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Hello (formal) Merhaba Hello (informal) Goodbye (formal) Goodbye (informal) Good morning Good afternoon Good evening

Please Ltfen Thanks (formal) Thanks (informal) My name is .. Benim adm ..

Selam Hoa kaln Hoa kal Gnaydn yi gnler yi akamlar Teekkr ederim Teekkrler

What is your name (formal)? Sizin adnz ne? What is your name (informal)? Adn ne? How are you (formal)? Naslsnz? Fine, and you (formal)? yiyim, ya siz? Fine, and you (informal)? yiyim, sen? Pleased to meet you Tantmza memnun oldum (tanitimza) How much is it? Ne kadar? See you later Grrz Sorry (formal) zgnm Sorry (informal) Pardon Excuse me zr dilerim I am trying to learn Turkish Trke renmeye alyorum

bathroom bath banyo soap sabun toilet paper toothbrush toothpaste towel havlu washbasin bedroom bed yatak -iatac bedroom blanket mattress pillow yastk pillow case tuvalet kad -(tiuvalet chiad) di fras (frcia) di macunu lavabo-(levabu)

yatak odas battaniye ilte (-iastc) yastk klf

(-iatac odas)

buy things I want to buy .. .. almak istiyorum I'm just looking Sadece bakyorum It's too expensive ok pahal Do you accept credit cards? Kredi kart kabul ediyor musunuz? That's all, thanks Hepsi bu kadar, teekkrler

It is faulty Defolu Will you change it? Deitirir misiniz? I'd like a refund ade etmek istiyorum I would like to try this on Bunu denemek istiyorum Do you have a larger size? Byk bedeni var m? Do you have a smaller size? Kk bedeni var m? Do you have another colour? Baka rengi var m? coffee kahve milk st map harita phone phone card postcard souvenir stamp -cafe telefon telefon kart posta kart hediyelik eya pul

(-hedielic iea )

countries-where i am from I'm from .. ..' den geliyorum I'm from England ngiltere'den geliyorum I'm from America Amerika'dan geliyorum England ngiltere France Fransa Germany Almanya Ireland rlanda Italy talya Spain spanya Turkey Trkiye Scotland skoya Wales Galler Australia Avustralya Canada Kanada New Zealand Yeni Zelanda America Amerika romania-Romanya

communication Do you speak English (formal)? ngilizce biliyor musunuz? -(inghilizce) Do you speak English (informal)? ngilizce biliyor musun? I don't speak Turkish Trke bilmiyorum Could you write it down (formal)? Yazabilir misiniz? (y-i) Could you write it down (informal)? Yazar msn? Does anyone speak English? ngilizce bilen var m? (var ma) Can you repeat that (formal)? Tekrarlar msnz? (k-c) Can you repeat that (informal)? Tekrarlar msn? I don't understand Anlamyorum What is it called in Turkish? Trke'de nasl denir? (turcce) What does .. mean? .. ne demek? conversation-introduction This is my wife Bu karm (carm) This is my husband Bu kocam (cojam)

This This This This This This This This

is is is is is is is is

my son Bu olum (ohlum) my daughter Bu kzm (czm)(i- ) (introducing a man last name) .. Bu Bay .. (introducing a man first name) .. Bu .. Bey (introducing woman last name) .. Bu Bayan .. (introducing a woman first name) .. Bu .. Hanm Mr Smith Bu Bay Smith Mrs Smith Bu Bayan Smith

small conversation Where are you from (formal)? Nerelisiniz? Where are you from (informal)? Nerelisin? Have you been to my country (formal)? lkeme hi geldiniz mi? (ulcheme hich gialdiniz me) Have you been to my country (informal)? lkeme hi geldin mi? I like Turkey a lot Trkiye'yi ok seviyorum What do you think of the city (formal)? ehri nasl buluyorsunuz? What do you think of the city (informal)? ehri nasl buluyorsun? Are you married (formal)? Evli misiniz? (evlimisiniz) Are you married (informal)? Evli misin? I'm single Bekarm(bechiarim) Where are you staying (formal)? Nerede kalyorsunuz? Where are you staying (informal)? Nerede kalyorsun? Do you have children (formal)? ocuklarnz var m? Do you have children (informal)? ocuklarn var m? What do you do (formal)? Ne i yapyorsunuz? What do you do (informal)? Ne i yapyorsun? I'm retired Emekliyim I'm a student renciyim I'm travelling Seyahat ediyorum I'm here on holiday Tatil iin geldim I'm here on business iin geldim OK (formal) Tamam OK (informal) OK Yes, of course! Tabi ki evet! Of course not! Tabi ki hayr! You're joking! Dalga geiyorsun! How's it going? Nasl gidiyor? (iy-i) No way! Katiyen olmaz! My e-mail address is .. E-posta adresim .. What is your e-mail address (formal) ..? E-posta adresiniz ne? What is your e-mail address (informal) ..? E-posta adresin ne? Do you like football (formal)? Futbol sever misiniz?

Do you like football (informal)? Futbol sever misin? Who do you support (formal)? Kimi tutuyorsunuz? Who do you support (informal)? Kimi tutuyorsun? Who is your best player (formal)? En sevdiiniz oyuncu kim? Who is your best player (informal)? En sevdiin oyuncu kim? I support .. ..'i tutuyorum He's a great player Mthi bir oyuncu

The coach is ..

Antrenr ..

What's the weather like? Is it going to It's hot It's cold It's nice It's freezing It's windy It's rainy rain? Hava Hava Hava Hava Hava Hava

Hava nasl? Yamur yaacak m? scak souk gzel buz gibi rzgarl yamurlu

colors It is red Bu krmz It is blue black siyah blue mavi green yeil orange purple red krmz yellow white beyaz adjectives good iyi bad hot cold young old fast slow clean dirty kt (chiotuu) scak (sgeac) souk (sooc) gen (ghienci) yal hzl yava temiz pis Bu mavi

turuncu mor sar

directions Where is ..? .. nerede? Where are ..? .. nerede? Can I walk there? Oraya yryebilir miyim? (oraia iuluarbilime) Is there a bus? Otobs var m? Is there a train? Tren var m? Is it far? Uzak m? Can you show me on the map (formal)? Haritada gsterebilir misiniz? Can you show me on the map (informal)? Haritada gsterebilir misin? Is there a .. nearby? Yaknda .. var m? Turn to the left (formal) Sola dnn Turn to the left (informal) Sola dn

Turn to the right (formal) Turn to the right (informal) here burada there orada On the right hand side On the left hand side At the end of the street The first road on the right The first road on the left Straight on Dmdz

Saa dnn Saa dn Sa tarafta ( -a) Sol tarafta Caddenin sonunda Sadan ilk sokak (saadan) Soldan ilk sokak

days-general this week bu hafta next week gelecek hafta yesterday dn today bugn tomorrow yarn now imdi later sonra this morning bu sabah this afternoon bugn leden sonra tonight bu akam days of the week Monday Pazartesi Tuesday Sal Wednesday aramba (ciaramba) Thursday Perembe Friday Cuma (ciuma) Saturday Cumartesi (ciuma..) Sunday Pazar

eat-food Can we eat? Yemek yiyebilir miyiz? Can we have breakfast? Kahvalt edebilir miyiz? Is there a table free? Bo masa var m? A table for four, please Drt kiilik bir masa ltfen I'd like to book a table for two ki kiilik bir masa ayrtmak istiyorum The menu, please Men, ltfen For the first course Balang olarak For the second course Ana yemek olarak For dessert Tatl olarak Have you any vegetarian dishes? Vejetaryen yemekleri var m? I'll have .. Ben .. istiyorum

That was delicious ok lezzetliydi It's delicious! ok lezzetli! It is delicious, but I'm full! ok lezzetli, ama doydum! That's enough, thanks Yeterli, teekkrler Enjoy your meal! Afiyet olsun!

This isn't properly cooked Bu iyi pimemi We didn't order this Biz bunu sipari etmemitik We ordered .. Biz .. sipari etmitik I don't eat meat Et yemiyorum knife bak (buciac) fork atal spoon serviette salt tuz pepper sugar eker vinegar sauce sos mustard Do you have ..? kak peete karabiber sirke hardal(harda) .. var m?

Is there ..? .. var m? For me Benim iin For him (formal) Beyefendi iin For him (informal) Onun iin For her (formal) Hanmefendi iin For her (informal) Onun iin The bill, please Hesap ltfen Keep the change st kalsn It's my round Sra bende What would you like to drink (formal)? Ne imek istersiniz? What would you like to drink (informal)? Ne imek istersin? Cheers! erefe! I'm feeling drunk! Sarho oldum sanrm I feel ill Kendimi kt hissediyorum The wine list, please arap listesi, ltfen Same again, please Aynsndan bir tane daha, ltfen Is food available here? Burada yiyecek bir eyler var m? What sandwiches do you have? Ne tr sandvileriniz var? A black coffee, please Bir sade kahve, ltfen A white coffee, please Bir stl kahve, ltfen Two white coffees, please ki stl kahve, ltfen A tea with milk Bir stl ay A lemon tea Bir limonlu ay A lemonade, please Bir limonata, ltfen A beer, please Bir bira, ltfen Two beers ki bira A glass of red wine Bir kadeh krmz arap A glass of white wine Bir kadeh beyaz arap A bottle of house white wine Bir ie zel beyaz arabnz A bottle of house red wine Bir ie zel krmz arabnz A gin and tonic, please Bir cin tonik, ltfen An orange juice, please Bir portakal suyu, ltfen With ice Buzlu A mineral water Bir soda vodka votka

family father baba mother anne husband koca wife kar (younger) brother erkek karde (elder) sister abla (younger) sister kiz karde son oul daughter kz girlfriend kz arkada boyfriend erkek arkada

Anne - Mother Baba - Father Anneanne (litterally mother mother) - Grandma from the mother's side Babaanne (literaly father mother) - Grandma from the father's side Buyuk anne - Grandmother Dede - Grandpa (as you can see, there is no difference between grandpa from the father's side of the fam. and from the mother's side of the fam.) Buyuk baba - Grandfather Abi - Older brother Abla - Older sister Kz karde - Little sister Erkek karde - little brother Karde - (younger) Sibling Kk karde - Younger sibling Abla - Older sister Kuzen - Cousin Yeen - Niece/Nephew Hala - Aunt from the father's side Teyze - Aunt from the mother's side Amca - Uncle from the father's side Day - Uncle from the mother's side Yenge - Wife of an uncle Enite - Brother in law Kaynvalide/Kaynana - Mother in law Kaynbaba - Father in law Gelin - Daughter in law, but also a bride Damat - Son in law, but also a groom Oul - Son Kz - Daughter/Girl Kz ocuu - Female child Erkek ocuu - Male child

emergences

Where is the toilet?

Acaba tuvalet nerede?

