qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasd fghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx cvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg Product design and development

hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg
Haile G/tsadik Gizachew Tesfaye Kidu Tsegay Girmay Kahsay Alemayehu 3/28/2013

Ceramic Water Filtration

CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION

March 28, 2013

Contents
                  Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... 3 Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................................... 3 Objective ........................................................................................................................................ 4 Current practice ............................................................................................................................ 4 Problems in Current Scenario .................................................................................................... 5 Need of the Project & Opportunities for Stakeholders ............................................................ 6 Ceramic filter technology ................................................................................................................ 6 Targeted Customer ...................................................................................................................... 8 Differentiating factor ..................................................................................................................... 8 Working of the Entire Business Process .................................................................................. 9 Products(this from catia) ........................................................................................................... 10 Economic analysis ..................................................................................................................... 14 Marketing Strategy ....................................................................................................................... 17 How to compete ....................................................................................................................... 17 How to Deliver .......................................................................................................................... 17 Concept Selection Matrix .............................................................................................................. 18 Choice of Water Filtration Method ........................................................................................... 18 Manufacturing strategy ................................................................................................................ 19 Reason for selection of these cities: ............................................................................................. 20   SWOT Analysis............................................................................................................................... 21 DFX Review.................................................................................................................................... 21

Portable water filter for Ethiopia

Page 2

Finally we would like to thank prof. we would like to thank our teacher prof. residents in the third world countries could enjoy having safe drinking water and improve quality of life. the numbers of Ethiopians who die. contaminated water.  Acknowledgements First and foremost. safe drinking water. Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 3 . Accordingly.000 children under five years of age die each year because of drinking unsafe. for his tremendous. in this project a simple water treatment system for remote rural households which overcomes the limitations of existing systems is developed based on unique and robust water filtration system using simple ceramic equipment. from water borne illness continues to plague the country. Despite the numerous efforts made in the past years to solve this problem a large number of Ethiopians still have no access to clean. Jayanta chatterjee. With low cost water filter available. Ethiopia is one of the third world countries.CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. other expert studies show that approximately 300. which is an affordable price for people in third world countries. In Ethiopia. most of our population around 85% of the 80 million populations is in rural area of the country. mishira for tireless support and encouragement in the marketing the process of doing the 6 hours PG . It is estimated that five million people die each year due to water borne diseases. 2013  Abstract That problem is the growing number of people who die each year due to water borne diseases. Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) interventions are proven to both improve water quality and reduce disease incidence in rural area of Ethiopia. excellent effort and honest support throughout the contact of ten days not only to know and implement the NPD course but also his valuable life experience and to use the subject in our industries and to push our country forward within the constraints. our teacher. A manufacturing line to produce the dual water filters is proposed and the cost of manufacturing a unit is calculated to be 91 Birr. especially children.

only 21% to 54% of the population has access to safe drinking water. Chlorine is the most widely used primary disinfectant and is also often used to provide residual disinfection in the distribution system. This is also true in Ethiopia. Implementation of water treatment technology at the household level helps to provide safe. CWF water purifier cleans and eliminating the risk of diarrhea. lakes and wells. Monitoring the level of chlorine in drinking water entering a distribution system is Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 4 . clean and clear drinking water. 2013  Objective The intent of this project is to lay the foundation for developing a ceramic water filter for rural Ethiopia. such as Ethiopian ceramic industries. it essentially eliminates diarrhea and other waterborne related diseases. In fact in the majority of the country. At this time chemical treatment is the most used method in Ethiopia. pon ds. water born related diseases and the deaths that result from water born diseases everywhere there is no access to safe drinking water. In addition to improving drinking water quality. The overall goal of developing a low-cost ceramic water filter is to provide an affordable means for citizens to improve their drinking water quality to standards suitable for human consumption. After all. the development of a sustainable ceramic water filter industry within Ethiopia will hopefully contribute to economic development whereby local entrepreneurs.CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. Thus having access to clean and safe drinking water significantly increases the socio-economic development of the country as a whole and CWF water purifier helps achieve this.  Current practice The coverage of safe potable water in several countries is very small. Most Of Ethiopia’s countryside residents drink water obtained from rivers. which lead to deaths the majority of times. can develop a sustainable business through manufacturing and marketing ceramic water filters to higher quality control/quality assurance standards than those currently being produced. which are not sources for safe potable water. That is why CWF water purifier was created.

