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;'g :yfgLo afl;Gbf k|of]u u/]/ g]kfn l5/fpg] u/]sf5g\ .
k|ltlsnf] ;'g g]kfn l5/fPjfkt @) xhf/ ?k}of;Dd kfl/>lds
a'‰g] u/]sfn] Tof] vr{sf] ef/klg pkef]Qmfn]g} af]Sg' kb{5 .
;'grfFbL Aoj;foLx?sf cg';f/ l9Ssf ;'gdf ld;fj6 hlt{_ gx'g] ePsfn] a9L d"No lnOPsf] xf] . t/ uxgfdf hlt{
a9L k|of]u ul/Psfn] o;sf] d"No sfFrf]eGbf ;:tf] k5{ . al9
d"Nodf lsg]sf] ePklg To;sf] uxgf agfP/ ahf/ d"Nodf a]Rbf
/;fog, hlt{ nufotsf sf/0fn] Aofkfl/nfO{ 3f6f x'bF g} .n

‘;/sf/ rnfpg]x?g} ;'gdf sfnf] ahf/L rfxG5g\’
df]xgsfhL zfSo -s]lGb|o ;b:o_, g]kfn ;'grf“bL Joj;foL dxf;+3
ahf/df ;'gsf] cefj x'bF f klg ;'g k;n eg] lbg b'O u'gf /ft rf}ug' fsf] lx;fjn] jl9
/x]sf5g\ . o:tf] cj:yfdf ;'g sxfFaf6 cfpF5 / pgLx? a]R5g\ < Psflt/ ;'g dfu eGbf Ps
ltxfO cfk"lt{ ug]{ clg csf]{ lt/ ;'g k;n rfFxL Ps jif{d} xhf/f}+ ylklbg] . of] cj:yfn] klg
;/sf/df a:g]x?g} ;'gdf sfnf] ahf/L rfxfG5g\ eGg] k|i6 5 . xfdLn] ;+3sf] tkm{af6 k|wfgdGqL,
cy{dGqL, d"Vo ;lrj, cy{;lrj,/fi6« a}ªssf ue{g/ ;d]tnfO{ Ps k6s x}g k6s k6s e]6/] ;j}
Aoxf]/f v'nfP/ df}lvs tyf lnlvt cg'/f]w uof}{+ t/ pgLx?n] ;'g]gg\ . a}wflgsaf6f]af6 cfpFbf
;/sf/nfO{ k|lt s]hL # nfv ?k}ofF /fh:j cfDbfgL x'G5 . klxn]h:t} ljb]zdf /f]huf/L u/]/ kms{g]
sfdbf/, zflGt ld;gdf a;]/ kms{g] ;]gf tyf k|x/L / ljb]zL ;]gfdf sfo{/t g]kfnLnfO{ :jb]z
cfpFbf lem6L u'06f dfkm{t lglZrt dfqfdf ;'g Nofpg kfpg] Aoj:yf ug]{ xf] eg] b}lgs ;/sf/nfO{ clxn]sf] ahf/ dfusf]
cfwf/df klg Ps s/f]8 %) nfv eGbf jl9 /fh:j cfDbfgL x'G5 . ;fy} clxn] x'08L nufotsf cj}waf6f]af6 lrgaf6
t:s/L eO /x]sf] ;'gdf k|of]u eO /x]sf] /sd g} To;df k|of]u x'g] ePsfn] xfn ;/sf/ cfFkm}n] vl/b ubf{ ePhlt 8n/
vr{ klg x'Fb}g . oL ;j} s'/f xfdLn] hfgsf/L u/fO ;s]sf 5f}+ t/ klg ;/sf/df a:g]x?n] g;'g]kl5 xfdLn] s;nfO{ eGbf
xfd|f] s'/fsf] ;'g'jfO xf]nf eGg] g} a'e\mg ;s]gf}+ .

‘sf]6fsf] ;'g kfpg @) xKtf s'g{' kg]{ cj:yf 5 .’
;'lgn cu|jfn -cWoIf_, ;'grf“bL Aoj;foL ;+3, ;'g;/L
;fKtflxs ?kdf ;'g;/Ldf cfpg] ;'g :yfoL n]vf g+j/ - kfg_ lnPsf Aofkf/LnfO{ k|lt AolQm
%) u|fdsf] b/n] pknAw u/fOg] ul/Psf] 5 . ;'g;/Ldf ;'grfFbL k;n # ;o %) / To;s}
xf/fxf/Ldf sfl/u9 ;d]t ePsfn] pgLx?nfO{ bfdf;flxdf lbFbf xKtfdf $) hgfn] kfpF5g\ .
;'g;/Lsf Aoj;foL / sfl/u9n] sf]6fsf] ;'g kfpg @) xKtf;Dd kfnf] s'g'{kg]{ cj:yf 5 . o;n]
ubf{ ;a}sf] Joj;fo rf}k6 5 . ;/sf/n] ls t dfu cg';f/sf] cfk"lt{ ug'{k¥of] geP ljutdf em}+
lem6Lu'G6f dfkm{t ;'g Nofpg] ;'ljwf lbg'k5{ . o;f] ubf{ ;/sf/n] 8n/ klg vr{ ug'{ kb}g{ .

‘sf]6f k|0ffnL nfu' ePb]vL ;'g kfOPsf] 5}g .’
l8NnL sfsL{ -cWoIf_, ;'grfFbL Aoj;foL ;+3 e'mDsf zfvf, ;'g;/L
e'mDsf If]qdf @% ;'grfFbL Aoj;foL 5g\ . t/ sf]6f k|0ffnL nfu' ePkl5 d nufot s'g} klg
Joj;foL ;fyLn] Pstf]nf klg sf]6fsf] ;'g kfPsf 5}gf}+ . b}lgs %) tf]nf ;'gsf] sf/f]jf/ x'g] e'mD' sf
If]qdf b'O g+j/L af6f]af6 lelqg] ;'g / u|fxsn] a]rs
] f k'/fgf uxgf vl/b u/]/ g}} xfdLn] Aoj;fo
wfgL /x]sf 5f}+ . ;/sf/n] t'?Gt sf]6f k|0ffnL x6fpg] jf efu cg';f/ sf]6f j9fpg' k5{ . sf]6f k|0ffnL
nfu' u/]/ l;ldt dfG5]nfO{ kmfObf lbP/ cfd Aoj;foL, pkef]Qmf / :jo+ ;/sfnfO{ g} ;f:tL, b'Mv
/ 3f6fsf] jftfj/0f agfPsf] 5 . of] s'g} xfntdf klg l7s x}g . cflv/ ;/sf/n] cg'Tkfbs
nufgL xf] eg]/ hf]ufpg vf]h]klg s'g} g s'g} af6f]af6 lelqPs} 5 . clxn] zx/df dfq x}g ufpF
ufpFdf Hj]n/L Aoj;fo a9]sf] cj:yf 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf v'Nnf l;dfgf ePsf] b]zn] dfu
cg';f/ cfk"lt{ gubf{ v'Nnf l;dfsf] pkof]u eO /x]sf] 5 . a? ahf/dfd kof{Kt cfk"lt{ u/]/+ ;a}nfO{ s/df clgjfo{ btf{
x'g] Joj:yf ug]{ xf] eg] k;n vf]n]/ s/btf{ gul/ sf/f]jf/ ug{ vf]Hg]x? klg lg?T;flxt x'G5g\ . o;f] ubf{ cGttM ;/sf/
, pkef]Qmf / Aofkf/L ;j}nfO{ kmfObf x'G5 . t:s/L :jtM lgoGq0f x'G5 .

h]7 @)&)

5

‘;/sf/n] ;'gsf] sf]6f k|0ffnL x6fpg' k5{ ’
hut nfld5fg] -cWoIf_, ;'grf“bL Aoj;foL ;+3, ;'g;/L t/x/f zfvf
sf]6f k|0ffnLsf sf/0f ;'g Aoj;fodf x'g;Ddsf] ;d:of lglDtPsf]5 . ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf] d"No
Pp6f 5 xfdLn] csf]{ d"No cyf{t tf]lsPsf] eGbf k|lt tf]nfdf # xhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd al9 d"No xfNg'
kl//x]sf] 5 . t/x/f If]qdf @& cf]6f ;'g rfFbL k;n 5g\ . xfdLnfO{ b}lgs sDtLdf @) tf]nf
;'g cfjZos k5{ t/ dlxgfdf @ tf]nf klg kfpg d'l:sn kl//x]sf] 5 . xfdLn] al9 d"No xfn]/
Anfsdf ;'g lsGg kl//x]sf] 5 . of] cj:yfsf] cGTo ug{ ;/sf/n] sf]6f k|0ffnL x6fpg kb{5 /
v'Nnf jhf/ lglt cg';f/ cfoftsf] ;'ljwf lbg cfjZos 5 . å}w d"NoeGbf a? s/ k|0ffnL nfu'
u/]/ ;xh cfk"lt{ ;'ljwf lbg' kb{5 . h;n] ;/sf/;lxt ;j} kIfnfO{ lxt ub{5 .

‘xfdL bf]xf]/f] df/df k/]sf 5f}+ ’
xs{ nfld5fg] -k|fk] fO6/_, nfld5fg] Hj]n;{ ky/L, df]/ª
sf]6f lgwf{0f kl5 ahf/df ;'g cefjn] Aoj;fodf 7"nf] c;/ k/]sf] 5 . dflyaf6} ;d:of 5 .
t/ u|fxsn] Tof] s'/f a'em\b}gg\ . xfdLn] g} 7u]sf] eGg] u|fxsnfO{ e|d 5 t/ xfdL cfFkm} lkl8t
5f} . ahf/ d"No eGbf k|lt tf]nf tLg xhf/ ?k}ofF al9 xfn]/ xfdLn] sfFrf] ;'g lsGg kl/ /x]sf]
5 . k|zf;gn] klg xfdLnfO{ g} bf]ifL b]V5 xfdL bf]xf]/f] df/df k/]sf 5f}+ . ky/L, zlgZr/]
;d]tsf ul/ %) eGbf al9 ;'grfFbL Aoj;foL ;j}sf] ;d:of p:t} 5 . Aofkf/ al9 x'g] of]
l;hgdf klg k;n vf]Ng] / aGb ug]{ sfd dfq ul//xg' k/]sf] 5 .

‘Aoj;foL / u|fxsaLr clj:jf; a9fPsf] 5’
;Gtf]if :j0f{sf/ -k|fk] fO6/_, Go" ç nIdL Hj]n;{, O6x/L, ;'g;/L
d"No 36j9n] Aoj;fodf 7"nf] c;/ k/]sf] 5 . d"No 36]sf sf/0f sfFrf] ;'g vl/b ug]{ u|fxssf]
rfxfgf a9]sf] 5 . t/ sf]6f k|0ffnLsf sf/0f xfdL Joj;foLn] g} ;'g lsGg kfO/x]sf 5}gf}+ . d"No
g36]sf] cj:yfdf sfFrf] ;'g lsGg] u|fxs sd x'Gy] clxn] u|fxs a9]sf 5g\ t/ xfdLn] ;'g lbg
gkfPsf sf/0f Aoj;fo g} ;+s6df k/]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] rfF8f] eGbf rfF8f] ;d:of ;dfwfg ug'{
kb{5 . geP xfdL ;fgf Aoj;foLx? knfog x'gk' g]{ cj:yf 5 .

