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, but I’m actually staring at the sky because I sincerely enjoy the dandruff-ish look of stars in the provinces (because they had less light pollution). http://ecoki.com/wp-content/uploads/stars.jpg When I first got my DSLR camera (Nikon D3100) last year, I had an intense feeling of thirst for information on how I can use my camera more than just the technical stuffs. So I began searching the net about everything - on how to do Bokehs to Light painting – until I read an article about Star trailing. This effect really fascinates me. -Star trail photohttp://www.photosbykev.com/wordpress/wp-content/gallery/star_trails/startrails_master_web.jpg It says that your camera must have a remote, so I went to camera shops to inquire but they said my camera doesn’t have its built-in ability to sense the signals from the remote, which ends one of my dreams shattered, unless if I’ll have another camera. http://www.northwest-landscapes.com/images/deepsky/wide-field/Star-Trails2.jpg So I would like to dedicate this post to my broken ambition. Why do the stars shine? The reason why stars shine is that there is an internal process going on within each star. Stars initially form from large balls of gas, typically a cloud of cold molecular hydrogen that collapses and breaks into fragments and pieces. As held together by gravity, stars are continuously crushing themselves inward, resulting to causing heat to be produced due to friction of the gravitational energy that goes into the motion of the gas. With the intense pressure and increasing temperature, a nuclear fusion reaction takes place. As it contracts, its temperature rises. When the heat gets high enough, it causes the individual the hydrogen nuclei in the plasma inside the core of the star to collide. As soon as enough protons can collide into each other with enough speed, they stick together to form a helium nucleus; which generates a tremendous amount of energy at the same time. This conversion of hydrogen into helium is the first reaction that happens in every star, it is called the main sequence. The stellar gas, now in a spherical shape, is contracted further by gravity while exploding by fusion. Together, a balance is reached and a star is born. The reaction actually ends up with a surplus of energy according to the equation E=mc2. In a star, four hydrogen-2 atoms form into a helium-3 atom; and according to E=mc2, releases a lepton and photon, which is then turned into energy. This is because the mass of the combing hydrogen is greater than the end product of helium. Therefore, the mass is converted to energy, and that energy is the electromagnetic radiation (light). The tremendous amount of energy released in the star’s center traverses the star's interior to the surface. Once it has reached the surface, they become visible light photons which are radiated into space as light, heat x-rays, ultraviolet light and radio waves in the form of gamma rays. The star then shines after the process of nuclear fusion has successfully occurred out in space. These gamma rays are trapped inside the star, and they push outward against the gravitational contraction of the star. That’s why stars hold to a certain size, and don’t continue contracting. The gamma rays jump around in the star, trying to get out. They’re absorbed by one atom, and then emitted again. This can happen many times a second, and a single photon can take 100,000 years to get from the core of the star to its surface. The photons leap off the surface of a star, lost some of their energy, become visible light photons, and not the gamma rays they started out as; and head out in a straight line into space. They can travel forever if they don’t run into anything. When the core hydrogen finally runs out, the star will temporarily spike in brightness by up to a thousand times its current luminosity, expand, and cool at the surface.
our sun has an outer temperature of around 5000 degrees. It is measured in two forms: apparent (visible light only) and bolometric (total radiant energy). so the outer surface regions will also rise to quite high temperatures. so we say that it has a luminosity of 0. During this process. which carry off some energy. along with nickel. to form a different single heavier nucleus. while the fusion of nuclei heavier than iron absorbs energy. Luminosity of the sun 3. For example. luminosity measures the total amount of energy emitted by a star or other astronomical object in joules per second. the further collapse triggers fusion of helium into carbon. In some stars.000 degrees. The observed brightness of a star is called its apparent magnitude. If the star is big enough to start with. Luminosity is the amount of electromagnetic energy a body radiates per unit of time. Facts about stars All stars are hot balls of glowing plasma held together by their own gravity. about 2 % in case of our Sun. we do not know how much light it emits.1 solar luminosities. the central temperature will be high enough to really keep that fusion going. producing much bluer light. Since this is another case of large numbers. while red dwarf stars are considerably cooler and produce mostly red and infrared light. which are watts. There are a variety of units of luminosity. or "fuse". The luminosity of a star is an astronomical quantity. a star like the Sun converts 4 million tons of its material into heat and light through the process of nuclear fusion. and the heat gradually will seep out to the outside parts of the star. A watt is one unit of power. for example the Sun has a luminosity of about 1026 Watts. A star that emits 1025 Watts is 1/10th as luminous as the Sun.Nuclear Fusion Process Nuclear fusion is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together. and the fusion energy is no longer available. all the elements that can provide energy are exhausted. Luminosity Luminosity is generally understood as a measurement of brightness. It is the temperature of the outer surface that determines the way the stars shine . When we do measure a star's distance. we often measure the luminosity of other stars in terms of how bright or dim they are compared to the Sun. matter is not conserved because some of the mass of the fusing nuclei is converted to energy which is released. but other stars can be as hot as 50. The total energy output of a star is called its luminosity. and the star starts its final collapse. a star that emits 1027 Watts is 10X more luminous than the Sun.845 X 10**26 watts 1367 watts/square meter at Earth . because without measuring the star's distance. A star also radiates neutrinos. Every second. a star will use up all of its available small atoms. or carbon into even heavier elements. but one way to measure luminosity is in Watts. has the largest binding energy per nucleon) generally releases enormous energy. and so just as a light bulb is measured in watts. and we say it has 10 solar luminosities. we can make a measurement of the star's true energy output. This process gives off a lot of energy that we can see as light. The binding energy of the resulting nucleus is greater than the binding energy of each of the nuclei that fused to produce it. Eventually. In astronomy. Finally. The fusion of two nuclei with lower masses than iron (which. producing a stellar wind and contributing to the star's total luminosity.
you’re seeing photons that left the surface of the star 8 years ago and traveled through space. Stars shine because the gas inside them is so hot that a process called "nuclear fusion" takes place. When modern electronic light detectors (using the "photoelectric effect") were first devised and used to measure the brightnesses of stars.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question13.nmsu.org/wiki/Nuclear_fusion http://en. exposing the core.wikipedia. without running into anything. the helium created earlier within the nuclear furnace will begin to fuse to carbon and oxygen.in/2011/03/27/why-do-stars-shine/ http://en. It is believed that most stars are in the ages of 1 billion to 10 billion years.htm .html http://starchild. the density and pressure in the cores are extremely high. Red is deemed to be the coolest color while blue projects otherwise.illinois.astro. it was found that a first magnitude star produced approximately 100X the electrical current of a sixth magnitude star.nasa. The process that causes stars to shine is the same one that we have harnessed for use as a weapon: nuclear fusion. That is. If a star is located about 8 light-years away.gov/docs/StarChild/universe_level2/stars. expand to nearly the size of Earth's orbit. Fusion is the process that powers active stars. creates a pressure that causes the star to quit contracting at some point. to some 5000 times its present luminosity.edu/tharriso/ast110/class17. the Sun's core is so hot and has such high pressure that it undergoes nuclear fusion. In fact.gsfc. The rate at which photons carry away energy from the star is called the star's luminosity.html http://starchild. Stars are giant balls of glowing gas. Under increasing compression. In fact.nasa. -----SOURCES----http://astronomy. Luminosity is frequently measured in watts (that is.wikipedia. dimming carbonoxygen white dwarf with somewhat over half its current mass We know that stars are constantly emitting photons in all directions.html http://stars. Astronomers use a specific system to note how bright a star is: the magnitude system. having an indirect relationship. The core in turn will illuminate the expanding debris to briefly create a planetary nebula and will then die and cool as an ultradense. All this heating.lanl. Stars vary in color depending on it mass and temperature. joules per second). the Sun will brighten even more.gov/cosmo-course/kat/slides/sld013.gsfc.nasa. causing the future star to dim back some to become a modest red giant star like so many of those that populate the naked-eye sky.org/wiki/Star http://imagine.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/970304. When the helium is gone. and become even cooler and redder. the higher the mass density of the star.gov/docs/StarChild/universe_level1/stars.html http://starchild. Then it will slough off its outer hydrogen layers. The photons carry energy with them. Its age is highly dependent on its mass.html http://edumass.wikipedia.gsfc. Because stars are so massive.html http://t8web. the brightest stars you see are about 200 times brighter than the faintest ones your eye can detect. One of the first things you notice about stars when you look at the night time sky is that some are brighter than others.nasa.edu/sow/sun.gsfc.org/wiki/Luminosity http://en. from both gravity and nuclear fusion. the shorter is its life span while stars having lesser mass densities tend to reach hundreds of billions of years.
html http://www.edu/physics/2000/quantumzone/photoelectric.html http://www.enchantedlearning.html http://www.com/11389/artificial-star-shines-in-the-southern-sky/ http://www.astronomy.htm http://www.anl.html http://www.com/subjects/astronomy/stars/startypes.pa.http://wiki.com/Q/Why_do_the_stars_shine#ixzz1z1IR6OW5 http://www.newton.answers.colorado.shtml http://www.universetoday.gov/askasci/ast99/ast99331.dep.com/why_do_stars_shine.com/9695/this-star-just-shut-down/ .com/25334/why-do-stars-shine/#ixzz1z1HMUp32 http://www.learningastronomy.universetoday.edu/~ryden/ast162_2/notes7.msu.edu/sciencet/ask_st/060392.ohio-state.universetoday.
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