especially girls. In rural areas of the country. poor sanitation.CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. because the monitoring is used as an indicator that disinfection has taken place. face problems with school. Ethiopia is located in Africa's Horn where drought and politics are two leading causes of water shortage. Water borne illnesses. these figures drop even lower. In the past twenty years. 2013 normally considered to be a high priority (if it is possible). resulting in health problems in the villagers as well as their animals. droughts have affected several areas of the country.6 mg/l or more may cause problems of acceptability for some consumers on the basis of taste and odor. Monitoring free chlorine at different points in the distribution system is sometimes used to check that there is not an excessive chlorine demand in distribution that may indicate other problems in the system. leading to infections and sickness in children. streams and lakes drying up or becoming extremely shallow. Guideline values have been established for a number of these byproducts.  Problems in Current Scenario Similar to many African countries. which are often contaminated with human and animal waste. worms. and a lack of access to clean water sources. such as cholera or diarrhea. Residual concentrations of chlorine of about 0. Statistically only 45% of kids attend primary school. parts of Ethiopia face water shortages.org they found that "42% of the population has access to a clean water supply" and only "11% of that number has access to adequate sanitation services". such as ingress of contamination. disease runs rampant through small villages and towns. many Ethiopian children. During months and sometimes years of drought. wells. Many people living outside of the cities collect water from these shallow water sources. In addition to illness. are the leading cause of death in children under five years old in Ethiopia. or disease. Chlorine reacts with naturally occurring organic matter in raw water to form a range of unwanted by-products. The Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 5 . leading to ponds. In a study conducted by Water. Frequently there is not enough water for people to bathe.

5 Candle-shaped ceramic filters were first produced commercially in England in the early 1800s and are used today in devices such as mineral pots and traditional drip pots in India. The typical filter holds eight to ten liters of water and is suspended inside a plastic or ceramic receptacle with a capacity of around 10 to 20 liters.  Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) interventions are proven to both improve water quality and reduce disease incidence in Ethiopia. wait for the water to flow through into the receptacle. The most widely promoted CWP filter design today in the developing world is a flowerpot-shaped Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 6 . 2007). and thus significantly reduce morbidity due to waterborne diseases and improve the quality of life.CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. odor. The receptacle is fitted with a tap and a lid: users pour water into the filter. or appearance. ceramic water filters are considered by some to be. “one of the most promising and accessible technologies for treating water at the household level”  Ceramic filter technology Ceramic water pots (CWPs) consist of a ceramic filter and accompanying receptacle for the filtered water. Frequently coated or impregnated with silver for its antibacterial properties. and dispense filtered water from the tap. Household Water Treatment and Safe storage (HWTS) systems are proven. low‐cost interventions that have the potential to provide safe water to those who will not have access to safe water sources in the near term. 2013 others are put to work collecting water each morning and helping their families earn money.  Need of the Project & Opportunities for Stakeholders  For improving water quality involves mitigating disease causing biological agents (pathogens) as well as harmful chemical contaminants and nonharmful compounds that impart an unpleasant taste.  Commercially‐produced ceramic water filters are one point‐of‐use water treatment technology that is effective in reducing bacterial contamination in water and reducing the risk for diarrhea (Clasen. 2004) (Brown. Ceramic water filters are one of a number of products for household water treatment and have been in use since ancient times.

2013 ceramic vessel based on a filter developed in Guatemala in 1981 by Dr.4 log reduction value of E. The filters remove microorganisms from water by gravity filtration through porous ceramics.6Filters for CWPs are made by pressing a mixture of clay and a combustible material such as finely ground sawdust or rice husks into the filter shape. The pore size can be made small enough to remove bacteria. and filters based on this design now are made in over 20 countries.2 microns. Ghana.10 Hydrologic produces the ceramic filter element of its Rabbit unit at factories in Kampong Chhnang and Prey Veng using local clay mixed with finely ground rice husks. The factory workers form the pots with a press mold and fire them in a kiln. portable. pots are typically coated with colloidal silver. achieved 2–6 log reduction value in protozoa (van Halem. down to a diameter of 0. Locally produced ceramic pot-style filters have the advantages of being relatively inexpensive. The product of this collaboration. 2006)7. effective. 2001). coli and total coliforms. Challenge tests on filters in Nicaragua achieved a 4-log reduction in protozoa (Lantagne. The plastic exterior of the unit is produced at another facility in Cambodia. and the final product is assembled and packaged at the Hydrologic plant. and Cambodia. low-maintenance. Fernando Mazariego. Ron Rivera of the nongovernment organization Potters for Peace redesigned the manufacturing process. As part of its safe water work. The tiny holes left when the flammable material burns determine the effectiveness of filtering the water.CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. with typical flow rates of 2–3 liters per hour. Best Practice Recommendations for Local Manufacturing of Ceramic Pot Filters for Household Water Treatment. and easy to use. protozoa. PATH also provided funding for members of the Ceramics Manufacturing Working Group (CMWG) to complete a set of best practices and recommendations for the manufacturing of ceramic water filters. Studies in Cambodia have shown a mean 1 to 1. After firing.8 CWPs are very effective against bacteria as well. In the mid-1990s. other tests of filters in Nicaragua. a liquid suspension of microscopic silver particles with bactericidal properties. and firing it in a kiln. allowing it to dry. and worm eggs. Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 7 .9.