‘Aoj;fo w/f;oL eO;Sof]’
k|sfz e§/fO{ -k|fk] fO6/_, cfOl8on Hj]n;{ pnfaf/L $ O6x/f /f]8 -df]/ª_
;'gsf] ;d:of oxfFdfq geP/ b]ze/Ls} xf] . ;/sf/n] sf]6f tf]sk] l5 ePsf] cefjn] Aoj;fonfO{
w/fo;L agfPsf] 5 . Aoj;fo l6sfpg} d'l:sn kl/ /x]sf] cj:yf 5 . ;/sf/n] v'Nnf ahf/sf]
cjwf/0f nfu' ug'{k5{ . d"No 36]kl5 dfu cTolws a9]sf] 5 . t/ xfdL cfFkm}n] ;'g vl/b ug{
gkfPkl5 u|fxsn] dfu] cg';f/ ;'g pknAw u/fpg ;lsPg . h;n] ubf{ u|fxsdf klg xfdL k|lt
cljZjf; a9\g] cj:yf cfO;Sof] . d'Vo l;hgdf ;'gsf] xfxfsf/sf] cj:yf ePsf] 5 . ;dod}
;d:of ;dfwfg geP w]/} Aoj;foLn] of] Aoj;fo 5f]8g\ ' kg]{ cj:yf b]lvPsf] 5 .
6

h]7 @)&)

‘;+3sf kbflwsf/Lsf] Aoj;foLs e"ldsf ;lx ePg ’
gf/fo0fk|;fb jfUn] -k|fk] fO6/_, ç cfe'if0f Hj]n;{ O6x/L, lj/f6gu/nfOg
xf]n;]ndf ahf/ efpeGbf jl9 d"Nodf vl/b ug'{ k/]sf] 5 . xf]n ;]n/n] dflyaf6} xfdLn] al9
lt'g{ k/]sf] eg]/ lng] u/]sf 5g\ . 8]9 dlxgfeGbf jl9 ;dob]vL ahf/ d"Nodf ;'g lsGg
kfOPsf] 5}g . k'/fgf ;'gsf uxgfnfO{ l8hfOg kl/jt{g u/]/ a]r]s} e/df slxn];Dd Aoj;fo
l6sfpg] eGg] lrGtf 5 . sf]6f k|0fnLaf6 kof{Kt ;'g cfk"lt{ gePs} sf/0f sfnf]ahf/L ug]{x?
;NjnfPsf 5g\ . ;'grfFbL Aoj;foL ;+3sf kbflwsf/Lx?n] klg of] ;dodf kof{Kt Aoj;foLs
e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ ;s]sf 5}gg\ .

‘ahf/df ljs[lt cfpg'df sf]6f k|0ffnLsf] bf]if xf]’
dfgaxfb'/ lbofnL-zfvf k|aGws_, a/fx Hj]n/L O08li6«h k|fln w/fg zfvf
/fHon] Psåf/ k|0ffnL nfu' ug{ vf]Hg' plrt s'/f xf] . t/ pkef]Qmfsf] dfu s] slt xf] . eGg]
a'em]/ ToxL cg';f/ Nofpg' kb{Yof] . t/ dfunfO{ Wofg} glbPsfn] ;d:of cfPsf] xf] . clxn]
jhf/df ljs[lt a9\g'df sf]6f k|0ffnLsf] bf]if xf] . cflv/ ahf/df h;/L ePklg lelq /x]s} 5
eg] /fHon] sf]6f k|0ffnL a9fP/ /fh:j cfDbfgL ug'{ g} plrt x'G5 . ahf/sf] dfunfO{ ;+jf]wg
u/]/ cfk"lt{ Aoj:yf ldnfpg] xf] eg] clxn]sf] cj:yf :jtM x6]/ hfG5 . s;}n] klg b'Mv kfpg]
l:ytL x'Fb}g .

‘sf]6f k|0ffnLn] ;fgf Aoj;foL lklN;Psf 5f}+ ’
k|e' kf}8n
] -k|fk] fO6/ _, Go" lehg Hj]n;{ O6x/L–* xl6ofnfOg
Psflt/ a}ª\ssf] Aofhsf] ef/ csf]{lt/ ahf/df ;'g cefj,oL b'j} sf/0fn] Aoj;foL df/df 5f}+ .
To;df klg sfFrf] ;'g lsGbf ahf/ d"NoeGbf al9 ltg'{ kg]{ clg a]Rbf ahf/ d"Nodf a]Rg' kg]{ of]
;a} ;d:ofsf] h8 eg]sf] ;/sf/sf] unt gLlt xf] . 7"nf Aoj;foLn] sf]6fsf] ;'g ;fgf
Aoj;foLnfO{ glbg', lbFbf klg Ps}k6s Ps lsnf] lsGg' eGg] u5{g t/ xfdL ;fgf Aoj;foLn] P{s}
k6s Ps lsnf] ;'g lsGg ;Sg] Ifdtfg} x'bF g} . o:t} sf/0fn] xfdL ;fgf Aoj;foL lklN;Psf 5f}+ .
xfd|f] ;'g'jfO s;}n] ul/ lbb}g .

h]7 @)&)

7

O6x/Ldf
ko{6g ;fd'lGb|s 5fn / /]g8fG; ;lxtsf]

hnlqm*f :yn
ko{6g
kfgLhGo v]n dgf]/Ghg rfxfg]x?sf nflu k"jf{Grnd} klxnf]
k6s s[lqd ;fd'lb|s 5fn ;lxt ;j} k|sf/sf kfgLhGo v]n
tyf dgf]/Ghg ;lxtsf] ;'ljwfo'Qm kfs{ lgdf{0f ul/Psf]5 .
;'g;/Lsf] O6x/L gu/kflnsf / vgf/ uflj;sf] l;dfdf !!
s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf] nufgLdf cf]l;og kfs{ P08 l/;f]6{ ;Grfngsf]
tof/L ul/Psf] xf] . O6x/Ll:yt ;'bz{g ;]So"l/6L sDkgLsf

cfhsf] art ef]lnsf] ;'/Iff
To;}n] ;dod} hLjg ladf u/f}+ cfkm" / cfkm\gf] ;Gtltsf] eljio
;'/lIft agfcf}+ . g]kfnd} ;j}eGbf a9L af]g; b/-?= ^) b]lv *)
k|ltxhf/_ ePsf] g]kfn nfOkm OG:of]/G] ; sDkgLdf hLjg ladf
u/fpg, clestf{ aGg / ladf ;DaGwL cGo s'g} klg sfdsf
nflu xfdLnfO{ ;Demg'xf];\ .
;'o{k|;fb bfxfn -cWoIf_
k]zfut ladf clestf{ ;+3 -g]kfn nfOkm OG:of]/G] ; s+=_
la/f6gu/ zfvf
;Dks{ M )@%–$&%^#!÷(*%@)$*#&%
8

h]7 @)&)

;Grfns 8Da/ tfdfª\, lj/f6gu/sf xf]6n Aoj;foL e'kfn /fO
nufot $ hgfsf] nufgLdf ;Grfngdf cfpg nfu]sf] cf]l;og
kfs{df :jLldª\ k"n, x]Ny Snj, kfgL;Fu} lrKn]6L v]Ng] @@ lkm6
cUnf ljleGg jf6/ :nfO8 tyf kl/jf/sf ;b:ox?;Fu} lrKn]6L
v]Ng] km]ldnL jf6/ :nfO8, ;fd'lb|s 5fn-j]E;_,lrN8«g] kfs{ /
s[lqd kfgLsf] jiff{;uF } g[To ug]{ /]g8fG; kfs{ ;d]t lgdf{0f ul/
;Grfngdf Nofpg] tof/L eO /x]sf] ;Grfns ;ldltsf cWoIf
8Da/ tfdfª\n] hfgsf/L lbP .
…k"jf{GRfndf Ps b'O 306f ;do ljtfpg] kfs{ / dgf]/Ghg
:yn gePsf] u'gf;f] w]/a} f6 ;'lgPkl5 xfdLn] o; ljifodf
cWoog uof}{ . :jb]z tyf ljb]zdf ;Grfng x'bF } cfPsf o:tf
kfs{x?sf] cjnf]sg u/]/ k"jf{Grndf o;sf] ;+efjgf b]v/] xfdLn]
nufgLsf] hf]lvd df]ns
] f xf}+ .Ú tfdfª\n] eg] .
Psdlxgf cl3b]vL g} kf}8L kf]v/L ;Grfngdf cfO;s]sf]
kfs{df o;} dlxgfb]vL cGo ;]jf ;d]t ;Grfng x'g] tof/L
eO/x]sf] 5 . sl/j tLg lj3f hldg !% jif{sf] nflu ef8fdf
lnP/ ;Grfngdf NofOg nfu]sf] kfs{df l/;f]6{ ;d]t ;Grfng
ug]{ of]hgf /x]sf] tfdfª\n] ;'gfP .
pQm kfs{df k"jf{Grn If]qsf jfl;Gbf tyf ef/tsf] ljxf/
tyf klZrd j+ufn;ddsf ko{6sx?nfO{ nlIft ul/Psf] 5 .
To;}ul/ k"jf{Grn 3'Dg cfpg] ljb]zL ko{6sx?nfO{ ;d]t $÷%
306f cNdNofpg ;lsg] pgsf] egfO 5 .
gof“ jif{ @)&) ;fnsf] ;a}
u|fxs dxfg'efjx?df
xflb{s d+undo
z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5' .

ljleGg lsl;dsf kz'kI+ fLsf cf}ifwL kfOg'sf ;fy}
pkrf/sf] ;d]t Joj:yf 5 .
k|f]= nf]sgfy pkfWofo e§/fO{

cfgGb e]6g
] /L ;]G6/
t/x/f ahf/, xf“;kf];f

O6x/L gu/kflnsf j8fg+=@ sf] cfFkuf5L lkknrf}sdf
;'g;/L lhNnfsf] klxnf] tLgtf/] xf]6n lgdf{0f z'? ePsf] 5 .
uf]vf{ l8kf6{dG] 6 :6f]/sf k|aGw lgb]z
{ s an/fd cfrfo{,
Joj;foL eLd kf}8n
] , O6x/Lsf] ;':jf:Yo 8]G6n xl:k6nsf
;Grfnsåo 8f=s[i0f g]kfn / 8f=clez]if zfx ;lxt & hgfsf]
sl/j $) s/f]8 ?k}ofF nufgLdf tLgtf/] xf]6n ul/df k|flnsf]
lgdf{0f z'? ePsf] xf] .
;Grfns cfrfo{sf cg';f/ !% s6\7f hUufdf lgdf{0f eO
/x]sf] xf]6n ul/dfsf] ^ tn] ejgdf ;fwf/0f, l8nS;,
;'k/l8nS; / :jL6\; ul/ ^$ cf]6f ?dsf] Aoj:yf x'g5
] .
h;df sl/j b'O;o hgf;Ddn] af; a:g ;Sg] ;'ljwf x'g5
] .
xf]6ndf af/ tyf ;'ljwfo'Qm a}7s sIf / rf/cf]6f ;]ldgf/
xn /flvg] 5 . ;]ldgf/ xndWo] cf7;o tyf rf/;o hgf
Ifdtfsf Ps÷Ps cf]6f /xg] 5g\ eg] Ps;o hgf Ifdtfsf
b'Ocf]6f /flvg]5 . a}7s xn eg] %) hgf;Dd a;]/ a}7s ug{
;Sg] Ifdtfsf] x'g5
] .
xf]6ndf :jLldª\ k"n, x]Ny Snj,6«fen Ph]G;L / ;lkª\
ljb] z Lx? cfpF b f of] If] q df
Ps÷b' O /ft a:g;Sg] :t/Lo
xf] 6 n gePs} sf/0f pgLx?n]
af; a:g sf7df8f} g} kmls{ g '
kg] { afWotf x6fpg xfdLn] xf]6n
ul/dfsf] lgdf{0f yfn]sf xf}+ . 8]9
jif{leq ;+rfng ;'? ug]{ nIo 5.
–an/fd cfrfo{
;+rfns, xf]6n ul/df k|f=ln=

$) s/f]8 nufgLsf]
tLgtf/] xf]6n O6x/Ldf
sDKn]S; klg /flvg]5 . xf]6n kl/;/df *) cf]6f uf8L
c6fpg ;Sg] kfls{ª\ :ynsf] Aoj:yf ul/g] ;Grfns cfrfo{n]
hfgsf/L lbP . k"jf{Grnsf] s]Gb| eP/ klg O6x/Ldf ljb]zL
cltlynfO{ Ps/ft af; a:gsf] nflu ;'ljwfo'Qm xf]6n 5}gg\
. cfrfo{ eG5g\ …ljb]zLx? cfpFbf of] If]qdf Ps÷b'O /ft
a:g;Sg] :t/Lo xf]6n gePs} sf/0f pgLx?n] af; a:g
sf7df8f} g} kmls{g' kg]{ jfWotf x6fpg xfdLn] xf]6n ul/dfsf]
lgdf{0f yfn]sf xf}+ . @)&! ;fnsf] c;f]h;Dd lgdf{0f k'/ful/
;Grfngdf Nofpg] nIo /x]sf]] xf]6n ;Grfngdf cfPkl5
ljb]zLx?nfO{ k"jf{Grnsf ko{6lso:yn cjnf]sg ug{ Ps÷b'O
lbgsf] a;fO nDAofpg ;Sg] ;+efjgf x'G5 .Ú

lj/f6gu/df gof“ xf]6n
k"js
{ f] k|dv
" cf}Bf]lus zx/ lj/f6gu/df ;'ljwfo'Qm gofF
xf]6n ;Grfngdf cfPsf] 5 .
kfFr s/f]8 ?k}ofF nufgLdf lj/f6gu/ –!% l:yt d"Vo j;kfs{
glhs xf]6n kfGrfnL ;Grfngdf cfPsf] xf] . ljut % jif{bv
] L
;u/dfyf kf6L{ Kofn]; ;Grfng ub}{ cfPsf zflnu|fd bfxfnn]
cfk\mg} hUufsf] ;'ljwf ;DkGg ejgdf P6\ofr / jftfg'sl' nt
;'ljwfo'Qm @! cf]6f sf]7fsf] nh ;d]t ;Grfngdf NofPsf x'g\ .
xf]6ndf u|fxssf nflu lgMz'Ns jfOkmfO OG6/g]6 ;'ljwf
;lxt ;efxn / 5'66} /]i6'/]G6 ;d]t /x]sf] 5 . % jif{;Dd
;u/dfyf kfl6{ Kofn]; ;Grfngsf] cg'ejn] ;'ljwfo'Qm xf]6n
vf]Ng k|]l/t u/]sf] bfxfnn] atfP . lj/f6gu/df s]lx jif{b]vL
xf]6ndf kfl6{ ug]{ / ;fyLefO;Fu ;d"xdf a;]/ vfgkfg / /
dfOnf] ug]{ k|rng a9\g yfn]sfn] xf]6n Joj;fosf] ;+efjgf
k|r'/ b]v]/ cfFk"mn] xf]6ndf nufgL u/]sf] bfxfnsf] egfO 5 .
rf/;o eGbf jl9 xf]6n tyf nh ;Grfng x'bF } cfPsf]
lj/f6gu/df ko{6s :t/sf] ;'ljwf /x]sf !% cf]6f 7"nf xf]6n
/ Ps bh{g jl9 ;fgf 7"nf kfl6{ Kofn]; /x]sf 5g\ .

h]7 @)&)

9

Go"gtd kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f
j}1flgs x'gk' g]{
j}1flgs k2ltdf ;a} kIfnfO{ dfGo x'gu] /L Go"gtd
kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ug'k{ g]d
{ f k"js
{ f pBf]uL Joj;foLx?n] hf]8
lbPsf 5g\ .
Go"gtd kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ubf{ ckgfpg' kg]{ dfkb08
nufotsf ljifodf pBf]u ;+u7g df]/ª / g]kfn pBf]u jfl0fHo
dxf;+3sf] ;+o'Qm cfof]hgfdf lj/f6gu/df ePsf] Go"gtd
kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f;DaGwL 5nkmndf pBf]uL Joj;foLx?n]
pQm wf/0ff /fv]sf x'g\ .
sfo{qmddf pBf]u ;+u7g df]/ªsf cWoIf lbg]z uf]N5fn]
j} 1 flgs k2lt gagfO{ ul/Psf] kfl/>lds lgwf{ / 0fn]
sfof{Gjogdf ;d:of cfpg] /fo lbPsf lyP .
g] k fn pBf] u jfl0fHo dxf;+ 3 sf pkfWoIf Pjd\
/f]huf/bftf kl/ifb\sf ;efklt kz'klt d'/f/sfsf] k|d'v
cfltYodf ePsf] sfo{qmddf pBf]u ;+u7g df]/ªsf pkfWoIf
Pjd\ /f]huf/bftf kl/ifb\sf ;efklt eLd l3ld/]n] Go"gtd
kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ubf{ pTkfbsTj;Fu+ klg hf]8g\ k' g]{ / Go"gtd
zt{;lxtsf] cfrf/;+lxtf;d]t nfu" ug'{kg]{df lbP .
sfo{qmddf dxf;+3sf pkfWoIf Pjd\ /f]huf/bftf
kl/ifb\sf ;efklt d'/f/sfn] Go"gtd kfl/>lds lgwf{/0fsf
nflu ckgfpg' kg]{ dfkb08 tof/ ug]{ qmddf dxf;+3n] ljleGg
:yfgdf 5nkmn sfo{qmd ub}{ cfPsf] hfgsf/L lbFb} 5nkmndf
p7]sf s'/fx?nfO{ jftf{sf] qmddf ;d]6\g] kxn ul/g] atfP .

sfo{qmddf g]pjf dxf;+3 /f]huf/bftf kl/ifb\sf
;x;+of]hs dlgif cu|jfn, dxf;+3sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o Pjd\
Go"gtd kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ;ldltsf ;b:o czf]s tf]bL,
tof/L kf]zfs pBf]u ;+3sf cWoIf pbo kf08], df]/ª Jofkf/
;+3sf pkfWoIf kjg zf/8fn] Go"gtd kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f
ubf{ ckgfpg' kg]{ dfkb08sf ljifodf rrf{ u/]sf lyP .
sfo{qmddf ;+u7gsf k|yd pkfWoIf lzjz+s/ cu|jfn,
lgj{dfg cWoIf czf]s d'/f/sf, sfo{sfl/0fL ;ldlt ;b:o
/fs]z ;'/fgf, ;'oz Kofs'/]n, ;'jf]w sf]O/fnf, w/fg, Og?jf,
emfkf pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3sf cWoIf tyf sfo{sfl/0fL ;ldlt
;b:onufotn] cf–cfk\mgf ;'emfj lbPsf lyP .

h]aLP; OG8l:6«h pTs[i6 s/bftf
O6x/Ll:yt h]aLP; OG8l:6«hnfO{ cfGtl/s /fh:j
sfof{no w/fgn] ;f] sfof{no cGt{utsf
s/bftfx?dWo] ;a}eGbf a9L cfos/
a' e mfpg] pTs[ i 6 s/bftfsf]
;Ddfgkq lbPsf] 5 .
;f] sfof{non] cfly{s
jif{ @)^&÷)^* df
;a} e Gbf a9L cfos/
a'emfPsf] ;Ddfg:j?k s/
;Ktfx @)^( sf] cj;/df
pQm ;Ddfgkq k|bfg u/]sf]
xf] . s'l6/ pBf]uaf6 %)
xhf/ nufgLdf @)$*
;fnb]lv ;~rfng ePsf] h]aLP;

10

h]7 @)&)

OG8l:6«h O6x/Ln] xfn d"No clej[l4 s/ tyf cfos/ u/L
jflif{s sl/a Ps s/f]8 ?k}ofF ;/sf/nfO{
s/ a'emfpFb} cfPsf] 5 . pBf]udf
sl/a %) hgfn] k| T oIf
/f]huf/L kfPsf 5g\ .
rf/ jif{cl3 g]kfn
;/sf/n] klg pTs[i6
vfB pBf]usf] ?kdf
h]aLP;nfO{
;Ddfgkq k| b fg
u/]sf] lyof] .

l/nfoG;df
kmg];
{ cfonaf6
rNg] h]g/] 6] /
b}lgs !@ 306f eGbfjl9 ;do nf]8;]l8ª\df l8hn
h]g/] 6] / ;Grfng ubf{ pTkfbg nfut $ u'0ffjl9 kg{
yfn]kl5 ;'g;/Lsf] vgf/l:yt l/nfoG; :kLgLª\ ldN;n]
kmg]{; cfonaf6 ;Grfng x'g] h]g]/]6/ h8fg u/]sf] 5 .
g]kfns} 7"nf] wfuf] sf/fvfgf l/nfoG;nfO{ b}lgs ! nfv
$$ xhf/ o'lg6 ljB't cfjZos kg]{ pBf]usf
efO;k|];L8]G6 lbksafa' ltjf/L atfpF5g\ .
ljh'nLaf6 pBf]u ;Grfng ubf{ cf};t k|lt o'lg6 &
?k}ofFsf] b/n] b}lgs !) nfv ?k}ofFsf] ljB't vkt x'G5
t/ cfwf ;do nf]8 ;]l8ª\ x'Fbf l8hn h]g]/]6/af6 pBf]u
;Grfng ug'{ kl//x]sf]n] b}lgs @@ nfv eGbf jl9 ?k}ofF
vr{ x'g] u/]sf] 5 .
…kmg];
{ cfonaf6 rNg] h]g/] 6] / ePdf k|lt o'lg6 !&
?k}ofF dfqkg]{ x'G5 , o;f] ubf{ xfd|f] b}lgs vkt x'g]
h]g/] 6] /sf] vr{df b}lgs # nfv ^) xhf/ cyf{t dfl;s Ps
s/f]8 * nfv ?k}ofF vr{ sd x'g] ePsfn] kmg];
{ cfonaf6
rNg] h]g/] 6] / h8fg ul/Psf] xf] .Ú ltjf/L eG5g\ .
kmg];
{ cfonaf6 rNg] hd{gLdf lgld{t b'O cf]6f

kmg];{ cfonaf6 rNg] h]g/] 6] /
h8fg ePkl5 l8hnaf6 rNg]sf]
t'ngfdf b}lgs # nfv ^) xhf/
?k}of vr{ sd x'G5 .
h]g]/]6/ pBf]udf h8fg ul/Psf] 5 . pBf]un] h]g]/]6/sf]
nflu kfFr s/f]8 ?k}ofF nufgL u/]sf] xf] . tL h]g]/]6/
ljb]zdf kfgL hxfhdf k|of]u x'g] h]g]/]6/ ePsf] atfOPsf]
5 . b'O cf]6f h]g/] 6] /sf] Ifdtf # bzdnj @ d]3fjf6
/x]sf] 5 .

ljB'tdf clgoldttf ug]{ sfjf{xLdf
k|nf]egdf kl/ s]xL 7"nf pBf]unfO{ dfkb08 ljk/Lt ljB't
pknAw u/fP/ ;j{;fwf/0f / ;fgf pBf]unfO{ nf]8;]l8ª\sf]
rsf]{ ef/ af]sfpg] ljB'tsf clwsf/Lx? sfjf{xLdf k/]sf5g\ .
g]kfn ljB't k|flws/0fsf] k"jf{Grnsf ljleGg $ sfof{nosf
k|d"vx?nfO{ sfjf{xLsf] nflu k|flws/0fn] @$ 306fleq
:kli6s/0fsf nflu s]lGb|o sfof{nodf af]nfPsf] 5 .
ljB't k|flws/0fsf clwsf/Lx?n] !% cf]6f pBf]unfO{
@$ 306} ljB't cfk"lt{ ul/ cGo pBf]ux?nfO{ ljB't ljt/0fdf
e]befj u/]sf] / To;jfkt u}/sfg'gL?kdf /sd lnFb} cfPsf]
cf/f]k nfu]sf] lyof] .
pQm cf/f]kkl5 k|flws/0fsf] dflyNnf] lgsfon] 5fgljg

kl5 k"jf{Grn If]qLo lgb]z
{ s ;'lw/s'df/ l;+x, k"jf{Grn ljB't
k|;f/0f lu|8 b'xjLsf k|d"v k|sfzgf/fo0f l;x, ljB't
ljt/0f s]Gb| O6x/Lsf k|d"v dgf]h ofbj / ljt/0f s]Gb|
lj/f6gu/ k|d"v ;ltzs'df/ s0f{nfO{ k|flws/0fn] sfjf{xLsf]
nflu s]lGb|o sfof{no lemsfPsf] xf] .
k|flws/0f sd{rf/Lx?sf cg';f/ d'Vo;lrj nLnfd0fL
kf}8]n lj/f6gu/ cfPsf a]nf pBf]uL Joj;foLx?n] ljB't
ljt/0fdf clgoldttf / e]befj ePsf] u'gf;f] u/]kl5 d'Vo
;lrjsf] cfb]zdf sfof{no k|d"vx? dfly 5fgljg ePsf]
lyof] . s]lGb|o sfof{nosf] 6f]nLsf] 5fgljg kl5 pgLx?nfO{
s]lGb|o sfof{no tflgPsf] xf] .

h]7 @)&)

11

ladf ahf/

Plzog nfOkmsf

b'O gofF
of]hgf
laldtx?sf] dfu cg';f/ k]G;g ladf of]hgf
/ ladf cjlwe/Lsf] Ps} k6s ladfz'Ns
e'QmfgL ug{;Sg] hLjg /Tg ladf of]hgf
hf/L u/]sf] dxfk|jGws >]i7n] atfP .
Plzog nfOkm OG:of]/G] ; sDkgLn] b'Ocf]6f gofF ladf
of]hgf z'? u/]sf] 5 . sDkgLn] Plzog k]G;g ladf of]hgf /
hLjg /Tg ladf of]hgf nfu' u/]sf] sDkgLsf dxfk|jGws
/fh]zs'df/ >]i7n] hgfsf/L lbP . pgsf cg';f/ o; cl3
sDkgLn] Plzog ;fjlws, ;'vLhLjg, afn pdª\u, afn
elj:o tyf !@, !%, !* / @) jif{ cjlwsf clu|d e'QmfgL
ladf of]hgf ljlqm ub}{ cfPsf] lyof]= .
laldtx?sf] dfu cg';f/ k]G;g ladf of]hgf / ladf
cjlwe/Lsf] Ps} k6s ladfz'Ns e'QmfgL ug{;Sg] hLjg /Tg
ladf of]hgf hf/L u/]sf] dxfk|jGws >]i7n] atfP .
@)^$ ;fn r}t @! ut]bv
] L ;Grfngdf cfPsf] Plzog
nfOkm OG:of]/]G; sDkgLn] ut r}t !( ut];Dd $ nfv %(

u'/f“; nfOkmsf] ;f9]
5 k|ltzt af]g; z]o/
u' / fF ; nfOkm OG:of] / ] G ;
sDkgLn] ^ bzdnj %)
k|ltzt af]g; z]o/ ljt/0f
ug]{ ePsf] 5 .
a}zfv !# ut] ePsf]
sDkgLsf] kfF r f} jflif{ s
;fwf/0f;efn] af]g; z]o/
ljt/0f ug]{ / xsk|b z]o/ hf/L ug]{ k|:tfj kfl/t u/]sf] xf]
.
sDkgLn] xfn b]ze/Lsf ^ j6f If]qLo sfof{no, @#
j6f zfvf sfof{no / #^ j6f ljqmL s]Gb| dfkm{t cfk\mgf]
;]jf k|bfg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
12

h]7 @)&)

xhf/ !;o &# ladfn]v ljlqm u/]/ $ ca{ % s/f]8 ?k}ofF
ladf z'Ns cfh{g u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 . b]ze/L @) cf]6f zfvf
/ ^^ pkzfvf /x]sf] sDkgLn] $$ xhf/ clestf{ dfkm{t
hLjg ladf sf/f]jf/ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
o;}jLr Plzog nfOkm OG:of]/G] ; sDkgLsf] w/fg zfvfn]
;f] zfvfaf6 r}t dlxgfdf w]/} ;+Vofdf ladf u/fpg] % hgf
pTs[i6 clestf{nfO{ gub k'/:sf/ ;lxt k|;+zf kq k|bfg
u/]sf] 5 . pTs[i6 clestf{x? /fdk'/ 7f]lS;nf pbok'/sf
afa'/fd yfkf, w/fgsL uLtf /fO{ nufotnfO{ sDkgLsf
dxfk|jGws /fh]zs'df/ >]i7 / ljefluo k|jGws xf]daxfb'/
>]i7n] gub tyf k|;z
+ f–kq k|bfg u/]sf lyP . ;f] cj;/df
sDkgLsf w/fg zfvf k|jGws r'8fd0fL ;'jb] Ln] clestf{x?sf]
pT;fxn] zfvfsf] jflif{s nIo !) jif{d} k'/f ePsf]] atfP .
sfo{qmddf sDkgLsf cu'jf clestf{ cd[td0fL vltj8fn]
sDkgLn] Joj;flos clestf{nfO{ k|fT] ;flxt ug]{ sfo{qmd Nofpg'
kg]{ dfu u/]sf lyP .

