, the last consequent


to

becomes

the

first

to it, antecedent, which, relatively

becomes

consequent.
*

Supra, p.

174.

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

301

Were

the
and

cycles of phenomena experiment


would

completed, then
done
; then

servati obin

have

their work the

respect

to

general facts establishing


and

uniform

antecedents

consequents would

all be known.

I shall close this section

by summing
and

up

the

cardinal

points.
I. The II. The and of the III. The

governingideas are Cause leadingaxioms are those Uniformity of Nature.


last named

Law.

of Universal

Law,

axiom

may
: *

be

panded exconveniently

into two
1. Like

axioms particular involve

antecedents

like consequents. antecedents.


to
an

2. Like IV.

consequents
before the

imply like
be law

General

facts may

determined

nite indefi-

extent
a

is arrived

at, but
their

whenever of

law

is arrived
may

at,

or

theory adopted, the cycle

facts

be

enlarged or

completed by
either to fact
or

necessary

demands. V.

Hypothesisrelates
laws
are

to law.

thesised Hypobe both and all

theories. of

VI.

In

the observation minute


;

phenomena
the

we

must

generaland
VII.
the

noting all

phenomena,
sequence of

their characteristics. Uniform semblance


antecedence and

and

mena, phenois

exponent
which

of

law, is

determined whatever

by

method the
The

of elimination

excludes

to foreign

relation particular formulae

to be

determined.
every
pression ex-

VIII. mode
of

of Induction

f comprehends
the

since elimination, of the uniform

it determines

general

sequences.

IX.

When

general
Supra, page
228.

facts

are

attained,they
t Page
211.

may

be

302

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

verified which There which

by they
are

returning
were

to

the

particular
by

instances

from instances.

derived,
accidental

or

multiplying

often of

and because

unlooked-for

verifications,
seem

are

great

weight,
of
nature.

they

like

taneous spon-

testimony

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

303

SECTION

VIII.

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC

OF

UNIVERSAL

AND

NECESSARY

LAWS.

Laws form facts.

are

determined
;
* or

in two

ways,

either

in directly induction both


cases

the of lies

of axioms The

ultimate

through an indirectly, determiningpower in


even

in Ideas We

of pure
have
seen

Keason. that Ideas and

Axioms

demand this is
at

phenomenal
first leads in the end The

conditions from

for their

development ; "but
of facts which
and

widely different
us

that induction antecedents and necessary

the

to uniform

consequents, and
in the most

to universal

laws.

axiomatic
as

forms

of law of

appear

nal origi-

laws, such
but the

and The Moral ; Logic itself, the great laws of Nature, those which comprehend interior constitution of substances, tion and the constituof systems of bodies,are tion. laws arrived at by Induc-

the laws

The

Idea

of

Law,

that

sublime

Idea

so

quickening

to

whether thought,leads on all observation and experiment, facts of uniform the result be merely general sequences, or universal
and

necessary
;

laws. in

Uniform

sequences

are we

the
are our

exponents of law
research

hence,
one

seeking for them,


In the progress

reallyseekingultimatelyfor
we

law.

of

pass from

to generalization

another

more

Supra,p.

242.

304

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

extensive
reach
an

and

comprehensive,until
law. because But

at

length we
this
the
we

seem

to

ultimate
ultimate

and generalization, it is not

call

the mate ulti-

great and
law of
an

great and

simply

it is at
be

present the

ultimate

point fact,or
its

investigation ;
antecedent To make

it may
most

only the

most
we

general
have
as

the

remote, which
is
to the eye

yet reached.
own

it
as

law, something
exhibited

required in
of Eeason.
Idea ;

intrinsic nature,
taken under purpose
on

Law,
taken

its

highest ground, lies in


the

the

pure

its
or

it highest manifestation,

is the

nate determiin its it is in its

design of
to

Creative

Mind.

And

sphere ;
universal

in and

relation

its

appropriate phenomena,
the

necessary.

Thus

great
conduct

moral

law
to

sphere,that is,responsiblebeing phenomena, being,is law, no


Idea in form of the of that

; in

relation
of

its appropriat

is,the
:

responsible
law

universal

and

necessary

it is the

without
necessary the

exception and
other

in every

instance

; and It

it is the lies
as

being
and

admissible.

in originally the wise this

Right

Wrong
Mind it

; it appears bodied

design
noblest

Creative

which

forth

being ;

and

gives birth
taken

to every

rule of moral

action.

So also in
lies in the pure

Somatology, law
Idea ; taken

on

its

highestground
tion, manifestaof the

under

its
or

highest

it is the

determinate
In its

purpose
"

design
interior

tive Crea-

Mind. of bodies its


or

sphere

e.

g. the

constitution
to

their

arrangement
"

into

system, in relation

e. g. appropriatephenomena compositionand decomposition,or

the

changes

of bodies in
masses as

in

their

motions considered

through
wisest

space, the

it is universal

and,

the upon

and

best,*

it is necessary.

Now,

that

Part

I., Sect. VII.

Also, Part

III.,pp. 194, 195.

306

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

orbits about

the

sun,

and

satellites about

their

primaries,
of the distances

by

an

attractive

as force, decreasing

the square

comes increases, case

to

be

verified in each motions

particular
under

by deducing from
with the fact. existence
to

it the exact
to

which,

the them

circumstances,ought
This

take

place, and

comparing
it verifies in

comparison, while
the

general the
and every

of the law of

as gravitation supposed,

its

adequacy
of the
moon

explain all
some

motions principal
some

of

body
of the

in the system, yet leaves

small deviations
ones

in those that

planets,and
and

very

considerable

in

other

still satellites,

unaccounted

phenomena, which stillremain to be traced to causes. By further examining these,their causes up have and found to consist in at length been ascertained, actions of the planets on each other,and the the mutual
for ; residual influence disturbing
*

of the these

sun

on

the motions

of the satellites."
turn out
an

And

thus

residual

phenomena
of

additional

gravitation. and is preIn other instances the law dawns slowly, ceded and inadequate hypotheses,which by many vague before the true lightcan have to be overcome shine clearly. deed when it begins to shine, And hypotheses appear, which inand but less ingenious still more or are satisfactory, And thus there appears indecisive. a gradual convergence from points to the all-comprehendinglaw. But many be the process when the law is attained, whatever by ciency to be the law by its suffiattain it,it is known which we in respect to the phenomena to be explained,by its and its echo to the Idea of the and necessity, universality
Reason
There

verification of the law

within. is also to be remarked


a

difference in the

men-

Herschel's

Discourse,p.

166.

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

307
the tive intui-

tal

constitution, by
function
seems are

which
to

superior degree of
awarded
to
some

he

individuals.

of nature. interpreters By a sudden to pass from a limited and wonderful leap they are seen With induction to a stupendous conclusion. a prophetic to foretel the law, which,before ordinary power they seem and laborious minds, lies only as the result of an immense The mere and observer collects observation. experimenter On the other hand, a mind but does not gain laws. facts, make itself independent of high intuitive energy cannot of experiment and observation ; for those high prophecies requirethe verification of facts. It is the union of the the finished philosopher of nature, for it which makes two These the chosen is the union of the two which constitutes the
true

tive Induc-

we

the

are found, Logic. And indeed,where these high gifts skill and diligence generally expect a corresponding may facts ; for the mind in collating that can penetrate laws of nature under her simplest will manifestations,

be prone from
In

to

seek

the and

fullest confirmations

of these

laws

observation the

experiment.

of laws there is so much that appears discovery that is really like inspiration, and indeed so much tion, inspiraif Keason be the inspiration of the Almighty in man, rules and formulae designed exact that to lay down logical would and represent the process of discovery, to govern in the attempt, and prove impracticable if appear puerile attempted. The great principle, expressed. however,can be clearly It is that which has alreadybeen alluded to, namely, the It is the force and light union of Ideas and Observation. of the cardinal and Ideas
us

of Cause

and

Law

which

pel at first im-

guide
to

in the

Space

open

us

Ideas investigation. of succession possibility

of Time and

and

arrange-

308

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

ment.

the But, beyond this,


as

laws which

govern the

the

world, Mind,

inasmuch
cannot

they

had
to
us.

their

origin in busy
in

Divine

be

strange

the perceptive While, therefore,


are

and

inductive is

functions

the facts, collecting

mind
Now law

intenselymeditative, and
the Ideas
and which
are

intuition
to

is awake. forth
into form unihave

it is that
are

spring
these

quickened
of
the

called

upon.
are

The
noted ;
"

orderlyand
we

sequences called

phenomena
of law.
are

exponents
rendered
more

Generalization framed.
exact
more

follows

eralizatio genis
larged, en-

Hypotheses
and
more

Observation

by experiment.

The

Eeason

conceives

it in the
the the

fore clearly. All that lies bephenomenal world, having proceeded from and
to meet

Divine human
and

Ideas, is ready
mind. it At

correspondingIdeas required Idea


external world

in

length

the

oped, is develas

itself into projects

the

the

law

of the
It will

phenomena. be perceivedthat
and

we

have
In

limited
common

the term usuage

law

to the term

universal is

necessary.

the
The
are

former

applied to uniform sequences is the strictly use. philosophical


in

in

general.
While
we

looking at particularsequences law, or


connexion with
to call them

separatelyfrom
may ; but

the be

versal univenient con-

ignorance of it,it
laws

perhaps
when

of nature
are seen

viewed

in

the
or a

law, they
law

to be

its manifestation

exponential facts.
of

only forms of For example, it


and

might
to

be

called

wood,
"

and

of

vegetable matter minerals,

to generally,

float in water, of vapour


down
to

and

of metals
the

sink ;

law

in rise,

of

water,

to flow

descents

of any

atmosphere ; a law dies degree, and of bo"

to generally,

roll down of the

declivities
to tides,
a

when

moved fall ;
a

off law ; and

their balance

law

rise and

of the

pendulum,

to preserve

determinate

vibration

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

309

so

on.

But

to

is understood, gravitation then these particular are laws, so-called, ceived perdetermined be mere uniform by the sequences when the law of universal law.

universal And

here

we

may

understand

telligen the difference in the in-

uniform and apprehension,between sequences All these particular universal laws. selves laws, taken in themuniform as are mere arbitrary facts. sequences, We to know them come seem familiarly ; and, indeed, we to their to understand them, because we are accustomed all we that such can is, ; but still, say of them appearance is the order of nature.
to
one

But

when

we

can

refer them

all

universal

law, we
we

insight. Now
nature

which when

awakens
we we

view
now

But law

still more,
to be
a

tory satisfacgain a deeper and more in a unity and simplicity perceive perience admiration,like that which we exa grand and perfectmechanism. the great comprehending perceive
necessary

universal

and

law

"

the

law

of the

universe

from an Idea. ble springing Nothing is so intelligiself, itas Ideas, for they are the elements of the Eeason the lightof all our tralization seeing." In the Idea of centuted, be constiwe perceive how the universe must tion find the realizaand in the law of gravitation we is the law of cenof the Idea. trifugal Equally satisfactory the realization of the Idea of Diffusion. * as force, The human intellect has oftentimes expended its force and more in hypothesising instead remote new antecedents, itself through an induction of unquestionable of directing facts to the discovery of a law. Des Cartes hypothesised of the vortices as antecedents to the primary phenomena planets in their revolution about the sun, and of the
"

Page

198.

310

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

satellites about in accordance form

the

with

of the orbits of the


a

Bernoulli planets. And attempted, this hypothesis, to explainthe elliptical by the shape of the planets, acting like in the stream themselves
the

the rudder how


mere were

boat

of the
to

vortices.

But A the

vortices

be

explained? only
it. threw

multiplicationof
back

antecedents

farther difficulty it introduced the


new

without

overcoming

in the difficulties,

Nay, more ; of sustaining necessity


elements and their

hypothesis. Chemistry,the
until
a

science of material

mutual

relations in the late

composition and
mere

decomposition of
collection immense form of uni-

bodies, was,

sequences.

As

a period, such, it was

of

practical

the facts of chemistry had to be as importance. And and often elicited by difficult, nice, ingenious,and of a new fact often the discovery dangerous experiments, formed and conferred a just and an epoch in the science, still the facts stood fame on the discoverer. But lasting out to view unexplained by any central simply as facts, and comprehensive law. They indeed revealed a beautiful selves and benign constitution of nature they connected themand goodness; but with the idea of paternal wisdom this was accounting for them only under a moral aspect. been wise and benign ends might perhaps have The same What reached equally well by a different constitution. the intellectual purpose sarily was was growing necesrequired, of an out Idea, and projectingitself in the outer law of the interior constitution world as the all-pervading
"

of bodies.
I have

already had
the

occasion

to refer to

the

stupendous

results to which
In these

us. geniusof Faraday has conducted and unity. chemistry attains to simplicity results,

All chemical

changes are

now

made

to appear

under

one

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

311

great law, by whatever


or

name

we

whether call it, the law


have
we as are

of

Polarity
lies
an

of Electrical Neither

Induction.
the

Behind
nor

there

Idea.*
a

Idea

the law this


an

yet reached

development,but tending. The Idea must


related to the elemental
to analogously

full

to

point
Idea and

evidently Keason,
bodies in the

be

of the pure

constitution

changesof
and

the Idea
masses

of centralization of constituted

diffusion

its relation to the

bodies ; and

comprehend and govern in its correspondinglaw must in its sphere. to the law of gravitation sphere,analogously the In Faraday we in an extraordinary degree, perceive, union of the most and extensive mentation experiexact, elaborate, of the with Ideal conceptions. It is a union
Senses those with the world of the Keason
; like

the

union

of

opposite polar forces by which he solves the mysteries of his favorite science, and bringsto lightthe order and harmony of Nature in her elements. The application of the mathematics to the expression of physicallaws arises from the fact that the subjects of these laws are real quantities, such as magnitude, motion, For time, and distance. example, gravitation implies motion, and motion is related to space ; the intelligible its expression in expressionof the law, therefore, requires
must we investigation, to the cyclical return for a moment order of phenomena, and the central position of law. Receivingthis,at least, if not a purely rational conception, it must as a convenient, be evident that the law, as law, cannot be absent from is like an any point of the phenomenal movement ; but
our

the relation of space. Ere we close this part of

number indefinite

of radii drawn

from

the

centre

to

the

Page 200,

312

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

which circumference,
one identity,

are we

many, may

and

yet, in their perfect


circumference
number
as

so

that

regardthe
of
common an

formed of

either

by

the

extremities
a

indefinite

from equal radii projected


one our

centre,or
the

by

the

extremity of Now,
suppose

of the

radii

revolving about
were

centre.

observation

fixed

upon

only one
of

point of

the

we circumference,

by conceiving of
line straight
:

it

as
we

might merely
were

account

ence for its exista

the

extremity
several
account

or, suppose

to observe

points
for
arc more

in

curvilinear

them formed

then we might juxtaposition, the by conceiving of an angle of which the


measure.

whole

But
be led

as

our

observation

became

extended, we
and
then every

might

to the

pointwould be the particular line and alone,and the particular straight angle would pass out of thought in the wider generalization. Now, our first conclusions were true, but they did
not

conception of a circle, explained in reference to it

contain

the

whole
no

truth

; and

when

the

whole

truth

is
In

we ascertained,

longer require our cycle of phenomena,


a

first conclusions.
our

like manner,
at
name

in

observation

is fixed and
Here
we

first upon the

certain

antecedent of the law

and

consequent,
law. the is the

end particular
no

uniformity,a
from

indeed

is

error,

for the

centre true

radiates
source

into this of it.

and particularuniformity, inasmuch of


a as

But,

the

particularsequence
we

in

questionis only one


law of the of the

wide
ere

circle of sequences,
we

requirethe
law

whole law

have

the

sufficient

part.

This

of the whole
like the Reason

permeating every
centre

part explains every part


a

; and

and

radii of upon
an

is circle,

conception
in

of pure

based

Idea.
The Reason and

its Ideas

enjoys a perfect and


are

quiet

cognition;

whei"

phenomena

explained by laws?

314

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

respect

to

the

phenomena,
and

its its

characteristics, correspondence
Cause the is
to

viz.,
an

sality univerIdea.

and Law

necessity, implies

IX.
law

Cause. Law

present
rational

wherever

is

manifested. fit

expresses of

plan,

the

wise

and

developments

Cause.

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

315

SECTION

IX.

THE

LOGIC

OF

ART.

Art

depends upon Logic of Science ;


Art of accident.

the Inventive is there also


a

Function.*

There
?

is

Logic of

Art

exists before Science.

Sometimes

it is the

effect

Generally,in its earlier stages, it is the effect of human wants an ingenuity inspiring unreflecting efforts. Art, in its higheststate,is an effect to empirical of ripened science. ties. feliciPure accident and empiricismreach art by mere But where there is no there is often even science, exhibited an and skill which ingenuity impress us as a manifestation of high and extraordinary Men of powers. this mould to invent by a sort of inspiration.They seem and arrive at results seem prepared for every difficulty,
the most instances
arts.

curious
are

with both

wonderful
in the
an

ease

and

tact.

These the fine

found
must

mechanical

and

exceedingly vigorousspontaneous development of Ideas,together with a nice and and a vivid imagination. quick observation, Inductive There true a Logic,leading is, therefore, to important conclusions, although they be not virtually of distinct propositions. These stated in the form clusions conand of the mechanician reallydirect the hand
*

There

be here

Page

231.

316

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

the artist.
and

They

are

not
are

reflected upon
not

as

universal
a

ciples, prin-

therefore

elaborated individual
answers

into
as

scientific

system;
and
soon

they
with

appear

to

the

belonging to him, something


this he remains
to
mere

that

content.

something his special pose, purIn his use they


This natural
in

become

reduced

rules
an

of art.

and

spontaneous Logic plays


of

important part
we

the

development
and
us

humanity
but

; and

that which
all

call

Genius,

which

so

proudly overcomes
the

obstacles, presenting
and
case

the unscientific

skilful mechanician in the of

artist ;

or

leading onward
and

untutored, as
a

of

Ferguson
loftiest

Corregio,and
of science

multitude
or

others,to
of Ideas and

the

eminence
power,

art, is chieflya
union

natural

logical
external
sensuous.

lyingin
"

the

proper

and the

observations Unite
you with

union

of the

Ideal

this the
most

have

the

highestform splendidform
from

of the of

imagination,and
for it is the
ideal sentations repreman

genius:
those

imagination which
which

Ideas

creates

constitute
the

archetypes
science

of all that

accomplishes of
Where exhibits and
indeed
a

and great, the beautiful,


are

the sublime.

all the

lightsof
of the The latter

enjoyed,invention
inductive
appears

chain

nicest

reasoning,both
of
; but
sets out

deductive.
in the
cases as

form

reasoning
more

above

mentioned

remarkably principles
to mako

here, inasmuch

the invention
In
to

with
have

already ascertained. and inductions, many


which

its progress
exert

it may

that

high prophetic

power

gives

birth here The

to

rational

imagination is
mechanism.

also tasked
steam
a a

hypotheses. Indeed, the in ideal representations of


its

engine from
constant

conception to its

present state, exhibits


from springing

series

of scientific invention

rigidlogic.
instances of scientific in-

One

of the

most

beautiful

INDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

317

vention drawn

is from

Davy's
established made

safety-lamp.
scientific

Here

conclusions

were

principles
formed
;
an

new

tions inducof
the

were

hypothesis
in the

ideal whence and

invention external

represented
model
or

imagination,
could be for

from

an

diagram
made which of the

produced
that

thus of

every mechanical

thing

was

ready

simple
great
no

effort

skill work

completed intellect,
and

the and

achievement,
less

"

great

as

great

as

merciful

visitation

to

poor

laboring

men.

BOOK
DEDUCTIVE

III.
LO

GIO

SECTION

I.

INTRODUCTION.

We

have

hitherto

been

engaged
the

with

the

Logic

of First Laws.

Truths, General
We
are now

Facts, and
consider

Universal

and Principles of

drawing inferences from a comprehending or containing Whole, to particulars concluded under it. In Inductive were Logic,particulars shown to be involved into universals : In Deductive Logic,
to

Logic

we

must

show

that

universals

may

be evolved

into

ticulars. par-

1. That some Logic implies, have and universal general facts, principles Deductive
:

first been

truths,
lished estabof human

it

a implies,therefore,

considerable
a

advance

language and adequate to express truths, principles, exists,one in clear and precise facts, propositions. ductive with propositions that we begin in DeIt is,therefore, themselves Seasoning. These propositions may
*

knowledge.

2. It

implies that

cultivated

Pages

211-213.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

319

be

conclusions be

drawn

from and
and

antecedent underived.

propositions,
They
a

or

they

may
or

primary

may
or

be

lytical ana-

synthetical
But is
not

;
manner

synthetical
in

priori
may

teriori. posbeen

the taken

which in

they
the

have

obtained with into is be be


account

into
be

account

particular
Neither do
we

tion deductake this

which the
to

we

may

engaged.
of the If
to

subject

matter

propositions
the

;
matter

referred

particular
it natural is

sciences. referred

subject

pure

quantity,
of

the it

mathematics is referred
and
to

if

it

composed
natural

phenomena,
or

siology, phyIn

philosophy,
branch occasion of
to

chemistry,
or

so

on.

considering
we

any

science,
make but

any

subject
deductions

whatever,
these
"

may
be
a

have

many

may

means

to

one

end
to

in
to

each the

particular
proper

duction de-

we

have

only

pay

regard
which This form

relation and

between the aims shall

those conclusion

propositions
we

form

our

premises, Logic,
"

deduce. universal

part
of

of

therefore,
one

tc^express

deduction,

that

apply

to

every

subject

indifferently.

Vide

Part

I.,

Sec.

X.

320

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

SECTION

II.

ANALYSIS

OF

PROPOSITIONS.

judgment

is
in

an

affirmation becomes

of the
a

mind.

When

pressed ex-

language, it
to

proposition,because

it

Every proposition general attention. and a predicate. The subject is consists of a subject is made that of which the affirmation predicate is ; the that which is affirmed of the subject. affirmation is either positiveor negative; that is, The * affirmation of agreement or of disagreement. an The called subject and predicate are collectively Each term terms. an plete object of thought comexpresses propounded
in itself. That which
connects

is then

the

terms

together in copula must


not,
to

sition, propo-

is called

the

Copula.

This and
the
is

always
sarily neces-

be

is, in
reason

positivepropositions ;
is that obvious,viz.,

in

negative.
enters

The

verb form

be

into the the

simple and

direct

of affirmation.

In

deed, ordinary forms of language, propositionsdo not, inverb ; but generally employ the substantive they

are
a

always capable of being reduced to this form, by using in connection with the verb : or an participle adjective,
"

e. **

g.

Csesar
was

conquered,"

may

be

reduced the

to

the

form,
A

Csesar

in victorious,"

which

copulaappears.

Supra, p.

64.

322

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

or positive negative character : e. g. A horse is a quadruped/' is is not contented/'is negative. A covetous man positive ; between negative be careful to distinguish a strictly must We the negative connects which i. e. one proposition,
a

are Propositions Quantity. The Quality of

again by Quality distinguished


refers proposition
"

and

to

its

"

contains scriptiv dewhich and a with the copula, one particle He of its terms in one : e. g. negativeparticle not like the one was conversingwith a man you describe," like the with a man not conversing He was is positive ; it is convenis negative. Sometimes ient one you describe/' the copula to from to transfer the negativeparticle thus to change the negative form of the terms, and one is not perfect is equivalent Man for the positive : e. g.
"

"

"

"

to

"

Man The

imperfect." must of the negativeparticles use logical


from those
uses

is

tinguish be disfamiliar
not
times some-

which the

obtain

in the

idioms

of conversation.
but

In

they latter,
: e.

sometimes

only deny, merely


common

affirm the contrary "He of is


no

g. the remark

playfullymade,
to

fool/'is
to

intended attribute

not
no

deny

one

kind

but quality,

share
use,
an

the

cal oppositekind ; whereas, in the logiply, imnegativeparticles simply deny, and never
of the of
a

of the

affirmation

contrary.

the extent of proposition expresses the affirmation the or negation. When predicate is affirmed or denied of the whole of the subject, the proposition is universal ; when it is affirmed or denied only of the propositionis particular : e. g. a part of the subject, All men sal are mortal/' No miser is happy," are univeranimals Some not men are are prudent," Some ; are sagacious," particular.

The

Quantity

"

"

"

"

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

323

and negative,and universal, as positive, Propositions, These into four kinds. distributed and particular, are for the sake of brevity, representedby the are generally, since Deductive And Logic symbols A, E, I, and 0. and not the matter, we considers the form of propositions, convenientlyrepresent the subjectand predicateby may as follows : symbols. The whole, then, may be represented A, Universal affirmative. Every X is Y ; E, Universal negative. No X is Y ; I, Particular affirmative. Some X is Y ; 0, Particular negative. Some X is not Y. In conversational tend idiom, when we affirm a part, we into deny the remainder. Some Thus, when we say, have arrived," intend to signify of the company that a we But, in logical language,on the part have not arrived. than more no we contrary, we intend to signify express. X is Y, we do not mean to imply Thus, when we say some X is not Y ; this may that some not or be, and no may doubtful form of predication is admissible. Birds have e. propositions, Indefinite wings," g. for life," Fish live in the water," Food is necessary those whose qualityis left unexpressed. These do not are belong to the province of Logic, for here no proposition The truth is, but to that of Khetoric. be indefinite, can that indefinite propositions never appear in correct writing unless the intention be to mislead except where, from from the well-known of the matthe connection, nature ter, or is able to supply the true every reader at once tity. quanFood is necessary to life," Thus, when it is said
" "
"

"

"

"

"

the writer is he

sure

he will not be misunderstood


the

otherwise,

ought
Where

to

supply
the

quantitiveparticle.
a

subjectof
reckoned

the

is proposition

is a singularterm, proposition because the universals, among

324

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.
%

whole

subjectis spoken
means philosopher,"

of:

"

e.

g.

Socrates

was

an

nian Athe-

the be

whole

of Socrates.

Propositionsmay
their horses
terms
are

universal, without
e.

having
it is
"

both All

taken

universally :
the
"

g. when
"

said, "

quadrupeds,"
but
not

term

horses

is taken
"

versally, uni-

the

term

quadrupeds
horses
:

for it is not in the


sition, propo-

true

that
"

all No

quadrupeds
man

are

but

merciful taken that

will abuse

dumb

animals,"
do

both

terms
men

are

universally; for, in excluding


abuse the

merciful also

from

class who
from
are

dumb

animals,
In the be

we

exclude

the

latter

former.
to

other

example,
in the

although
class
"

all horses

affirmed
not
"

contained
that In all

quadrupeds,"
contained

this does in
the

imply
horses."
that

peds quadruis
are

are

class

particular
term
men

affirmative taken

it propositions,
e.

is evident
"

neither

universally:

g.

Some

undeserving

prosperous."
In is the subjectplainly particularnegatives,
but the
not

taken

universally;
from
e.

whole
be
are

of the

predicate being
as

excluded

the
"

subject,must good
men

regarded
not

taken

universally:
Here the ject sub-

g.

Some

prosperous."
the

enters

only partially;
"

but

predicatecomposed
from
the
term

of

the

class
"

prosperous," is entirelyexcluded good


men."

ject sub-

Some

When
to

any

is taken

versally, uni-

it is
the

technicallysaid
view. is Y. is Y.

be distributed. whole
can

ing Employbe
sented pre-

symbols already introduced, the


at
one

A, E, 0, I, X

X X

Subject Subject
Neither
Predicate

distributed.
and
term

predicate distributed.
is distributed.

is Y.
X

is Y.

distributed.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

325

SECTION

III.

OF

PROPOSITIONS

AS

OPPOSED

TO

EACH

OTHER.

Propositions and

are

opposed

to each

other when

the

subject

remain the same predicate ; and they differ in quantity or in both. or quality, I. Opposition in quantity. A is opposed to I ; and E The nature of this opposition is such,that A being to 0. I must be affirmed likewise ; and the same in affirmed,

respect to E and
involves A and E does not

and

the

denial and E

of I and
; but

tively respec-

the denial of A involve the

the denial

of

the denial of I and

0.
of the

This

results from

axiom,

That

the

affirmation

the universal

is the affirmation

of the

: and particular

destroysthe universal ; but the negationof the particular negationof the universal does not destroy the particular. in quality. A is opposed to E ; and I II. Opposition is such that A being The nature of this opposition to 0. be denied ; but I being affirmed, 0 is E must affirmed,
not to be

denied involve
or

; and

vice

versa.

The

denial of A

or

does not of I This

the affirmation

of the other ; but

the denial

does involve
the

the affirmation

of the other.

results from

positiveand a both be true. 2. throughout their whole extent, cannot A particular and a particular negative being conpositive

axioms sal univer: 1. A following universal negative being contraries

326

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

traries within
the
same

limitation, may
therefore of
one

lie upon both


be

different
true. not

parts
The

of nial de-

and field,
a

3.

of

universal of
a

qualitydoes
of the

legitimate the
lie

affirmation both the

universal
may be both

since opposite quality,


the truth

universals

false,and
the

only

in

: but particulars

cannot particulars

be

false,
A is

for then III.

both

the

universals

would

be true.

Opposition in
to

both
to I.

quantity and
The
nature must

quality.
denied
versa.

opposed
is such

0
A

; and

of this be

opposition
; and E

that

0 being affirmed,

I must be denied being affirmed, again : A being denied, 0 must denied, I must be affirmed ;

; and

vice

And
E

be
and
:

affirmed vice

; and

ing be-

versa.

This 1.

results from

the

axioms

inasmuch it as Oppositionin quantity and quality, excludes all agreement, amounts to positive contradiction, form of the propositioncanthat the affirmation of one not so
be

less than

the

destruction
a

of the

other form.
a

2. The

oppositionof
of
a a

universal

to positive to
a

negative, or
the

universal

negative
"

particular particular
denial of

constitutes positive,
one

perfectalternative, the
of the other. is
as

being
most

the

affirmation

The

generalform

of this axiom

follows

To

deny
and

to

positive,is equivalent to affirming a negative; deny a negative,is equivalentto affirminga positive.


this

In

form, quantity is
of the axiom
,

not

taken of

into the account the

but

the

introduction the

idea
since

quantity modifies deny


a

expression of
is not
to

to

universal

tive, posias

affirm

universal

inasmuch negative,

this may but


true true

also be

it is to
in
some

i. e., the universality be false ; false, may affirm a negative, i. e., the negativemust be ; and
as therefore,

form

it is not

necessarily
be
true

in the

universal

form, it remains

that it must

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

327

in

the

particular
in

form
to

and

so

also

of

denying

universal

negative
The

relation

particular
presents
the

positive.
whole
at
one

following
is

table

view

Affirming A E I 0

equivalent
=

to

denying

and

affirming.

B,

0,

I,

A,I,
E,.
A.

O,

Denting A E 1 0

is

equivalent

to

affirming

and

denying,

0, =1,
=

E, A,

0, I,

A,
E.

328

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

SECTION

IV.

OF

THE

CONVERSION

OF

PROPOSITIONS.

proposition
:

is converted

by

the
the

transposition of
and predicate,

its the

terms

i. e., the

subject becomes

predicatethe subject.
The is as proposition given, is called the
governs
converse.

called the

exposita; when
of is propositions

converted,it
The
as

law which
:

the conversion
may
assert
more

follows

No

converse

the

exposita.
in

This

law

results from

the

generallythan axiom, that,A Hence,


what in the

consequence

cannot

transcend

its premises.
a

is affirmed
converse, be

the

exposita of
of the

part only,cannot,
The

affirmed

whole.

applicationof
does
not

this law
1.

is very Universal

evident.

affirmative. A,
the the is X

is

Y,

bute distri-

the

but only the subject: predicate, Y's


may

all the than

X's

are

in the

Y's, but
Y

contain

more

X's ;
can answers

from therefore, affirm


some

affirmative, every
; i. e.,
as

is

Y,

we
as

and, only
to

much

of the Y

theX.
2.

Universal
well

predicate as

negative. E, X the subject. as


is No Y

is Y

distributes
X

the

If there is No

in

Y,

there then, consequently,

in X.

3. Particular
one nor

I,X affirmative.
:

is Y
X

distributes neither

the

other

If

only

Some

is

Y,

then

only

Some

is X.

330

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

Here be

the

and exposita

converse

are

and identical, X is not

may

under represented
some

the bare form Y is X. Where

thus, some
the

of negaparticle tion is a component of the term which it affects, the conversion, is peculiarly : graceful by a particular positive, not e. are fortunate;" converse, good men g., "Some unfortunate Some men are good men." to affirming To a deny a negative being equivalent under a form of negaconvert we a positive, positive, tion, may of or : e. g., Every poet is a man contraposition of genius." This is equivalentto "No poet is not a man genius; which may be converted by " He who is not a of geniusis not a poet."* man The following table contains the different kinds of conversion
converse,
not
" " "

under

the bare form

EXPOSITA.

CONVERSE.
=

A, E, I, 0,

X X

is Y is Y

XisY X is Y

X, E, Y is X, I, YisX,
I, I, notY
is X.

is

By contraposition. A,
Some for X is Y
=

E,

notY

is X.

universal

such positive propositions,

as

tions, defini-

example, have convertible terms, i. e., exactly equivalentterms, and, in this case, are said to admit of a universal positive All equilateral a : as converse e. g., but to state this strictly, are we equiangular triangles ; " All the equilateral should all the are triangles say,
"
"

Whateley's Logic,Book

ch. ii., II., " 4.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

331

equiangular
good
government
for

triangles."
is its that

And which
and

so,

again,
has the also if

the

example,
of admit

"

A the of comes, be-

happiness
seems

governed
conversion
"

object,"
a

which

to

by
All

universal

positive,
governments

stated all

strictly,
those But

the

good
of
not

are

which these

have

the

happiness
need

the be

governed
considered

in

view."

propositions
the but first

universal,
not

for,

in

example,
of
"

we

are

speaking
i.
e.,

of

"

all

triangles,"
"

only
:

some

triangles,
in the second but

those

which

are

lateral equi-

and all

example, only
We of

we

are

speaking,

not

of

"

governments," governments."

some

governments,
convert

i.

e.,

"good
by

may,

therefore,
as

them
"

particular triangles, triangles,

positive
i. i.
e., e.,

propositions, equilateral, equiangular,


e.,

follows

Some Some Some of the

the the i.

are

equiangular."
are

"

equilateral."
the

"

governments,

the

good,

have

ness happi-

governed
governments,

in

view." i. all which have the

"

Some of the

e.,
are

ness happi*

governed

in

view,

good

governments."

Whateley's

Logic,

ibid.

332

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

SECTION

V.

PROPOSITIONS

CONSTRUCTED

INTO

SYLLOGISMS.

syllogism

is the formula

of the most

direct and

simple

deduction Let X

possible.
is Y

If before, proposition. any the agreement of X and Y is directly tuition then inperceived, if it of deduction : but supersedes the necessity be perceived directly, cannot then we must enquire for a medium. that to be Z, and Now, suppose this medium duction^ we the result of a previousdeperceiveby intuition, or as that X and Y respectively agree with Z, then we infer that they agree with each other. We have thus the formula of positive conclusions :

represent,as

XisZ, YisZ,
therefore X The
:

is

Y.J
this formula
one

axiom

which
terms

determines
agree each is not

is the
same

lowing folthird

If
:

two

with other. Y

and

the

term, they agree

with X

Again
which this
once

Let

represent any
between

in proposition
two

disagreement

is affirmed
not

terms.

If
must

disagreement be
more

we perceived, intuitively

seek for

medium

through

which

to deduce

it.

Vide

supra, p. 84.

f Pages 64, 65.

% Page

211.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

333 that

Let

Z, again,be

that
as

medium

; and
a

suppose

either,

or by intuition, that X perceive

Z ; then We have

deduction,we previous with agrees with Z, but that Y disagrees we inferthat X and Y disagreewith each other. conclusions : thus the formula of negative XisZ, Y is not Z,
the result of X is not Y. this is formula,
and

therefore

The
:

axiom

which

determines
one
j

the

lowing fol-

If of two
same

terms

agrees,

the other

grees disa-

ivith the other. If the two


no

third

term, they disagree with each

terms

both be

inference

could between

with the third term, disagreed made, because no relation could be

established The

them.
are

above

axioms

axioms really of

of pure

science.*

to the formula They apply rigidly this formula is wholly independent

deduction, because
of propositions.

of the matter

It is evident
nor

that

the

can syllogism

have

neither

more

less than
no

three terms.

If it had
a

two

terms, there would

be

deduction,but merely
have
one

terms, it would

term

proposition.If it had four than is requiredfor a more


term

simple deduction
or irrelevant,

; and be

this fourth
a

would

either
a

be

would

term

in

another
may

link of
be

chain nite indefiwhole

of deduction.

A
in

chain

of deduction

of

an

length,as
science is
a

geometry, for example, where


of deduction
the
"

the
and
must

chain

from

the

axioms chain

mary prieach
ever-

definitions ; but consist of the form. recurring


*

links

of the

the syllogism, this being necessarily

Vide

supra, p. 232.

334

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

formula of deduction,has three, or syllogism, and only three, and only three, terms, so also it has three, Two of the propositions contain the comparisons propositions. of the two with the third terms, respectively, The third proposition contains the comparison of term. with each other, in which their agreement the two terms As the

disagreementis inferred. The term with which the two term are compared is called the middle ; the term is called compared with the middle in the first proposition, the major term ; the term compared with the middle in The the second is called the minor term. proposition, first two are propositions togethercalled the premises; The is called the conclusion. and the last proposition which contains the major term, i. e., the first, proposition is called the major premiss; and that which contains the minor term, i. e., the second,is called the minor premiss. But the question arises,what determines the now order of comparisons,or the major term, and the major several principles premiss? Before we can answer this,
or

must

be considered.
1. It is evident

that if all the terms immaterial contained


X and their

it would

be

quite
be

how

we

distributed, arranged the premises.


were

If all X in all

in all

Z,

and

all Y

be

tained con-

Z,

then

cannot

be otherwise

than

compared through Z, in
2. If the
two terms
or

whole
not

extent.

middle
extremes
one

term

be
cannot

then the distributed, be certainlycompared agree


and
a

through it,for it,and


between middle
extreme

of them

might
:

with

one no

part of
relation of the if
one

the other with


them be

another

pare, but

thus

established

distribution

in

one

of the

premises
to to

is

for sufficient,

has been the

compared

the

whole of

of the

middle is

term, and

other

only a part

it,a

relation

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

335

evidentlyestablished
the middle with the whole

between

them,

since

every part
extreme

of

term, in this case, presents the


of

pared com-

it,to

the extreme

compared with
there
can are

apart

of it. it appears,

3. Hence

no premises, particular

again,that where conclusion legitimate


an

two

be drawn
g.

for

we

shall then

have

either Some Some

undistributed

middle, e.

Z is

X,

Y is Z ;

the two a relation between establishing middle with of a distributed extremes ; for the only case is where the middle term is the prediparticular cate premises, of a particular e. g. negative, Some Z is X, Some Y is not Z, Z and X being first affirmed to agree, and in which some Y only being excluded then some from Z, it cannot follow that some Yds other part of not X, since some certainly other part of Y may X may not agree with Z, and some with Z, for particulars of opposite qualities may agree both be true ; and thus the conclusion is left wholly indefinit
or we

shall fail in

4. But

the

case

is

widely different
the middle

where is

one

of the

and premisesis universal,


e.g.

term

distributed,

All Z is Some
here Z all Z

X,
is Z ; the
some :

Y in

being contained
in X No Some

X,

contained

in

must

be contained

also.
Z is

Again
Z,

in the

premises,

X,
is from Y

inasmuch Y

as

the whole in

of Z is excluded it follows that


some

X,

and

some

is contained

Z,

is not

in X.

336

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

it is sufficient premisesis a universal, be distributed, and this takes if only the middle term placewhen the universal premiss is E, or when, if it be A, the middle term is the subject. Hence if
one

of the

5.

We has

may
not

not

distribute

in the

conclusion in that
a

term

which

for this would


cannot

distributed previously violate the cardinal axiom, been


transcend

premiss,
A
quence conse-

its premises.
no

6. From made
;

two

negative premises
in this
we case

inference

can

be

for,since
term,

both

extremes
means

with disagree of this term,

the middle whether

cannot
or

know, by

they
one

agree of the

7. If
must

with each other. disagree the conclusion premises be negative, Here the
one

be

negative also.
to

of
to

the

extremes

is

affirmed middle each

agree, and

term, and
other.

with the disagree, consequentlythey must disagreewith other

8. If
must extreme

be

the conclusion premises be particular, also ; for,although the whole of one particular
one

of the

middle of the

only a

premiss with the premiss,only a part term, yet, as in the particular is compared with the middle other extreme term, part of the first can be compared with the second
compared
universal there
a are

is

in the

in the conclusion. 9. Where


we are

two

universal

positive premises,
two extremes

cannot

draw

universal the

if the conclusion,

both

in predicates
: e.

premises,for then they are

both

undistributed

g.

All Z is X, All Z is therefore Some The Y is X.


term

Y,

ambiguity of

the middle

is

fallacy arising

338

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

We

might

arrange

the

premisesthus
is is is

A,

Y Z Y

Z, X,

A, A,
but the

X,

placed first. major premissis generally Here the two II. Universal tremes exnegative conclusion. there denied of each other. Hence are universally is only one possible arrangement of the terms, viz. : so excluded from the shall be universally that one extreme middle contained universally term, and the other extreme follows : in it, as (1.) E, Z is X,* A, Y is Z, E, Y is X,
The

or

(2.) E, X is Z,f A, Y is Z,
E,
the two Y is X.

only

difference between of the


express

syllogisms above,

is the conversion

Or

we

may

in the last. major premiss, the same thing thus :

The

only difference
the

between

the last two the second.

is the And

sion conver-

of the minor difference between


extreme

in premiss, first and

the

only
the

the last two

is,that
from

which,

in

the

first two, is excluded


two

the the

middle
extreme

term, in the last

is contained

in it ; and

which, in

the first two, is contained is excluded from it.

in the middle

term, in the last


*

two

Celarent.

f Cesare.

Camestres.

% Camenea.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

339

But the

it is evident

that

all these
are

different

forms
same.

satisfy
which

conditions As
to

and required, title of the

the virtually

the

extremes, the
is becomes In
no a

term

becomes the minor of the

the

subjectof

the

conclusion which

called generally the

term, and

that

predicate
tive nega-

as

the major term. conclusion, however, this is of conclusion, it is simply convertible. It


we

universal

account, inasmuch

whether X is Y.

express

the

conclusion

quite immaterial by E, Y is X, or E,
may all be

is

duced reeasily the major ; to the first : the 2, by simplyconverting the 3, by simply converting the minor, and making it to change placeswith the major, and then simply converting the conclusion ; and the 4, by transposing the premises, and simply converting the conclusion.

Indeed,

the

2, 3, and

forms

III. Particular is drawn where where

conclusion. affirmative
one

This

sion conclu-

of the

or affirmative,

both

premises is a particular tives. premisesare universal affirmaa

1. Where all
and
some

one

of the

premisesis
in
a

tive, affirmaparticular in
one

of
to

the middle the other


same

must extreme

be contained the

extreme,
which

of

middle, or,

amounts

the

thing,since
of
which

particularaffirmative
in the other is the
treme. ex-

is

some simply convertible,

the middle

The
:

form

directly presents this (1.) A,


I,
*

lowing fol-

is

X,

I, YisZ,
YisX.*

Darii.

340

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

The three

deduction

here

is

manifestly valid.

There

are

other

forms, viz. :

All

these

evidently fulfil

the

required

conditions.

Here, again,the 2, 3, and 4 forms may be reduced to the the major, transposing first : the 2, by simply converting the conclusion ; the 3, the premises,and then converting
by converting the
and premises, minor
; and

the

4, by transposingthe
that the

convertingthe
of

conclusion.

Scholium.

It will be remarked

change of
the

the

forms, by
of the deduction.

conversion

and propositions,
not

tion transposiof the fully law:

premises,does
We have
seen no

alter
a

the

current

"

that

when proposition, it did before


not

converted,asserts
of transposition their the

more

than

the

premises obviously does


their relation
to

change
and before

character, nor
this

each what

other;
was

since,when
called the the

is made, transposition becomes the minor

major
is

term, and
universal

vice versa,

conclusion 2. Where

to converted, to correspond

it. affirmatives.
course

both

premises
are one

are

Here,

either both

extremes

or undistributed,

only
forms

is

of and predicates, a predicate,and

tributed. undis-

There

are

then

two

Disamis.

f Datisi.

% Dimaris.
IV.

" Supra,

See.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

341

be reduced to the first : the easily 5, the minor by converting premiss into I ; and the 6, by the premise the conclusion. transposing s, and simply converting After the transposition, consider A, X is Z, we is required for the as I, X is Z, for only the particular conclusion. Indeed, these forms are quite unnecessary, since a particular affirmative conclusion requiresonly one universal premiss; and two universals, arranged as above, form the premisesof any thing more. cannot We IV. Particular have seen negative conclusion. that from two particular premises no inference can be where a particular of which the drawn, not even negative, is the predicate, middle and consequentlydistributed, term of the premises. Nor, again,can is one any inference be from two negatives. One at least of the premises, drawn and be a universal, of them must a only one therefore, the extreme negative. If there be two universal premises, in the universal positivemust be a predicate, contained for if both that it be not distributed, extremes were so of a universal the conditions then negative distributed, These also
can

would
a

be fulfilled.

From

this it follows that

we

can

draw ing follow-

negativeconclusion particular
ways
:

only in
must

the

three

1. The the middle contained

whole

of

one some

extreme

be

excluded
must

from be
:

term, and
in it. There

of the other six forms

extreme

are

in this division

Darapti.

t Bramantip.

342

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

(1.) E, ZisX,* I, Y is Z, 0,YisX.

(2.) E, XisZ,f I, Y is Z, 0, YisX.

(3.) E, Z.isX,t A, Z is Y, 0,YisX.

(4.) E, Z is X," I, Z is Y, 0,YisX.

(5.) E, X is Z,|| A, Z is Y, 0, Y is X.
2. The the middle from is whole of
and In
one

(6.) E, X is Z,^[ I, Z is Y, 0, Y is X.
extreme
some

must

be

contained
extreme

in
cluded ex-

term,
it.

only

of the other

this the

precedingis

reversed.

Here

only one

form, viz. :

a)
A, 0, 0,
3. Some
one

X Y Y

is is

Z,** Z,

is X.
term must

of the middle the whole also is

be

excluded in the

from other

extreme, and
Here

of it contained

extreme.

only one

form, viz. :

(8.) 0, Z is X,ft A, Z is Y, 0,YisX.


Every
these three
one

must

perceive, upon
all

divisions embrace

that reflection, sions. conclupossible negative


a

little

Here, again,all the


in their

forms

can

be shown

to be identical to

by reducingall principle,
f Festino. J Felapton.
**

the others

the

first

Ferio.

"

Feriso.

|| Fesapo.

Fresison.

Baroko.

ft

Bokardo.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

343

the major ; 3,by by simplyconverting the minor into I ; 4, by simply converting the converting and converting minor ; 5, by simply converting the major, the minor into I ; and 6, by simply convertingboth the is In these the mode of reduction major and minor.

form.

2 is reduced

obvious

and
:

easy. In

7 and

are

reduced

in

manner

more

circuitous

the

traposition, 7, the major term must be changed by conand the minor changed into I, by connecting with the predicate,* thus : negativeparticle

A,
0,

X Y Y

is is

Z, by contraposition f
" "

E,

not

is

X, Z,

Z, by connectingthe particleI,

is not

0,
In and

isZ,
8, the
minor

0,YisX.
E, by
double

is changed into
as

negation,

major is converted into I, as before ; the premisesare then transposed; and the conclusion, lastly, by a double negationand conversion, is made to correspond well as in form with as legitimately the premises,thus :
converted

is not

before ; the

0, A,

Z is X
Z is Y

converted

into

I,
E,

not

is

Z,
Y.

by

double

negation becomes

is not

Transposing these premises toe


Then and

have

'

is not X

Y,

"

not

is Z.

0,

X, by double negation } conversion gives the proper " 0, not

is

is not

Y.

conclusion

)
IV.
a

Vide

Section

f Contraposition supposes
after the double
a

previousdouble
made

negation ; negation,e.
not

it is
g.

simple
is not

version, con-

change has

been

by

this

E,

is

negation,and

then

by conversion, E,

Z is X.

344
As

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

this is somewhat
:

I complicated,

will

give an

tration illus-

0, A, 0,

"

Some All

oppressedmen
men oppressed are

are

not

discontented

wronged ;
not

Therefore Some

wronged
reduced
as

men

are

discontented."

This,when
E, I, 0,
This
"

above, becomes
are

No Some Some

oppressedmen
not not

not
are

wronged

discontented

men oppressed

discontented

are

not

not

wronged."
of the ticular par-

may

also be reduced

to the first form

term

to A, I, I,by converting the minor positive, viz., and the conclusion into I,by connectingthe negative

and as before, particle

then

thus the premises, transposing minor

0, A, 0, A, 1,

Z is X Z is Y Y is X All Some Some

conver.ed

and

to transposed

I, notX,

is Z

transposedto major
converted
are

A,
I,not

Z is Y X is Y

oppressedmen
not not

wronged
are

discontented discontented

oppressedmen wronged
!$

I,

are

From
but

the

it analysis, foregoing

appears,

that there

are

distinct syllogisms, original comprisingthe four conclusions, A, A, A ; E, A, E ; A, I, I ; possible viz., and E, I, 0, as arranged under the firstform of each kind ; all the other forms being capable of a legitimate tion reduc"

four

to these

primary
*

forms.

Whately'sLogic, Book

IL,

Ch.

iii., " 5.

346

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

Now the basis

all of

this

is is is the

evident Dictum

and de

the omni denied is under

axiom nullo

which of

forms

it,

et

Aristotle,
buted, distridenied

viz.,

Whatever

affirmed

or

of affirmed
it.

any

term

(i.
every

e.

taken

universally,) comprehended

or

of

particular

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

347

SECTION

VI.

OF

MOODS

AND

FIGUKES.

Syllogismis determined by the quantity and quality of the three propositions which it, compose and is represented by the corresponding symbols ; thus, which gives A, A, A, expresses the mood of the syllogism conclusion ; and so with respect to the a universal positive
a

The

Mood

of

others. refers to the situation of the Figure of a Syllogism in the premiseswith respect to the middle term. extremes there are but four variations that can be Now, obviously, the middle be the subjectin both term must made, viz., in both ; or the subjectof the premises; or the predicate major, and the predicateof the minor ; or the predicate of the minor. The following of the major, and the subject table presents their several relations
:

The

(1.) ZisX, Y is Z,
YisX. Now
as

(2.) XisZ, Y is Z,
YisX.

(3.) ZisX, Z is Y,
YisX. kinds of

X Z

(4.) is Z, is Y,

YisX.

A, E, I, propositions, all the 0, and three are appropriatedto each syllogism, be sixty-four.For must of combining them possible ways into four different minors, four different majors multiplied is a combination and these again into four different conclusions, of four,three times, 4 X 4 X 4=64. Kegarding it
there
are

four

348

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

as can

mere

arithmetical
each stated

problem, since
varieties
of

the

Moods sixty-four

be

in the

four different
the

Figures,we syllogism.

shall The

have

in all 4x64=256

arithmetical is logicians,
utmost

determination, however, although noticed


of very little
use.

by
the
the

We

find out in this way


we are

limit of the

but syllogisms, the

not

aided,in
the

between least,in discriminating This laid down

true

and

false.

discrimination
in the

can

be made

only on

the

principles

preceding section ; and which have there been applied to determining the legitimate and required and independently of the apparatus of Moods syllogisms, Figures.
there
Moods The ; of may and

And

yet, after having completed this analysis,

in employing convenience perhaps be some the different forms. Figures in distinguishing have seen,
are

legitimateforms, we which, one


four for

in

all nineteen

only is
universal for
the four

used

for universal

clusions, conpositive

positive,and
These which All
are

eight
in the

negative, six for particular particularnegative conclusions.


different

found

Figures. forms, is
can

That

figure
to these

embraces the other

cardinal have seen,

called the first.

forms, we

be reduced

cardinal

forms. lines following


the have been contrived ; and the
to to aid in
mitting comone

The

Moods of

to

memory

present,

at to

view, the primary : Fig. Fig.

mode

reducing

secondary Moods

the

1.

bArbArA,

cElArEnt, dArll,

f ErIOque

ons. prise-

2.

cEsArE, cAmEstrEs,
cundae.

f EstlnO,

bArOkO,

Fig. 3.

tertia, dArAptl, dlsAmls, dAtlsI, f ElAptOn, bOkArdO, ErlsO, habet : quarta insuper

addit.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

349

Fig. 4.

brAniAntlp, cAmEnEs,
frEsIsOn.

dlmArls, fEsApo,

In mood be

the

above, the
g. In

initial letters the

of the first figureto which


: e.

b, c, d, f,denote secondary mood


so

the
must

reduced

brAmAntlp
;
*

the b indicates and

that

it

is to be reduced
The

to bArbArA

of the others.
; s, denotes

capitalletters
of the

denote

the moods

the

which precedesit ; p, proposition which the conversion per accidens of the proposition cedes preit,i. e., the conversion of A into I, or of I into Af ; be transposed. m, (mutandi) that the premises must Bokardo and Baroko are names given in reference to of reduction Beductio ad impossibile; a method employed The B in respect to these moods. by some, particularly

simple conversion

denotes
and

that

the that

new

mood

is to

be

formed

in Barbara

the

K,

for the

ing proposition immediatelyprecedthe conclusion


must

of it,the contradictory These been

be

tuted. substi-

moods, however, have


in the

in the

tions precedingsec-

reduced

ordinary way.J
is true in Darn.
not

If reduced This
last

to
occurs

Barbara, it of
in

course

f
the

Bramantip only, and


into
a

here

hecause the
new

can particular

he converted legitimately

but because universal, conclusion.


and it becomes the

arrangement
the

of

premisesrequiresa
in the

universal
1st

The

of transposition

premises
nature

placesthe mood X
best upon The kind

Fig.
to

Barbara

necessarily.
are

of arguments
an

which

different moods

in

their
not

adapted,is
of any

of very investigation

high
the

interest.

I have

entered
the

it in this treatise.

Perhaps
Dr.

I shall undertake

it hereafter.

In

sence ab-

I to offer, thing original


from
one

take

of appending the liberty work.

ing followin
a

remarks striking
note
"

Whately's excellent
of Book of the first three
awkwardness
an

They
4
:

are

given
is

at

the foot of

of the pages the


use

Ch. in., " II.,

With

respect to
but

Figures (for the


it expression,) will be

fourth
be

never

employed
that

by

an

accidental

of

may
to

remarked,
most to

the First is that into


in

which

argument
"

found
we

fall the

naturally,except something
that has

the

following cases: maintained, or


is

First,When likelyto
be

have

disprove

been

our believed,

arguments

350

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

will

usually
we

be

found that the

to

take

most

conveniently
are

the of whole is

form

of

the

Second

Figure,
a

viz. either

prove because it has

thing
what of warned submit and his

we

speaking
to

cannot

belong
that Class

to

such

Class,
or

it

wants

belongs
which his
'

the

of

(Cesare),
;
e.

be~

cause

something
have

that

Class

destitute Jesus
'

(Camestres)
did,
enthusiast of the would

'

g.

No

impostor they
would

would have which

followers,
and

as

persecutions
have
patiated, ex-

to

to

again,
did

An

Jesus

followers

not,

on

the

particulars

of

future

state.'
"

The

same

observations in

will Festino
in

apply,
and

mutatis

mutandis,

when

Particular

conclusion

is

sought,

as

Baroko. called this the the


'

"

The
be

arguments
the most

used

the

process
to

Abscissio

Infiniti,'

will

in

general
"

easily
is,

referred of

Figure.
one

The

Third since

Figure
a

course,
term

employed
be
a

when This used when be


'

the is

Middle also the

term

is
into

Singular,
which

Singular

can

only

Subject.
are

form

most

arguments
of

will

naturally
to
an

fall

that

to

establish his

an

jection obis

(Enstasis
such
as

Aristotle)
that Premiss

opponent's
be Universal. contends

Premiss,
It

argument

to

require

to

might
that

called,
or

therefore,
doctrine

the

Enstatic

Figure.
to

E.

G.

If

any
it

one

this

that

ought
his

not

be

admitted,

because
be

cannot

be

explained
the

or

comprehended,'
that
(

suppressed
of the

major
Body
part
of

premiss
and the Soul

may
cannot

refuted

by

argument

the

nection con-

be of

explained
Butler's

or

comprehended,'
may be

8fc.
exhibited in

"A this form."

great

reasoning

Analogy

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

351

SECTION

VII.

OF

THE

KEDUCTION

OF

SYLLOGISMS.

duction, Syllogismsis of two kinds, Ostensive Reand Eeductio ad impossibile. The aim in both of is to prove the validity kinds,in respect to Syllogisms, the secondaryforms. Here the proof is made out I. Ostensive Reduction. by showing the identityof the secondary and primary forms ; and this is done by actually changing the secondary into the primary,without making them assert more, or, from what they did before. differently This change is effected by conversion of terms, and shown of premises. But it has been fully transposition of
"

Seduction

that the

these

do not

effect either

the kind

or

the extent

of

the secondary are reduced to the predication.When primary form, the proofis made out, because these forms of the Dictum de omni et nullo. are a direct expression II. Reductio ad impossibile. By this method we prove the validity of a secondary Syllogism of reasonas a form ing, sion by showing that if we grant the premises, the conclube a valid be false. For that in all cases cannot must draw cannot a false we form, by which,from true premises,
"

conclusion.

of

simply this : Since by the opposition be true if its conmust tradictory propositions, every proposition be false, and false if its contradictory be true,

The

method

is

352

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

we

take
or

the

of contradictory in

the

conclusion
construct

of the with

logism Syl-

a as it, premiss in connection with another unquestionablepremiss, if the a new Syllogism in the first Figure. Now then be false, the assumed conclusion thus deduced new for there is no question respecting premissmust be false, of the form in the first Figure ; and if the asthe validity sumed then the original conclusion of premiss be false, be true : e. g. Let us must which it is the contradictory

form

and question,

take

Baroko

A, 0, 0,
If this conclusion

is

Y Y

Z, is Z,
is X. is true, true,its contradictory
a new

be not us,

A, viz.,
with

is X.

Let

then, construct

this
we

This

in the a as contradictory premiss, do by merely substituting it for can


the above

Syllogism first Figure.


the minor
a clusion con-

premissin
in

Syllogism ; we
:

shall then draw

Barbara, thus

A, A, therefore,

is

Z,
;

Y Y

is X is Z.

A,
Now
the

it will be

perceived that
the

this

new

conclusion
"

is

minor premiss, and the original premises it will be recollected were granted ; hence it be false ; and being false, the new must premiss is false, and this being false, its contradictory, the original sion, conclumust

of contradictory

be true.

All

the

secondaryforms

may

be

tested

in the

same

way,

e.

g. Feriso.

E, Z is X, 1, Z is Y, 0,YisX.

354

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

SECTION

VIII.

OF

MODAL,

HYPOTHETICAL,
PROPOSITIONS.

AND

DISJUNCTIVE

do not differ in form from propositions what X is Y called pure are propositions. categorical of The modality is merely a peculiarity representsboth. the matter, and consequentlydoes not pertain to the pure modal formula. logical Besides,in the matter itself, positions probe so disposedas to become can pure categoricals. ject words This is effected by attachingthe modal to the subthe all It is probable that or predicate. E. G. i. e. knowledge is useful/'
"

I. Modals.

These

"

Sub.
"

Pred. is

All

knowledge

probably

useful."

Again
"It is

that possible

he may

arrive to-morrow
Pred.

"

i. e.

"

His

arrival

to-morrow

is

possible."

A
several

subject and words, but

predicate may
this cannot
"

each

be

expressed by

affect the form.

which tain conHypotheticals. These are propositions a hypothesisin one of their terms, and are therefore like Modals capable of being reduced under the categorical form. Where the force of the reasoninglies in the

II.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

355

the hypothesis that this is not

case

the

widelydifferent ; but it is evident fact in Examples like the following : Every Z is X or p, Every Y is Z ;
is

therefore,

Every
The aim X here is not
or

is X

or

p.

to conclude

which Y
a

of the
or

two

is;whether
III.

but
"

only that

is X kind

p.

Disjunctives.These are of several consisting propositions,


which D.
true
are or

of

compound
of C
or

one categoricals,

is affirmed Now
;
or

to be
can

true

e.

g. A

is either

or

if if

we

deny
affirm A

all but
one

one, then

that
the

one

is

we

can

to be

true, then
C.

others is D
:

false ; A A is

thus, But

is not

or

C ; therefore A
nor

D,

therefore it is neither

proposition, however, is capableof being Disjunctive to a pure categorical, reduced like a Modal thus :
Sub. Pred.

All A

not

or

is

Or,
Sub. Pred.

All A A forms

not

B such

or

is

0. the usual

with Syllogism
;
e.

contains propositions

g.

Every
AU
Z

not

or

C is D.

is A

notTTorO.

all Z Therefore,
"

is D.
or

It is either it is neither

but it is

Spring, Summer, Autumn, Spring,Autumn, nor Winter


e.

Winter
; therefore

Summer,"
season

i.

Every
Summer.

not

Spring, Autumn,

or

Winter,

is

356

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

The
the

present present
we

season

is is

season

not

Spring,

"c.,

fore, there-

season

Summer. be
and

When
of the

affirm
the

one

to

true,
may D

infer
be made

the

falsity
thus
:

others,

same

reduction

No

being
Z

is

or

C, D,
C.

is

being
B
or

Therefore,
No

is

not

season

being
season

Summer,
is
a

is

Autumn

or

Winter,

"c.

The

present

season

being

Summer

fore, there-

"c.

Or,
the form

again,
of
a

Syllogism

of thus

this

kind

may

be

put

into

conditional,
If
Then

is A

not

or

C,

is

D,

"c.

It

is

evident, require already

therefore,
no new

that

the

preceding
but lie

kinds within

of the

propositions principles

formula,

established.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

357

SECTION

IX.

HYPOTHETICAL

REASONING.

A
a e.

Conditional

consists proposition of which is


a

of

an

Antecedent

and
"

each Consequent,
g.9

distinct

proposition,

"

If the

are Scriptures

not

whollyfalse,

They

are

entitled If Then Y Y

to

is

respect." Z,

is X.

There

are

two

rules

generally appliedin hypothetical


be

soning.
1. If the Antecedent

granted, the
is Z,

Consequent

is

granted also

e.

g.,

If

But

is not is not

X,
Z.

Therefore, Y

358

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

The that
a

first rule is founded false Antecedent The


second
or

upon

the

obvious

Premiss

cannot

principle, yield a true


the
no

conclusion. obvious

rule is founded

upon

less

be that an Antecedent Premiss must or principle, which yieldsa false conclusion. false, infer of an antecedent,we cannot But, from the falsity the falsity flow of the consequent, for the consequent may
out

of

some

other

antecedent If Then Y Y

which is

is true

e.

g.,

Z,

is X.

still Y is X be Now, suppose Y is Z to be false, may other antecedent,e. g., Y is P. proved by some differs from really Hypotheticalreasoning categorical, only in that, one of the premises is a hypothesis. The formula If Y the same. and all the principles is Z, are then Y is X : this is an affirmation that if one proposition be granted, another be granted also. must But, one proposition
alone then and
can

cannot

authorize
of
an

an

inference.
the have

We

here

have
one we

only part
of the
the

argument, viz. :
Which
There the

conclusion
we, and

premises.
other 1 contains

premiss
is
no

supply

difficulty.The major
terms ;

conclusion the other

always

minor

and

premiss contains the middle, together with in either the major or minor. Now, if there be a term the same the antecedent the subject of the or as premiss,1 then the given premiss is the consequent or conclusion, the predicate of the minor premiss ; but if the same as consequent, then the given premiss is the major. And in either case, in order to supply the wanting premiss,we the middle have with that term of term only to connect the conclusion which is not found in the given premiss or
antecedent
: e.

g.,

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

359

If Then Here the

Y Y

is

Z,
the lowing fol-

is X.

to according wanting premiss,obviously, above, is the major,which supply,and we have the : syllogism Z isX, If Y is Z,

Then Or
we

Y
:

is X. It is

"

that if Y is affirmed, Z, then Y is X : but why does it follow, that,if Y is Z, The answer Z is X Y is X also ? Because to be givenis, Y in Z, then if Y is contained be contained in must Z is contained in X. X also, because "If the Scripturesare then the not wholly false, entitled to respect." are Scriptures is But, why does this follow? Because, Whatever is entitled to respect." Or, "Every not wholly false, of pure morality and book heavenly promises,"c., not is entitled to respect : wholly false, " such a book, not whollyfalse," If the Scriptures are "c." Then the Scriptures, another case * in which the minor Take premiss is wanting : Z is X, If
may
"
"

state it thus

"

Then The antecedent here the

Y is X. be the cause bemajor premiss, the predicate of the

must

it compares

middle

with

The
out

of suppression of the

the minor
the
a

premiss,and

the

construction
case

of

tional condicedent ante-

major

and

conclusion, gives that


different See

in which
some,

the is

and
to involve note

consequent have

and which, by subject, Book

supposed

difficulties. peculiar

Whately'sLogic,

II., Chap, iv., " 6,

at the foot of the page.

360

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

consequent
minor be X
"

or

conclusion. is
must

We

can

The

affirmation

that, If
marks of

easilysupply the is X, then Y must


Because Y is Z. of

also.

But, why

this follow ?

If whatever

exhibits
;
must

designis
of
an

the work

an

Creator Intelligent
"

Then

the universe But

be the work

Intelligent

Creator."

why?
universe exhibits marks of

design." In ordinary language, all reasoningis usually in an Enihymematic form ; i. e., one premiss is suppressed; because,when one premissand the conclusion are stated, the mind, generally, Thus readily suppliesthe other. guage, lanthe syllogism just above, usually appears, in ordinary it is afwith the major suppressed ; since when firmed telligen Inuniverse must be the work of an that, "The of design," Creator,because it exhibits marks exhibits the ground that," Whatever assents on every one of an be the work of design, must marks Intelligent
Because,
Creator." Conditional a by logicians, is nothing more than an enthymeme, with Proposition, the givenpremisshypothesised. And to grant the antecedent, is merely to remove the hypothesis. The hypothesis has nothing to do with the pure logical form, for,that is owing to considerations lying we ever hypothesise wholly of our reasoning. And to reduce in the matter or subjects have we a conditional, only to supply the suppressed premiss. The validityof the Kules before given, now, also, of the syllogism. to arise out of the nature appears clearly To grant the antecedent, is to grant the consequent, granted, because,since the suppressed premissis of course is to antecedent to grant the not being hypothesised, What therefore is called

"The

362

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

SECTION

X.

OF

THE

DILEMMA.

dilemma

by bringing together several that different so antecedents Propositions,


same

is formed

ditional Conshall shall shall

have have have

the

consequent;

or,

antecedents different
same

different consequents ; different consequents.


I. Different If A Then A is is Antecedents

or, the

antecedent

with is is

the

B, X,

And

if A A

then

C, X,
we

Consequent. And if A is D, then A is X, "c.


same
can

Now, But,
AisX.

if the

matter

be such
:

that

disjunctively
follow that

grant the antecedents,thus


A is

B,

or

C,

or

; then

it must

II. Different If A Then Now A


here

Antecedents
If A then

with is is

different

is is

X, B,

Y,

Consequents. If A is Z,
A
we

C,

then that
we

is D.
cannot

again,if the matter is such disjunctively grant the antecedents, then

must
:

tively disjunc-

grant the consequents likewise : thus But A is X, or Y, or Z.


Therefore III.
The
same

is

B,

or

C,

or

D. different quents. Conse-

Antecedents

with

If A Then A

is is

B, X,

If A then A

is is

B, Y,

If A then A

is

B,

is Z.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

363

Now,
antecedent

if

we

from perceive

the matter, that the

common

admits

of all these consequents, then

of course,
sequents. con-

by grantingthe
Where
we

common

antecedent, we

grant all the


establish

grant the

antecedent,and
consequent, and
in the

the

consequent, the dilemma


But where
we

is called constructive. the

deny

destroy the

antecedent, the dilemma


We have

is called destructive.

preceding section, that the hypothesis arises from the peculiar character of the matter of the proposition form ; for the logical poses supthe connection between the subject and predicate to be certain. And here again the possibility of disjuncso tively the antecedents,or of disjunctively affirming ing denythe consequents, lies in the peculiar character of the The force and keenness of the dilemma, as a matter. in debate, arises from the matter also,and from weapon
many

already remarked

relations and
how

circumstances
to

of which
: e.
or

the

forensic

disputant knows
may be
so

avail himself his

g. , An

individual

situated
or more

that

words,
he

justifytwo
from
must
one or

inferences of which the

conduct,or both, for himself, unfortunate


cannot

the
one

other fact
or

escape.

He
cedent ante-

admit

other,and

either

is

an

involving a
described
the second

We stingingconsequent. of kind of Dilemma, and


are

have which

here the

several antecedents

the

"horns"

"

: e.

g.,

If iEschines
; if he
or

joined in
did

the

he public rejoicings, he
or

is inconsistent either

not, he is unpatriotic ; but


he the

joined

not

therefore From
we

is either
denial the

inconsistent
of
one
or

unpatriotic."
consequents,
of the
the
cedents ante-

the
one

other of the
or

necessitate
; and

denial

of
no

the

other

this proves
we

less

forcible than

other
in the

mode.

Thus

may

state

the

precedingexample

364

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

following
not

"

manner

If

iEschines

is if he
or

consistent, he
is
not

did did he

join
in

in

the
:

public rejoicings;
but

patriotic, he
; therefore

join

them
not

he

either
or

joined

is either
The mode dilemma
one

consistent,
kind
the

not

patriotic."
taken who is
so

first
here ; for

is

forcible

in the

the

constructive

individual
in

subject
that

of

the

is involved
be

several
and any

facts,
one

related,
to

some

must

admitted,

leads

the

torturing

inference.
The
to

third

kind
a

is the

weakest,
at
"

and

perhaps ought
only
one

not
tecedent, an-

be

considered it

dilemma the
a

all.

Having
In

wants

horns."

the the
common

constructive antecedent
to

mode,
involves

it is

merely

conditional,
; and

in which this is

several

consequents

many in

conditionals,
debate. On

without the the


other

yielding hand,

any

peculiar advantage
is
no

there

point
denial
so

in

tively disjuncone

denying
of
them

consequents,
the
common

since

the

of any

destroys
force
of the

antecedent,
is found
in
one

that
the

the

whole

argument

of

simple

conditionals. Where different


are

the

dilemma
the

has
of

the
the

subject

of the

consequents
the
dents antece-

from

subject

antecedents,
is obvious

major
the the it may

premises.

This

from

what

was

shown

in

preceding
dilemma
be

section. is

Since

merely
into

combination

of and

tionals, condiditional con-

resolved
to

these

again,

each

reduced the

the

complete

syllogism, by supplying

suppressed

premiss.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

365

SECTION

XL

OF

THE

SORITES.

This

is

several

abridged form Syllogisms. It is


an

of

an

argument

either

of consisting or categorical tical. hypothe-

I.

Categorical Sorites.
the first

"

This

is

so

arranged

that

the

is the subject of the proposition second, and the predicateof *the second the subjectof the In every new third,and so on. a new cate prediproposition in the last propositionit is inferred ; and appears that the first subjectagrees with the last predicate; e. g. A is B, B is C, C is D, D is E ; therefore A is E. It is the last predicate may evident that in the same manner truth be affirmed of all the intermediary subjects. The in B, of the argument is evident If all A is contained and all B in C, and all C in D, and all D in E, then all A, B, and C must be contained in E likewise. shall perceive we By carefully inspecting the Sorites, of the series is a minor that the first proposition premiss, and all the other propositions major premises, except the have here parts of which is a conclusion ; so that we last, sion which related that the concluseveral Syllogisms, are so the minor of the precedingbecomes premiss of the succeeding ; and the Sorites is constructed by suppressing
.

predicate of

all the

minor

premises

but
:

the

and first,

all the

sions conclu-

but

the last ; thus

366

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

The

Sorites is formed
first form

of the

i. e. Primary Syllogisms,
in

those
the

of the

Figure, because
of the

this,inasmuch change by
the
to

as

it is

natural
or

Syllogism,no
be
one

sion conver-

otherwise

has

to

made

in

propositionsin another,which

them transferring will be the


case

from
in the

Syllogism

other ;
e.

is

continually changing
would

since the middle term figures, Syllog. In Darapti the 1st gism

be, BisC,
B is

Some

is

A, C,

and

then

the

next

Syllogismis
Some Some

C is A A

D, is C, D,

is

Which

is Darii
A is C.

; and

this

can

be

prevented only by
the be is

verting con-

It will be

perceived,also,that
a

first and

last propositions
;

of

Sorites
the

alone first

can

Particular

for the

major premiss in
the minor
term
a

Figure

but always universal, may be

and

the has

conclusion
a

particular.
be negative. D
two

Where last term

Sorites

Negative Conclusion,only the


the

of the A A

before series, is

Conclusion,can
is
we

Thus,
therefore No

B,

is

0,

D,

and

No have

is

E,

is E. in the

Otherwise

should

gative Ne-

Premises II.

Syllogisms.
"

HypotheticalSorites.
and

This

consists of the

series of

so related Conditionals,

arranged,that

Consequent

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

367

of the the and


we

first

becomes of the

the

Antecedent the

of Antecedent the indeed is

the

second of the

and

Consequent
so on

second,

third,

and last
:

then,

by granting
and A A

first

Antecedent,
the is quents, Conse-

grant

the thus

Consequent,
A is is

all if A A is

If A

B,

then

C,
;

and

C,

then

is

D,
A

and is E.

if

D,

then

is E

but

B,

fore there-

By deny
Sorites.
to

denying
the

the

Consequents
; and can, ;

successively,
this
as

we

of

course

Antecedents The Conditional

forms

the

destructive be reduced will of be the

before the
way

shown,

complete
to

Syllogisms
related in

and the

then
same

Syllogisms
with of those
each

found

be

Categorical Syllogism
The

Sorites, viz., the


the minor

conclusions

preceding
one.

being

premiss
between of
one

of each the of the


two

succeeding kinds,

only difference, then,

lies in

in the

the last

hypothetical
kind. A Sorites
or

character

premises

may

be

constructed
as

either in

by

suppressing

the

major

minor,
It
"

just
appears

conditionals from the all its


or

general. Analysis modes, Every


the
and

Scholium.

preceding
different

of

Hypothetical
it involves Deduction omni
et
no

reasoning
new

under

that of de

formulae is
the

principles. by

kind

therefore

comprehended
axioms
of

Dictum

nullo,
The

and

agreement
are

ment. disagree-

fundamental

Ideas and

Evolution,

Identity

and

Difference, Quantity

Quality.

368

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

SECTION

XII.

APPLICATION

OF

THE

DEDUCTIVE

FORMULA.

The

greater part of human


The number of first

reasoningis

of the

Deductive

kind. is

and principles

general truths

comparativelyfew, but their applicationis infinite. litics, and Poin Keligion,Morals Many of them, and especially have been spontaneously developed in the human mind others,the result of nice and laborious ; and many become have investigation, current, through the means which exist for widely circulating now knowledge. In the constant expansion of knowledge by scientific men ; and the improvements of art by the ingeniousand skilful ; and in the multiform practicalduties of the general human these first great principles truths and receive their life, there continual and diversified application. Hence is no tive department of knowledge, of art,or of duty, where DeducLogic is not required. But are quired reConclusions, in order to be legitimate, drawn to be strictly according to the deductive formula? By no means, if we intend by this the formal expression of every step of the reasoning. This is not for many implied when not things are so plainly necessary, cumber only enexpressed, that their formal expression would of legitimate in every case the style. But still, and the Ianinference no logical be violated, can principle

370
order

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

monstrat alreadydepropositions it is are employed in demonstrating others, evident that one arrangement may be superiorto another in affording demonstration.* facilities for the progressive After the science has been it is highly constructed, the order, and advantageous and beautiful,to reverse back trace remote propositionsthrough the connected of

arrangement

for since

chain In in

of demonstrations

to the

axioms
the
an

and

definitions. formula
of direct

the application of illustrating


I science,

Deductive instance

this

shall
The

first take

demonstration.
: following
"

propositionI

have

selected

is the

line which

bisects the vertical

divides the base


to the

into two

angle of a triangle, segments, which are proportioned


both
from that

adjacent sides."
have
in

We

this

deductions proposition,

axioms, and
it will A
serve

from

deduced, so propositions previously


and triangle, the

to illustrate both.

is the D.

angle at

is bisected

by

the line C
Now

tions by bringing in other relabesides those simply presented in the triangle, we to C D, so thaK produce a line A C, and draw B E parallel

to aid the

deduction

the
case

two

lines thus

added

meet

in

E.

We

now

have

of alternate
and
an

lines

angles included between intersectingline, and this


:

two

parallel
our

is

first

as syllogism,

follows

Corollaries

are

important links
in all
cases
"

in the chain

of demonstration. In the usual


deduced deduction instances

They
from is not
the

are

which propositions of
a

require demonstration.
An ohvious
it is
"

definition
thing some-

it Corollary,

is said to he

consequence

going
hut of the

hefore."

But

because
the

the ohvious,"

given,
it is

left to be

suppliedhy
more

learner

; and

yet

in

some

deduction

Corollaryis

difficult than

that

of other

where propositions

formally given.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

371

All alternate But


the

angles are

equal ;
E B

and anglesBCD these anglesare Therefore

are

alternate

angles;

equal.

But and

BCD

and

this leads to another B E C D B C is is

equal by construction viz. : syllogism, equal to A C D, equal to B C D,


D
are

Therefore

"

E i. e. All
B

B
as as

C is
an
an

equal to

C
B

All E Therefore All E In the

D, C,
C,

equal,is equal,is equal, is


minor
a

contained contained

in A in B

D, C D,
C D.

as

an

contained

in A

second is made

deduction,the
the
case

conclusion

of the first

deduction

premiss :
one

it will be

remarked,
out

that this is therefore

of the Sorites ; but the Sorites deduction flows of

comprehends
another.
Or
we

all

cases

where

may the

deduce
same

it

from directly

the

axiom,
other

"

equal to

thing,are

equal to

each

"

Things thus,

372
All other ;
E B

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

things equal to
C and A C D

the

same

thing,are

equal to

each

are

thingsequal to
to

the

same

thing,

viz.

BCD;
Therefore This is a
It

they

are

equal
which that

each

other. forms of the

of syllogism is evident
the

the axiom in all


cases

major

premiss.
ffom
an

deduction

axiom,

axiom

must

form

the

major premiss.

the diagram still farther, we perceivethat Inspecting and the angles ACD and C E B are an outward inward side of a line angle,oppositeto each other on the same A E, cuttingthe two parallel lines C D and E B ; hence their equalityis inferred as in the first deduction ; the before proved, major premissbeing here again a proposition and inward viz., All outward oppositeangles on the side of a line intersecting two same parallellines,are equal." But have justbefore inferred the equality of A C D we and E B infer again from the axiom C, therefore we the equality of already quoted, and, in the same way, C E B and E B C ; thus, All thingsequal to the same thing are equal to each
"

other C

; E B

and

are

thingsequal
each
a

to

the

same,

viz.

ACD;

Therefore, they
We
two

are

equal to angles of
;
we

other.
B

have

now

two

E triangle

C, opposite equalityof

of its

sides, equal
a

therefore

infer the

these

sides from

again becomes
"

the

propositionalready proved, which here thus : major premiss of the syllogism,


two

Every triangle equal in respect to


to

of its

angles,

is

equal also in respect


"

the

two

sides

oppositethese

angles ;

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

373
of its

The

E triangle

B and

C is
E

equal in triangle
C ; sides

two

angles,viz.

it is equal Therefore, angles,viz. the sides E C

in the two and


B

oppositethese

C.

A B E, we perceive the whole triangle next Inspecting B and that it is a triangle A A E, having its two sides, divided by a line C D parallel E B ; we to its base can therefore infer the proportionality of the segments of the sides from a proposition alreadydemonstrated, thus : Every triangle having a line drawn parallelto its base dividing is a triangle whose sides its other two sides, divided proportionally are ; The triangle A B E is such a triangle ; Therefore its sides are divided proportionally, viz.
"
"

AD:DB::AC:OE.

But,

if A
to

C is C

proportionalto C E, B, equal to C E ; for


a

it must

be

portional pro-

E C C

C is
B B

of AC; proportional C ; therefore of proportional A C.

and

is E is
a

Hence The above

AD:DB::AC:CB.
the formula

that shows conclusively analysis

of Deduction

permeates geometricaldemonstration.

Although, for the purposes of demonstration,it is not whole deduction in to draw out the generally, necessary, be gainedof Geometry, still a better insightwould detail, and illustrations afforded of this part of Logic striking if it were done. occasionally Indeed,by raising questions and definitions in order to show respectingthe axioms intuitive character, as well as by their necessary and the study of Geometry may analysingthe demonstrations, with the highest be connected and be made parts of Logic,

374
to

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

embrace
this

the

whole, with
be

the

of exception

Induction

happilyconnected with the whole of natural science. The study of science would range and Science thus be placed on the most elevated grounds, herself be clothed with light with a garment. as In the course of the preceding analysiswe have ferred reto several propositions previously proved. Now we might go back to these and analyse them in like manner,
and

again may

until
and

we

should

repose

amid

the

axioms

and

definitions

But this process has been so governingIdeas. that I do not deem amply, and I hope so clearly indicated, it necessary. One of the propositions referred to, however, affords
an

their

illustration

of

the

indirect

mode

of

otherwise called the Reductio ad absurdum, demonstration, the Reductio ad impossibile. I will therefore proceed or of this one of the demonstration to give an analysis position proThe proposition is stated as follows : more. "Every triangle equal in respect to two of its angles, is equal also in respect to the two sides oppositethese angles." If this be not true, its contradictory is true, viz. : " Some equal in respect to two of their angles, triangles sides opposite these not equal in respect to the two are angles/' Let A B C be the triangle having its two angles A and B equal. Now if the contradictory be true, and the two opposite then of course sides B C and A C, are not equal, must one
" "

be greater than
to be

the

other. take

Let
A

us on

therefore A

suppose

the greater, and

Next
the

the

Now joinB D. triangleABC; in contradictory,

C, equal to B C. have a triangleA D B within we and, comparing them, we have, by D,


the first side triangle, A
D

equal to

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

375

to C, in the second ; also the side A B is common both ; also, both in the procontained by the hypothesis position and the contradictory, the angle A in the first, is equal to angle B, in the second. But it has previously been shown in the chain of geometricaldeductions,that " Any two triangles having two sides and the included angle in the one, equal to two sides and the included This we angle in the other,are equal each to each." then add assume a as a major premiss; and as minor,

side B

tory, ADB and A B C, by the contradictriangles having two sides and the included are, two triangles angle in the one, equal to two sides and the included " Hence The the conclusion, two angle of the other/' ADB and A B 0 are equal." triangles The
two

"

as a minor contradictory premiss in connection with an unquestionablemajor. But what is the conclusion ? That contained in one triangle, ADB, another A B C, is equal to its container ; i. e. triangle, That a The conclusion part is equal to a whole. then, we

Here

assumed

the

inasmuch
than any

as

it violates

the

axiom,

"

whole the

is greater the of

of its
must

parts/' is false.
be traced
to the

But

of falsity
one or

conclusion the
was

of falsity

both

since the premises, granted ; therefore

form the

is correct is falsity in

; but

the minor

major
; and

the

376

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

the the

minor

being

false,
is of the the the

its

contradictory

must

be

true

but

contradictory
Illus'

original Syllogism

proposition.
can

rations
and

be

drawn

from
to

ometry Genite indefi-

from The and

Mathematics

generally,
will
answer

an

extent.

above,

however,
work.

the

ends

of

general

elementary

378
the matter

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

tion, propositions employed in deducis where and also a rigidadherence to the formula to used to conceal the Fallacy in the matter, this appears be the most appropriate division to which they can be

they lie in

of

assigned.
I. Fallacies been
set forth
in the

Formula. the

"

These

have

virtually
in
mary sum-

alreadyin
more :

Analysis

of the Formula here than


a

Section

Y.

Nothing
of them

is necessary

view

1.

Undistributed

Middle;

e.

g.

I, A, A, Here, although
some

is is

X, Z,
in

Y Y

is X.

all Y in

is contained

Z, yet
Z

as

only
that

Z Z

is contained which

Y,

and

only some
may

in
no

X,

part of

is contained
can
"

in X

contain
an

part of

Y,

and

thus

there

be

no

ground

for

inference.

2. Illicit Process.
a

This

the fallacy of designates which has not been

tributin disviously pre-

term

in the conclusion in the

and thus corresponding premiss, drawing a conclusion beyond the data; e. g. A, Z is X, A, Z is Y, A, Y is X. 3. Two Negative Premises. Here, since both terms excluded from the middle, no comparison of them are can be made through it ; e. g. E, Z is X, E, Y is Z. 4. Positive Conclusion, where there is a Negative Premiss where both premisesare ; or a Negative Conclusion, positive.
"

distributed

5. Particular

Premises.

"

In

all cases

where

both

pre-

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

379
undistributed

mises
or
an

are

we particular,

shall have

an or

middle,
or

illicitprocess

of the

major

the minor

term,

both

combined.
6. More
an

than

three

terms two

attempt

to combine

'plainly expressed. Syllogismsinto one.


"

This

is

the falsityof the conclusion 7. Inferring


the

from that

that

of

premiss;
The

or

the truth

of

the

premiss

from

of the

conclusion. first of these fallacies appears


or

where, when
used

an

adequate ina

false the

argument
the

has

been

to establish

and conclusion,

argument having been


conclusion

refuted, successfully e.

it is inferred that be
men

is false ; the soul

g. If it

argued

in favor of the
a

immortality of

that

all

admittingthat the argument nation might be refuted by adducing the instance of some who manifest no conceptionof immortality, still this is no ground for concluding againstthe doctrine. The argument but the doctrine of immortality must go for nothing, This still have a real and impregnable foundation. may indeed,identifies itself with the illicit fallacy, process ; e. g. A, Z is X, I, Y is Z, I, Y is X. is supposed in the example as Now, if the minor be refuted, above, then the argument will stand A, Z is X, 0, Y is not Z, 0, Y is not X. In which there is an illicitprocess of the major. The of these fallacies, the truth second inferring viz., is a case of the premiss,from the truth of the conclusion,
of undistributed middle
;
e.

entertain

belief of it ;

g. If from

the

truth

of the

doctrine of immortality we

infer its universal

belief, thus,

380
"

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

Whatever

is

believed universally is true. Therefore

is true. it must

The be

doctrine

of

Immortality
i.
e.

universally

believed ; "

A, Z I, Y
The fallacies appear II.

is is

X, X,
distinct branch first view it of

I, Y is Z. is not really a above, therefore, in the formula, although at


be
so. in the

might

to

Fallacies

Matter.
formula

In this class of observed. strictly 1.


a

the Fallacies,

is supposed to be

Ambiguous
as
a

Middle.

"

This

consists fallacy admits of two*


term

in

using
with

word,

middle

term, which

tions. significain the

In the the

major premiss,the major


in
one

agrees

middle, taken premiss,


in another

of its
term

significations ; and
agrees

minor taken the

the

minor

with in the
the

the

middle,

minor

and

signification ; and then major are, according to


with

conclusion,

ferred formula, inextremes

to agree

each
the

other.
same

The

two

are,

indeed,compared
different
terms
"

with
so

word,

but

with
two

two

very

ideas ;
e.

that

in

realitywe
respect.

have

middle

g.

pitifulman
the

is beneath

was man. a pitiful philanthropist, beneath Therefore he was respect/" tion, Many words, however, are so settled in their significabe successfully that such fallacies cannot practised with them. Perhaps the word pitifulis one of these. several kinds of Ambiguhave distinguished ous Logicians

Howard,

Middle
Fallacia

in Figurce Dictionis,
same

which

the

middle

term

is not

the precisely

word,

in

form, in

both

premises,

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

381

to have nearlyakin that they may be assumed same meaning ; e. g. is unworthy of confidence. A designing man has formed a design. This man Therefore he is unworthy of confidence." Many fallacies may be formed in this way ; and the shades of difference in the meaning of the slighter is the fallacy to pass kindred words, the more likely

but

so

the

"

the
two
detected. un-

Fallacia
in

Plurium

Interrogationum.
"

This

sists confallacy

yet in
forms

apparently the asking several questions of several different meanings, and reality
of several different
answers.

same,

and

therefore

admitting
one

The

question

premises of the argument ; and then, when is given, the sophiststands an answer ready with another out a conclusion, which, because premiss to make the one to what unexpectedly opposite replyingintended, to embarrass,if not to confound, him serves ; e. g. There in which follow the statute we are cases strictly law, may and yet be guilty of great injustice and cruelty. Now let the question be asked, Is not a man when he justified does that which be is lawful ? Here a reply would not to be given in the negative: and when likely given in the another affirmative, premiss might be formed embodying the goods of act of oppression as a landlord some seizing a worthy, but sick and unfortunate tenant ; and then the conclusion in appended that the landlord is justified doing so. Fallacy of Division and Composition. In this fallacy the middle term in one in the premiss is taken collectively, If in the major premiss it be taken other,distributively. and in the minor distributively, it is a Fallacy collectively,
of the
" "

of Division

e.

g.

382

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

"

Five Three Three

is

one

number
two two
are are

and and

five ;
one

therefore,
term

number." be taken
a

If in and tively,
;
"

the

major

the

middle

distribuposition com-

in the minor
e.

it is collectively,

of fallacy

g.

Three Five Five

and

two

are

two two

numbers
;

is three and is two is


no

therefore,
to likely

numbers.".
more fallacy one now

"

There

common,
us

or

more

than deceive, is most

the

before

; the form
some

in which

it

to usuallyemployed, is,

establish

truth,separately,
certain

concerningeach
and
some

singlemember
of the
to

of

class,

thence

infer the

sense

whole

collectively ; thus
one

infidels have
our an

labored

prove

some concerning

of of

Lord's

that miracles,

it

might

have

been

the

result

accidental

conjunction of
to prove

natural

circumstances.

Next, they endeavor


and
so

the

same

on

; and

thence

infer that all argue

another ; concerning of them might have


that

been

so.

They might
very

in like manner, may

because
any
one

it is not
out

improbableone
may

throw is
no

sixes in
more

of

hundred
one

throws, therefore,it
throw
"

ble improba* running."

that

sixes
In

hundred

times

Fallacia

accidentis. middle
essence same

this form
one

of the used

ambiguous
to

middle, the merely


express
"

term

in

premiss is
and

express

the the

of

thing ;

in the other

to premiss, ;
e.

thing,togetherwith

its accidents is eaten


; ;

g.

What Kaw

is
meat

bought in the is bought in


raw

market

the market

Therefore In the

meat

is eaten."
are

major premiss we
*

edible considering

sub-

Whately's Logic,Book

III., "

11.

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

383

stances

in the with
was

without referring to general, minor, we bring into view one


; and

in

their circumstances of these substances

its circumstances
true

then

infer of the latter what

only of
are

the former.
ways in which

ambiguous the discussion of this subjectdoes not properly ; but well,a thoroughknowledge belong to Logic. To reason the vehicle of thought, of some as one language,at least, is evidently our indispensable ; but the language in which and ratiocinations are mulae forexpressed,and the principles which are to govern and direct the reasoning process of study. different branches two are itself,
many

There

words

become

2.
matter

Fallacies

relating
and

to

the

connection

between

the

of

the

premises

that

of

the conclusion.

of the middle head related to the matter preceding term as ambiguously expressedin the two premises. Now and is expressedin the two premises, matter the same as the last compares inasmuch in the conclusion, as together had been in the former the two terms, which compared The with the middle

term, it is obvious
the

that

Fallacies

may

arise also in respect to of the representations the form


to be

between the correspondency ting admitpremisesand the conclusion, and the middle
term to be
ambiguous. un-

correct

and given names to several distinguished forms of this Fallacy. In this 1. Petitio Principii,or, arguing in a circle. the connection between of the Fallacy in question, form is such, that the premises conclusion the premises and themselves are dependent upon the conclusion ; so that
have Logicians
"

the conclusion
can

must

first be

assumed
it.

to be

true, before
order

we

be

premises to prove of course must successful,

find

This be

Fallacy, in

to

artfully constructed, for,

384

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

when
moment.

exposed, it Hence,
the God from

is too much

gross here To

to

delude

any

mind

for

depends
attempt
be

upon

and obliquity the existence


a

of obscurity of
a

language.

to prove

the Sacred

must Scriptures
a

be

petitio

to since they profess principii,

revelation

from

God,
an

and

therefore This

assume

His

existence.
any
means

Fallacy,however, is not by
one.

always

intentional

Acute into it.

reasoners

have

sometimes

very

honestlyfallen
Thus

the famous
to

argument
that

used the
"

by
Will
a

many

writers

on

Moral

Agency, by
the

prove

is

always

mined deterof for

strongest motive," is
the
reasoners

notable

instance both

this

where fallacy,

were

eminent

skill and logical


"

The

will

integrity.* is always determined by


you prove

moral

the

tive." strongest mo-

How
to

do

this ?
or

"

The

will is

termined always de-

determined how
does ?

other,and it is always by motives,for they always are present." But this prove that it is determined by the strongest
some
"

volition

motive it."

That
?
"

must

be

the

strongestwhich
not
"

determines
be

Why

Because do you

it could
know

otherwise Because

mined." deterbe that

How determined the very 2. embraces


not

that ?

it must

by

the

strongest motive."
undue

It is evident

point to
False
or

be

proved is the point assumed. assumption of premises. This in which the premises,although
be
any

those instances

require to dependent upon the conclusion, be admitted before the reasoning can to have
In all
cases

proved
force.

of Deduction
;
or

we

have

to at

begin with
the

already established
*

if assumed

principles beginning of a
tween bedistinguishing
between
cause

One
an as

of the order

roots, if not

the root,of this error,

is the not

of sequence, antecedents

and

the

principleof
Will

causality ;
as

the

tives mo-

uniform

and to volitions,

the itself,

of volition.

386

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

is probably meant to designate a false assumppreceding, tion of facts,as in the anecdote of the Koyal Society, quoted above. and facts both exist, When the connection tween becauses the it may be
the
two

may

be

assumed that

on

insufficient
causes

grounds

assumed
or facts,

either

the

involve necessarily

that the facts cannot The first relates to

be referred to any the inherent conditions


ture na-

other antecedents. of facts.


causes

; the last to the necessary

of the

from a false reasoning assumption of parallelisms ; or from false analogies. False assumption of references. This appears chiefly in references made to the Holy Scriptures. Every passage is authoritative. Hence,although a writer may find few which in reality bear upon none a favorite dogma, still a or
non

tali,pro

tali.

This

is

mere

array
are

of the references

strikes the eye ; and the

if the passages of

not

examined, which, through


to be

indolence

human

nature, is apt

the case, the desired end of the

is obtained. sophist the premisesare Assumption ofprobabilities. When the each probable with a certain degree of probability, is assumed combined addition to be an probability of it is only a probability whereas bility. of a probaprobabilities,

If Z then Y

is is

only probably X,

and

is

only probablyZ,

but with a probablyX, not with an increasing, decreasing probability ; e. g. Z is probably (say f ) X, Z ; therefore Y is probably (say |) X. Y is probably (f X f=T6ir) In a sorites the probability is stillmore weakened, and the
inore

weakened

the sorites is extended.

cumulation

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

387
drawn from distinct

of arguments
sources

consists of arguments

; this differs the

widely from arguments depending one


irrelevant conclusion. This

upon

other.
"

3.

Ignoratio elenchi,or
in

with given premises,not the connecting which, although widely conclusion,but one legitimate different from it,shall, in the language, resemble so it,or for it, substituted that the deceptiongoes be so covertly " kinds of undetected Various by the reader or hearer. propositions are, according to the occasion,substituted of which for the one proof is required. Sometimes the for the universal ; sometimes with a particular proposition consists fallacy different
to

terms;

and

various
to

are

the

contrivances

ployed em-

effect and

conceal the
as

this

and substitution, drawn


answer

to

make

the conclusion
same

which purpose

sophist has
the
one

the practically established."

he

ought

to

have

good instance of the employment and exposure of in Thucydides,in the speeches of Cleon this fallacy occurs and Diodotus,concerning the Mitylenaaans: the former of his (over and above his appeal to the angry passions audience) urges the justice of putting the revolters to death ; which, as the latter remarked, was nothing to the since the Athenians not were ment, sittingin judgpurpose, of which the proper end is expebut in deliberation, diency."
A the above extracts Archbishop Whately, from whom are taken, has so admirably exhibited the different forms of this fallacy, that I cannot resist the temptation of becoming still more his debtor. largely Indeed, on the whole I freely confess my indebtedness subjectof Deductive Fallacies,
to him.

"

Argumentum

ad

hominem, dfcc.
"

"

There

are

certain

388

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

kinds

of

argument
we

recounted should when very


c

and

named

writers,which
Fallacies
are

; but

which

by no means unfairlyused,and
well

by Logical universallycall
so

far
the

as

they

fallacious, may
; such
as

be

referred
ad ad

to

present
or
l

head

the
(

argumentum

hominem/ regarded as
rem/
same

sonal permentum argu-

argument,
ad

argumentum

verecundiam/
ad
very

populumj
from
c

dtc,all

of them

distinguished contra-

argumentum
the all been

or,

to

others,(meaning probably
have

according thing,) ad
'

judicium.' These popular language


the the
'

described

in the lax

and

before alluded
ad

to, but

not
i

: scientifically

argumentum

hominem,' they

say,

is addressed

to

avowed or circumstances,character, opinions, peculiar and therefore has a reference past conduct of the individual, and lutely absoto him only,and does not bear directly the real question, the ad rem on as argumentum
(
'

does

'

in like manner,
as an

the

"

argumentum
reverence

ad

verecundiam for
some

'

is described

appeal to our venerable some authority,


ad

spected re-

institution, "c., and appeal to


'

the

argumentum

populum,'

as

an

the

prejudices,

of the rest. so "c, of the multitude ; and passions, ad Along with these is usuallyenumerated argumentum ignorantiam,'which is here omitted, as being evidently kind of Fallacy, than the employment of some nothing more such as in the widest of that word, towards sense to be deceived are by it. It appears then, (tospeak likely
rather hominem"
not
more

that technically,) the conclusion


and

in the

'

argumentum

ad

which

is actuallyis established,
in but question, and

the absolute

general one
that
'

relative

and but

particular ; viz. not


that
'

such

such

is the

fact/

this

man

is bound

to admit

his

of Seasoning,or in principles Such a conduct, situation/"c.

it,in conformityto with his own consistency


Conclusion it is often

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

389

lence in order to siestablish, those who will not yield to fair general argument ; would to convince those whose weakness and prejudices or not allow them to it its due weight : it is thus to assign allowable and
necessary
to

both

that Jews which


out
a

our

Lord
as

on

many

occasions of

silences the cavils of the

in the vindication

is

paralleled by
that has

the

healing on the Sabbath, authorised practiceof drawing


into
a

beast

have
and

said,is
and

we as pit. All this, perfectlyfair,provided it be done plainly,

fallen

avowedly ;

but

if you

attempt
for
a more

to substitute

this partial
"

if you one general triumph as having established your proposition absolutely from and universally, having established it, in reality, only as far as it relates to your opponent, then you are guiltyof a Fallacy of the kind which we are now treating of : your Conclusion is not in reality that which was, by ness account, proposed to be proved : the fallaciousyour own The depends upon the deceit or attempt to deceive. ad verecunobservations will apply to same argumentum
'

relative Conclusion

diam,'

and

the rest."

Fallacious

refutation.
to

This

is the refutation

of

position pro-

belong to an opponent ; and thus reallyan evasion of the point in dispute. one's Nearly akin to this is the expedient of shifting other some ground, by covertlyadopting and discussing question than the one taken up at the beginning. " A practice of this nature is common in oral controversy especially ; viz. that of combatting both of your opponent's and shifting the attack from premises alternately, the one to the other,without waiting to have either of decided upon before you quit it." them refer to the same We case head, " the very common when it ought to have of proving something to be possible
assumed

390

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

been
to

proved highlyprobable
been

or

probable,when
or, which
comes

it

ought
the

have

proved
not

necessary
to be not

to

very have

same, been

proving it proved
been

necessary,
or

when

it should it

probable ;

improbable, when

proved impossible. Fallacy of Objections. This consists in " showing that there are objections against some plan,theory,or system,
and

should

have

thence

that inferring
to have

it should

be

rejected ;
there

when
are

that
more

which
or

ought

been

proved is,that

than the rejecting receiving of it. This is the principal engine employed by the adversaries of our Faith : they find numerous tions objecof which to some against various parts of Scripture, the incautious be given ; and no answer can satisfactory hearer get is apt, while his attention is fixed on these,to forthat there are infinitely and more stronger objections is of that the Christian religion against the supposition all objections human cannot we answer origin; and that when bound in candor, to adopt in reason, and are we the least. That the hypothesis which labors under the from is as I have stated,I am authorised to assume, case this circumstance : that no completeand consistent account been given of the manner has ever in which the Christian religion, supposing it a human contrivance,could have arisen and prevailed as it did." Fallacy of proving part of a Question. The skilful having proved or disproveda part of the question, sophist often succeeds in removing out of by enlargingupon this, view another part, perhaps the most important of all.

against the stronger objections

'

"

This
the

is the great art of the in positions


some

answerer

of
to be

book

; suppose

main

any

work

it irrefragable,
or

will be strange if

illustration of
not

them,
of
a

some

ordinate sub-

part in short,will

admit

plausible objec-

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

391

tion ; the opponent then

issue joins

on

one

of these
i

dental inci'

questions,and
such
"

comes

forward

with

Reply
than

to

and

such

work.

Hence

the

danger
:

of

ever

advancing more
refutation often
he i.
e.

can

be well

maintained, since
the whole much much
a

the

of that will often


escape

quash

having too having too


not

laid

guilty person may to his charge ; so against him,


that

by by
is

may
some

also
that

evidence

in itself

: thus, a prisoner satisfactory may one

sometimes witnesses
haps per-

obtain

acquittal by showing
is
an

of the
spy ;

againsthim
if that
rest

infamous

informer

and had

though

part of the evidence


been

been

omitted, the

would

have

sufficient for conviction."

There of two are Suppressing the Conclusion. ways suppressing the true conclusion : First,by omitting to state the propositionyou are to prove, at the beginning of the argument ; and then, after a long spun and elaborate from the true argument, drawing a conclusion remote confident and a plausible air. Secondly, by one, with but framing an omittingto give the conclusion altogether,

argument
wrong
a

in such

way

as

to lead

the hearer

to

draw

the

which conclusion,

the

instance of this striking speech over the dead body


"

sophistaims at. We have of reasoningin Antony's species


of Caesar.
; i,
e.

Jests.
not

Jests

are

Fallacies deceive

Fallacies but

so

ble palpato

as

to be

likelyto

any

one,

yet bearing

just that
amuse

resemblance
the
contrast contrast

of argument
; in the
same

which
manner

is calculated
that
serious
a

by
which
even

parody tion produc-

does, by

the

of its

levitywith
is indeed
are

the

it imitates. in Fallacies

There

something laughable
for serious
viction, con-

which

intended

when

they

are

several different kinds

thoroughly exposed. There are of joke and which will be raillery,

392

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

found the

to

correspondwith (to take


most

the

different
and mock middle
to most

kinds

of

Fallacy : case)is
on

pnn

the

simplest
the

obvious

in evidently,
a

instances,a
found

argument
Term
:

founded and the

palpable equivocationof
manner

the rest tive respec-

in like

will be

correspond to
of serious serious

and Fallacies,

to be

imitations very

argument."
when into

Jests,however, are
their

often

arguments,
is turned

effects

are

considered in
to
some

; for that

which

ridicule, becomes,
or, at
ceases least,

degree,an

objectof contempt,
careful attention.

command

respect and

no

popular arguments, for they require thought, and afford a piquant amusement. Fallacy of Epithets. This appears in the disputesof They
are

also

political partiesand
twofold upon
an

sects. religious

The
name or

is fallacy
may
sect

of

character

First,the
upon

odious
the

be fastened
to which

or individual,

party

he

belongs,with
a

the

utmost

: injustice

there

may

be

merely

cumstanc cirand from similar names seeming agreement arising without real identity of principles ; or any may be
an

there
even

agreement only in pointsunimportant, or


;

commendable cry is
once

but, notwithstanding,when
multitude ferocious
are

the
to rush

hue
to

and the
name a

the raised, the

prone

chase,and join in
itself may have

sport.

Secondly, the
it may be

become

odious

unjustly :

and marred and good name, darkened by the prejudices of a benighted and bigoted age ; but its character persecutions has
no one now

become

fixed

in the

popular apprehension,and
its

stoj)sto enquire into

origin or

its
of

ples princicrime,
to

it is the who second is

symbol

of

enormous

error, if not

and

he

gain a
not

adjudged worthy to wear it,may fail the conclusion hearing. In this fallacy,
until it is the close
out

is

generallyconcealed covertlyapplied ;

of
at

an

argument,

and

brought

the

beginning

394

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

phenomena probably remain


in observation
and
nature

which, by
is prone
to

any

labor and
be
as

gence dilito

experiment,may
observations
the

brought

light.
a

But

human but

accept

sufficient
the
as

set

of limited

familar

lying within
Men
are,

immediate
were,

neighborhood of
into tribes
upon

individual.

it

divided

dwelling in deep valleys ;


its

and

each and and

tribe looketh the


the

valleyas
as

the wide horizon

universe,

high

mountains

around

the

impassableboundary of thought. This narrow-mindedness, bigotry,and imperfect and crude the mountain over knowledges. The philosopher passes with all converses tops, walks through valleyafter valley, the different tribes, the same sees things as they appear in different places; and thus prepares himself to learn the generallaws which govern God's creatures,and to enjoy the harmony and beauty of all things. Again, human manded is impatientof the slow and persevering labor denature and in prosecuting observation experiment. It is far more pleasantto our natural indolence to take such
observations
rest to
as

being begetteth

of

force themselves
to

upon

us, and

to leave the

restraint, and wait for the results of thoroughinvestigation. Another form of this Fallacy appears where the observation, hurried. although extensive, is imperfect and ers the ambitious foundSuch are the busy collectors of facts, of of lyceums and cabinets, who bring us abundance things and but little thought ; who indeed manipulate, but do not nicelyexamine. who Facts show the state of the world. He, therefore, teristics and their characexamine does not look at all the facts, ments. minutely, is not prepared to form sound judgHe may but he is not entitled express opinions, to any authority.

than conjecture,

endure

the

toil and

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

395 Observation

Secondly.
Experiments
in the

The

Fallacy of making
a

and end

ivithout

purpose,

or

prophecy of the catalogues of


of the

form of a
have

rational

hypothesis.
to
an

We
made under

already alluded
These
are

the

facts

by

Bacon.*

example
the

Fallacy

consideration.

By

the

knowledge already attained


spontaneous
and
a new

of the constitution
of Ideas

of the
awakened when

world, and
in it
comes

spiratio inditation, me-

profound
within

patient

the mind is

field of investigat
some

prepared
a

and

impelled
if not

to form

thesis hypolaw.

of the order We laws


call

of sequences,

of the ultimate

this

rational

because hypothesis,

it considers the

and already ascertained,


of the initiative

thoughtfully watches
Such
a

indications
at

phenomena.

sis hypothein
der or-

the

early stage
further

of

is investigation

necessary,
to know

to arrange to

the facts

alreadygained,and
how
to

where

make

and observations,

adjust experiments.
is done
at
periments ex-

Without

such

hypothesis,every
sheer
"

thing
a

random.

It is indeed like
a

empiricism
what will

trying of
a

blind

casting of dice,with
know its end
at

wondering
up
more sees

and

to puerile curiosity

turn

next.
or a

foresees Philosophical investigation


less clearness. Like

with

Bunyan's pilgrim,it
way and off,

least

little
little
narrow

shining lighta great lightin


way

by keeping
the

that

its eye, it at

length reaches
Newton
saw

and straight

of Truth. his
end

When

the
had

apple fall,
a

he formed
and

hypothesis;
before

he thenceforward

definite

great

him.
to

Thirdly.
theories.
"

The

Fallacy of making facts bend


Theories
are once

favorite
are ever

When

formed, men

Page

284.

396

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

ready
not

to

become is
to
a

intoxicated

with

them.

An

ingenious

Theory
easy and

and, therefore, proud effort of the Intellect, the light be relinquishedby its author ; and
it

order

which

gives to

facts

which

before

appeared general
a

complicated and
favour with

soon inexplicable,

brings

it into

enquiring minds.
to make to

Hence every it is ; and


a

there

springs up
with

passionto apply it,and


it.
which Men may

thing accord
mere

begin
or

forget
not

that

hypothesis,
confirmed

may

be true
must

that,if not
some more

it by general observation,

yieldto
are

perfect
into

conception.
the

In

this

way

they
have
some
an

often

betrayed
of while

great absurdities.

We which

illustration for
a

this, in
adhered

tenacitywith
Now Truth and

chemists

to the

Phlogistic Theory. Philosophy alike


with the
to

demand tacit

that

Theory

shall be
that And that

adopted, always
be held in the

understanding/
discoveries. his

it is to here he

abeyance
to

farther

great Philosopher
wedded

shows

greatness,in
; and

becomes

nothing but
of indications

truth he
new

ing hold-

theories

modify
even

them
renounce

only as a means according to the


them obtained. of when Thus

truth,
cannot

is

of be for

ready to or facts,
a

to

they

or verified, a

better aside
not

lightis
the law
to

Newton,
the end in the

time, laid
did his

while gravitation,

calculations
he had

appear

sustain

it.

But

rich

reward.
II. Fallacies
in

determining

General

Facts.

First.

The

fallacy of affirminga
observation The

uniform Sequence,
"

from
is very the

mere

common.

of coincidences. of dreams superstition


a

This and

Fallacy
omens, lar popu-

empiricismsof medicine, and maxims,


Because
all
two

thousand

empty

belong here. phenomena


are

found

to

be

conjoined in

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

397
is assumed
we we are

time
as

and

by place,therefore,
antecedent
recurrence

this

Fallacy,one other,and
wherever

the

uniform

of the
one
a

to

expect the
other.
two
are

of the
we

find
that

the the

Now,

before

have

rightto
must

conclude

in uniform

sequence,

we

prove

by experiment

takes placeexcept where given Consequent never in question is present ; i. e. We the Antecedent must well as Positive. as Upon prove by Negative instances find the same further examination, we Consequent may and place with a thousand other pheto coincide in time nomena be its proper Antecedent, ; but that alone can
that the ivithout

which

it does

not

take

place.

This

indeed

is the
:

Fallacy condemned
"
"

in the

memorable

language

of Bacon

procedit simplicem, per enumerationem et periculo res puerilis concludit, exponitur est,et precario ab instantia et contradictoria, plerumque secundum modo pauciora quam par est,et ex his tantum quae prassto sunt et pronunciat. At Inductio quae ad inventionem demonstrationem Scientarum erit utilis, Naet Artium turam debet, per rejectiones et exclusiones separare debitas ; ac demde post negativas tot quot sufficiunt,
quae

Inductio

super

affirmativas

concludere."

has not Secondly. The Fallacy of denying whatever been found hitherto in the common observation of men, or does not exist in generallyreceived maxims. This Fallacy is of the same with the preceding, nature

"

That

induction

which concludes

proceedsby
for the

mere

enumeration is

of
to

is instances,

and puerileaffair,

and precariously,
most

exposed
which

danger
then

from

and contradictory instances,


to

part it gives its decisions


those the

according
present.
of

fewer
an

instances
induction and

than that

is proper, and
would be
to
a

from
to

only

are

But

useful

discoveryand
of

demonstration

the sciences
and

arts, ought

distinguishnature
sufficient number upon the

and exclusions,

then,after

through proper rejections negativeinstances have

been

adduced, to draw

the conclusion

ones." positive

398

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

and

equallycondemned
affirms that have

by
those

the
are

language of
proper found those

Bacon.

The he
and

former

Antecedents the

Consequentswhich
that been
none can

been

together ;
which have

latter,

exist

beyond
one

hitherto untested

found

together. The
the
us consigns

to givesauthority

empiricism;
it. The
one

other denies
to the cuts
us

any

truth

to

exist

beyond
in the

despotismof bigotryand
off from all

ignorance ;
future. The

the
one

other

hope

ties majesty of ancient authori; the other denies all farther improvement. In opposition affirms that she will to both, Philosophy receive nothing which she has not tested by the principles affirms the of human Keason
; and

that

she will dare to receive every

thing which
The

she has thus


are

tested. which givenin brief, Fallacies, will be the found


upon

above

the chief

belong to this division. They to comprisea violation of


laid down those
so

tion reflection Eliminaaim

Principlesof

under
to

Inductive

Logic ; for,the
test

of

is principles

providea
determine

for sequences the


as mass

in general, of

that

we

may
are

amid related

mena, phenoand

which

properly
in

Antecedents

Consequents.
III. Fallacies We have
seen

Inducting

Laws.
tests

that

the

of

Law

are

its

tics for the phenomena, its characteristo account sufficiency and its correspondence and necessity, of universality Now note Idea. to an a we as Fallacy under this head : First.
"

The

To

establish

of a generalfact with a law. confounding a general Fact, is to establish a uniform


in relation to certain
sun

order of sequence the influence


law

phenomena
the

e.

g.

of the

and

moon

upon

tides.

The

under
law

which of

is the

particular sequence is comprehended with the in connection taken gravitation


this

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

399

peculiarinterior
to

constitution

of

which fluids, does


manner.

causes

them solid
to

yieldto
the

an

influence
earth

which
same

not

affect the It is
common

parts of
call the

in the

general facts
not
so

are investigation

the^two lines of clearlydistinguished. This, perhaps,


laws ; and thus
a fusion con-

is not

a strictly Fallacy in Induction,as

in the

end

aimed A

at, and which

may

lead

to

lacious fal-

inductions.

general fact
higher
of
a

viewed

in itself is

contingent ;
viewed
as
an

it receives

characteristics and then of

only when

exponent
it.

Law,

course

is distinguish

the

of philosophismethod ing perfect demands that it keep its true placein every stage of and thus, instead of shutting induction, tion, up investigait becomes it on to its last results. of leading a means Secondly.The great Fallacy, and one which has been from
But
to
more

alluded

than and

once

in this This

of

Observation

Ideas.
upon

work, is,the separation Fallacy has two modes, independently of


of independently

as accordingly or as

it reposes it

Ideas

servati ob-

employs

observation

Ideas. The
true

development logical
the of reality
and

of Ideas

takes the

place in
laws of

connection Nature Ideas. itself in Nature without


are

with

Nature

; and

discovered first mode

The

of expounded only in the light of the Fallacy, therefore, shows

splendidbut
system.

obscure

conceptionsof

the

order of
sequences

; while the other

presents us collections of

FALLACIES

IN

RESPECT

TO

INTUITION.

I have

alreadyremarked,*
falsehood
Logic.
cannot

that
well
of

in the find

Truths
*

tuitive sphere of Inplace,because


208.

Primordial

Idea

Truth, pp. 207,

400

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

the characteristics and


because
test

of these truths be falsehood

are

so

clear and

decided
be
no

if there

here, there
the other

can

absolute
be

of Truth.

But,

on

hand, it cannot
afterwards have

denied
an

that

affirmations

have

been

made, apparently

with

intuitive

which positiveness,
e.

been

set totally

aside ;
"

g.

The

celebrated
act

philosophical
it is not." maxim
a

maxim,
Even
in

that,

thing
the

cannot

where

Newton,
ether

in order

to escape

the force of this

its

bearing upon
diffused
a

law

of

gravitation, imagines
between the
sun

subtle
and the

through
mediate

the space
cause

planets,as
the

is inconceivable without

that

mediation
upon

that, " It affirming brute inanimate matter should, of something else, which is not
;

material,operate
mutual contact/' that absurdity,"

and
even

affect other pronounces believe that

matter

without

He

it
any

"

so

great
"

an

he cannot

man,

who

in

matters philosophical
can

has

competent yet in

facultyof thinking,
our

ever

fall into

it." *
do and

And
not

day
be

the
at

most

minds philosophical that the


sun

perceive it
act

to

all incredibl

planets can
without

upon

each other
ever. what-

through

the

intervening space
appear

any

medium

It would

from
that

this and there


are

similar Fallacies

instances
in

that
to

might

be

adduced,
I say

respect

Intuition.

Fallacies

in

respect
be.
An

to

Intuition,for
carries
; to

fallacious intuitions there


with it its
own

cannot

Intuition
and

truth, it
What above

is necessary
and itself,
was

absolute

deny
"

it is to belie Keason

to

destroy the possibility


the
to

of
Idea

certainty. Truth,"
as

under said,therefore,

of

referred

to, I conceive

be

impregnable.
*

See

Dissertation Playfair's

on

the

Progress of

Mathematical

and

Physical

Science.

402

DEDUCTIVE

LOGIC.

for them to believe as we possible And would do ? they not see that they had before but that,now, they had occupied a fallacious position, attained to the rightone ? While often in error, we are and may be even so much very confident, so, as to think that our judgments are intuitive ; but when we really attain the truth,then we see plainly enough that those confident errors had the strengthand not clearness of intuition. We in a condition to make a compariare now son all the mistakes not. we were Notwithstanding ; before, we make, there is such a thing as perceiving may absolute truth,and knowing that we are right. In the second for these preplace,we can account tented intuitions by a want of development in the Ideas The which the sphere in which they appear. govern maxim above mentioned
was

would ploded,

it not

be

founded

upon

an

erroneous

of Causes ; showing that the Idea of Cause conception not was clearlydeveloped in the minds of those who it is the clearer development of this advocated it. Now Idea which of the the such enables
sun us

to conceive

of the

mutual
any

tions attrac-

and

the
;

planetswithout
nor can we ever

medium

in

interveningspace
a

again conceive

medium

to be necessary.'*'

All the have their

Fallacies which

arise in

respect to intuition

unquestionablyin a want of philosophical origin development ; for Philosophy is not merely a system of of the Reason and of method, but a state truths a law this development advances, does the in man. Just as vision of Truth become brighterand brighterunto the perfect day. But that perfectday is stillto us an object reach that Uncreated shall be, until we of hope, and ever Light,in which we shall see Light itself.
*

Primordial

Logic,Sect. VII., and particularly p. 239.

BOOK
THE DOCTRINE OF

IY.
EVIDENCE.

SECTION

I.

NATURE

OF

PROOF,

When

we

have

in the form
to

them

the

judgments, we may state them of Propositions or Theorems, and then subjoin termined LogicalProcess by which they have been dearrived
at

This

is called the the


we

order

of

Proof.
order of Investigation.

Opposed
When the the

to

order
are

of

Proof

is the

we searching after Truth pursue order of Investigation or Intuitions, employ our ; we servatio knowledge we may have already gained ; we make oband experiments ; we generalize ; ; we compare

we

meditate
Truth
at

we

employ
thus
as

Induction
as are

and
a

Deduction Conclusion.
or

; and

when

appears,
we seen

it appears arrive

The
were

truths before

which

entirely new,

but

dimly
we

When know

undertake
be
true
or

theories. or conjectures to prove we a proposition,

either of its

it to

false,or
be

we

are

uncertain

character. 1.

If

we

know the

it to

true, then

we

must

be

quainted ac-

with

investigation upon

which

it rests

; and

404

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

to prove

that process of investigation, only to subjoin in strict to Logical formulas, according or, at least, with

it,will

be

accordance

principles. logical then we must it to be false, that it 2. If we know see tion. is either deduced from false premisesor is a false deducwill requireeither an To prove it false, therefore, of the fallacious or a statement expositionof its premises,syllogism. 3. If we of its character, uncertain we are proceed to of testing it will depend upon test it. The method the of the proposition. nature 1 If the proposition affirm an Antecedent, test it we it stands as a necessary whether or by searching probable condition to the existence of any known Consequents. 2. If the propositionaffirm a consequent, we it by test involve it. In antecedents searchingwhether any known of elimination doing this we have to apply the principles laid down in Inductive Logic. have We here, then, two kinds of proof developed which are defined according to the nature of the connection which they hold to propositions to be proved. the 1. When proof holds to the propositionto be of to Consequent, or proved, the relation of Antecedent Law to phenomena, as in its nature or Principle ing envelopthem, it is called a priori ; i. e. I prove that such affirms consequents, or such phenomena as the proposition because antecedent to exist, must an or exist, principle
. "

exists which
In form

involves

them.
the

this case, when of


we a

argument

is reduced
or

to

the

the syllogism, prove and the

antecedents
or

principlesfrom
the
are

which

phenomena physicaland

consequents, form

premises :
to

the

logical sequences

said

correspond.

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

405

to be proof holds to the proposition proved,the relation of phenomena to law, or to necessary condition ; in other words, the relation of consequent to a or antecedent, it is called a posteriori ; principle necessary which the i. e. I prove that the antecedent or principle because affirms to exist, must phenomena exist, proposition condition the former as the necessary which demand exist, the very of their existence ; in some cases as. explaining of their exfact of their existence, in others, the mode istence.

2. When

the

"

When form of the


are a

the

"

posteriori argument
or

is reduced

to

the

the phenomena syllogism,

tute consequents consti-

premises,and
two

the

and physical

logical sequences
introduced

opposed.
These

methods

of

proving,although
with remains uncertain
to be

above

in
or

immediate those whose


the

connection character

tions, proposi-

brace tested,em-

When I am myself preceding cases. certain of the character of a proposition, in representing in proving it to him, I that character to another,that is, must necessarily adopt one or the other of these methods, of the proposition, stated. to the nature as above according This is manifest from a comparison of these methods the Deductive and with the two great forms of reasoning, likewise Inductive. To
prove
a

priori is phenomenon
a

to prove

consequent from
and

an

tecedent, an-

from

law, by showing

that the

the

antecedent

and

law

involve

the consequent

nomenon. phe-

This
for
or

it is the

in its princicorresponds to Deduction ple, containing whole determining the particular

contained. particulars
: a

Again
from

is to prove dent antecean posteriori consequent, a law from phenomena, by showprove


a

To

406

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

ing that
can

the existence be accounted the

of the consequent for

or

of the

mena phenoof the

only by
the

the

admission

affirms. proposition in its principle This corresponds to Induction ; for it is the particular or particulars determiningthe whole, as that which and law comprehends them and contains the cause of their being. gation. To prove, therefore, is to reverse the order of Investi-

antecedent, or

law

which

after unknown truths ; are we searching latter, in the former,we truths. are seeking to establish known Both and essentially principles, processes comprehend the same the same materials ; only,that in the order of and investigation, give steps are merely tentative, many results ; while in the order of proof, where the no positive whole of the precedinginvestigation is before the mind, In the

constitutive of the arguessentially ment test is selected and we an appropriated. Where tentative vestiga there are uncertain proposition, steps,and inand proof are in some degreecommingled. be conThe a priori method not founded of proving must with a priori principles. The former assumes antecedents,which involve the consequents to be proved by them, without any reference to the logical property of the antecedents. But when are principles designatedas a priori,we have direct reference to their logical perty. prowe mean a By an a priori principle, principle which has not its origin in the sense, but in the pure Reason. is a necessary Sense or experience condition of its would not development,i. e. the reason go into action to not were an develope the principle, experience given as a is developed, we the principle then datum; but when itself would not have been that the experience see clearly

nothingbut

what

is

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

407

possible
body being
and

had

not

the

principle

had and

prior
"

existence and and could had and


not

e.

g.

space,

phenomena revealed,
when of upon

cause

space of there

cause

priori
;

condition

body

nomena phehave

but

revealed, body
and

we

see

been and truths

no

experience
had and
a

phenomena,

space all first

cause

prior
are,

existence.

Ideas,
d,

axioms,

therefore,

priori

principles.

408

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

SECTION

II.

THE

DIFFERENT

KINDS

OF

PRIORI

AND

POSTERIORI

PROOF.

All

the other forms


a

of Evidence the
a

or

Proof

may

be reduced

to the

priori and
"

posteriori.

I. The

Testimony. This testimony given is a


of its existence conditions
can

belongs
fact which

to

the

posteriori.
as

demands it

the

dition con-

the truth be shown

of what

other for it.

unless affirms, to account satisfactorily

is a fact Testimony. The concurrence which can be accounted for,only by admitting the truth of the testimony. III. Argument from progressive approach, e. g. the law of vis inertice may be proved in this way. This is likewise a posterioriproof. The facts of the progressive ting only by admitapproach are supposed to be accounted for,
"

II. Concurrent

the

existence

of the law.

IV.

cause beby example or fact is a posteriori, it is establishing cessary some point as the condition or nethe of the example or fact. Sometimes antecedent

Proving

ducted inpriori is united with the a posteriori ; when, from and then again examples, we establish a principle,

apply
The

this

to principle

whole

process

is

instance. particular not usually put down,

but

we

go

from elliptically

the inducted

examples

to

the

particular

410

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

stances

in
"

common

relation.

In
"

this case,
to prove

our

objectis

either in
one

the

analogy being granted by resembling


prove the
common

circumstances in the other


or

relation
to

circumstances relation

or relation,

self, analogy itwe

by
prove

the

resembling circumstances.
in
one

Where

wish

to

circumstances in the

relation

stances by resembling circumct


or priori.

others,the reasoning is
the nature

d,posteriori,

according to

of the relation between


"

the

existingparticularsand those to be proved ; e. g. an and mind body, as analogy is granted to exist between lation rerespects education ; their development has a common cumstanc to exercise. Now, there are many resembling cirin this common and these circumstances relation,
"

may

be

made

basis of

to reasoning

the existence
ct

of other
a

circumstances
as

of resemblance the nature

after the

priori or
shall

posteriorimethod,
Where
we

of the connection

determine. wish
to prove

the

common

or relation,

the
ceed pro-

from analogy itself,

the
the
are
a

we resembling circumstances,

according to
circumstances the condition here
to

posteriori method.
shown
to ;
"

The

bling resem-

require the analogy as


e.

of their existence

g. Butler's

Analogy
Universe
; and

the

common

relation of Revelation from the

and

the

God

is

shown,

resembling circumstances

first answered, by showing that similar to the objections lie against the second. must objections there sue four terms, there is a resemblance 2. Where If this resemblance of relations. is granted, then we proceed results a e. g. it being granted priori to prove ; that an analogy exists between the relation of a king to and of a father to his children, his subjects, we may prove a priori that a king must guard and guide his people,and interests to their wants. yieldhis personal
"

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

411

If
we

we

wish
a

to prove

an

analogy of
The of

relations from

facts,
an

proceed

posteriori.
the

establishment
a

of such

analogyis like
induction like
a

the establishment

; and

analogy thus

by generalprinciple is employed established principle. In


terms to
a

in reaching new principle Indeed, the analogy always of


a common
a

conclusions. contains
a

the first case, that

relation of two

third,this third,on

the

priori method,

is the

of the other two envelopingthe circumstances the a posteriorimethod, is the principle evolved circumstances of the
a

principle ; and, on
from the
case, that

of the other two.

In

the second

resemblingrelations of four terms, when we proceed which counts a principle envelopes and acpriori,we assume for these relations ; and when we proceed a posteriori, when have eswe tablished although we stop short,usually,
so

many

circumstances

of resemblance
an

as, to

common

and

general apprehension,demand them,


still the

analogy to
the
ponent ex-

account

for of
a

analogy itself
holds
:

is but
with

to

all

principle.The same reasoning from resemblance


as

true

respect
is this

the
order

resemblance
to

taken

the exponent it be remarked


"

of

law. in

In

make

from simple resemblance, reasoning i. e. of two terms, or from analogy of three or four terms there is always a comparison of certain circumstanc in one relation stances circumterm to resembling or in the other term relation. or Now, in the first term, or relation, that is,the one from which we reason,
that
"
"

plain,let

"

we

find these
ct
over

certain

circumstances other
term

to

be

connected
; and
to

"

priori or passing
must

with posteriori
to

circumstances
or

then
sembling re-

the

second there

relation

the

circumstances likewise be " with

found, we
"

infer that
the
case

these
may

priori or
other

as posteriori,

^e, connected

like circumstances,

those

other

412

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

circumstances this her in


same

referred The
answer

to

in

the

first.

But

why
is

do

we

fer inin

is

obvious. the

Nature

uniform

operations,
the second
law

and
term

therefore
or

resembling
form is known
an

circumstances

relation which
in

exponent
to

of

the

operating

here,

have
or

produced
relation of
:
"

those i.
as e. on

other the

circumstances
a

the of

first the

term

priori
basis both is aim We
to

principle
of the

uniformity
we assume

nature,
same

the
to

ultimate

reasoning,
or

the

law

envelope
same

terms, true,

both from
an

relations.

The

when,

resembling
or a

stances, circumstrict is uniform


can semblance. re-

we

establish
say,

analogy,
as

then these

inasmuch

nature

in

her

operations,
for the

resembling
referring
or

circumstances
to

be
as

accounted

only
two

by

them

the

same

law

governing
VII. is

terms,

relations.
axioms

Reasoning
called

from

and

definitions.
or

This
"

usually

Demonstrative This

Reasoning, is, plainly


up
a

simply
;

monstration Deall

reasoning wrapped

priori
and

for

the

conclusions
and and are,

are

in

the

axioms

tions, definia

therefore,
relation

determined of

by

them
to

in

sary neces-

absolute

consequents
and "

antecedents.

The

principles
and all the

here,

are

necessary exhibit

priori
their

ples, princimanifold

conclusions

but

unfoldings.

THE

DOCTKINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

413

SECTION

III.

OF

THE

NATURE

OF

THE AND

RELATION

BETWEEN

ANTECEDENTS

CONSEQUENTS.

We

have

seen

that under
a

all the

different modes

of

proof are
and the d,

comprehended posteriori.
an

those

two,

"

the

priori
a

The

priori is the proof of


involves it. The
ct

consequent by
the

antecedent,which
an

is posteriori

proof of
as

antecedent

by
own

consequent, which
existence.
nature
terms

demands
the

it

the

condition here

of its

But

question
and

must

What arise, between It cannot

is the the be
two
a

of that connection of antecedent

which

exists

in time juxtaposition be arbitrary this juxtapositionmay or or space, because or accidental,and therefore form no basis of certainty, that the connection of probability. It is obvious even

consequent ?

mere

must

be of
the

nature

to

demand

the

existence

of the

one

when

existence in

of the other is
our were

granted. Hence,
the
a

let it
and

be the

observed,that
a

explicationof
careful to
and
to

priori
this
or

we posteriori,
as a

pointout

tion connec-

connection
necessary

of antecedent relation without

consequent,

of

principlein
or

comprehended particulars,
the consequent
could

of

condition
But
to

which

not

have
do

existed. refer really

all these relations

different forms of the


same

of expression

nature, viz.,
and

either the relation of


or

cause

and

or effect,

of law

nomena, phe-

of first truths and

their necessary

consequences.

414

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

When

we

attain

to

merely

uniform
to

sequences,
be

the uniformitywe facts,


some

assume

general comprehended by
as

law

and

necessitated therefore

by

it.

Cause

of

course

is allthe

pervading,and
The

always implied; but

is not

has been as great object of investigation,

before shown.*

consequent, then, whether


under

particular comprehended
from
that
an

a or regardedas an effect, law, or an inference arising

axiom,
of the

is

contained really of
the latter

in its antecedent;

so

the

affirmation

comprehends

the

firmati af-

former ; and the existence of the former the latter, of when, by applying the principles proves or by tracing elimination,f upwards the necessary sequence,
it is shown A have
when

that the

former depends
which
an
a

upon

the

latter. could
;
not
as

condition, without existed,is


we

consequent
it

not
a

always

immediate
was

antecedent

say

of

tender

plant,that
do
not

cause bedestroyed,

the

servant

left carelessly
we

it out

of doors

during a
of

frostynight.
the servant of the
as

Here

assignthe
the

carelessness

the immediate but it still,


was

antecedent

of the destruction antecedent been In left out

plant ;

immediate

of the exposure of

of the
not

doors,it would
is
are

plant ; and, had it not have been destroyed.


and

this case,

there which of

series of antecedents
necessary
to account
we series,

consequents, all of

for the effect ;

but, instead
dent antece-

statingthe
as

whole

put down
the
we

remote

the

condition
form of

of the last

and effect,

form

thus But

an

abbreviated

expression for
the

whole. have

the

reasoningdepends
The

upon

relations

cardinal

principlesinvolved
must

in

givenabove. the foregoing,


cause

axiomatically expressed, are,


1.
"

Every phenomenon

have

its

and

its

law."
*

Supra, p.

254.

t Page 288.

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

415

2. This
causes,

"

Nature

is

uniform
is

in the wise

her

operations/'
of the follows the action of of

uniformity
as

uniformity
laws
:

regulated
may

by

and

uniformity
:
"

nature,
"

therefore,
Like Like
to

be

expressed
like like

as

antecedents

involve

consequents
antecedents
"

;
*

and

"

consequents

imply
more

Or,
"

give
is

it

general

expression,
in time and
"

Cause fire
"

immutably
"

regulated

space

e.

g.

gravitation
Whatever is

magnetism.
of the Whole is

3. of all

"

predicated
under

predicated

the

parts
these

contained three

it."
all

Upon

principles
are

the

different

kinds

of

proof
In

above all

explained
the different from

based. of the
or
a

forms

posteriori,

we

prove viously, ob-

antecedents
we

consequents

phenomena. proof,
have
unless its
cause we

But,
assume

cannot

proceed

in

this

that law
"

"

Every
and the
"
"

phenomenon
That law

must

and

its

governs

uniformly."
where
we we

In
or

priori, by

likewise,

prove

consequents
without law formly." uni-

phenomena
that

antecedents,

cannot

proceed by

assuming

"Every

cause

is

governed

Page

301.

416

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

SECTION

IV.

OF

DEGREES

OF

EVIDENCE.

The

terms

necessary,

possible,contingent,and
of
the

sible, imposa

refer to

the

nature

connection The
our

between

and consequent. given antecedent probable, and presumptive, refer to connection. A necessary connection
law
as

terms

certain,
this

knoivledge of
is
one

between
g. the

the two connection

mined deteran

by
Idea and

absolute
an

e.

between

Axiom,

the Idea
in space

of space
; the

and

the

axiom

of the three dimensions


an

connection it ; the

between
tion connec-

axiom

and

consequences the law

deduced

from

between
nature

of

; the

connection
and

and the phenomena of gravitation between the premises and sion concluso on.

of
A

syllogism ;
; and
we

possible connection
which
know

is

one

which

no

law

absolutely

prevents
power

which
not

might take place by an adequate but which, at the same to exist, probable.
It

time, may
A
cause

appear

is therefore

gent contin-

connection.

contingent connection
which
a

impliesa
be

law

in relation to it.
is
no

may

or

may

not

governed by
There natural
causes

It is the

opposite of

necessary

connection.
between

gency contin-

in the connection

and

laws,

418

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

to the
are

nature

of the connection

between

the

terms

which

the

objectof proof.
Absolute
connection

First. necessary

certainty.
between Axioms
every is

This

is based
terms.

upon

the

the two

Our
"

ledge knowe.

of Ideas time
and

and
; that

absolutelycertain,
is in space. is

g.

space

body
Our

So also

our

knowledge of
as

deductions

from

axioms

absolutely certain,
of the
a

in

geometry, for example.


between
the
nature

knowledge
conclusion of

nection con-

premises and
:

syllogism logical

is of the

same

this is sometimes

called

certainty. Secondly. Physical certainty. This


which lies in the connection and between antecedents of

is the

certainty physical forces,

established in the

sequents, as exhibited

phenomena

gravitation, heat, chemical


so on.

mechanical affinities,

and

does not conceive of this connection Now, the reason because it fixed with an absolute necessity, as necessarily ultimatelydepends upon the Will of God ; and the same Will which it.
we When, therefore,
we certain,

ordained

it,can

change,suspend, or

even

nihilate an-

affirm, any
our

mean

that
upon

thing to be physically knowledge of it is based upon


relations. is the
and

physical,and not Thirdly.Moral


lies between
we mean a

necessary

certainty. This
of Motive

which certainty Will.

the connection

By Will,

and self-conscious, intelligent in


a

sensitive cause,

or

cause

with triunity
sense
a

Eeason
per
se;

and

is in the

fullest

cause

Sensitivity.It it contains that is,


its and In
own

within

itself proper

and efficiency,
mean

determines
reasons

rection di-

By Motives, we
in view of which
*

the

ments, induce-

the Will
of the

acts.*
138.

all general,

Doctrine

Will,p.

THE

DOCTKINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

419

activityproceeds according to rales,or laws, or for they have essentially the same meaning : but
"material masses, force ; it is ordained the
and and the law

reasons, in
mere

contemplated by the acting which contemplated only by the Intelligence


conditioned the force.
we

is not

In

on spirit,

the

trary, con-

activitywhich
with
a

is connected
and

Will, is self-conscious, of the reasons perception and sense


or

call

inducements,
are

ends,
:

or

motives

of

actions.

These

motives

of two found

kinds

First. Those which


supreme

in the

ideas of the

practical reason,
are

decides

what

is fit and

right.

These

reasons

of

authority.
found in the

Secondly. Those
; i. e., the

understanding
and

and

sitivity sen-

immediatelyuseful
the

expedient,and
are

the when

of gratification subordinate

passions.
first.

These

right only
to light

to the

Now,

these
serve

reasons

and

inducements

are

the
science, con-

Will, and

to

guide its
the

activities.
under drawn

The

human

which

is but

Season,
all

its
up

tion, funcpractical for the Will and

in relation to the

moral, has
to

explicitrules,suited
wrhich
are

circumstances And
we mean

relations,
the other

called

or ethics,

the rules. which

so,

on

hand,
under
.

the its

understanding,by

the
mere

Keason,
of the
"

in practical function,

relation to

has utility,

formed

prudence or expediency. The law taken in itself, is unique ; it is simply sensitivity,


rules of whatever

To

do

is most various

These
to

to itself." agreeableor pleasing rules the Will is not compelled or

sitated neces-

obey.
not

In

every

volition

it is conscious

of

power
In

to

do, or
moral

to do.

the above

harmony
do
an

and

purityof
and

the each

the soul, other.

three The

kinds

named
as utility

not

conflict with

right has

ultimate

certain result.

The

420

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

soul loves the


reposes

in right,

this state, because of the


consequences.

it is

and right, all the law*

quietlyin hope
their

And

passionsfind
of the moral

in obeying the highestgratification moral


as certainty,

right.

Hence

to

the

actions

of

beings, can
is

exist

only

where
a

the

harmony
at

of the

being spiritual
In

preservedin

or perfect,

least paramount

degree : e. g. God, and good angels,and good men. is perfect. His dispositions are God, moral certainty
and

infinitely pure,
it is not meritoriousness because is

his Will
or

determines freely
then

to do

right;
infinite
lute, abso-

compelled
would Will

for necessitated,
cease.

His

Moral

is not certainty
to

always

being a power to do, or not possibility, although it may be an that the Will disobey the may
of

do, there
of the

infinite

probabili im-

laws

Keason. In the
case

good angels,and
to be

good
with

men,
no

the

moral

is such, as certainty of
a

attended

apprehension

dereliction. With

respect
and

to

such

men we
can

as

Joseph, Daniel, Paul,


with calculate,
the
manner
a

Howard, high
which
the and

Washington,
in any

very in

moral satisfactory will act

of certainty,

they

given
We

circumstances

involving obey truth,


of motives
;

influence

of motives.
mercy,
"

know

they

will

and justice, and

that
so

is,the first class


as

the second,

only

far

they
is

are

authorised

by

the

first.
If conduct the first class be

of motives

then forsaken, the

human of

must

calculated

to according

influence

the second Human

class.

character,however,
We

is mixed
a

and

variously
indefinite
lence excel-

compounded.
number of

might
the

make

scale

of

an

from degrees,

highestpoint of

moral

to the lowest

point

of moral

and degradation,

then

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

421

our

of predictions

human

conduct

would

vary

with

every

degree.
In any
reason

particularcase,
the connection
must

where

we

are

called
the

upon it will,

to

from
we

of motives

with

is

evident
as

determine

the character
order
to

of the individual the


we

accuratelyas
of the

in possible,

know

resultant
to find.

moral opposite

forces which

probable are likely

We where Here

have the
we

remarked

that

moral

certainty exists only


is preserved.
It may,

harmony
know the

of the moral

constitution

Eight
in

will be
to

obeyed.
that this, of the

ever, how-

be remarked
may be

in addition exist the the

moral

certainty
moral

said

to

case

lowest

where degradation, is," To do whatever

Here the rule Right is forsaken. is most and " Whatever agreeable," is useful in the immediate or temporal consequences." The volition, indeed,in such instances seems merged into of present gratification. mediate a mere sense But, in the interstate, lies the wide field of probability.What is commonly called the knowledge of human nature, and esteemed of most importance in the affairs of human is not the knowledge of human it ought to nature life, as be,but as it is,in its vast varietyof good and evil. We from observation, gain this knowledge from consciousness, and from history. What human nature ought to be, we learn

from

Reason

and

Revelation.

Will with

alreadybeen representedas forming a triunity and the Sensitivity, the Reason and in the constitution of our being is designed to derive its rules and ducement inof action from these.
nor

has

direction

of neither and
are

reason

Acts, which are must sensitivity,

in the
be very may

acts ; trifling conclude they

we therefore, although possible,

very

rare.

In

then, future calculating,

422

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

acts

of

we will,

may,

like the
assume

tesimal Mathematicians,drop infinithat


or

and differences,
are

all acts of the

of the

will

in the

direction

of the

reason,

or sensitivity,

of both of power and the

in their
to

harmony.
of the

Although
direction
the

the will is conscious of both


which the it
reason

do, out

still in sensitivity,

in triunity

exists,

it submits consults of

itself to the
the

general interests of the being, and the or enjoyments authority of conscience,


every

passion.
and
a

Now

individual
or

has formed He

for himself

habits
to have

more character,

less fixed.

is known
in
a

submitted

himself

from
the

day
laws

to

day, and
fixed many hence

great
; and

to variety of transactions,

of conscience
a

hence

we

conclude,that
He

he

has formed

purpose

of

doing right.
that

has
and

exhibited, too, on
pure

occasions,
we clude con-

noble, generous,
his
with

feelings ;
a

and

in sensitivity,

predominant
he

degree,
to

harmonises
violated in
a

conscience.
of the

Or,

is known

have

the

laws

conscience

from
; and

day
hence

to
we

day, and
conclude ; and

great varietyof
he his In has

transactions

that
that

formed

fixed purpose
in conflict with

of

doing
the

wrong

is sensitivity
cases

reason.

both

supposable cases,
and There with which

in supposed, and, in like manner, there is plainly a basis, on which, in may

all any

we given circumstances,

foresee and actions of


men.

predictthe
now

tions, voli-

consequentlythe
is

something
future

"

that

and is evident,

existent,

the

existence
one

of the
these

contingent event
exert predictions
are

is connected."
no

On

the

hand,
over

necessitatinginfluence

the

events, for they


of the
not

with disconnected entirely and, on the other hand, the


as

the

causation need the

events

events

be

assumed

necessary,

in order

to

become

objectsof probable
in any sense, the

calculations.

If

they

were

necessary,

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

423

calculations

could

no

longer

be

merely probable; they


and certainty precision other phenomena based

would,
of the
upon

on

the contrary, take of

the

calculation
necessary

and eclipses

laws. calculations
are can

But because
and
reason

these

aim

only at
the
a

moral

certainty,
the

they
and
have

made

according to

generallyknown triunitywith
which
moment

received

determinations the

of will in

a will sensitivity ; but still,

is known, from for

to also,

the

power

to

depart
which which

at

any

the

line

of

determination

it has
we

established make

itself. the
upon

Thus

the calculations of
one man

conduct

in

respecting given circumstances,based

and the calculations which we integrity, make respecting another,based upon his known dishonesty, alike disappoint may us, through the unexpected, though and the unexpected, possible dereliction of the first, reformation of the latter. though possible his known When from
moral
we reason causes

from
to

moral

effects to moral

causes,

or

example, in where from the fact of the testimony we reason testimony, to the motive which led to the testimony, we cannot as regard the operation of causes positive and uniform under the same of necessity which law appertains to the free will causes physical causality, ; because, in moral
"

moral

effects ; as, for

is the
that
we

efficient and
reason

last determiner.
with
a

It

is indeed

true,
"

high degree of probability, with a probability sufficient to regulatewisely and moniously harthe affairs of society cannot we reason ; but human conduct as we reason respecting the respecting for phenomena of the physicalworld, since it is possible
the human
will to

here

calculations disappoint of motives


;
e.

based
motive

upon

the

ordinaryinfluence
hold the
same

g.

The

does not
to
a

relation to will which

fire holds

com-

424

THE

DOCTKINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

bustible
or

substance.
not

The

fire must of the


common

burn

; the

will may

may

determine
the
reason

in view

motive.

Hence,
evidence evidence

why
the

in
name

parlance probable
evidence
; moral all

has

received

of moral
"

being always probable


after
the
we certainty, mean

probable evidence

is

called moral.* Next


must

consider

probability.
has not attained which

By
to

probable, we
believed. has

that which

but which, nevertheless, has grounds on certainty,


to be

it claims because

We

call it probable or is still under

provable,
of

it both

and proof,

conditions

of still farther proof. that is,admits proof, which is certain, has all the proof of which That the A mathematical admits. is certain on case proposition and admits of no the ground of necessity, higher proof its truth. that whieh The than really demonstrates the ground of the Divine Divine volitions are certain on and admit of no higher proof than what is perfections, volitions of a in these found good perfections.The certain the ground of the purity of created being are on admit of no such a being, and higher proof than what is found in this purity. But when to a mixed, being,that we come is,a being of a Sensitivity in of Keason, and or corrupted totally, have different degrees,then we place not for certainty, but for probability. As our knowledge of the future or the past volitions of such a being can only be gathered from something now existent,this knowledge will depend our knowledge of the present relative state of his upon and sensitivity.But a reason perfectknowledge of this state is in no case supposable,so that,although our actual

Review

of Edwards

on

the

Will, pp.