easy to use and low cost and also reduce children’s loss of life NGO(Non Governmental Organizations) To supply and train the easily the water filtration system  Targeted Customer Ministry of health and Non Governmental Organizations (who are currently working in rural area to improve the public Health).CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28.  Differentiating factor Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 8 . 2013 Table 1 Stakeholders Manufacturers (entrepreneurs) Opportunity they have a large market in the rural areas of Ethiopia Suppliers they have a large market in the rural areas of Ethiopia Government and Ministry of health To reach millennium development goals set by UN Reduce the cost incurs to buy drugs for water born disease Rural areas of Ethiopia Portable.

by adding 20% of profit 3 4 Simple training to maintain the product to the distributers suppliers will employ people to distribute to the rural area Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 9 . they can also provide a source of income in poor communities  The filter’s demonstrated effectiveness in improving water quality and health. NGO and suppliers. over a wide range of conditions.  Since filters can be made locally by the private sector. 2013  Opportunity for rural households to drink pure water with a least cost and ease of maintenance .CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. makes it an attractive option for household water treatment  Working of the Entire Business Process S/n 1 Entity Manufacturing of the product in medium and small enterprises by collecting the row material 2 Selling the product to Government.

2013  Products(this from catia) Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 10 .CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28.

CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. 2013 Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 11 .

CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. 2013 This is from catia professor Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 12 .

2013 Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 13 .CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28.

An economic analysis was conducted to estimate the production cost of the filter.CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. 50 weeks a year .000 filters will be produced in 5 years of operation Tables 1. As proposed by the industrial partner. and 3 illustrate the material. and operating costs required to Operate a production line to manufacture the ceramic filters over five years. Further. Table 1 Material Costs for Running the Ceramic Production Line for Five Years Materials Clay Cost(birr) 150000 Remark Purchased locally Water Sawdust/ flour 0. The following assumptions apply for calculating an estimated cost of making the ceramic filter level. 5 days a week. the target sale price for the dual filter is 40 BIRR. clay mixer.00 10000 Surface water Purchased from Total Cost Silver (AgNO3) Material 160000 nitrate Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 14 . 2013  Economic analysis The gross national income per capita in Ethiopia is only $540 USD. 2. a total of four workers are to be hired to work at each station. ceramic kiln. equipment.A total of 100 ceramic filter elements will be produced each day A total of 125.  The manufacturing line for making the ceramic filters consist of a hydraulic press. Manufacturing line operates at 8 hours a day. and other tools.

584kW and 19. 4. The Ceramic Production Line for Five Years Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 15 . Therefore. the total energy cost is 260000Birr/year. Buckets. Referring to the assumptions made earlier.CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. the manufacturing line would run for 2.8 Br/kWh.000 hours a year. 2013 Table 2 Start-up Equipment Costs for Running the Ceramic Production Line (fixed cost) Equipment Qty Cost (ETB) Clay Crusher Hammer Mill Clay Mixer Misc. Tools 1 1 1 1set 600 32000 10000 4000 (Shelves. clay mixer. Brushes) Hydraulic with Mold Press 1 10000 Oven Total Equipment Cost 1 100000 156600 Power required for the hammer mill. The cost of electricity in Ethiopia is around 3. and the oven are 10 kW.935kW respectively.

Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 16 . This yields a cost of 19.CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. 2013 QTY COST BIRR Workers Power Consumption Total Operating Cost 4 72000 260000 332000 Unit Cost Summary for Production of Ceramic Filters Number of 5 Operating Years Number of 1 Production Lines Number of Filters to be Produced Total Cost Unit Cost ETB 19. The plastic container we can buy from market by the price of 40 Birr and the valve in 20 birr so the total price of the set of portable water filtration system is 79.544 Production 488600 25000 The total production cost of making 25.54 plus the15% profit margin that is 91Birr.000 filters in year is 488600.544 Birr Per ceramic filter.