I need a Doctor Doktora ihtiyacm var I am lost Kayboldum I need help Yardma ihtiyacm var Help! mdat Leave me alone! Beni yalnz brakn! I've lost my passport Pasaportumu kaybettim Call the police! Polis arn! Call an ambulance! Ambulans arn(ciarin)

numbers one bir two three four five six seven eight nine ten iki drt be alt sekiz dokuz on on bir on iki on on drt on be on alt on yedi on sekiz on dokuz yirmi

yedi

eleven

twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty thirty otuz forty krk fifty elli sixty altm seventy eighty ninety one hundred one thousand

yetmi seksen doksan yz

bin

getting around general phrases Do you have a map of (formal) ..? .. haritanz var m? Do you have a map of (informal) ..? .. haritan var m? How long does it take to get to ..? ..'e gitmek ne kadar srer Is this seat occupied? Bu koltuk bo mu? Do I need to change? Vasta deitirmem gerekir mi? A single ticket Tek bilet A return ticket Dn bileti Is there a discount for children? ocuklara indirim var m?

Is there a discount for pensioners? Emeklilere indirim var m? A ticket for .. .. iin bir bilet Can you help me please (formal)? Ltfen yardm eder misiniz? Can you help me please (informal)? Ltfen yardm eder misin? Is there a station nearby? Yaknda bir istasyon var m? Is there a campsite nearby? Yaknda bir kamping var m? Where can I check my e-mail? E-postalarm nerede kontrol edebilirim? Where can I get internet access? nternet'e nereden eriebilirim? Is it safe to swim here? Burada yzmek gvenli mi? Is this the train for ..? Bu .. treni mi? When does the train leave? Tren ne zaman kalkyor? What platform does the train leave from? Tren hangi perondan kalkyor? The bus stop Otobs dura When is the next bus? Sonraki otobs ne zaman? When is the last bus? Son otobs ne zaman? What time does it leave? Ne zaman kalkyor When does it arrive? Ne zaman varyor Is this taxi free? Bu taksi bo mu? I want to go to .. .. 'ye gitmek istiyorum How much to go to ..? ..'ye gitmek ne kadar tutar It's near here Buraya yakn Will you slow down Yavalar msnz? Stop here Burada durun Please turn the meter on Ltfen taksimetreyi an I would like to hire a car Araba kiralamak istiyorum Do you have a road map? Yol haritanz var m? Please fill the tank Ltfen depoyu doldurun Will you check the tyre pressure? Lastiklerin hava basncn kontrol eder misiniz? Will you check the headlights? Farlar kontrol eder misiniz? My car's broken down Arabam bozuldu Can you repair it? Tamir edebilir misiniz? I've got a puncture Lastiim patlad I've run out of petrol Yaktm bitti I've had an accident Kaza geirdim months January

Ocak February ubat March Mart April Nisan May Mays June Haziran July Temmuz August Austos September Eyll October Ekim November Kasm December Aralk

money money para credit card kredi kart Where can I change money? Nerede dviz bozdurabilirim? Is there a bank nearby? Yaknda bir banka var m? What is the exchange rate? Dviz kuru nedir? I'd like to change some pounds Sterlin bozdurmak istiyorum I'd like to change some dollars Dolar bozdurmak istiyorum Please give me some small change Ltfen bozuk para verin Please will you give me a receipt Ltfen makbuz verir misiniz? house basement bodrum bathroom banyo door kap kitchen mutfak room oda stairs merdiven window pencere

useful words Customs Gmrk Exit k Entrance Giri Toilet Tuvalet Open Ak Closed Kapal

useful word-food bread ekmek butter tereya cheese peynir chips patates kzartmas egg yumurta ice-cream dondurma omelette omlet rice pilav salad salata soup orba apple elma banana muz cherry kiraz grape zm lemon limon melon kavun orange portakal peach eftali

pear armut pineapple ananas carrot havu garlic sarmsak lettuce marul mushroom mantar pea bezelye onion soan potato patates tomato domates bacon domuz pastrmas beef sr eti chicken tavuk ham (cured) jambon lamb koyun sausage sosis steak biftek veal dana

time What time is it? Saat ka? It is one o'clock It is two o'clock It is three o'clock It is four o'clock It is five o'clock It is six o'clock It is seven o'clock It is eight o'clock It is nine o'clock It is ten o'clock It is eleven o'clock It is twelve o'clock

Saat bir Saat iki Saat Saat drt Saat be Saat alt Saat yedi Saat sekiz Saat dokuz Saat on Saat on bir Saat on iki

parts of the body arm kol finger parmak face yz foot ayak head ba leg bacak mouth az stomach mide thumb ba parmak

places airport havaliman baker's shop frn

bank banka beach cafe kafe campsite chemist's hospital hotel otel

plaj kamping eczane hastane

laundrette amarhane market market police station polis karakolu post office postane road yol street (large) cadde street (small) sokak swimming pool yzme havuzu supermarket spermarket tourist office turizm brosu town centre ehir merkezi questions Who? Kim? Where? Nerede? What? Ne? Why? Neden? When? Ne zaman? How? Nasl? large byk small kk more fazla less az

paces to stay I have booked a room Oda rezervasyonu yapmtm I haven't booked a room Oda rezervasyonum yok I would like a single room Tek kiilik bir oda istiyorum I would like a double room ift kiilik bir oda istiyorum For three nights gecelik How much is it per night? Gecelii ne kadar? I like the room Oday beendim I don't like it Beenmedim I'll take it Tutuyorum A room with en suite Banyolu oda A reservation Rezervasyon It is too expensive ok pahal Have you got something cheaper? Daha ucuzu var m? Is there air conditioning? Klimas var m? The air conditioning is not working Klima almyor Will you give me an extra pillow? Bir yastk daha verir misiniz? Can I have some toilet paper? Tuvalet kad verir misiniz? Can I pay by credit card? demeyi kredi kartyla yapabilir miyim? Can I pay by traveler's cheque? demeyi seyahat ekiyle yapabilir miyim?

There's a mistake in the bill Faturada bir hata var We've enjoyed our stay Buradan ok memnun kaldk

verbs Present Continuous - (Actual) Simple Present - (Actual) Past Definite - (Actual) I am drinking now I drink I drank iiyorum ierim itim iiyorsun iersin itin iiyor ier iti iiyoruz ieriz itik iiyorsunuz iersiniz itiniz iiyorlar ierler itiler Present Continuous - (Indefinite)Simple Present - (Indefinite) Past Imperfect - (Actual) It seems I am drinking It seems I drink I was drinking iiyormuum iermiim iiyordum iiyormusun iermisin iiyordun iiyormu iermi iiyordu iiyormuuz iermiiz iiyorduk iiyormusunuz iermisiniz iiyordunuz iiyormular iermiler iiyordular Pluperfect Definite - (Actual) Pluperfect Indefinite - (Indefinite) Future in the Past (Actual) I had drunk I thought I had drank I will have drank imitim imimiim imi olacam imitin imimisin imi olacaksn imiti imimi imi olacak imitik imimiiz imi olacaz imitiniz imimisiniz imi olacaksnz imitiler imimiler imi olacaklar Conditional - (Actual) Conditional - (Indefinite) Future Definite - (Actual) If I drink If I were to drink I will drink iseydim iseymiim ieceim iseydin iseymisin ieceksin iseydi iseymi iecek iseydik iseymiiz ieceiz iseydiniz iseymisiniz ieceksiniz iseydiler iseymiler iecekler Future Perfect Definite - (Actual) Future Perfect Indefinite - (Indefinite) Future Conditional - (Actual) I would have drank It seems I will have drank If Iam to drink iecektim iecekmiim ieceksem iecektin iecekmisin ieceksen iecekti iecekmi iecekse iecektik iecekmiiz ieceksek iecektiniz iecekmisiniziecekseniz iecektiler iecekmiler iecekseler Necessitative Definite - (Actual) Necessitative Past - (Actual) Necessitative Past (Indefinite) I must drink I ought to have drunk It seems I had to drink

imeliyim imeliydim imeliymiim imelisin imeliydin imeliymisin imeli(dir) imeliydi imeliymi imeliyiz imeliydik imeliymiiz imelisiniz imeliydiniz imeliymisiniz imeli(dir)ler imeliydiler imeliymiler Imperative - (Order, Advice) Drink!. ieyim Let me drink i Drink! isin Let him drink ielim Let us drink iin(iz) You, drink! isinlerLet them drink Conditional - (Real) Present Conditional - (Real) Simple Present Conditional - (Real) If I drink If I am drinking If I(habitually) drink isem iiyorsam iersem isen iiyorsan iersen ise iiyorsa ierse isek iiyorsak iersek iseniz iiyorsanz ierseniz iseler iiyorlarsa ierseler Past Conditional - (Actual) Past Conditional - Indefinite) Future Conditional - (Actual) If I have drank It seems if I drink If I were to drink itiysem imisem ieceksem itiysen imisen ieceksen itiyse imise iecekse itiysek imisek ieceksek itiyseniz imiseniz iecekseniz itiyseler imiseler iecekseler Present Subjunctive - (Wish, desire) Definite Past Subjunctive - (Wish, desire) Indefinite Past Subjunctive - (Wish, desire) Let me drink If I had drank It seems if I had drank ieyim ieydim ieymiim iesin ieydinieymisin ie ieydi ieymi ielim ieydikieydiler iesiniz ieydiniz ieymisiniz ieler ieydiler ieymiler Indicative Moods Definite Past Tense Tense Suffix:Tense Suffix: -di (-ti), -d(-t), -du(-tu), -d(-t) Example: yaz-d, ko-tu - he wrote etc. Indefinite Past Tense Tense Suffix: -mi, -m, -mu, -m Example: yaz-m, gl-m - (maybe) he wrote etc. Present Continuous Tense Tense Suffix: -(i)yor, -()yor, -(u)yor, -()yor, -yor Example: yaz--yor, anl-yor, gr--yor - he is writing (now) Future Tense

Tense Suffix: -ecek (-yecek), -acak (-yacak) Example: yaz-acak, gid-ecek, anla-yacak - he will write Simple Present Tense Tense Suffix: -r, -ar, er, -ir, -r, -ur, r Example: bekle-r, yaz-ar, gr-r, gel-ir - he writes (generally) Present Continuous Tense This tense describes what is happening now at this moment, It is also used for happenings in the near future. Al veri yapyorum - I am doing the shopping [now] Yarn arya gidiyorum. - Tomorrow I am going to the shops. The Present Tense Suffix -yor "-ing" does not follow vowel harmony rules and always retains the "-yor-" form. Simple Present Tense This tense signifies habitual action. Her akam trene binerim.- I get on the train every evening. The Simple Present Suffix(according to vowel harmony ) is: -ar, -er, -r, -ir, -ur, -r, -r. - There are some irregularities in this tense. Past(-di'li) Definite Tense This is the eyewitness tense and it states that something definitely happened in the past. The suffixes for this tense are: -di, -d -du, -d, -ti, -t -tu, -t. Bir saat nce babam eve geldi. - My dad came home an hour ago [Definite: I actually saw him.] Past(-mi'li) Indefinite Tense This tense is use for hearsay and reporting, it is used when the event has not been eye witnessed personally. This tense is also used for stories and jokes. The suffixes for this tense are:-mu, -m, -mi, -m. Bir saat nce babam eve gelmi.- I believe that my dad came home an hour ago [ Indefinite : My mother told me so] The Future Tense This tense signifies what will happen in the future. The Future Tense suffix (according to Vowel harmony ) is -acak, -ecek. After verb roots ending in a vowel it uses buffer letter -y- to become -yacak, -yecek Mehmet, cuma gn tiyatroya gidecek. - Mehmet will go to the theater on Friday Tense of Wish or Desire (Subjunctive) This tense signifies a wish or desire - Let me. let us. This tense's suffix according to vowel harmony is: -(y)e, -(y)a imdi affn yazaym- Now let me write a letter of apology (B) Conditional Tense This tense signifies the condition of an event - if. lest..This tense's suffix according to vowel harmony is -se, -sa. Mehmet gelse iyi olur. - It will be good if Mehmet comes. (C) Necessitative Tense

This tense signifies obligation - must. should. ought to.. This tense's suffix according to vowel harmony is: -meli, -mal. Haftada bir kitap okumalym - I should read a book once a week (D) Imperative Tense This tense signifies orders, advice or warnings. This tense's suffix according to vowel harmony is -in (personal, informal), -iniz (public, formal),or unsuffixed (immediate, urgent) onu yapma - Don't do that. (Personal Informal) Sigara meyiniz - Don't Smoke, No Smoking (Public, Official) Sakn ol! - Beware!, Watch out! (Immediate) verbsgel = come ye = eat yap = make

ko = run i = drink ol = be

git = go et = do tat = taste

almak (to take, to buy) bulmak (to find) vermek (to give) gitmek (to go) renmek (to learn) bilmek (to know) sylemek (to say) konumak (to talk) dinlemek (to listen) almak (to study/to work) sevmek (to love) almamak (not to take, not to buy) bulmamak (not to find) vermemek (not to give) gitmemek (not to go) renmemek (not to learn) The negative stem (alma-, bulma-, etc.) is used for building negative forms of most tenses (past tense, simple present, future, ...). pronume Subject Personal Ending Ben (I) -(i)m Sen (You -(s)(i)n O (He/she/it) No suffix Biz (We) -k (only in seen past tense and conditional) or -(y)iz (in other tenses and moods) Siz (You) -(s)(i)niz Onlar (They) -ler

A to answer : cevaplamak to answer : yantlamak to applaud : alklamak to ask : sormak

B to to to to C to to to to to to to to to to D to to to to to to blame : sulamak borrow : dn almak bury : gmmek buy : satn almak

close : kapamak comb : taramak come : gelmek congratulate : kutlamak congratulate : tebrik etmek cook : piirmek count : saymak create: yaratmak cry : alamak or barmak cut : kesmek

die : lmek dive : dalmak divide : blmek do : yapmak draw : izmek drink : imek

E to eat : yemek to erase : silmek F to to to to G to to to to

fight : savamak fight : kavga etmek fly : umak fry : kzartmak

gather : toplamak get : almak give : vermek go : gitmek

H to hurry : acele etmek I to invite : davet etmek J K to knot : rmek

to know : bilmek L to learn : renmek to listen : dinlemek M to make peace : barmak to meet : tanmak to multiply : arpmak N

O to occupy : igal etmek to open : amak P to put on : giymek Q The is no Q in Turkish R to to to to S to to to to to to to to to to to T to to to to to to U

read : okumak remove : karmak respect : saymak run : komak

say : sylemek say : demek see : grmek sell : satmak send : gndermek sit : oturmak smile : glmek stand up : kalkmak study : renmek stutter : pepelemek swim : yzmek

take : almak talk : konumak teach : retmek translate : evirmek try : denemek turn : dnmek

to understand : bilmek to use : kullanmak V W to to to to to to X There is no X in Turkish. Y Z [edit] A

walk : yrmek want : istemek watch : bakmak watch : seyretmek work : almak write : yazmak

abart-: exaggerate ack-: get hungry a-: open (Present Tense: aar-) akla-: explain ada-: dedicate affet-: forgive (Present Tense: affeder-) aar-: bleach, whiten arla-: entertain, host ala-: cry ar-: ache ak-: flow, drain (Present Tense: akar-) aktar-: transfer, cite, pass on al-: take; buy (Present Tense: alr-) aldat-: cheat, mislead an-: mention, remember (Present Tense: anar-) anmsa-: recall, remember anla-: understand anlat-: tell, explain ara-: look for, search aratr-: look into, research, seek, study atla-: hop, jump, leap [edit] B

bak-: look; look after (Present Tense: bakar-) bala-: begin, start bil-: know (Present Tense: bilir-) bildir-: declare, report

bin-: get on; mount (Present Tense: biner-) bit-: finish; culminate (Present Tense: biter-) bul-: find (Present Tense: bulur-) bulu-: come together, meet [edit]

al-: steal; ring; play (Present Tense: alar-) al-: work k-: get out; come up; go out (Present Tense: kar-) [edit] D

de-: say dinle-: listen do-: be born; arise (Present Tense: doar-) dokun-: touch; affect dol-: fill up, to be filled, charge (Present Tense: dolar-) dola-: walk around; roam; stray dv-: beat, whip (Present Tense: dver-) duy-: hear; feel, sense (Present Tense: duyar-) d-: fall off, drop, come down (Present Tense: der-) dn-: think, consider nfinitive This uses -mek, and is the form found in the dictionary: anlamak = to understand grmek = to see gitmek = to go okumak = to read Verb Formation

Verbs can be formed from "substantives" or other non-verb words. A few, not many, are formed simply by adding the infinitive -mek to an adjective or noun. boya = "paint", while boyamak = "to paint". eski = "old", while eskimek = "to wear out". gerek = "necessary", while gerekmek = "to be necessary".

There aren't many examples of this type of verb formation. Many more verbs are formed by starting with a substantive word and then adding a suffix and the infinitive -mek. See G.L. Lewis' Turkish Grammar, chapter 14, sections 20-29. -eoyun = "game", while oynamak = "to play". ya = "age", while yaamak = "to live". -lesu = "water", while sulamak = "to irrigate". kilit = "lock", while kilitlemek = "to lock". kir = "dirt", while kirlemek = "to make dirty". temiz = "clean", while temizlemek = "to make clean".

As Lewis notes, you cannot always guess the meaning of the verb from that of the starting noun or adjective. Kpek and kuzu mean "dog" and "lamb", respectively, while kpeklemek and kuzulamak mean "to cringe" to "to lamb", respectively. If kuzalamak means "to give birth to lambs", then why doesn't kpeklemek mean "to give birth to puppies"? And why does kpeklemek mean "to cringe" when few mammals of its size are as easily frightened as a lamb? Notice that -le- is used for the category of words describing the sounds animals make: hav hav = the sound a dog makes, while havlamak = "to 'woof woof' like a dog" miyav = the sound a cat makes, while miyavlamak = "to 'meow' like a cat" -lenThe reflexive and passive of -le-, also some verbs synonymous with the -le- form, and some verbs for which there is no -le- form. kir = "dirt", kirlemek = "to make dirty", kirlenmek = "to be made dirty". temiz = "clean", temizlemek = "to make clean", temizlenmek = "to be made clean". serin = "cool", serinlemek = "to become cool", serinlenmek = "to become cool". Note that there are causative forms of these, appending a following -dir or -t- as discussed in the following section on verb modification. Some make the verb causitive, some just make another synonym for the -le- form: can = "life", canlanmak = "to come to life", canlandrmak = "to bring to life", kirlemek = "to make dirty", kirletmek = "to make dirty" temiz = "clean", temizlemek = "to make clean", temizletmek = "to be made clean". -leReciprocal of -le- or to form "to become ..." karlamak = "to meet", karlamak = "to meet one another" mektup = "letter", mektuplamak = "to correspond" bir = "one", birlemek = "to become united" -el- / -lAdded usually to adjectives, infrequently to nouns, to form "to become ..." az = "little", while azalmak = "to diminish" ok = "much", while oalmak = "to increase" -erUsed with color adjectives to form "to become ...", with other words to form an active verb. Note, as described in some detail in Lewis' book, that two-syllable color words actually have their final syllable replaced by -er-. az = "white", aarmak = "to become white" gk = "blue" or "green", ger or gver = "to become blue green" kzl = "red", kzarmak = "to become red" or "to be roasted" ya = "moisture", yaarmak = "to become moist" -seThe only surviving example of the once common "to want" is susamak for "to thirst". Otherwise, a few verbs use this to form "to regard as ..." benim = "mine" (or "of me"), benimsemek = "to regard as one's own" mhim = "important", mhimsemek = "to regard as important" -imse Used similarly to -se- to form "to regard as ..." or "to consider to be ..." az = "little", azmsamak = "to consider inadequate" ok = "much", oumsamak = "to consider excessive" -deUsed in onomatopoeic words which end in r or l and which can be repeated to form an adverb. For example, czr is "sizzling", the sound made by frying food; czr czr is then "sizzlingly", and czrdamak is "to make a sizzling sound", and just czrt is the noun "sizzling". There are similar sets of words for "creaking", "growling", "snoring", "crunching", "pattering" (as in footsteps), "glittering" (seldom a noisy activity), and "tapping" (as in ravens at doors).

Negative -me- or infrequently -mezFor most tenses, add -megrmek = "to see" grmemek = "not to see" For the general (or aorist) tense only, add -mez- in place of the characteristic aorist (i)r- suffix, except for the 1st person, where it is just -me-. Ahmet yazar = Ahmet is a writer. Ahmet yazmaz = Ahmet is not a writer. Barinikov dans etir. Siz, Senatr Kuayl, siz dans etmezsiniz. Baryshnikov is a dancer. But you, Senator Quayle, you are not a dancer. See the aorist section below for an explanation of "aorist" and why these examples were used. Passive -n- or -il- or -inFor verb stems ending in vowels, add -nokumak = "to read", okunmak = "to be read" For verb stems ending in consonants other than l, add -ilvermek = "to give", verilmek = "to be given" For verb stems ending in l, add -inbilmek = "to know", bilinmek = "to be known" Causative -dir- or -t- or -itMost verbs add -dirbilmek = "to know", bildirmek = "to inform" or "to announce" Verbs ending in a vowel, or l, or r, add only -tanlamak = "to understand", anlatmak = "to explain" Verbs ending in or add -irimek = "to drink", iirmek = "to cause or make to drink" A few monosyllable verb stems ending in k add -it-. Doubly causative verbs are possible: pimek = "to cook" (intransitive, the meat cooks) piirmek = "to cook" (transitive, the chef cooks the meat) piirtmek = "to have something cooked" lmek = "to die" ldrmek = "to kill" ldrtmek = "to have someone killed" Higher-order causation is grammatically possible, but stilted: ldrttrmek = "to get someone to have someone killed", or to get someone else to hire a hitman. ldrttrtmek = the same thing but one more step removed, "to get someone to get someone to have someone killed", or to get someone else to contact an agency to have them hire the hitman Reflexive -ingiymek = "to wear clothes" giyinmek = "to dress oneself" giyindirmek = "to dress someone else" giyindirilmek = "to be dressed by someone else" giyindirildirmek = "to be forced to be dressed by someone else" Verbs of mutual action -i-

grmek = "to see" grmek = "to see one another" or "to converse" grlmek = "to be conversed about" grtrmek = "to make to converse with one another" grtrlmek = "to be made to converse with one another" Order for applying modification: Reflexive Reciprocal Causative Passive For example: acmak = "to feel pain" (simple) acnmak = "to feel pain in oneself, to grieve" (reflexive) acndrmak = "to cause to grieve" (causative) acndrlmak = "to be made to grieve" (passive) tanmak = "to know" (simple) tanmak = "to know one another" (reciprocal) tantrmak = "to introduce" (causative) tantrlmak = "to be introduced" (passive) Negation, -me, plus ability, -ebil, and inability, -eme (see below) are added after these. di-Past -di-Past Simple -di + I I did and I have done Things that have been finished. -dim -dik -din -diniz -di -diler Konya'da dervileri grdm. I saw dervishes in Konya. I have seen dervishes in Konya. Konya'ya gittim. I went to Konya. I have gone to Konya. -di-Past Pluperfect -di -idi + II I had done Action that really was completed well back in the past. So far back that you could have used the past tense in the past. Also called pluperfect. -diydim -diydik -diydin -diydiniz -diydi -diydiler -or-dimdi -dikti -dindi -dinizdi -diydi -dilerdi Konya'da dervileri grdydm. Konya'da dervileri grdmd. I had seen dervishes in Konya. Konya'ya gittiytim. Konya'ya gittimdi. I had gone to Konya.

-di-Past Conditional -di -ise + II If I did or If I have done -diysem -diysek -diysen -diyseniz -diyse -diyseler -or-dimse -dikse -dinse -dinizse -diyse -dilerse

Konya'da dervileri grdysem ... Konya'da dervileri grdmse ... If I saw dervishes in Konya ... Konya'ya gittiysem ... Konya'ya gittimse ... If I went to Konya ...

-di-Past Pluperfect Conditional -di -idi -ise + II If I had done -di idiysem -di idiysek -di idiysen -di idiyseniz -di idiyse -di idiyseler -or-dim idiyse -dik idiyse -din idiyse -din idiyizse -diy idiyse -diler idiyse Konya'da dervileri grd idiysem ... Konya'da dervileri grdm idiyse ... If I had seen dervishes in Konya ... Konya'ya gitti idiysem ... Konya'ya gittim idiyse ... If I had gone to Konya ... mi-Past Simple, or Past Indefinite -mi- + I I have done Events that supposedly happened in the past, but the speaker does not have adequate information to definitively report it without question. As opposed to "He definitely went", this can render "He (apparently, allegedly, reportedly, presumably, or ostensibly) went (but I am not sure enough of this assertion to honestly use the past definite form)." And since the first-person singular exists, you can make unfounded allegations about yourself! Put another (less entertaining) way, the point is that something has happened, not the activity itself. Lewis' example is kar yami, or snow has fallen, where the point is that there is snow on the ground, never mind the details of how it got there. Positive Positive Interrogative -miim -miiz -mi miyim? -mi miyiz? -misin-misiniz -mi misin? -mi misiniz? -mi -miler -mi mi? -miler mi? Negative Negative Interrogative -memiim -memiiz -memi miyim? -memi miyiz? -memisin -memisiniz -memi misin? -memi misiniz? -memi -memiler -memi mi? -memiler mi? Konya'da masalarda dans etmiim. Supposedly I danced on the tables in Konya. (But I can't really say definitely, I don't remember a thing! Next time, less rak!) Konya'da masalarda dans etmemiim. Supposedly I did not dance on the tables in Konya. Konya'da masalarda dans etmi miyim? Did I supposedly dance on the tables in Konya? Konya'da masalarda dans etmemi miyim? Did I supposedly not dance on the tables in Konya? Konya'ya gitmiim. I went to Konya, so they say. Konya'ya gitmemiim. I did not go to Konya, so they say. Konya'ya gitmi miyim? Did I go to Konya? Konya'ya gitmemi miyim? Did I not go to Konya?

mi-Past Past, or Pluperfect -mi- -iti- + II I had done Action that really was completed well back in the past. So far back that you could have used the past tense in the past. Also called pluperfect. Positive Positive Interrogative -mitim -mitik -mi miydim? -mi miydik? -mitin -mitiniz -mi miydin? -mi miydiniz? -miti -milerdi -mi miydi? -mi miydiler? Negative Negative Interrogative -memitim -memitik -memi miydim? -memi miydik? -memitin -memitiniz -memi miydin? -memi miydiniz? -memiti -memilerdi -memi miydi? -memi miydiler? Konya'da dervileri grmtm. I had seen dervishes in Konya. Konya'da dervileri grmemtm. I had not seen dervishes in Konya. Konya'da dervileri grm mydm. Had I seen dervishes in Konya? Konya'da dervileri grmem mydm. Had I not seen dervishes in Konya? Konya'ya gitmitim. I had gone to Konya, so they say. Konya'ya gitmemitim. I had not gone to Konya, so they say. Konya'ya gitmi miydim? Had I gone to Konya? Konya'ya gitmemi miydim? Had I not gone to Konya?

mi-Past Narrative -mi- + I + suffixed with -dir Used by the media to report He has ..., in situations where normal spoken Turkish would simply use di-past Positive Negative -miimdir -miizdir -memiimdir -memiizdir -misindir -misenizdir -memisindir -memisenizdir -midir -milerdir -memidir -memilerdir Derviler Konya'ya gitmilerdir In tonight's news, dervishes went to Konya. Derviler Konya'ya gitmemilerdir In tonight's news, dervishes did not go to Konya.

mi-Past Conditional -mi- -ise- + II If I have done Positive Negative -misem -misek -memisem -memisek -misen -miseniz -memisen -memiseniz -mise -miseler -memise -memiseler Konya'da dervileri grmsam, .... If I had seen dervishes in Konya, ... Konya'ya gitmisem ... If I had gone to Konya ... Konya'ya gitmemisem ... If I had not gone to Konya ...

mi-Past Inferential -mi- -mi- + I I am said to have done... -mimiim -mimiiz -mi imiim -mi imiiz -mimiin -mimiiniz -mi imiin -mi imiiniz -mimi -mimiler -mi imi -mi imiler Konya'da dervileri grmmm. Konya'da dervileri grm imiim. I am said to have seen dervishes in Konya.

Konya'ya gitmimiim. Konya'ya gitmi imiim.

I am said to have gone to Konya.

mi-Past Inferential conditional -mi- -mi- + I If I am said to have done... -mi imisem -mi imisek -mi imisen -mi imisiniz -mi imise -mi imiseler Konya'da dervileri grm msem, ... If I am said to have seen dervishes in Konya, ... Konya'ya gitmi imisem, ... If I am said to have gone to Konya Present Simple -(i)yor- + I I am doing Positive Negative -(i)yorum -(i)yoruz -miyorum -miyoruz -(i)yorsun -(i)yorsunuz -miroysun -miyorsunuz -(i)yor -(i)yorlar -miyor -miyorlar Konya'da dervileri her gn gryorum. I see dervishes in Konya every day. Konya'ya gidiyorum. I am going to Konya. (note t->d change) Konya'ya gitmiyorum. I am not going to Konya. Present Past -(i)yor- -idi- + II I was doing Positive Negative -(i)yordum -(i)yorduk -miyordum -miyorduk -(i)yordun -(i)yordunuz -miroydun -miyordunuz -(i)yordu -(i)yorlard -(i)yordular -miyordu -miyorlard -miyordular Konya'da dervileri her gn gryordum. I saw dervishes in Konya every day. Derviler Konya'ya gidiyorlard. Derviler Konya'ya gidiyordular. Dervishes were going to Konya. Present Conditional -(i)yor- -ise- + II If I am doing ... Positive Negative -(i)yorsam -(i)yorsak -miyorsam -miyorsak -(i)yorsan -(i)yorsanz -miyorsan -miyorsanz -(i)yorsa -(i)yorlarsa -(i)yorsalar -miyorsa -miyorlarsa -miyorsalar Konya'da dervileri her gn gryorsam ... If I see dervishes in Konya every day ... Konya'ya derviler gidiyorlarsa ... Konya'ya derviler gidiyorsalar ... If Dervishes are going to Konya ... Present Past Conditional -(i)yor- -idi- -ise- + II If I was doing ... Positive Negative -(i)yorduysam -(i)yor idiysem -(i)yorduysak -(i)yor idiysek -miyorduysam -miyor idiysem -miyorduysak -miyor idiysek -(i)yorduysan -(i)yor idiysen -(i)yorduysanz -(i)yor idiyseniz -miyorduysan -miyor idiysen -miyorduysanz

-miyor idiyseniz -(i)yorduysa -(i)yor idiyse -(i)yorduylarsa -(i)yorduysalar -(i)yor idiylerse -(i)yor idiyseler -miyorduysa -miyor idiyse -miyorduylarsa -miyorduysalar -miyor idiylerse -miyor idiyseler Konya'da dervileri her gn gryorduysam ... Konya'da dervileri her gn gryor idiysem ... every day ... Konya'ya derviler gidiyorduylarsa ... Konya'ya derviler gidiyorduysalar ... Konya'ya derviler gidiyor idiylerse ... Konya'ya derviler gidiyor idiyseler ...

If I saw dervishes in Konya

If Dervishes were going to Konya ...

Present Inferential -(i)yor- -imi- + I I am said to be doing ... Positive Negative -(i)yormuum -(i)yormuuz -miyormuum -miyormuuz -(i)yormusun -(i)yormussunuz -miyormusun-miyormussunuz -(i)yormu -(i)yormular -miyormu -miyormular Konya'da dervileri her gn gryormuum. I am said to see dervishes in Konya every day. Konya'ya derviler gidiyormular. Dervishes are said to go to Konya. Present Inferential Conditional -(i)yor- -imi- -ise- + II If I am, as they say, doing ... or I gather that if I was doing ... Positive Negative -(i)yormusam -(i)yor imisem -(i)yormusak -(i)yor imisek -miyormusam -(i)yor imisem -miyormusak -(i)yor imisek -(i)yormusan -(i)yor imisen -(i)yormusunaz -(i)yor imiseniz -miyormusan -miyor imisen -miyormusunaz -miyor imisen -(i)yormusa -(i)yor mise -(i)yormusalar -(i)yor imiseler -miyormusa -miyor mise -miyormusalar -miyor imiseler Konya'da dervileri her gn gryormusam, ... Konya'da dervileri her gn gryor imisem, ... If I am, as they say, seeing dervishes in Konya every day, ... Konya'ya derviler gidiyormusalar, ... Konya'ya derviler gidiyor imiseler, ... If dervishes, as they say, are going to Konya, erb stem ends with a vowel. anlamak = to understand anlar = he understands

-ar + I Verb stem ends with a consonant, single syllable. etmek = to do eder = he does -ir + I 14 exceptions to the above rule add i///u: almek = to take alr = he takes bilmek = to do bilir = he does bulmak = to find bulur = he finds durmak = to stand durur = he stands gelmek = to come gelir = he comes grmek = to see grr = he sees kalmak = to remain kalr = he remains olmak = to become / be / happen olur = it becomes / is / happens lmek = to die lr = he dies sanmak = to think sanr = he thinks varmak = to reach varr = he reaches vermek = to give verir = he gives vurmak = to strike vurur = he strikes yenmek = to be eaten yenir = it is eaten However, yenmek "to win" forms "he wins" as the expected yener -ir + I Polysyllabic verb stems, and extensions of monosyllabic verb stems konumak = to speak konuur = he speaks demek = to say de-n-mek = to be said der = he says denir = it is said

Some compound verbs with etmek take -er, in which case there is also lenition, as in "to transport": nakletmek -> nakleder

The negative is formed unusually: -mez is used where the -(i)r is used in the positive (and just -em is used in the first person. See the below tables for examples. Aorist Simple -(i)r- + I or -(a)r- + I Positive Negative -(i)rim -(i)riz -mem -meyiz -(i)rsin -(i)rsiniz -mezsin -mezsiniz -(i)r -(i)rler -mez -mezler Konya'da dervileri grrm. I see dervishes in Konya. Indiyana'da dervileri grmem. I do not see dervishes in Indiana. Konya'ya derviler dans etirler. Dervishes dance in Konya. Indiyana'da derviler dans etmezler. Dervishes do not dance in Indiana. Aorist Past -(i)r- -idi- + II I used to do or I used to be a doer Positive Negative -(i)rdim -(i)rdik -medim -medik -(i)rdin -(i)rdiniz -mezdin -mezdiniz -(i)rdi -(i)rdiler -mezdi -mezdiler Konya'da dervileri grrdm. I used to see dervishes in Konya. Indiyana'da dervileri grmedim. I was not a seer of dervishes in Indiana. Konya'ya derviler dans etirdiler. Dervishes were dancing in Konya.

Indiyana'da derviler dans etmezdiler. Indiana.

Dervishes were not dancing in

Aorist Conditional -(i)r- -ise- + II If I do ... Positive Negative -(i)rsem -(i)rsek -mesem -mesek -(i)rsen -(i)rseniz -mezsen -mezseniz -(i)rse -(i)rseler -(i)rlerse -mezse -mezseler Konya'da dervileri grrsem ... If I see dervishes in Konya ... Indiyana'da dervileri grmesem ... If I do not see dervishes in Indiana ... Konya'ya derviler dans etirseler. Konya'ya derviler dans etirlerse. If dervishes dance in Konya ... Indiyana'da derviler dans etmezseler ... If dervishes do not dance in Indiana ... Aorist Past Conditional -(i)r- -idi- -ise- + II If I do ... Positive Negative -(i)rdiysem -(i)r idiysem -(i)rdiysek -(i)r idiysek -mediysem -mediysek -(i)rdiysen -(i)r idiysen -(i)rdiyseniz -(i)r idiyseniz -mezdiysen -mezdiyseniz -(i)rdiyse -(i)r idiyse -(i)rdiyseler -(i)r idiyseler -mezdiyse -mezdiyseler Konya'da dervileri grrdysem ... Konya'da dervileri grr idiysem ... If I saw dervishes in Konya ... Indiyana'da dervileri grmediysem ... If I did not see dervishes in Indiana ... Konya'ya derviler dans etirdiyseler. Konya'ya derviler dans etiri idiyseler. If dervishes danced in Konya ... Indiyana'da derviler dans etmezdiyseler ... If dervishes did not dance in Indiana ... Aorist Inferential -(i)r- -imi- + I I am said to do or I am said to be a doer Positive Negative -(i)rmiim -(i)rmiiz -memiim -memiiz -(i)rmisin -(i)rmisiniz -mezmisin -mezmisiniz -(i)rmi-(i)rmiler -mezmi -mezmiler Konya'da dervileri grrmiim. I am said to see dervishes in Konya. Indiyana'da dervileri grmemiim. I am said not to see dervishes in Indiana. Konya'ya derviler dans etirmiler. Dervishes are said to dance in Konya. Indiyana'da derviler dans etmezmiler. Dervishes are said not to dance in Indiana. Aorist Inferential Conditional -(i)r- -imi- -ise- + II If I am said to do ... or If, as they say, I do ... Positive -(i)rmisem -(i)ir imisem -(i)rmisek -(i)ir imisek -memisem -memisek -(i)rmisen -(i)r imisen -(i)rmiseniz

Negative

-(i)r imiseniz -mezmisen -mezmiseniz -(i)rmise -(i)r imise -(i)rmiseler -(i)r imiseler -mezmise -mezmiseler Konya'da dervileri grrmisem ... Konya'da dervileri grr imisem ... If, as they say, I see dervishes in Konya ... Indiyana'da dervileri grmemisem ... If, as they say, I do not see dervishes in Indiana ... Konya'ya derviler dans etirmiseler ... Konya'ya derviler dans etir imiseler ... If, as they say, dervishes dance in Konya ... Indiyana'da derviler dans etmezmiseler ... If, as they say, dervishes do not dance in Indiana ... Future Future Simple, or Future General Future Positive General Future Positive General Interrogative -(y)eceim -(y)eceiz -ecek miyim? -ecek miyiz? -(y)eceksin -(y)eceksiniz -ecek misin? -ecek misiniz? -(y)ecektir -(y)ecekler(dir) -ecek mi? -ecekler mi? Future Negative General Future Negative General Interrogative -meyeceim -meyeceiz -meyecek miyim? -meyecek miyiz? -meyeceksin -meyeceksiniz -meyecek misin? -meyecek misiniz? -meyecektir -meyecekler(dir) -meyecek mi? -meyecekler mi? Konya'da dervileri greceim. I will see dervishes in Konya. Konya'da dervileri grmeyeceim. I will not see dervishes in Konya. Konya'da dervileri grecek miyim? Will I see dervishes in Konya? Konya'da dervileri grmeyecek miyim? Will I not see dervishes in Konya? Future Past (G.L. Lewis pg 113 sec 22b) Things that were in the future in the past. I was going to ... (but since I do not say that it happened, then probably it did not work out) -(y)ecektim -(y)ecektik -(y)ecektin -(y)ecektiniz -(y)ecekti -(y)eceklerdi Konya'da Dervileri grecektim. I was going to see dervishes in Konya. Filimi dervileri grecektim, ama saati yetmidi. A film having-dervishes I-was-going-to-see, but time I did-not-have. Future Conditional If I am about to ... -(y)eceksem -(y)eceksek -(y)eceksen -(y)ecekseniz -(y)ecekse -(y)eceklerse -(y)ecekseler Konya'da dervileri greceksem, ... If I will see dervishes in Konya, ... Future Past Conditional If I was about to ... -(y)ecek idiysem -(y)ecektiysem -(y)ecektimse-(y)ecek idiysek -(y)ecektiysek -(y)ecektikse

-(y)ecek idiysen -(y)ecektiysen -(y)ecektinse -(y)ecek idiyniz -(y)ecektiyseniz -(y)ecektinizse -(y)ecek idiyse -(y)ecektiyse -(y)ecektise -(y)ecek idiyseler -(y)ecektiyseler -(y)eceklerdiyse Konya'da dervileri grecek idiysem, ... Konya'da dervileri grecektiysem ... Konya'da dervileri grecektimse ... dervishes in Konya, ...

If I was going to have seen

Future Inferential I am/was said to be about to ... -(y)ecek imiim -(y)ecekmiim -(y)ecek imisiz -(y)ecekmisiz -(y)ecek imisin -(y)ecekmisin -(y)ecek imisiniz -(y)ecekmisiniz -(y)ecek imi -(y)ecekmi -(y)ecek imiler -(y)ecekmiler Konya'da dervileri grecek imiim. Konya'da dervileri grecekmiim. It is said that I will see dervishes in Konya. Future Inferential Conditional If, as they say/said, I am/was about to ... -(y)ecek imisem -(y)ecekmisem -(y)ecek imisek -(y)ecekmisek -(y)ecek imisen -(y)ecekmisen -(y)ecek imiseniz -(y)ecekmiseniz -(y)ecek imise -(y)ecekmise -(y)ecek imiseler -(y)ecekmiseler Konya'da dervileri grecek imisem, ... Konya'da dervileri grecekmisem, ... If, as they say, I will see dervishes in Konya, ... Future II or Ancient Future (G.L. Lewis pg 115 sec 23) According to G.L. Lewis, this verb appears appears only in the third-person singular form, suffixed with -as, and is used only for cursing. Evin yklas! May your house be demolished! Dervilarin bakaldras! May your dervishes stage a revolution! To Be

Some forms are suffixes added to nouns or adjectives only, some forms are independent words following the noun or adjective, sometimes (as in the past tense) you have a choice.

Past Past Positive Past Negative Enclitic form Independent form form -(y)dim -(y)dik idim idik deil idim deil idik -(y)din -(y)diniz idin idiniz deil idin deil idiniz -(y)di -(y)diler idi idiler idi deil idiler

Enclitic form deildim deildin

Independent deildik deildiniz deil

deildi deildiler

Past Positive Interrogative Past Negative Interrogative Enclitic form Independent form Enclitic form form miydim? miydik? mi idim? mi idik? deil miydik? deil mi idim? deil mi idik? miydin? miydiniz? mi idin? mi idiniz? deil miydiniz? deil mi idin? deil mi idiniz? miydi? miydiler? mi idi? mi idiler? deil miydi? miydiler? deil mi idi? deil mi idiler? Atatrk Trk idi. Atatrk Trkdu. Atatrk was a Turk. Dervitim. Dervi idim. I was a dervish Dervi miydim? Dervi miyim? Was I a dervish? Dervi deildim. Dervi deil idim. I was not a dervish Dervi deil miydim? Dervi deil mi idin? Was I not a dervish?

Independent deil miydim? deil miydin? deil

Past Conditional Positive Suffixed Suffixed -(y)diysem -(y)diysek idiysek -(y)diysen -(y)diyseniz -(y)diyse -(y)diyseler idiyseler

Independent -(y)dimse -(y)dikse -(y)dinse -(y)diyse -(y)dinizse -(y)diyseler

idiysem idiysenidiysek idiyse

Negative Suffixed Suffixed Independent deildiysem deildiysek deildimse deildikse deil idiysek deildiysen deildiyseniz deildinse deildinizse deil idiyseniz deildiyse deildiyseler deildiyse deildilerse deil idiyseler Dervi idiysem, ... If I had been a dervish, ... Dervi deil idiysem, ... If I had not been a dervish, ... Evde idiysem ... Evdeydiysem ... Evdeydimse ... If I had been at home ...

deil idiysem deil idiysen deil idiyse

Past Inferential is said to be or was said to be Positive Suffixed Independent -(y)miim -(y)miiz imiim imiiz -(y)miin -(y)misiniz imiin imisiniz -(y)mi -(y)miler imi imiler Negative Enclitic Independent deilmiim deilmiiz deil imiim deil imiiz deilmisin deilmisiniz deil imisin deil imisiniz deilmi deilmiler deil imi deil imiler Dervi imi. He was said to be a dervish. Dervi deil imi. He was said not to be a dervish. (He was said to be a non-dervish, it was not that he was a dervish and people failed to comment upon it)

Past Inferential Conditional Positive Suffixed Independent -(y)misem -(y)misek imisem imisek -(y)misen -(y)miseniz imisen imiseniz -(y)mise -(y)miseler imise imiseler Negative Enclitic Independent deilmisem deilmisek deil imisem deil imisek deilmisen deilmiseniz deil imisen deil imiseniz deilmise deilmiseler deil imise deil imiseler Dervi imise ... I gather that if he was a dervish ... Dervi deil imise ...I gather that if he was not a dervish ...

Present Note that -dir is not generally used in informal speech or writing. For a copula, or "A = B" sentence, The girl's name is Fatma: Formal: Kzn ad, Fatma'dr. Informal: Kzn ad, Fatma. It is also used informally to indicate emphasis or a supposition. To answer the question Derviler nerede?, or Where are the dervishes? Camide. In the mosque. Camideler. They are in the mosque. Camidedirler. They are surely in the mosque... (supposition) Camidedirler! They are in the mosque! (emphasis) Camidelerdir. They are surely in the mosque... (supposition) Also, -dir may be suffixed to verbs, where it weakens rather than emphasizes the verb. Biliyorsunuz. You know. Biliyorsunuzdur. You surely know. or I presume you know. Arkadama mektup yazdim. I wrote a letter to my friend. Literally, To-my-friend letter I-wrote. A simple statement of fact. Arkadama mektup yazmm. It seems that I wrote a letter to my friend. An inference I do not remember writing the letter, but I found a copy on my computer and so I must have written it...

Arkadama mektup yazmmdr. I must have written a letter to my friend... I do not remember writing the letter, nor do I have any evidence that I did so, but it has been some time since I received his letter and I'm usually quite punctual with my correspondance... Finally, the particle mi turns the preceding word into a question. It is a separate word but follows vowel harmony. Present positive Present interrogative -(y)im -(y)iz miyim? miyiz? -sin -siniz misin? misiniz? -(dir) -(dir)ler mi(dir)? midirler? Present negative Present negative interrogative deilim deiliz deil miyim? deil miyiz? deilsin deilsiniz deil misin? deil misiniz? deildir deildirler deil midir? deil midirler? Evdeyim. I am at home. Evde miyim? Am I at home? Derviim. I am a dervish. Dervi miyim? Am I a dervish? Kzn ad, Fatma'dr. The girl's name is Fatma. Kzn ad, Fatma m? Kzn ad, Fatma mdr? The girl's name, is it Fatma? Dervi deilim. I am not a dervish. Dervi deil miyim? Am I not a dervish? Present II I am in the act of ... The infinitive, plus the locative, thus -mekte, followed by some ending of "to be": Konya'ya gitmekteyim. I am in the act of going to Konya. Dervileri grmekteymiim. I am said to be in the act of seeing dervishes. Var / Yok There take the place of there are and there are not, respectively: Mercimek orbas var m? Is there any lentil soup? orba var. There is soup. orba yok. There is no soup. Bu evde ok kedi var! There are many cats in this house! Hoverkraftmda ok yalnbal var! My hovercraft is full of eels! Literally: Hovercraft-of-me-inside many eel(s) exist! Yeni Meksiko'da uan daire var m? Are there flying saucers in New Mexico? Yeni Meksiko'da yok. There aren't any in New Mexico. Ama, "Alan Elli Bir'de" ok var. However, there are many at Area 51. Necessity Simple necessity I must, I ought to Positive -meliyim -meliyiz -melisin -melisiniz -meli(dir) -meli(dir)ler Konya'ya gitmeliyim. I must Derviler frl frl dnmeliler. Derviler frl frl dnmelidirler. Past necessity

Negative -memeliyim -memelisin -memeli(dir) go to Konya.

-memeliyiz -memelisiniz -memeli(dir)ler

Dervishes must whirl.

I had to do, I should have done Positive Negative -meli idim -meliydim -meli idik -meliydik -memeli idim -memeliydim -memeli idik -memeliydik -meli idin -meliydin -meli idiniz -meliydiniz -memeli idin -memeliydin -memeli idiniz -memeliydiniz -meli idi -meliydi -meli idiler -meliydiler -melilerdi -memeli idi -meliydi -memeli idiler -memeliydiler -memelilerdi Konya'ya gitmeli idim. Konya'ya gitmeliydim. I had to go to Konya. Derviler frl frl dnmeli idiler. Derviler frl frl dnmeliydiler. Derviler frl frl dnmelilerdi. Dervishes needed to whirl. Inferential necessity They say I must, they say I ought to Positive Negative -meliymiim -meliymiiz -memeliymiim -memeliymiiz -meliymisin -meliymisiniz -memeliymisin -memeliymisiniz -meliymi -meliymiler -melilermi -memeliymi -memeliymiler -memelilermi Konya'ya gitmeliymiim, ... They say that I should have gone to Konya Derviler frl frl dnmemelimiler. Derviler frl frl dnmemelilermi. They say that dervishes should not whirl. Conditional Conditional simple This expresses remote conditions: If I were to ... and wishes: If only I were to ... Positive Negative -sem -sek -mesem -mesek -sen -seniz -mesen -meseniz -se -seler -mese -meseler Konya'ya gitsem, dervileri gryorum. If I were to go to Konya, I would see dervishes. Derviler Indiana'ya gitseler, beni gryorler. If dervishes were to go to Indiana, they would see me. Conditional past This expresses unfulfilled conditions: If I had ... and hopeless wishes relating to the past: If only I had ... Positive Negative -seydim -seydik -meseydim -meseydik -seydin -seydiniz -meseydin -meseydiniz -seydi -seydiler -selerdi -meseydi -meseydiler

-meselerdi Konya'ya gitseydim! If only I had gone to Konya! Derviler Indiana'ya gitmeseydiler! Derviler Indiana'ya gitmeselerdi! If only the dervishes had not gone to Indiana! Conditional inferential This quotes remote conditions and wishes: They say that if I were to ... They say "If only I were to ..." Positive Negative -seymiim -seymiiz -meseymiim -meseymiiz -seymisin -seymisiniz -meseymisin -meseymisiniz -seymi -seymiler -selermi -meseymi -meseymiler -meselermi Konya'ya gitseymiim, ... They say that if I were to go to Konya, ... Derviler Indiana'ya gitmeseymiler, ... Derviler Indiana'ya gitmeselermi, ... They say that if the dervishes had not gone to Indiana, ... Subjunctive Subjunctive simple As per Lewis, this "expresses concepts envisaged by the subject or the speaker; it makes no statement about facts, except that the first singular is used colloquially with future meaning: Yarn geleyim. Let me come tomorrow -> I may come tomorrow -> I'll come tomorrow" The second persons are used in formal speech to relay requests and commands: Babam dedi ki, yarn bize gelesiniz. My father said that you-should-come to us tomorrow. The third singular is used colloquially to ask cautious questions: Evde mi ola? Might he be at home? The endings do not follow a consistent pattern used by other verbs, history indicates that this ending is a hybrid. Positive Negative -eyim -elim -meyeyim -meyelim -esin -esiniz -meyesin -meyesiniz -e -eler -meye -meyeler Subjunctive past Used to express unfulfillable past wishes. Lewis' example is: Bileydim buraya kadar gelmezdim. Had I known, I would not have come this far. Positive Negative -eydim -eydik -meyeydim -meyeydik -eydin -eydiniz -meyeydin -meyeydiniz -eydi -eydiler -elerdi -meyeydi -meyeydiler -meyelerdi Subjunctive inferential Infrequently used, this quotes the simple and and past subjunctive: People say "would that I had ... Positive Negative -eymiim -eymiiz -meyeymiim -meyeymiiz -eymisin -eymisiniz -meyeymisin -meyeymisiniz -eymi -eymiler

-elermi -meyelermi

-meyeymi

-meyeymiler

Ability, to be able to ... Positive ability Append -(y)ebilmek, conjugated in some form, to the root of the verb: grmek to see Dervileri grebiliyorum. I can see dervishes. Dervileri grebiliyordum. I was able to see dervishes. Dervileri grebileceim. I will be able to see dervishes. Negative ability Append -(y)eme to the verb root and conjugate: Konya'ya gitmedim. I did not go to Konya. Konya'ya gidemedim. I was unable to go to Konya. Egilize anlyorum. I understand English. Trke anlmyorum. I do not understand Turkish. Trke anlyamyorum. I am unable to understand Turkish. Trkler Trke anlyabiliyorler. Turks are able to understand Turkish. Imperative

Second-person form is like a command. Third-person form is used when the command is about someone, e.g., "Let them eat cake." Second-person singular form is informal or harsh, and an alternative form is the verb stem with no suffix at all. The second-person form is like a command. The third-person form is used when the command is about someone, e.g., "Let them eat cake." The second-person singular form is informal or harsh, and an alternative form is the verb stem with no suffix at all. -(y)in -(y)iniz -sin -sinler Kebab yiyin! Eat a kebab! (familiar, informal, harsh) Kebab yiyiniz! Eat a kebab! (plural, formal, polite) Kebablari yesinler! Let them eat kebabs! Dervi gibi frl frl dnnz! Whirl like a dervish! Participles and Substantives

These words are verb forms that can function as adjectives or nouns, generally: which-is-verbing which-is-characterized-by-verbing Or having-verbed or will-be-verbed or other tenses.

To be strict, it might be better to use participle to refer to the verbal adjective forms, e.g., "talking people", and substantive to refer to the forms functioning as nouns, e.g., "those who talk". I have labeled the below tables simply as "participles" when each table really includes both participles and substantives. Present Participle -(y)en Verbing, right now. If the y is needed, it "narrows" the preceding vowel: komak to run

konumak konumamak to talk to not talk Kpekler koyorlar. The dogs are running. Bu insanlar konumyorlar. These people are not talking. koan kpekler running dogs konumyan insanlar people who are not talking koanlar those who are running konumyanlar those who are not talking Aorist Participle -(y)ir Verbing, in general. Kpekler korler. Dogs run. Bu insanlar konumyrlar. These people do not talk kor kpekler dogs who run konumyr insanlar people who do not talk korlar those who run konumyrlar those who do not talk Future Participle -(y)ecek Pertaining-to-future-verbing. Kpekler koacaklar. Dogs will run. Bu insanlar konumayacaklar. These people will not talk koacak kpekler dogs who will run konumayacak insanlar people who will not talk koacaklar those who will run konumayacaklar those who will not talk Yiyecek bir kebap istiyorum. I want a kebab to eat. Pertaining-to-future-eating one-kebab I-want. mi-Past Participle -mi Pertaining-to-having-verbed. However, this does not have the inferential I gather that ... sense of the mi-past. Kpekler komular. Dogs have run, apparently. Bu insanlar konumamlar. These people have not talked, it seems. komu kpekler dogs who ran konumam insanlar people who did not talk komular those who ran konumamlar those who did not talk di-Past Participle -dik Pertaining-to-past-verbing. Most of these are passive and negative: grmek to see grlmek to be seen grlmemek to be unseen grlmedik extraordinary (that which has not been seen) Kpekler kodlar. Dogs ran. Bu insanlar konumadlar. These people did not talk. kodk kpekler dogs who were running konumadk insanlar people who were not talking kodklar those who were running konumadklar those who were not talking Personal Participles Add a suffix of possession to mean: Characterized-by-my/your/his/etc-verbing bilmek to know bildik an acquaintance (characterized by knowing) bildiim my acquaintance (characterized by my knowing) bildiklerim my acquaintances (those characterized by my knowing) Yiyeceim kebap ok iyi grnir. The kebab I am going to eat looks very good.

Characterized-by-my-future-eating kebab very good is-seen. stanbul'a geldii otobs dolmudan byk. The bus in which he came to Istanbul was bigger than a dolmu. To-Istanbul pertaining-to-his-having-come bus from-a-dolmu bigger is. Size bir diyeceim yok. I have nothing to say to you. To-you one-thing-of-my-future-saying does-not-exist. Bana bir diyeceiniz var m? Do you have anything to say to me? To-me one-thing-of-your-future-saying exists does-it? Combine -ecei gel- to form it feels like or the time is coming phrases: stanbul'u greceim geldi. I feel like seeing Istanbul Istanbul my-future-seeing has-come. Verbal Nouns Infinitive -mek This takes endings to form the various cases, except for genitives and possessives: Absolute As subject: Trke renmek ok zor. To learn Turkish is very difficult. As object of istemek and bilmek (to want and to know): Trke anlamak istiyorum. I want to understand Turkish. Kebap almak istiyorum. I want to buy a kebab. Accusative as object of other verbs: Kebap alma unuttum. I forgot to buy a kebap. Dative: Kebap almaa baladm. I began to buy a kebab. Kebap almaa gittim. I have gone to buy a kebab. Locative: Kebap almakta tehlikeyi grmiyorum. I see no danger in buying a kebap. Ablative: Kebap almaktan kendimi nleyememiim. Apparently I was unable to prevent myself from buying a kebap. Gerund verbal nouns -me the action or result of action This forms words as verbing and can take every case ending and possessive suffix: alma buying gitme going bekeleme salonu waiting room -meklik the fact of action Kebap almaklk ticarete iyi. My kebab-buying is good for business (to-business goodis). -i the manner of action, but also the fact of action Bu kebap all, ticaret baaracaktr. With this sort of kebab-buying, business will succeed. giri entrance (entering, going in) k exit (exiting, going out) Gerund

These are adverbal words formed from nouns. -e Repeated or continuing activity simultaneous with the main verb: gee, from gemek, to pass, indicating the time at which something happens: Saat drde on gee gellerdi. They came at ten past four. Literally: Hour from-four ten passing they-came. deye, from demek, to say, meaning saying: TEHLKE diye bir levha

A sign saying DANGER Literally: DANGER saying one sign. rasgele, from rasgelmek, to meet by chance, meaning haphazardly or randomly. Rasgele bir dervi frl frl dnmedi. At random, one dervish did not whirl. Repeated, it has an idiomatic use: Gide gide kebapcya m gittin? Going and going, was it to the kebab shop you went? meaning: After all that travel, couldn't you find anywhere better to go than to the kebab shop? Also see Gle gle, said to someone who is departing. Glmek means to smile. -erek Single act or continued activity simultaneous with or slightly before the main verb. Often corresponds to by doing or with doing: bilerek = knowingly bilmiyerek = unknowingly Kapy aarak evden gitti. Opening the door, he left the house. -ip Used when there are two verbs with identical suffixes joined by "and", to simplify the first one. To say We got up and we left: Kalkp gittik. (and not Kalktk gittik.) Or, for They are sitting and talking: Oturup konuuyorlar. (and not Oturuyorlar konuuyorlar.) -ince Action just prior to the main verb: Otobs gelince kalkarm. When the bus arrives, I will get up. -inceye kadar, -inceyedek, -inceye dein until Otobs gelinceye kadar, gidemedik. Until the bus arrives, we cannot go. -ene kadar, -enedek, -ene dein until, less formal Otobs gelene kadar, gidemedik. Until the bus arrives, we cannot go. -esiye to the point of. Derviler baylasya frl frl dnlerdi. The dervishes whirled to the point of fainting. -eli, -eli beri, eliden beri, -diX -eli since, with the di-past ending conjugated as needed. All these mean Since we came to Istanbul it has not rained: Biz stanbul'a geleli hi yamur yamad. Biz stanbul'a geleli beri hi yamur yamad. Biz stanbul'a geleliden beri hi yamur yamad. Biz stanbul'a geldik geleli hi yamur yamad. -meden, -mezden before, without, followed by evvel or nce to mean before. Siz gitmeden evvel beni uyandriniz. Wake me up before you go. -dikten sonra after doing, the converse of -meden evvel / -meden nce Beni uyandrdktan sonra gitiniz. Leave after waking me. -r -mez used to mean as soon as, or literally, as I was between the states of doing and not-doing: Ben oturur oturmaz telefon ald. As soon as I was sitting down, the telephone rang. -dike so long as or the more "Ben frl frl dnduka, frl frl dnacam gelir!", dervi dedi. "The more I whirl, the more I feel like whirling!", the dervish said. -dikten baka apart from doing or in addition to doing O, kapy adktan baka, evden gittim. He, in addition to opening the door, left the house. -dii mddete as long as, all the time O alt mddete ark syler. He sings all the time he works. -dii halde although or in a state of Bardm halde kimse yardma gelmedi. Although I shouted, no one came. Baca alda olduu halde eve dnd. He returned home with his leg plastered. -dii iin or -diinden because of the verbing Bir hal ald iin, vergi demeliyim. Because of my purchasing a carpet, taxes I

must pay. -dii kadar as much as Istediiniz kadar kaliniz. Stay as long as you want. -eceine or -ecek yerde instead of verbing zmir'e yryeceine, otobsu bineceim. Instead of walking to Izmir, I will ride a bus. -mekle with/by verbing Gnm hep yaz yazrmakla geirdim. All of my day I spent by writing. -mektense or -mekten ise rather than Ankara'ya gitmektense, stanbul'a gittim. Rather than go to Ankara, I went to Istanbul. -meksizin without verbing, -meden is more frequently used. Otobsu binmeksizin, stanbul'a gittim. Without riding a bus, I went to Istanbul. Otobsu binmeden, stanbul'a gittim. Without riding a bus, I went to Istanbul. (Treni binden!) (I rode a train!) Adverbs adverbs of time zaman zarflar yesterday dn today bugn tomorrow yarn now imdi then o zaman later sonra tonightbu gece right now hemen imdi last night dn gece this morning bu sabah next week nmzdeki hafta already zaten recently geenlerde lately son zamanlarda soon yaknda immediately hemen still hala yet henz ago nce adverbs of place yer zarflar here burada there orada over there karda everywhere her yerde anywhere herhangi bir yerde nowhere hibir yerde home ev away uzakta out darda adverbs of manner very ok quite tamamen pretty olduka really gerekten fast hzl durum zarflar

well iyi hard sert quicklyhzl, hzlca slowly yavaa carefully dikkatlice hardly glkle barely zar zor mostly ounlukla almost neredeyse absolutely kesinlikle together birlikte alone tek bana adverbs of frequency sklk zarflar always her zaman frequently sk sk usuallygenellikle sometimes bazen occasionally bazen, ara sra seldom nadiren rarely nadiren never asla

Formation and recognizing nouns in Turkish Diminutive and Affectionate - the suffix -cik This suffix is vowel harmonized forms are cik -ck -cuk -ck. It also becomes -k -ik -uk -k when it mutates to its hard form when it is added to words which end in a hard consonant. baba - father - becomes -baback - daddy Mehmetik - [Lit: Little Mehmet] - is the general affectionate word for a soldier. This would be a Tommy in English. kedi - cat - becomes - kedicik - pussycat kpek - dog - becomes - kpecik - puppy Final -k in the noun stem is usually dropped when adding this suffix. Because the terminal -k is dropped then the suffix takes its soft form of -cik. The following examples also show this loss of terminal "-k": kk - small - becomes - kck - little ufak - small - becomes - ufack - tiny, minute minik - small and nice - becomes - minicik - wee, tiny Vowel Production Sometimes when adding the diminutive Suffix -cik it causes an extra vowel to be inserted - in effect the suffix becomes -icik: az - less - becomes - azck - little less as in birazck - just a little bir - one - becomes - biricik - unique dar - narrow - becomes - darack -narrowish In the word - azck - Although this inserted vowel is written, it is often glossed over in actual speech. If we add the possessive pronouns such as -im to the diminutives - my - (baback +

-m becomes babacm! - daddy!). So you can often hear children crying - babacm - (baba-c-m) - (my daddy or anneciim - (anne-ci-im) - (my mummy or even kpeciim! - my little puppy!. Formation of nouns from adjectives - the suffix -lik This suffix is vowel harmonized forms are -lik -lk -luk -lk. The suffix -lik is very heavily used in Turkish. It has four main uses in Turkish as follows; 1. Formation of Abstract and Collective Nouns The main use of the suffix -lik is to form Abstract Nouns from Adjectives. gzel - beautiful - becomes - gzellik - beauty mutlu - happy - becomes - mutluluk - happiness iyi - good - becomes - iyilik - goodness ocuk - child - becomes - ocukluk - childhood zor - difficult becomes zorluk - difficulty, complication It should be noted that the English Abstract nouns end in -ness, -tion, -ity, etc (generally) Of course these abstract nouns can be further suffixed in Turkish according to their function in meaning: mutluluum - [mutlulu-um] - my happiness Hepimiz, ocukluumuzu mutluluk iinde geirdik. O zamanlarda mutluluum sonsuzdu. - All of us passed our childhood in happiness. At that time my happiness was endless - [Hep-imiz, ocuk-lu-umuz-u mut-lu-luk i-i-nde ge-ir-dik. O zaman-lar-da mutlulu-um son-suz-du.] Thanks to Murat Ak for corrections to the sections above and below - JG, December 2012 Formation of Collective Nouns gen - young becomes genlik - youth yal - old becomes yallk - age insan - person/human becomes insanlk - human-kind kii - person/individual becomes kiilik - personality/identity Bakan - Minister becomes Bakanlk - Ministry balk - fish becomes balk - fisherman becomes Balklk - Fishing Club, Group, Association This last example shows that noun suffixes can be chained to produce further extended meanings. Thanks to Kadir Demirel for suggestions in this section - JG - Nov. 2006 2. Forming nouns of Usage When adding -lik to concrete nouns or verb stems it forms nouns and adjectives meaning - suitable for.. intended for... place of... tuz - salt - becomes - tuzluk - salt cellar biber - pepper - becomes - biberlik - pepper shaker gz - eye - becomes - gzlk - spectacles kira - hire - becomes - kiralk - for hire yamur - ran - becomes - yamurluk - raincoat, mackintosh, oilskin 3. Forming Nouns of Location Bakan - Minister - becomes - Bakanlk - Ministry amar - linen, laundry items - becomes - amarlk - a laundry

orman - forest - becomes - ormanlk - forest place In this example of - forest - we can see that Turkish uses -lik to make a Substantive Noun of Location, as in the following example: O tepenin arkasnda byk bir ormanlk bulunur - There is a large forest (to be found) behind that hill. Here the word - ormanlk - is used as a general Substantive Noun of Location. We may go on to talk about this particular - orman - itself: O ormanda ok yabani hayvan varm. - It seems there are many wild animals in that forest. Many place names - (have a look at a Turkish map) - often end in the suffix -lik. One that springs to mind is Ayvalk - Place of the Quince - [ayva], there is also a place near eme called Deirmenlik - Place of the Mill - [deirmen] It is difficult to translate this suffix directly into English, we can only say - "Quince" or "Quinceville" and "Milltown" or "Millhill" or whatever. Arising from the above we can also form nouns of "Place of" as follows elmalk - apple orchard - from - elma - apple sebzelik - vegetable garden, stall - from - sebze - vegetable ieklik - flower garden, stall - from - iek - flower kitaplk - book case - from - kitap - book 4. The Suffix -lik with Numbers: A number is normally used as an adjective thus the number 10 (as an adjective) - on yumurta - ten eggs. Turkish changes numbers and numeric expressions into nouns by the addition of the -lik suffix thus the number 10 - on - becomes - onluk - the amount of ten. This is like saying Lend me a "tenner" in English, where the number 10 has become a noun of the amount ten. The suffix -lik is often added to counted nouns to produce a complex counted noun. Let us take our example of on yumurta - ten eggs. If we say I want a ten egg box. in English we understand that our requirement is "A box that will contain the amount of ten eggs." Let us look at some possibilities in Turkish: on yumurta bir kutu - ten eggs one box - this example has no meaning in Turkish - it is just two items - "ten eggs" and "one box". Turkish will use a counted noun - on yumurtalk - ten eggs-amount - thus - I want a ten egg box - becomes: On yumurtalk bir kutu istiyorum - [Lit: I want a ten egg-amount box.] If we want to say - I want a box of ten eggs - the Turkish uses the -li - furnished with, containing - suffix: On yumurtal bir kutu istiyorum - I want a box containing ten eggs. ki kiilik adr var m? - [Lit: Is there a tent of two person-amount?] - in English - Is there a double tent? Evet var. Ka gnlk ? - [Lit: Yes, there is. How many day-amount?] - in English - Yes there is. For how many days? An "eggy" question Here is an "eggy" question from one of our Turkish friends, showing the diference in Turkish logic: Shouldn't that be? - "I want a ten egged box" - Cafer Bey by Email My answer: To your suggestion: "I want a ten egged box". I'm sorry I can not agree, I feel it should be "I want a ten egg box", as I have written. If we say it your way, it makes the box itself "modified" as in "I want a black coloured box" or "I want a silk lined box". But a "ten egg box" describes a box that can contain up to "ten eggs" ; that is how it

is understood. Let us not forget that supermarkets in England sell their eggs in "egg boxes" not in "egged boxes" To understand the difference "I want a three key box" - a box to put three keys into, and "I want a three keyed box" - a box which need three keys to open it. 5. Formation of Negative Abstract Nouns - the suffix -sizlik The -lik suffix is often added to the -siz - without, lacking in suffix to form Negative abstract nouns in -sizlik sabr - patience - becomes - sabrsz - impatient - and the abstract noun sabrszlk impatience dikkat - care - becomes - dikkatsiz - careless and the abstract noun - dikkatsizlik carelessness Further suffixes can be added to show the noun condition Hepimizin ocuk-luu mutsuzluk iinde geti [Hepimiz-in ocuk-lu-u mutsuzluk i-inde geti] - All of our childhood(s) passed in unhappiness. Demin dikkatsizliini [dikkat-siz-li-i-ni] fark ettim - I just noticed your carelessness. dikkat - is from an Arabic Feminine Plural - and as such it does not follow Turkish Vowel harmony Rules as the final letter -a- is pronounced quite long - dikkAAt. Consequently any added suffixes take the Dotted form. More about Compound Nouns: Bisikletimizi braktmz yeri hatrlayamayacaz - We will not be able to remember the place where we leave/have left our bicycle(s) [Bisiklet-imiz-i brak-t-mz yer-i hatrla-ya-ma-y-acaz] In these sentences - yer - is the place that we can not remember where we left the bicycle, and - bisiklet - is the bicycle. Therefore both of them should be in accusative case. If we had wanted to say - I can't remember my bicycle's place - then we should have said - Bisikletimin yerini hatrlayamyorum In this sentence - Bisikletimin yeri - is a Definite Noun Combination (both nouns are substantive) The first component is in genitive form. The second component gets the suffix -i (if it ends with a vowel it usually gets the buffer letter -s except the word - su - water which takes buffer letter -y- to produce suyu - (the only irregular noun in Turkish) Many thanks to Nilda Ginn for corrections and suggestions to this above - JG Feb. 2006 - and thanks to Kadir Demirel for corrections. - JG Nov. 2006 Definite Noun Completion Here the first noun possesses the noun it modifies. The second noun is then suffixed as definitive. We should note that both components retain their grammatical function as a noun in their own right. bisikletimin garaj - [Bisiklet-im-in garaj-] - my bicycle's garage - (the garage of my bicycle) kapnn zili - [kap-nn zil-i] - the door-bell - (the bell of the door) Mehmet'in arabas - [Mehmet'-in araba-s] - Mehmet's car - (the car of Mehmet) pencerenin perdesi - [pencere-nin perde-si] - the window-curtain - (the curtain of the window) All the above are Definite Compound nouns as they are both particular and both Definite. If we take the last example [the window its-curtain] - pencerenin perdesi - the window's curtain - we can see that it is a particular curtain belonging to a particular window. But we can also make this an Indefinite noun "any window curtain" - pencere perdesi - window curtain - This then is the difference between Definite and Indefinite

(see below) Compound Nouns. Indefinite Noun Completion Here the first noun acts as an adjective to describe the second noun which is suffixed as a definitive noun. When two nouns are joined - as in lamp-post, the second noun takes the third person possessive suffix, e.g. k direi - (k dire-i) - lamp-post [Lit: Lamp its-post]. Similarly - gece kulb - (gece kulb-) - nightclub [Lit: night its-club]. This is the way that Turkish shows a connection between the two words to make a complex noun - the first noun "lamp" becomes an adjective to describe the second "post" which is made into a definitive noun by the addition of the third person suffix. Of course further suffixes can be added to this complex noun as required: k direi - [dire-i] - (from direk) - lamp post - [lamp its-post] onun k direi - [dire-i] - his lamp post Mehmet'in k direi - [dire-i] - Mehmet's lamp post onun k direinden - [dire-i-nden] - from his lamp post Mehmet'in k direinden - [dire-i--nden] - from Mehmet's lamp post If you say lamp post , that is k direi, and his lamp post would be also k direi. Why? Because the -i at the very end has the meaning of "Indefinite Noun Completion" as in the first phrase, and "Possession for the 3rd. Person Singular" as in the second. To avoid doubling only one of them is used. This shows the conflict between Indefinite Noun Completion Suffix -i and 3rd. Person Possessed Suffix -i. But how to distinguish between them? In order to do that, you should bring onun - his, her at the beginning, thus onun k direi is clearly about possession. For example - The minister for tourism would be turizm bakan. If we want to say England's minister for tourism, we should say Ingiltere'nin turizm bakan [not "Ingiltere'nin turizm bakann" (or bakans)]. so we can say - England's minister for tourism is very young. - Ingiltere'nin turizm bakan ok gen(tr). And if you want to say - from his lamp post - then similarly you would say onun k direinden k direinden - [dire-i-nden] - from the lamp post bisiklet yeri - [bisiklet yer-i] - the bicycle place kap kolundan - [kap kol-u-ndan] - from the door handle yaz okulu - [yaz okul-u] - the summer school yolcu gemisinde - [yolcu gemi-si-nde] - on the ferry boat - (Lit: the traveller boat) Ali'nin elma aac - [elma aac-] - Ali's apple tree ayakkab boyas - [ayakkab boya-s] - the shoe polish bilgisayar ekran - [bilgisayar ekran-] - the computer screen kzmn renci karnesi - [renci karne-si]- my daughter's student (school) report su borusu - [su boru-su] - the water pipe deniz suyu - [deniz su-yu] - the sea water In the last example above you will see that the definitive of - su (water) - is suyu [not susu] - this is an exception, and is the ONLY unique exception in The Turkish Language. Many thanks to Oytun Arslan for corrections and suggestions to this page. - JG - 19 Sept 2011 Non-attached Completion Used for indicate the material used . Neither noun is made definitive - thus producing a Combined Noun.

Here the first noun of material acts as an adjective describing the main noun which follows. This shows that adjectives always precede their noun in Turkish; it is important to realize this. tahta kap - wooden door alminyum pencere - aluminium window demir kpr - iron bridge Turkish Alphabet English Sound Pronunciation Example Aa /a/ 'a' as in father Bb /b/ 'b' as in book Cc /d/ 'j' as in Joke /t/ 'ch' as in chimpanzee Dd /d/ 'd' as in day Ee /e/, // 'e' as in red or 'a' as in cat Ff /f/ 'f' as in far Gg //, // 'g' as in game //1 No equivalent, watch video below Hh /h/ 'h' as in hot I // 'e' as in open i /i/ 'i' as in machine Jj // 's' as in pleasure Kk /k/, /c/ 'k' as in kilo Ll /l/, // 'l' as in life M m /m/ 'm' as in master Nn /n/ 'n' as in nice Oo /o/ 'o' as in more // 'u' as in turn Pp /p/ 'p' as in spin Rr // the 'r' as in car Ss /s/ 's' as in smile // 'sh' as in shine Tt /t/ 't' as in stop Uu /u/ 'u' as in ultimate /y/ 'u' as in cube Vv /v/ 'v' as in victory Yy /j/ 'y' as in you Zz /z/ 'z' as in zigzag