261-269.

426

THE

D0CTKINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

quents, viz., necessary,


that

and consequent, possible,

which a^d several others,

refer to

our

impossible; knowledge of
A

connection, certain,probable, and presumptive. viz.,


Now these
terms
answer

to

each

other.

necessary any
two

connection

of antecedents
the

and

consequents, or of
and

terms, is
In the

ground
of

of absolute

of knowledge. certainty

connection is
a

physicalantecedents
nature

consequents
is
sary neces-

there

relative the

i. necessity,

e., this connection

while
as

such

of absolute. An

unchanged ; change is possible by the Divine Will, the knowledge here is called physical,and
involves the Idea of

system of

remains

but
tainty cer-

not

impossibleconnection

sity. neces-

Hence, when a connection is seen to be impossible,' or our knowledge that it will not take place is absolutely of the antecedents to the nature physically certain, according
and

consequents connected.
dent contingentconnection between antecehave a probable knowledge. consequent, we indeed spoken of a moral in respect certainty to
a

Answering
and

We

have

to the

volitions in

evidence

still admits

beings. But the nature of the these cases is not changed. Moral certainty in the opposing scale ; but the a possibility
are so

of pure

grounds
no room

of belief

stable and

conclusive

as

to leave

tainty considered,moral cerGenerically is probable knowledge. between Again, answering to a possible connection and consequents, our antecedents knowledge is presumptive. A possible connection is a contingentone, also ; it

for doubt.

may and

or

it may

not

be.

The

difference between
a

this

case

the

i preceding, and

e., where

contingent connection
a

of

antecedents

consequents
follows
:

has
In

probable knowledge

answeringto it,is as

the

preceding there

is

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

427

nection, proof for or againstthe conin the opposing scale. with at least a possibility that either side are so rife, on Frequentlythe probabilities a nice judgment is required in determining the preponderance.

always

certain

amount

of

But there is

where
no

the connection
or

is said to be

merely possible,
; and

proof for
the
are

as yet, adduced against,

then,

accordingto
to

point of
said to does

view
have
or

at
a

which

we

stand

tion in rela-

it,we

presumptive knowledge
not

that

the connection

does

exist.
on one

As side

soon or

as

arises proof is adduced, a probability other.

the

But,
the
the

while

there is

no

to probability,

which

side does upon

? presumption belong

This, I
we on

have

said, depends
And
fit

pointof
must
no

view

at which

stand.
some

this

point of
Where

view it

itself be determined
means, between
an

principle ; for
a

is,by
put
as

matter two

of indifference. it parties,
must
a

questionarises
so

be necessarily

to involve

affirmative

and

negative ;
favour view

and

the

presumption will then be said affirmative or the negative. Now


:

to lie in

of the

the

point of

is determined

1. old

By

the

previousstate
established

of the

question. point

If it has

by
be

opinionsor
or

usage

been

mative settled in the affirmust

negative, then Independently


is

from

this

it

viewed.

of all argument,
a

and
in

herent of all in-

there probability, the old

presumption

favour

of

and the established He who tacks atopinion, usage. the questionis said to assume the burden of proof; cision and, unless he can bring proofto the contrary,the old demust

stand.

2. The

point
may

of view chance

is determined
to

by

any

natural

rightwhich

be

involved

in the

question,

428

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

and liberty, property, character, right of life, freedom of opinion arraignedas a criminal ; e. g. A man is presumed to be innocent,until he is proved guilty. A in possession of an estate is presumed to be the owner, man until his title is invalidated by sufficient proof. Any ancient institution is presumed to be well founded, until its be shown to be false and mischievous can principles ; or it be shown, by fraud or violence,to have supplanted a can such
as

the

more

ancient

institution.
upon

In

the

latter and

case

the

burden

of

proof falls

the
more

more

modern,
called is
be

the

presumption
It

lies in favor of the

ancient
are

institution.

happens,
are, in
able. vener-

sometimes, that
the reality, If tranfer

those

innovators,who truly ancient and the fact,they, of


it

advocates
prove

of what this to

they

course,

belongs. justly d be distinguishedfrom Presumptive evidence must herent inpriori or antecedent probability.This last is strictly arisingfrom a priori or established probability, of principle.Any fact or proposition possesses this kind when it is a probable consequence of such a probability, character From the known of an vidual, indiprinciple ; e. g. there is an antecedent how he will act probability
burden

the

of

proofto

where

under

certain

circumstances. will do

There

may

be

moral

tainty cer-

that
be

he
not

such

as

right ; but simply to involve


which the
we

the circumstances
a

may

question of
of the of the

rectitude.

From
in

the

knowledge
with

have

connection
that
an

character

circumstances, we individual,
as

judge

antecedent he

exists probability

to the

ner man-

in which There

will act. in probability


the character

is antecedent

favor

of

Divine
the

from arising revelation,


moral condition of
man.

of the

Deity and

In

making experiments in

Natural

Science,there

is

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

429

often known
In

an

antecedent antecedents.

probability

of

tbe

results

arising

from

conclusion,
certain

we

remark,
of

that the

the connection

evidence of

by

which

we

gain

knowledge
or

antecedents is in

and

consequents,
called and
to

of

any

fact evidence.

or

proposition,
The
and
terms

eral gen-

demonstrative demonstration 'mathematical in


moral

tive demonstra-

are

technically
Moral truth

particularly

plied apbe

reasoning.
respect
action. is
to

reasoning
;

may

demonstrative
to

moral evidence

but which

not

in

spect re-

The called is

by
evidence

we

gain
est highAnd is

'probable

knowledge
of

probable
called
moral

the

degree
the called We
to

probability
by
which
we

certainty.

evidence

gain

presumptive

knowledge

presumptive
shall the
next

evidence.

proceed
kinds of

to

apply
of evidence

the

foregoing
contained and the

ples princiunder

different divisions

the

two

general

the

priori

teriori. pos-

430

THE

DOCTBINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

SECTION

TESTIMONY.

This

is moral will.

evidence,because
The

it

depends

upon

the

man hu-

highest certainty,therefore,to testimony can attain is moral certainty. embrace of evidence, must Testimony,as a species
extensive considerations of motives.
fact which for If it
can

which

very fluence in-

of human

nature,
in any

and

of the case, It

Testimony,

given
for. which

is

must

posterioribe accounted it to the motives by referring


a

is

counted ac-

led to it.

be

shown

that

the truth

of the

fact testified to,


the
tainty. cer-

is the

morally certain testimony proves the


If the the truth proves

ground
truth is the the the

of the

testimony, then
a

of that

fact with

moral

testimony
determined

only probable ground, then of the fact to a degree probability


of the

by

character he is

witness

and

the

circumstances
But
to
"

in which
a

placed.
of exposition particular this

proceed to

more

subject
I. ivith
a

What
moral The

circumstances

determine

the truth

oftestimony
have
all the

? certainty character of the


witness
:

1.

if he

of a perfectmoral qualities may any circumstances,

being, then
be deemed moral

his

der unveracity,

morally certain.
is the certainty

Only

one

below degree,at least,

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

431

veracityof
conceive
their

such

men

as

we

have

already referred to, viz.,


"c. We
men can

Paul, Joseph, Daniel, Washington,


of
a

hardly
to

trial

so

severe

as

to

lead such

fice sacri-

integrity.
for observing the opportunities fact must
sense we

2. Sufficient

fact testified

to, L

e.

The

have
or

been

the direct and


"

questionable un-

objectof
we we

: experience seen

That
eyes
"

which which

have have
our

heard

"

which
upon

have

with

our

looked hands

(i.e. have
"

steadilycontemplated)
we sane as

and

have

handled
must

declare
a

unto

you."

3. The
The
two not

witness

be
may

man

of

mind.

however, first,
A
man

be

regarded
has
not

includingthe
character will

last.

of

moral high and perfect he

to testify
: nor

facts which will


in
a

carefullyand
is not
at

fully
of

observed

he

if testify,
state

he

conscious the time

having
were

been

proper

of mind

they
mony testi-

presented.
II.
on

What

circumstances

determine

the truth

of

grounds of mere
last

? probability
under
and

1. The head

mentioned particular

the

preceding

is essential to all be

testimony ;

the

will probability

always
with
the

2. The
the

in proportion to the first two. directly established probability by testimony will and

vary

number

character

of the motives

under

which

witness First.

testifies. If the witness has


an

interest

in the

facts

to

which

he

testifies, arisingfrom
any
or desire,

pride, ambition, or
of any

the

of gratification
purpose

the fulfilment
to

selfish

which
in

he

is known

testimony
the known
account.

proportion be
motives
a

entertain,then will his invalidated. Still, however,


must

character The
same

of the witness

be taken
one
man

into the

to relatively

will invalidate

testimonyto

greater degree than

to relatively

432

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

another

; i.

e.

"the motive the

and

the character

must

be taken

together,and Secondly.

be accordingly deduced. probability

of principles would lead the witness to testify self-gratification contrary then is the testimony strong in to his actual testimony, to proportion to the motives ; e. g. A man testifying facts at the expense of reputation or worldly possessions
as on
"

If the motives

be such

and

honours III.

"

or

of life. relation
to

Testimony in

opinion and

in relation

to

fact.

judgment of the mind, respecting tinguish or false. Opinion is to be disfrom absolute knowledge,as implying that the is still debatable. which is its object, proposition establish the truth of opinions or Testimony cannot judgments. Their truth can be established only on some of the Intelligence. principle necessary of Testimony, as evidence,relates merely to matters fact. that a witness can lation testify All, therefore, to, in reis the fact that he or some other person to opinions, such and such entertains opinions. But the truth or be determined other on falsityof the opinions must grounds, and wholly independently of testimony. and be of the highest integrity, of sane A man may and mind, and may sacrifice reputationand possessions, without life itself, in maintaining his opinions, affording His testimony only goes to of their truth. any evidence establish the fact that he believes the proposition in question, and that he believes it ardently and firmly. Divine testimony is adequate to establish a truth as because God is Infinite Eeason, and the well as a fact, We substance of truth. what believe,therefore, very God be incapable of deteraffirms,although we may By opinionwe mean true a as proposition
a
.

434

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

country, party, and

sect. to

Secondly.
and

The

philosophical
and
on

abilityof
work.

the

historian
The

investigate, compare,
attention bestowed

duce. de-

Thirdly.
3. Where

time

the

depends for his information national the writings of others, and ments, monuupon upon various and antiquities. Here the most records, and are lofty qualifications requisite. First. All the of a true witness. qualities Secondly. Varied and profound erudition : viz. a knowledge of languages of science of arts "of government ; great skill in antiquarian searches reand above all, all-comprehensive, original, ; and as a philosopher. Thirdly. Adequate penetrativegenius, materials. A history is entitled to belief in proportion as these particulars appear in its compilation. VI. Concurrent be distinguished Testimony. This must is a mere accumulated from testimony, which In concurrent of witnesses. multiplication testimony, on the contrary, although the evidence ing be stronger,accordof the witnesses, self to the number yet the evidence itdoes not lie in the qualifications of the witnesses ; but only in their concurrence. Their be accounted cannot on supposition, concurrence, without for, grantingthe fact testified to ; i. e. If the fact did occur, then the concurrence was possible ; if the fact did not occur, then the concurrence not was or probable, the case be. as possible, may In the first place. It is plain that this evidence will be strong, in proportion to the improbabilityof previous If previous concert be shown possible imconcert. to be can the then evidence occupiesoae of its highest grounds. or But, in the second place, although the probability,
the historian
" " " "

THE

DOCTKINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

435

even

of previous possibility, still remain for


to

concert

may

be

disproved, it
can.

will

be

shown
the

that admission

the

concurrence

be

accounted

only by

of

the

fact

in

tion. ques-

Now,
other
way,

if the

concurrence

can

be

accounted in the
case

for

in

any ness, witquate ade-

it must

be

by showing,
there
were

of each
were

separately,that
to

motives

which without would of shown

lead

to

the
fact

given testimony,
testified
to.

supposing
of such
to
course

the

realityof
the

the

This

invalidate in the

concurrence.

If the witness
course

existence be

tives mo-

case

of each would of

should be be
an

have of of the
a no

existed,
the

there
:

utter

annihilation in the
to
cases

evidence
a

or, if the

above

shown tend

only

part of the
In

witnesses,
cases

it must the

destroy
turns out

evidence.

all these

concurrence

singular fortuity. Now,


such

if in

any

given

concurrence

invalidating
then VII.

or

destructive remain
as

circumstances
valid in evidence. relation refer
to to

can

be

tected, de-

it must

Concurrent
"

Testimony
of facts in

fact

and

opinion.

The
as

principlesabove
evidence

stated

concurrent

testimony,

merely.
relation this
to

Concurrent
concurrence

testimony,
of

opinion, is
of of

mere

opinion.

Where

concurrence

exists

without Where

previous concert,
an

it affords
concurred
to

evidence in

sincerity. high
tegrity in;

opinion

is thus

by

men

and but its

wisdom,

it is entitled
rest

great

consideration

ultimately only
decisive

it must evidence.

upon

principles, as
has
to

forming
shown in

This

been

above

discussing opinion

in its relation

simple testimony.

436

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

SECTION

VI.

CIRCUMSTANTIAL

EVIDENCE.

By

circumstances,we
stands around Thus

mean,
a

as

the

etymology denotes, comprise all


condition.

whatever

principal.
of
an

the circumstances make of

individual his

the Thus

which particulars
the

up
event

external

compriseall the particulars of time, place,action, modes, degrees, causes, and effects ; i. e. every thing attending it upon accessory to it of it. or every thing making up a description evidence in general takes place Now, circumstantial adduce the circumstances where which we belong to a the existence of that principal. But to prove principal, what is the connection and a prinbetween circumstances cipal
an
" "

circumstances

which other ? An

enables be

us

to

reason more

from than

the
mere

one

to

the

It must

something

tion. juxtaposicannot

and arbitrary of

accidental

connection

be

reasoning. The connection then must be at least probable consequent to a that of necessary, or of phenomenon with stated antecedent,or the connection and law : i. e. The count cause principalbeing necessary to acits existence is a for the existence of circumstances, posterioriproved from the circumstances. In evidence,however, we callingthis circumstantial to the ordinarya posteriori soning. reaonly giveanother name
the foundation

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

437
kind of

Circumstantial

evidence,as by
a

distinct really

evidence,is constituted
The circumstantial of
a

concurrence

of circumstances. described
a

evidence

above
"

is

mere*

accumulation of many
or

proof, posteriori
the
concurrence

bringing together

or effects, consequents, to

antecedent.

But

cause, prove a common of circumstances or

facts of the

a new is,in itself,

and

independently peculiarfact, separately. Concurrent

nature

of the

facts

taken

circumstances are testimony and concurrent analogous. In both kinds,the proof lies in the necessity of accounting for the have
a cause. concurrence.

It

is

phenomenon,
accounts

"

it must

That

which is

as

condition

or

cause

for the

currence con-

proved by it,either
as probability,

with
may

or certainty,

with

more

or

less

the

case

be.

Circumstantial of
when certainty

evidence there is

possesses

the

highest degree

other way of accounting no absolutely for the circumstances, except by the admission in question. of the principal It possesses the highestdegree of probability though alwhen it be possible of accounting to conceive other ways for the concurrence than the one adopted, still every one of these is far-fetched, and having altogether hypothetical,
no

known Where

connection
there
are

with

any

existent
ways

fact.

accountingfor the and all have claims to probability, must we concurrence, of course and determine weigh the opposite probabilities, accordingly. of facts cannot be set aside, Any given concurrence as of no weight, except by accounting for each fact separately, in its time, place, and relations, to make the so as fortuitous. concurrence altogether appear Seasoning from facts, merely, and reasoningfrom a

several

of

438

THE

DOCTKINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

concurrence same

of

since they may facts, in relation to the


same

both

appear

in the

case, and

are facts,

apt

to be

confounded.
utmost

It need
to
on

hardly be
its

remarked

that it is of the

importance
each

discriminate
own

between

them,

and

to

independentbasis. of justiceto prove in a court The evidence admitted least at the guilt of a prisoner,must be positive, or garded reevidence,therefore, morally certain. Circumstantial either as a collection of facts, concurrence a as or of facts, be admitted can as decisive, only where the guilt of the prisoner be taken as the only way of accounting can for the facts, the concurrence of facts : i. e. It is not or for enough that it is the most probableway of accounting them, it must be the only probable way. Where of two parties the rights are opposed, so that a determination involves loss to one or the other, necessarily in a question respecting the title of an terminat as estate,the desult must, of course, be made accordingto the reof a comparison of probabilities, if no positive evidence
present them
"

can

be obtained.
In

of number have we a testimony, without previousconcert, and coming together,


concurrent

nesses witporting sup-

each
we

other's evidence.
a

In

concurrent

ces, circumstan-

have any

number

of circumstances

previouscontrivance,and other in relation to a principal. If the testimony be true, then this concurrence is what then the we exist, might have expected. If this principal of circumstances is what we concurrence might have ex^~ pected. In addition to this, have assumed that unless the we be proved to be fortuitous, of facts can concurrence by to happen in that showing how each fact came precise

without

coming together supporting each

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

439

without and relation, time, place, between the several facts ; and

requiring any

connection

that unless the concurrent

testimonybe accounted for in the motives of each witness not to requirethe truth of their common so as separately, statement add, unless it can be shown to ; and, we may be fortuitous, in the case of concurrent as circumstances, which we are cause or compelled to admit that antecedent But there is most for the concurrence. accounts clearly and made to this which an objection requiresattention, compel us to prove our assumption. may
It is
as

follows

"Any given phenomena brought into juxtaposition of necessity must order of arrangement. But assume some chances indefinitely order there are againstany particular into come great in number ; and as the phenomena must it is plain they may into one order as some come order, well as into another ; and hence they may as well come
into that
and regular
as

connected of utter

order which confusion and

we

call

currence, connection." con-

into

one

want

of

you

to

which
assume

We but Which
one

"What therefore, righthave Says the objector, this concurrence to assume as proof of the principal fo the facts seem I have an equal right to relate ? the fortuity of the concurrence." have here,then, two assumptions directly opposed ;
or

the

other ?

must

fall ;

both

cannot

be

true.

shall
your

stand

support
and

" Please objectormay say, rejoin,Please to assumption." We may

The

support yours.
may all

Now,

we

may

both

make

the. attempt,,

both
our

After

settlingthe question. positively there may discussions, something appear


sides. of In this case, he who
can

fail in

on plausible

both

adduce

the greatest number


must

win

the

for his assumption, probabilities In supportingour argument. assumption,

440

THE

DOCTKINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

we cases

urge

the

fact,that
there

at

least in

the there
e.

great majorityof
is Of
some cause

where and

is concurrence,
it ;

rectly di-

clearlyproducing
we

g.
were

all the books

ever

made,
machines
any

do

not

find

that any

made

by

tuitous for-

concurrence

of the
that
were

letters ; of all the

instruments
do not
rence occur-

and

have

ever

been

we constructed,

find

that

constructed
; and
as

by
to

the

fortuitous

of the materials
we

the

phenomena

of

ture, na-

find,as

our

knowledge
that

of natural
are

chemistry is extended, in which explain them


leave
us

laws

and philosophy brought to light

all their

and multifariousness,
to fortuitous
bination com-

little
?

or

no

place of appealing produce


claim
the the

As, then, we
of this

greater number greater number


candid that he finds

of of jector ob-

instances

kind, we
our

for probabilities
must

assumption.
to

Indeed, tne
where

be constrained

admit

it very
bination com-

difficult to

bring a singleinstance
and
to

fortuitous

explains concurrence
This

regularity.
that
a

reasoning goes
have the balance
some

show

concurrence

must

always
connected

of

inj-ts favor,as probabilities


unites the facts in
a

with

which principal

the

concurrence concurrence.

in

opposition to question
can

the

assumption of
arise
:

tuitous for-

But

here

another
concurrence

may

Whether

soning rea-

from
of

ever as

possess
we

the

gree highest dein the

certaintyof

any

kind,
for

have

appeared

preceding pages
evidence
there

to take

.possesses

the

granted, where we say, " this when highest degree of certainty


way

is

no absolutely

other

of

accounting for
is

the

currence con-

except by the admission


inasmuch fortuitous
as

of the
there

in principal
a

tion/' ques-

in every ?

case

of possibility and question,

concurrence

This

is

serious the

involves the

possibility, although

not

of probability,

442

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

rences,

there

are

some

concurrences

which because

we

do

generally
nected con-

attribute with sand. of been the This actual

to

certain them

antecedents,
;
e.

generally
a

g.

The

print

of

man's

foot the it

in

the

we

should but the

naturally still,
action it in has this it is of

attribute

to

pressure
have

an

foot

possible
the
waves.

that If

might produced
and

produced
action of
the

by

by
is
not

waves,

its

definite
unusual

cause,

fortuitous On

but

it

has

case

an

antecedent. that
man's

an

inhabited

coast,

we

should

affirm

at

once

the foot

probabilities
as

greatly
;

preponderate
man

in situation

favor of

of Kobinson

the

cause

but

in

the the

Crusoe,
be
in

finding
Now

such the

print
case

upon where

sea-shore,
concurrence

might
would

doubt. the in

only

afford

highest
which in of

certainty,
there is but

is,
one

as

we

have of

above

affirmed,
for of the the fact

one

way

accounting
in

not
"

opposition
other
causes.

to

fortuity,

but

negation

possibility

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

443

SECTION

VII.

ARGUMENT

FROM

PROGRESSIVE

APPROACH.

This ascend

belongsto
from

the

a a

factsjo

because form of proof, posteriori law. If,however, the facts of

we

the

of causality, approach, introduced on the principle progressive then we the only elements of the proof, have an are ordinary case of induction ; e. g. We put a ball in motion and its motion a on ceases soon rough surface, put it ; we is proin motion the motion and on a smoother surface, portional find generally,that the prolonged ; and we Hence time of the motion is inversely the resistance. as infer that if all resistance were we removed, there wouldbe no change in the motion the uniformityof ; i. e. From of facts, infer an universal uniformity a we given number of facts. But
may
not
are we
on certain,

the

mere

that induction,
at
a

we

in actual shall

experiment
be

arrive

point where
the

the

phenomena
after

reversed?

where

resistance,

having been reduced to a degree lower than has ever shall suddenly be greatlyaugmented 1 yet been attained, facts ; and Kecollect we are merely deducing from known which we base our the uniformity of nature conclusion on the unknown, is a uniformitywhich relates to respecting law which and not merely to the particular law in general, There be a change in the assume. we therefore, may, which shall require them facts in the extended experiment,

444

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

all to

be

reduced

under

another

law

in view

of

higher

which before deemed we points of uniformity. The suns be found uniform volving reas uniform, as fixed centres, may about some centre. higher and common The argument from progressiveapproach, therefore, would not in itself absolutelyestablish the vis inertice of bodies ; although it might afford a high degree of probability.*

An

argument
the

has been

drawn

in favor nations

of
are

from
their

fact that in

as proportion

The

cause

approximate towards argument in this case differs widely from in respect to its subject, and is conclusive. The Keason. or principlehere is the human Now, we
of this
as

views religious

Christianity, enlightened, Christianity. the preceding,

conceive
i.
e. as

uniform laws

and

continuous

in its action ;
as

having
Let

fixed into

of

action, and
continue

inherently
it will
act

active.

it go

and action,therefore,

in the direction

of these

laws, and

to

act, unless

are brought in. counteracting and modifying causes is the facultyof perceivingtruth, Hence, as the Reason

if

we

remove

all its

and obstructions,

give it
be

its full
as

play and
truth.

development,
That thus

perceptions must

taken

which the Reason therefore, religion, unobstructed, must developed and


so

adopts, when
be

the those

true

religion. And
which

also follow

we

must

conclude

that

ceptions per-

the

progressive development
be shown

of

Reason,
towards

must

be

perceptions approximating proportionally Now,


"

truth.

if it

can

from

the

history
these

of human

opinions

the

historyof philosophy,that

opinionshave
with

the

towards Christianity approximated regularly progressive development of the Reason, then we

Supra, p.

231.

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

445

have evidence in this

in

this of
the

progressive
truth
not

approach
of

the

highest
And the whose

internal evidence formity uni-

Christianity.
induction of

case

is

mere

facts,
to

enables

us,

on

probable
of
to
a

grounds,

proclaim
developing
In

general itself,
and

fact

but

that

principle
its certain

regularly
issue.
down

hastening Christianity,
of
a

on

this

ment argu-

for criterion
the

we

first viz.

lay
its

the

necessary

.true

religion,
and

correspondence
;

with

Reason

truly
the

fully

developed
concentration in

and,
of
to

as

resulting
human

from mind

this,
upon

progressive
opinions,
our

the its

certain

proportion premiss.
derived

ment. developby
cal histori-

This

forms
and

major
evidence the

Then,
from

evidence, criticism, point


upon
we

the

philosophical
is
the

establish which thus

fact

that

Christianity
in its forms

the.

human

mind,
This then

progressive
our

development,

concentrates.

minor

premiss.