 Yearly contract with the stakeholders.  Create an awareness platform for the products made from simple home made products. Bahiridar.NGO and SME’S  Presentation of the Business proposals to institutions and factories to get their involvement. Awasa. 2013  Marketing Strategy The above business proposal instead of getting into the competition  Creates a new market space for the products  Creating new brand of water filtration by promoting to the government and NGO  Encourages the existing SME’s to try and explore new avenues of creative product development form of new filtration system. Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 17 .CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. The main business of the Facilitators is earning the income from the ceramic mold of the products provided.  Encourage and fund education institutes for developing different types of water filtration systems. Mekele about “ceramic water filtration”  Contact Government bodies for Subsidy and encouragement of SME.  How to Deliver  Direct Interaction with the Government .  How to compete  Arrange Local conference in Addis abeba. The low Profit margin value as compared to the manufacturing cost and the mutual contractual agreement done at the time of partnership with SME will help them to sustain in business.

bacteria. Bacteria and viruses are the main causes of waterborne diseases. Of the five filters studied. Ultraviolet treatment is also expensive. having low-cost manufacturing methods and readily Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 18 . Therefore. but since the target consumers are in third world countries. 2013  Concept Selection Matrix Bacteria Bad and Viruses Tastes & Odors Ultraviolet + - Chemical Heavy removal Metals Price (cost) VOC's Total +ve -VE - - - - 1 5 Reverse Osmosis Slow Sand + + + + + + 6 0 + + - - - + 3 3 Activated Carbon Ceramic - + + - + - 3 3 + + - + + + 5 1  Choice of Water Filtration Method The main source of water in third world countries is surface water from rivers and ponds. it is clear that all filters. except activated carbon. VOCs and heavy metals. viruses. Ultraviolet treatment is perhaps the best method to inactivate bacteria and viruses. Sediment and other solid particles also need to be removed to make the water drinkable. Surface water contaminants typically consist of sediments. would eliminate bacteria and viruses. but not very effective on other contaminates.CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. Reverse osmosis filters eliminate most contaminates. eliminating bacteria and viruses would be the main task for the filter.

Thus it is not suitable for this application. 2013 available is critical. VOCs. Thus. the combination shows as ceramic filters would filter out most bacteria.CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. Slow sand filters are economical and material is also easily obtained. Reverse osmosis filters require technology not yet available in third world countries. To multiply force and maintain business relation Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 19 . radon.  Manufacturing strategy We will manufacture only the ceramic part and assemble in our work shop the other part will be outsourcing and manufacturing in local factories based on our design offer because 1. BOM (Bill of Material) Bill of material for CWF Part name Ceramic filter Ceramic pot holder and clean water receptacle Part code CWF 1/05 CWF 2/05 Qty 1 1 BUY or MAKE Manufacture Buy Cover for the CWF 3/05 pot CWF 4/05 Tap (valve ) Stand CWF 5/05 1 1 1 Buy Buy Buy  Specification Flow Rate: 60 liter/day Average Capacity: (25 liters) Working Pressure: atmospheric pressure Working Temperature: up to 40 Weight: 7Kg. and reduce odor and bad tastes in water. sediments. This is not viable for a typical home use water filter. Initial investment cost is very expensive 2. The ceramic filter compensates each other to provide the most effective filtering media. We can also find simply in the market with cheapest price 3. chlorine. they were chosen to be the focus of the project. As shown in Table 1. and manufacturing cost is relatively high. most heavy metals. viruses. However. it only operates properly in large size.

2013  Addis abeba  Awasa  Bahiridar  Mekele  Adama Reason for selection of these cities:  They have good facility for production  They are best to reach the rural area  They have a lot of institutions and NGO to support the project Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 20 .CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION 4. To minimize risk of market failure March 28.

2013  SWOT Analysis Strength  A market-based approach can work in providing household water treatment and storage products to low-income users.  Cheap and easy to make  No advanced technology required  Simplicity and robustness in design  Can be customized to the need of scale of Business Weakness  High maintenance.CERAMIC WATER FILTRATION March 28. Portable water filter for Ethiopia Page 21 . Finally the manufacturing of the pot is also low initial investment cost. need to be cleaned periodically  No Brand recognition Low market Start up venture  Lack of Business experience Opportunity  Good Government support for SME’s  Good market opportunity in our country because 85% of the Threat  Market not mature enough to accept new concept-initial stage of learning curve  The developed country Enterprises can control the market population live in rural area  The current economical progress of Ethiopia  DFX Review Design for manufacturing: we design to manufacture only pot the ceramic and assemble of the components by buying from local market to minimize the cost and our design is suitable to ergonomics by adding the base and need a small area during the use. Our components are around five to increase modularity and the container is also multipurpose.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful