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Matthew Trussoni, PhD, AIA, PE firstname.lastname@example.org Milwaukee School of Engineering
Risks Produced by Wind
Structural Failure •Wind Load •Redistribution of Snow •Cladding Failure •Wind Load •Projectile Impact •Aerodynamic Instability •Serviceability Problems •Air Quality
Tacoma Narrows Bridge
on.ca/..htm .gov..Relationship Between Wind and Height Image: www.omafra./facts/03-047.
Multi Multi-disciplinary Engineering Meteorology •Aerodynamics •Structural Engineering •Structural Dynamics •Statistics •Architecture •Wind Tunnel Testing •Computational Fluid Dynamics • .
Part 1 & Part 2 by NJ Cook •Wind Effects on Buildings.Books on Wind Engineering Effects on Structures: Fundamentals and Applications to Design By Simiu & Scanlan •Wind Loading on Structures by JD Holmes •The Designers Guide to Wind Loading of Building Structures. Volume 1 & 2 by TV Lawson •Wind Forces in Engineering by Peter Sachs •Wind Engineering: A Handbook for Structural Engineers by Henry Liu •Design of Buildings and Bridges for Wind: A Practical Guide for ASCE 7 Standard Users and Designers of Special Structures by Emil Simiu and Toshio Miyata • Wind .
The Origin and Nature of Wind of Standard Atmosphere •Properties of Standard Atmosphere •Ideal Gas Law •Energy Balance of Unit Mass of Air •Adiabatic Relationships •Coriolis Effect •Geostrophic Wind •Composition .
95 Argon Carbon Dioxide Other 0.09 20.01 .Composition of Standard Atmosphere Gas Nitrogen Oxygen Volume (%) 78.03 0.93 0.
225 Kg/M3 1. Heats 1.Properties of Standard Atmosphere Temperature Absolute Temp Pressure Density Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity Gravity Gas Constant Spec.464x10-5 M2/s 9.3 KPa 1.793x10-5 Kg/(m s) 1. Heat Constant Volume Speed of Sound 15 ˚ C 288. Heat Constant Pressure Spec.15 ˚ K 101.69 ˚ R 14.0765 lb/ft3 3.69 lb/in2 0.576x10-4 Ft2/s 32.807 M/s 287 M2/(s2˚K) 1005 J/(Kg ˚K) 718 J/(Kg ˚K) 59 ˚ F 518.745x10-7 Slug/ (Ft s) 1.17 Ft/s 1716 Ft2/(s2˚R) 6013 Ft lb/(Slug ˚R) 4297Ft lb/(Slug ˚R) 1.4 340 M/s .4 1116 Ft/s Ratio of Spec.
Ideal Gas Law The absolute temperature (T). pressure (p) and density (ρ) are related to a close approximation by the ideal gas law Gas Constant = Rg = Cp – Cv .
Energy Balance of Unit Mass of Air dq = Energy increment input Cv = Specific Heat Constant Volume dT = Increase in Internal Energy pdv = Work Done by Volume Expansion .
Energy Balance with Ideal Gas Substitution Specific Volume = v = 1/ρ Ideal Gas .
Adiabatic Relationships If there is no input or output of heat then dq = 0 and: Therefore: Since Rg = Cp – Cv and γ = Cp / Cv .
Adiabatic Relationships Taking the ln of both sides & where C = constant Therefore: & Using the Perfect Gas Law implies also that & .
then focus on a horizontal slice of that air (δz). The height is measured as positive direction up. The limit of the infinitesimal slice thickness. the hydrostatic pressure gradient is’ .Adiabatic Lapse Rate If we consider the static condition of air. The pressure at the bottom of the slice will be greater than at the top by and amount (δp) equal to weight per unit area of the air slice.
It follows that .Adiabatic Lapse Rate Substituting equations in for p and ρ.
Which translates into about 10 ˚C per 1000 meters in height (5. . The air density ratio to that at see level is given by.Adiabatic Lapse Rate If we substitute in the values for g and Cp we find the lapse rate in static dry air to be.5˚F per 1000 Ft).
Adiabatic Lapse Rate Take the example of Denver Colorado altitude of 1637 M. q. In wind engineering the dynamic pressure. of the wind is given by: With this equation it can be found that the reduced air density at Denver results in about a 13% reduction in the wind load as compared to the wind load at sea level. .
Coriolis Effect The coriolis effect is the deflection of an object that is affected by a rotating frame of reference Images: www./coriolis..edu/.html .indiana..
/Spiral_Winds..newmediastudio.html .Geostrophic Wind When there is no friction the wind will flow parallel to couture lines of pressure Images: www..org/.
.org/.. In the southern hemisphere the coriolis force acts in the opposite direction reversing the flows Images: www.Geostrophic Wind This diagram represents the northern hemisphere where the coriolis forces acts outward from low pressure and inward toward high pressure./Spiral_Winds.html . This configuration shows how winds flow counterclockwise around lows and clockwise around highs.newmediastudio.
org/. This also reduces the coriolis effect. This causes the wind to cross the gradient bars instead of following them..Geostrophic Wind As you get closer to the ground the friction with the earth slows the wind down and causes the wind to deflect. Images: www. hence increasing the effect of the pressure gradient.newmediastudio./Spiral_Winds.html ..
And wind to spiral counterclockwise into a low.org/. Images: www. This explains why a hurricane flow is counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere.html .newmediastudio. this causes the wind to spiral clockwise out of high pressure (A.. antianti-cyclone)./Spiral_Winds.Cyclones & Anticyclones In the northern hemisphere. Hurricanes are example of extreme low pressure systems..
•Rotation directions are switched in the southern hemisphere . can generate very high winds.Cyclones & Anticyclones •Cyclones. In the northern hemisphere the rotation is counterclockwise. •Anticyclones. rotating winds around high pressure. rotating winds around low pressures. are associated with generally lighter winds and the rotation is clockwise in the northern hemisphere.
jpg .Hurricane .org/images/hurricanescale.Scale Source: http://scienceprep.
Tornado Winds http://esminfo.html •Winds speeds can vary from 72mph to 300mph •Only the most critical structures are designed to resist these forces •Only 2 percent of tornados produce wind speeds over 200mph •Conditions are most favorable over flat plains during the summer months .com/science/geoanimations/animations/Tornadoes.prenhall.
com/fscale/fscale. cars thrown and large missiles generated. breaks branches off trees. mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned. large trees snapped or uprooted. The small area of damage they might produce would probably not be recognizable along with the mess produced by F4 and F5 wind that would surround the F6 winds. mobile homes demolished. Roof and some walls torn off well constructed houses. The lower limit is the beginning of hurricane wind speed. Roofs torn off frame houses.htm . moving autos pushed off the roads. structures with weak foundations blown off some distance. If this level is ever achieved. trains overturned. steel reinforced concrete structures badly damaged. Considerable damage. boxcars pushed over. such as cars and refrigerators would do serious secondary damage that could not be directly identified as F6 damage.tornadoproject. pushes over shallow-rooted trees. attached garages may be destroyed.Tornado Winds – Fujita Scale F-# F0 F1 F2 F3 Intensity Phrase Wind Speed Gale tornado 40-72 mph Type of Damage Done Some damage to chimneys. Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried considerable distances to disintegrate. evidence for it might only be found in some manner of ground swirl pattern. light object missiles generated. damages sign boards. for it may never be identifiable through engineering studies Source: //www. most trees in forces uprooted Moderate tornado 73-112 mph Significant tornado 113-157 mph Severe tornado 158-206 mph F4 F5 Devastating tornado 207-260 mph Well-constructed houses leveled. trees debarked. automobile sized missiles fly through the air in excess of 100 meters. Incredible tornado 261-318 mph F6 Inconceivable tornado 319-379 mph These winds are very unlikely. Missiles. peels surface off roofs.
Wind Effects on Buildings Lecture 2 .
Turbulence •Wind is rarely free of turbulence •Caused by friction with earths surface as well as thermal effects •At very high speeds the friction effect dominates •Need to examine how the presence of turbulence enters into the equations of motion •We also need to understand the how to handle the highly unsteady nature of wind loading that is the result of turbulent wind .
2008 .Equations for the Motion of Air •Conservation of Mass •Momentum Equations •Coriolis Terms •Shear Stress Terms •Viscosity Based on lecture by Peter Erwin.
Conservation of Mass Mass Flow into Elemental Volume Rate of increase of mass in the elemental volume = Mass flow into face abcd = Mass flow out of face efgh = Net mass flow into volume through faces abcd and efgh = .
Conservation of Mass Mass Flow into Elemental Volume Net mass flow into volume through faces bfgc and aehd= Net mass flow into volume through faces aefb and hgcd = Total mass flow into volume through all faces = .
as constant we obtain the continuity equation.Conservation of Mass Continuity Equation for incompressible flow The continuity of mass implies that Canceling and using the fact that in wind engineering we may take that the density. ρ. .
Momentum Balance X-Direction Force = Rate of Change of Momentum Momentum in the x-direction of air in the elemental volume = Therefore the rate of change of momentum = .
The new flow of x-momentum into the volume through both faces abcd and efgh = .Momentum Balance X-Direction There is also momentum flowing into the volume through its faces.
Momentum Balance X-Direction Switch stations. Now. The new flow of x-momentum into the volume through both faces bfgc and aehd = .
Momentum Balance X-Direction In a similar fashion we also evaluate the net flow of x-momentum into the volume through faces dcgh and hgfe = Collecting all the flows of x-momentum into the volume we get: .
At station 1 we have pressure. Then the force on face abcd is = Similarly the force action on face efgh is = Therfore the net force in the x-direction is = .Momentum Balance X-Direction We have so far ignored the pressure acting on the volume. p1.
Yielding: Canceling and using a constant density the equation can be written= .Momentum Balance X-Direction Since the force in the x-direction will increase the x-momentum we must add the increase in momentum due to the pressure gradient to that of the inflows.
they can be written as: From the continuity equation: Hence x-momentum = .Momentum Balance X-Direction If we look at the 2nd. 3rd and 4th terms of the left side in the previous equation.
Momentum Balance Y & Z-Directions Similar equations follow for the momentum in the other 2 directions: Y-direction = Z-direction = .
Inclusion of Coriolis Terms X-direction = Y-direction = Z-direction = .
•These are generally small but can influence flows over curved bodies. through small cracks and openings •Viscous effects put limits on how small wind tunnel models can be •In turbulent flow the turbulence creates substantial effective shear stresses that resemble the stresses resulting from much higher viscosity •Turbulence and wind shear are very significant in the planetary boundary layer .Shear stress terms importance •Air is viscous and its viscosity results in shear stresses.
Shear force due to shear stresses .
Viscosity and kinematic viscosity Where µ = viscosity Where V = kinematic viscosity .
Navier Stokes Equations General equations for the motion of air X-momentum equation: Y-momentum equation: Z-momentum equation: .
Computational Fluid Dynamics •Uses equations of motion to solve specific problems •The flow is broken down into a finite number of gridded elements and the equations of motion are discretized •For most practical problems the flow becomes turbulent •Turbulence causes great difficulty since it requires extremely small grid system and it must be solved on a very small time steps •Can be used as an approximate guide during preliminary design •It is currently mainly used for internal application .
Computational Fluid Dynamics .
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