The

conclusion

is

inevitable.

446

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

SECTION

VIII.

PROVING

BY

EXAMPLE.

The

pointto
fact. If
a

be

proved

is either

or principle

lar particu-

then the facts which go to establish principle, than induction, it,are inducted,and this is nothing more employed in the order of proof. If a particularfact, then the establishment of a principle, although not appearingin the statement, really intervenes in the mental process, and forms the ground of the conclusion,in reference to the particular fact. In of the general principle both cases, the establishment is therefore be the cardinal part of the proof. It may termed This more appropriately,proving by Induction. differs from Inductive only in the order. In Investigation Inductive we begin with the facts,and Investigation, advance first to the principle.In Proof by Induction,we and a fact which or lay down the principle, reposes upon and then we induct the principle, the facts, or presumes examples, to prove it. It is necessary, however, to recall in this connection which an appliesboth to inductive important distinction, and to inductive proof. In Induction,we investigation make do not bring together facts promiscuously. We a selection we bring togetheronly such facts as have some connection with each other. They are alike either in form, time, and place,or in their relations. But, why do we
"

"

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

447
I will answer,

bring only such facts togetheras are alike? do we by asking another question. Why to understand together at all? Obviously,
them.

bring
or

facts

to comprehend

But,

if

we

wish under

merely
a

to understand

them then
course,
we

by

ralizing gene-

them

common

name,

must, of
difference.
them

necessity,observe And,
under

likeness,and, comprehend
we

of

if
a

we

wish

to

them observe

by reducing
likeness and
cause,

law, then
our

also must
idea the

ence, differ-

because

of

law, or

comprehends
be

uniformity,
"

and

uniformity

of the

effects must

regarded as When, by

an

exponent of the law.


tion, seeking for a law by Inducare or when we proving investigation, follow those already laid down, we
are

we therefore,

in the order of induction


a

law

connections

of the facts which in inductive

presume

law. do
not

Now,
succeed in
a

we investigation,

always

least for under The


a

the law. We are finding time, to stop short with a


name, and

often
mere

common

the announcement

at compelled, generalization of a theory.

and generalization and


may
we

the

theory aid
us,
at

our

farther

tigations, inves-

enable
not

to eventually,

find the law;

but

in them

have

arrived

certainty. point to
be

So also in the order of


may
not

proof.

The

proved

of which we not conception may merely a general uniformity, or a yet have theory. The facts which we bring together are of course limited, since induction, from its very nature, is never versal to infer the unicomplete. We are compelled,therefore, The from the limited. This is illogical. inference therefore be contingent. It may be. must not or may the laws of probability. We apply, next, to the inference, What have we, in any given case, to infer an reason be

law, at but arrived,


a

the

448

THE

DOCTKINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

universal from

uniformity
the

from
sun

limited

observation,
"

e.

g.

the fact that

has

at regularintervals, risen,

for five thousand he will


course,

years,

what

reason same

have

we

to infer that

always
that
we

rise at have
?

the
as

of intervals, supposing,
no we

yet ascertained
It is because

law

of the

planetary
that the

movements

feel assured
some

uniformity of
and

the facts is the concealed


; and

exponent of
upon

law, although
of
from
are
a

the law be

the authority versal unifacts then


and

law, uniform
the

continuous,do
The
a

we

infer the limited

limited.
on

and particular

condition inference

which

law with

is conceived the whole

of,and
energy,

the

is imbued whole
upon

stretched thus

to the rests

compass
the

of law.

But,

if the inference

it

law, why is conceptionof some ? not always characterized by certainty the conception is not merely of some When law, but
a

arrives at is
"

particular and
e.

certain law
are

law, then the inference


of the
ments, planetary move-

certain,
is

g. when

the
we

then ascertained,
to

certain physically
same

that

the

sun we

will continue have

rise at the the

intervals.

But,
and be

until know

ascertained the
may

particular law, although we


there
must

from
we

uniformity
form
the
a

be

law,
cannot

although
certain
some

shrewd

theory, we
is

but

that and

uniformity observed

higher uniformity,where and that this higher uniformity, in resides, uniformity which we presents the particular the as only one of a long succession where
under
one

other

only a part of the law really


its wider have facts

cycle,
form uni-

observed
are

characteristic
become

for

certain another

and period,

then

change
and
so

and on,

uniform
the

under

istic, character; all the the law

throughout

whole

succession

different which

uniformities

being

held

together by
all.
"

penetrates and

concentrates

e.

g. Let

an

Intelli-

450

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

upon

single observation,
a

we

thus

conclude of

e.

g,

the

fusibilityof
by
elective

substance

; the

combination

substances

affinity.
such
cases we

Upon
1. case,
or

remark

The is

observation, although
by
more

limited

in the

particular
in lar simi-

supported

extended

observations

analogous
The
cases

cases.

2.

are

of

such

character that
can

that be

all the

ble possi-

circumstances
are

and in the

relations

of any

weight,
both
as

embraced time 3.
and

observation, though

limited

to

space.
cases

The

in
in

which which of the


a

succession

of

uniformities is attainable
we

is

conceivable,
only by
into the

and

therefore

certainty
cases

discovery
not

law,

are

where
or

take and

consideration of

specific natures
but

powers, and

susceptibilities
relations the in time

substances,
space
or

general

extended other cases, stances, sub-

and

whereas,
and

in these

specific natures
are

powers,

susceptibilities of
take into

what

we

particularly
two

consideration.
and

Take

the

elective

affinity of
as
an

substances,
1. This
cases.

apply

to

it these

principles
in

illustration.

is

supported
All the

by

observations

numerous

analogous
of
any

2.
are

circumstances in
to
our

of

the

case,

weight,
time
or

embraced
can

observation. take the from the

No

change

of

place
are

add

or

completeness.
of in these relation

3.

We

considering
in
no

only

specific natures simply

substances,
to

ral gene-

relation, but

each

other.

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

451

SECTION

IX.

REASONING

FROM

EXPERIENCE.

I. From

the present to
a

the past.
"

This,

in

the
to

general
ascertain
counting ac-

statement, is called
the past. We take for
the

posteriori. We
the past.

wish

the facts of the call up

present, and, in
This presumes

them,

that

past is the
more

cause

of the form

present.
of

ever, Kegarded, howitself


as

this closely,

proof presents
are

follows

1. The

facts

of

the
"

present

accounted

for

by-

which also present, them to causes are causes referring and are now inherently energetic, acting. .But, causes and are uniform ; hence, since they existed in the past, they must have produced effects like those which we now witness. We thus
draw

the

facts of the

past from
as common

the

facts of the present, not


causes

of the and

by assigningthe former both to latter,but by referring concluding the past analogically


prove the

the

causes,

then

from

the

present.
Thus ancient
may
we

may ;

physical condition
nature
as
a

of

the
we

world

and, takinghuman
condition.

cause,

prove 2. The

its moral

distinction between
moral The and

and

between

physical causes, be borne must physicalcertainty,


the consideration moral of free
vast

moral

and

in mind. in will,

former with

brings in
a

connection

of variety

character,

452

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

and
while

therefore

gives birth

to

vast

varietyof results,
world, it
uniform is not

the latter is fixed and condition physical


on

precise.
of the ancient known and

The

difficult to determine

well

general

tion condithe moral principles.But, in order to determine need data from history. There with any precision, we is indeed a reciprocal action between historyand general moral in reasoning: the latter often serving to principles, doubtful ; the determine points of history otherwise and former supplying, determining facts to the leading, latter. 3. Laws have often
a
a

gradual,instead
order in
to

of

an

immediate

development.
may

Thus

law, in

complete its cycle,

nomy, Geology and Astroand in Politics and Philosophy. Now, if we can ascertain that given and present facts are a part of such a development, gradual and progressive, have at once chain by which we can then we a a posteriori ascend well as to the past as to the a priori descend

require ages.

This

appears

future. II. From the present to the with

future.
"

Our

present
causes

perience exare

is connected

causes.

If these

known,
The

on

the

uniformity of law, we
between

predictthe
and

future.

physicalcauses, and moral referred and between above physical certainty On laws to, is of equal importance here. gradually additional remarks are no developing, necessary. The above proceeds on the suppositionthat we have In many ascertained Laws. instances, however, we may less extensive. or proceed merely on an uniformitymore The distinction given under Reasoning from Example the viz. That when will apply here also, we reason upon conclusions basis of mere our are uniformity, generally,

distinction

moral

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

453

only
law

probable
clearly

but

when

we

reason

upon
are

the

basis

of

ascertained,
the

our

conclusions be.

certain,

morally

or

physically,
Those

as

case

may
we

instances

where

reason

to

past
or
a

and

future,
limited have

uniformity

upon

single
the

experiment,
of
a

very

experience,
already
been

"

e.

g.

fusibility

substance
"

considered.

454

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

SECTION

X.

REASONING

FROM

RESEMBLANCE

AND

ANALOGY.

Kesemblance and is thus

is defined

as

agreement

in certain

points,

which from identity, distinguished excludes


numerous

is universal

agreement, and

difference. the

Other

things being

equal,the
closer the

more

resemblance. than others.

important

points of agreement, the Some points, however, are more Agreement in a few important

pointsconstitutes a closer likeness than agreement in a multitude of unimportant or trifling points. blance Kesemblance is of two generalkinds : First,Kesemin properties. Secondly, Kesemblance in relations. of course from resemblance, must we Now, in reasoning either from the resemblance of propertiesor of reason relations. The first is called reasoningfrom direct or from analogy. The second, reasoning simpleresemblance. In reasoning from resemblance,there are two terms. there are three or four terms, In reasoningfrom analogy,
and
two

relations. Besemblance.
"

I. Direct determine

The

in object

this

case

is to

of resemblance unknown to exist, particulars known from known particulars corresponding ; i. e. From unknown. to reason to others which One are properties, to involve another,either property in a subject is seen the ground of uniform of law. Hence we on or sequence which are in properties, infer the agreement of two terms

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

455

involved is
a

in those

which

are

known

to exist.

The

ing reason-

priori, when
the

the unknown of consequent


a

property holds
to

to

the

known,
The

relation the

antecedent

and,
be the

vice versa,

reasoningis

of the probability determined by the nature of known and unknown

posteriori. reasoningobviouslymust
the connection
a

between of
mere

; if it be

connection

stated

the uniformity,

only probable reasoningis generally ; if is certain. Csesar it be a connection of law, the reasoning each other in certain properties and Buonaparte resemble But ambition be shown to involve can ambition,"c.
"

the love of supreme involves

power,
to

and

the love of supreme

power

if the time and gain the supremacy, and Buonaparte be auspicious : hence, Caesar opportunity much have the consequential points of resemblance,inasmay involves them. as they have the quality which This is d priori; and the conclusion morally certain. In arguing that the planets from their are inhabited, this world, we resemblance to proceed a posteriori. From like provisions for social existence, infer social we

attempts

existence.

We

argue

here to the motive

or

design.

This

likewise is morally certain. II. Indirect


1. Where

Resemblance
are

or

Analogy.
related
a cause

there

two two

terms

to

common

third,we
inasmuch least the
one a

may
as

call the

relations third is
a

common

the

common

of

relation, both, or at

uniform

antecedent

of both.
reason

In from

this case, when of particulars relation

analogy is granted,and we of one member or relation,

of the

common

to

of the other,our particulars reasoningis probable or to the nature of the certain; In the first place, according connection between
:

the

common

third
a

and of

the

two

related

terms

if it be

only

connection

uniform

456

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

sequent s, the reasoningis generally only probable ; if of


is certain. reasoning The reasoningis probable or certain in the second of the particulars from place, according to the nature which we reason : if they are prehended comparticulars necessarily in the third term, the reasoningis certain : if they be merely circumstantial, the reasoning will be to the degree of uniformity. When probable, according the third term is merely a uniform antecedent,and the of the relation likewise only circumstantial, particulars less of uniformity, with more shall have the case of or we of a probability. a probability When the analogy is to be proved from the resembling have of simple a we substantiallya case particulars, is shown to posteriorireasoning. Each set of particulars the common third as an demand The antecedent. ciples, prinwhich apply to a posteriorireasoning in therefore, generalwill apply to this case. 2. Where there are four terms but and two distinct, resemblingrelations. What constitutes the analogy 1 The resembling tions? rela-

Law,

the

But
must

this least the


a

resemblance uniform The

may

be

accidental.

It

be

at

that resemblance,therefore,

in one relation particulars in the other the must uniformly resemble particulars But relation. this uniformity is an exponent of some Whatever conclusion is drawn, therefore, must rest law. this law as certainly or as only ascertained, existing upon in theory, and accordinglywill be a conclusion certain or

constitutes

analogy.

probable. Now, this law must comprehend it explains the uniformity of the
the
two

both

because relations,
between

resemblance

relations.

But

are

not

these relations themselves

458

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

analogy itself ; terms * respectively being given,and two terms e., Four the two relations, being related each to each, constituting objectof the reasoningis to bring these relations under a ing common principle. This may be done d priori,by showthat a principleexists which or necessarily probably ing by showcomprehends these relations ; or, a 'posteriori, that there in these are particularsof resemblance relations which probably or certainly requirethe principle
objectof
the

reasoning is

to

establish

the

to account

for them.
as analogy thus established,
a

This becomes

we

have

before
and

shown,
forms

to general principle

these have
an

relations

the basis of deductions.


in
an

We

illustration of this

argument
is
an

adduced

by phrenologists.
connection
between and may the
ox.

There

obvious

and

specific propensitiesof
:

animals

governing their physical


be

the

structure

thus

carnivorous
"

animals

distinguished
the

from

graminivorous
There
is
a

the

lion from

connection

likewise

between

intellect
and

of

man

and
are

brain

physical structure. unquestionably connected


the

his

His
with

senses

his

the

development
establish side
are

of his intellect. Now

object of
the
same

the

reasoning is
on

to

an

analogy;
at

i. e., That

relations

either

prehended com-

by
If

the

principleor
we

law.
a

This, if priori or
some

lished estaba

must all,
a

be established
must

either find

teriori. pos-

law

priori, then actuallyexistingwhich


at least
are

or principle

comprehends
Is there show
we

these any
cannot

relations such

or necessarily,

probably.
to must

ciple prin-

? any. If

They
a

bound

it.

perceive particulars necessarily,

posteriori,then
in the two
a probably,

find such
as

of resemblance
or

relations

demand

at

least

common

to principle

account

for

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

459

them.
us see.

Are In

there the

such

of particulars

resemblance
the

Let

first relation ; i. e., between

animal
the

and propensities have propensities

physicalstructure,we
reference
a

perceive that
can

to

ends

which

be

plished accom-

only by
them. of the The lion and without
in particulars and brain

physical structure
demands

directly adapted
the teeth
nature cannot

to

thirst for blood

and be
any

paws
plete com-

tiger; palpably the


these the

instruments. relation
and

But the

are

there

like
man

between

intellect The

of

his
are are

senses, indeed

brain

skull, "c?
to

senses

and
;

conditional
the instruments

the of

exercise

of

thought

thought ? Can it be that the senses what and brain are to the intellect, shown to the propensityfor prey ? the teeth and paws Can are from any particulars in this relation, it be shown that any requiresa portion of the brain as its power of the mind instrument for accomplishingits end, just as the beast palpablyrequiresthe strong jaws with all their furniture, and the muscular legs and paws !
but

they

The senses,

relation

between
no

the

intellect and

the

brain

and

contains

such

as particulars

the relation between


which
cannot
we are

the animal
necessary that
reason

and propensities to accomplishtheir


come
one

the ends.
same

instruments
Hence law
"

we

infer
cannot

they
from
A

under
to

the

hence

the

other.

beautiful

and

familiar

analogy,and
four and

one

which

aptly

illustrates the
Here and
we

of analogy consisting

terms, is that between


insect

human
are

being
the two

at

death

metamorphoses.

of the
see

of the human relations, being to death, to its chrysalis. In the latter case caterpillar

the

whole

process, germ of

a a

dissolution

of the

caterpillar,
a

and

the

infolded the

time

within

higher being reposing for and there preparing for its new chrysalis

460

THE

DOCTKINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

form

of

and, life,
a

when

the

hour

arrives, bursting

from
the In in

its shell
sunbeams like
manner

winged and gorgeous psyche, dwelling in the aroma of flowers. and feeding upon to die ; but the human being lies down
we

this last

case

do

not

see

the whole

process,

"

we

cannot

by
form

the

microscope
in the

discover
"

the

wings
nor

of the do
we

immortiJ
see

infolded

mortal

coil;"

the

struggling psyche
does therefore,
not

after it has burst its shell. The

analogy,
stances circum-

present
relations
very

us

many

resembling
death

in the two

compared.
of

But, nevertheless,
of the the
who

there

are

some

points
not

striking. The
yet he

is caterpillar
within
"

the

extinction
And

organificLife
first witnessed

that survives.

the worm die,and the metamorphosis,when he saw chrysalis formed,must have concluded that Nature in her and beautiful fancy had only given the frail and sportive when he But creature a insignificant golden tomb. looked creature a again, he saw bright and spirit-like into a nobler life. We see struggling thus, in Nature, an and death a only the precursor of another apparent higherform of life. Now take the human being,with all his sublime capacities capacities admitting of indefinite and with his actual conceptionsof, and improvement longingsafter immortality,and does it not seem a priori, fit and reasonable a thing that he should live again when he appears And if any should object to die? to the conclusion, that all the circumstances of dissolution ought then we to lead to a contrary induction, from reason may the analogy of the butterfly, that in Nature an apparent death is but the process through which a new and more perfectform of life is produced. The of the use analogy here is not to prove the doctrine of immortality,but to answer an objectionto it. this
" "

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

461

The

principle
not
as

which

comprehends
of

both

relations
but the
as

is that itself

of the and

Life,

the

product
To Divine this

organization,
we

organific harmony
The and

power.

may

add

fitness

of
above

the

design.
of

exposition
suggests
:

reasoning

from rules

Kesemblance for

Analogy, reasoning
First.
and Be the

the

following

conducting

this

careful

to

distinguish
of of

between and

direct between

blance resem-

resemblance
and that

relations,
four
terms.

the

analogy

of

three

Secondly.

Distinguish
Those

between
are

important

and

portant unimare

resemblances.

unimportant
of

which claims

merely

accidental.

Every
of Those

degree attention,

uniformity

corresponding
an

degree
of law.

because

uniformity
which stand
are

is rectly dithe

exponent
and

resemblances
connected

unquestionably

with

law,

most

important.

Thirdly.
carry many
out
our

Another

rule

commonly
the
terms
or

given

is,

not to

to

comparison

of

relations

too

resemblances. The resemblances all


the

evidently
This
as

cannot

be

too

numerous

if

they

be

important.
same

rule

contemplates
A

stantially sub-

point
out too

the when

preceding.
it

comparison
out to
important un-

is

always

carried

far

is carried

points

of

resemblance.

462

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

SECTION

XI.

DEMONSTRATIVE

PROOF.

In

noticing the application


illustrations But
are

of the

Deductive

Formula* then The the

drew

from

Geometry.
the of

Geometry
Proof also.

is Deduction.

it is Demonstrative
same
"

ciples prinsame.

the

process

reasoning
of

The

only
of

distinction

lies in the

Order

proof
He who

and

the

der or-

investigation already noticed.f Geometry


proceeded
that
the
we

first
to

structed con-

of

necessity according
the learner

the
ceeds pro-

latter

order.

Now,
to

it is constructed,

according
Indeed,
where

former.

lay
we

down

proposition, and
announce

then
before-

give
hand
we

the
the

demonstration,
conclusion
to at

evidently only
we
are

which

to

arrive

and

this

are

enabled

do,

because
to

in be

previous investigation,
conclusion
we now

this chain

proposition was
of premises,
or

found
the

the

of the call

very the

sorites, which

demonstration.

Demonstrative
can

proof applies
be made from

to

all

subjects where
principles.

our

(deductions
*

absolute

Supra,

p.

370.

f Supra,

p.

403.

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

463

SECTION

XII.

CALCULATION

OF

PROBABILITIES

AND

CHANCES

The

calculation of

of

called is generally probabilities,


Let
us

the

calculation

chances,but improperly.
I have
a

try

tinguish to disas

them.

already

denned of

the

probable
still

implying,both, that
been
v

certain

amount

proofhas already
that
more

obtained

for

and given proposition,

js required for complete certainty.


from

The

in possible,

tinction dis-

this,exists
where
*

where

no

been proof has actually of such


a

obtained,but
to admit

the

is proposition

nature

as

ofproof
a

Now,

while proposition,

in the

state

of

progressive
that

shows probabilities on proof,


a

either hand.
:
a

It is here

calculation

is

viz. required,
as

calculation
the

of the opposing

so probabilities,

to determine

ratio of

ity probabil-

for the

in question. proposition
on

Now,
would be

the

other

hand,
o"

the

calculation

of chances of presumptions shown

the calculation founded


upon

or possibilities,

rather have

We possibility.

above,f that where a presumption is said to lie in favor of any proposition, there is always some principle which,
in

determines reality,

it.

Some

natural be

rightclaims

to be

reasons respecteduntil positive

given why
and

it should

be

set

aside ;

or

the

sanctions

of time

usage

surround

Supra, Section

IV.

f Ibid.

464

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

until a higher it, Now, here is something of the authority be adduced. in possession of probability. The fact that I am nature the owner, until my of an estate, is proofthat I am right the and disputed point,
to

claim

hold

is invalidated is

and

the fact of the existence

of any

tution, insti-

proofin its favor,until it be proved to have had its originin fraud or violence. fore Presumption may. therebe called the lowest degree of probability, moral as called the highestdegree. is sometimes certainty A calculation of pure practica or possibilities, chances,is imIn pure possibilibecause there are no data. ties, all the terms are equally improbable, or without sult proof,and hence there is no calculation by which one rebe shown For to be more likelythan another. may example, in the cast of a die there are six possibilities, and yet any one side is improbable, for no be can reason should come deed assignedwhy it,in particular, up : there inis a reason lying in the positionof the die, the in which it is thrown tion, manner giving it justsuch a direcand such a degree of force ; but it is unascertainable. It may indeed be said that the probability in favor of a because there are six sides to particularside is one-sixth, the die ; but this is not true, since it is possible that the side might come times. same up successively many What is called the calculation of chances,therefore, is really the calculation of probabilities, either as probabilities simply, or under that form which we have termed something given presumptions. There are always data base our calculations. which This is amply we may upon
"

"

"

illustrated in insurance of human


under life,

upon

life and

property.

The

term

different
a

and, taking as
ages, has been made
the

in different employments, climates, point of departure,different

subject of

very extensive

obser-

466

THE

DOCTRINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

pute it.
Under
cases :

In

this

case,

are probabilities

to

be

arrayed

againstthe consequent.
the first order there
are

obviouslythree possible

1. The
to the
as

differ as antecedents not possible may differ of their existence, but they may probability several with probability In which each
one

to the

claims

to be the

actual

antecedent.

this

case, the

ratio to

be

mined deter-

respects the
and

immediate

connection

of antecedent

consequent.
2. The antecedents
may
not

differ as to the
to

of their actual their existence. the antecedents the

antecedence,but, as
Here

the

probability of probability
respects
with

the ratio to be determined


not

themselves,and

their connection

consequent.
3. The antecedents may differ in both

respects. In

will be as the proprobabilities duct of the existence, of the probabilities and of the actual antecedence of the one, to the products of the same of the other ; i. e. the ratio of a probability probabilities of a probability to a probability of a probability : e. g. suppose of existence be as 5 : 6, and the the probabilities babilities pro3 : 4, then the resultant of actual antecedence as will be as 5 : 8. probability Under the second order,the same must cases occur. This is the order of proof in insurances. The presumption is always in favor of life and property ; for the tion propagaand
and

this case, the ratio of the

sustentation

of human

and beings,

the

lation accumu-

of property, is the fixed and preservation dominant preorder of things. He who insures them, can lose under the given only by their being lost. He therefore, calculate the probabilities, must that antecedents circumstances, exist which
may

occasion

this loss ; and

if this be

THE

DOCTKINE

OF

EVIDENCE.

467

granted,
ratio of There but

or

rendered

probable,
of
tbe

then several

be

must

calculate

tbe

tbe
are

probabilities
cas