PncfO{;Lsf]
ejg aGg]
nfOkm OG:of]/]G; skf]{/]zg -g]kfn_ lnld6]8sf]
skf]{/]6 ejg sf7df8f}+sf] aa/dxndf lgdf{0f x'g]
ePsf] 5 .
ejgsf] lznfGof; a}zfv t];|f] ;ftf PncfO{;L
ckm Ol08of Pjd\ PncfO{;L -g]kfn_ lnld6]8sf cWoIf
8Ls] d]x/f]qfn] u/] . lznfGof; ;df/f]xdf sDkgLsf
k|dv
' sfo{sf/L clws[t kLcf/ ld>n] PncfO{;LcGtu{t
aGg] skf]/{ 6] ejg cfsif{s Pjd\ ;'ljwf ;DkGg x'g]

atfP . s/La $ /f]kgL If]qkmndf lgdf{0f x'g nfu]sf] ejgsf] u|fp08df
kflsª{ /xg] 5 . cf7 tn] pSt ejg pRr e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds /
jf:t'zf:qdf cfwfl/t x'g] atfOPsf] 5 . ejg cfufdL 8]9 jif{
leq lgdf{0f sfo{ ;DkGg ul/;Sg] ld>n] atfP .

g]kfn OG:of]/G] ;sf] af]g; z]o/
g]kfn OG:of]/G] ; sDkgLsf] ^$cf}+ jflif{s
;fwf/0f;efn] @! bzdnj z"Go % k|ltzt
af]g; z]o/ ljt/0f u/]sf] 5 .
;fy} sDkgLn] ! a/fa/ ! lsQfsf b/n]
xsk|b z]o/ hf/L ug]{ k|:tfj kfl/t u/]sf]
5 . xsk|b z]o/ hf/Lkl5 aLdf ;ldltsf]
lgb]{zgcg';f/ cfufdL @)&) c;f/;Dd
sDkgLsf] r'Stf k"h
F L ¿= @% s/f]8 k'Ug]
sDkgLn] hgfPsf] 5 .
sDkgLn] cfj @)^(÷)&) sf] k'; d;fGt;Dddf ¿= ## xjfO{ nufot ljljw

s/f]8 (@ nfv aLdfz'Ns cfh{g u/]sf]
5 . of] cl3Nnf] cfjsf] aLdfz'Nsdf
#^ k|ltztn] a9L ePsf] sDkgLn]
hgfPsf] 5 .
sDkgLn] rfn" cfjsf] cGTo;Dddf
¿= ^) s/f]8 aLdfz'Ns ;ªsng ug]{
nIo lnPsf] atfPsf] 5 .
sDkgLn] lghL{jg aLdfcGt{ut
cUgL, df]6/, ;fd'lGb|s, Ol~hgLol/ª,
lsl;dsf aLdfn]v hf/L ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .

;"rgf . ;"rgf .. ;"rgf...

xflb{s z'esfdgf

o; bfgf u|fld0f art tyf C0f ;xs/L ;+:yfsf ;a} z]o/
;b:o dxfg'efjx?nfO{ lgodlt artdf ;xefuL eOlbg tyf
C0f lnPsf ;b:ox?n] ;+:yfnfO{ a'emfpg'kg]{ Aofh / ls:tf
/sd ;dod} a'emfP/ ;xof]u ul/lbg' x'g cg'/f]w 5 . ;fy}
cf=j= @)^@÷)^# ;Dd C0f lnPsf ;b:ox?n] @)&) c;f/
d;fGt ;Dd ;f“jf / ;Dk"0f{ Aofh Psd':6 a'emfPdf Aofhsf]
$) k|ltzt 5'6 / Aofh dfq a'emfO{ gljs/0f u/]df @%
k|ltzt Aofh 5'6sf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] x'b“ f ;'ljwfsf] pkef]u
ug'{ x'g cg'/f]w ub{5f}+ .
rGb|sd' f/ rf}w/L -cWoIf_

k"jf{~rnsf] O6x/L / cf;kf;df /x]sf
;xsf/Lx?sf] ultljlwnfO{ d'Vo cfwf/ agfP/
cy{la6n] ;xsf/L ljz]iffª\s k|sflzt u/]sf]df
xflb{s wGojfb tyf o:tf sfo{sf] lg/Gt/tfsf]
nflu d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .

bfgf u|fld0f art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=
ef=;L–%, em'Dsf -;'g;/L_

/fh]z >]i7-cWoIf_

b'uf{ art tyf
C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=
O6x/L, ;'g;/L

h]7 @)&)

13

PgPnhLaf6 !! hgfnfO{ bfjL e'QmfgL
PgPnhL OG:of]/]G; sDkgLsf] O6x/Ll:yt zfvfn]
rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] ( dlxgfsf] cjlwdf !! cf]6f bfjL
e'QmfgL lbPsf] 5 .
zfvf k|jGws lag]z >]i7sf cg';f/ b'3{6gfdf k/]/
d[To' ePsf % hgfsf] kl/jf/nfO{ t];|f] kIf ladf jfkt
%÷% nfv ?k}ofFsf]] b/n] / $ hgfnfO{ @÷@ nfv ?k}ofF
d]l8sn vr{ ;lxt & nfvsf b/n] d[To' bfjL e'QmfgL
lbPsf] 5 . ;f] cjlwdf @ cf]6f df]6/;fOsn rf]/Lsf]
bfjL e'QmfgL ;d]t lbPsf] zfvf k|jGws >]i7n] atfP .
bfjL e'QmfgL kfpg]df df]/ª\sf /f]zg /fhj+zL,uf]ljGb
>]i7, ;'jf]ws'df/ ;fx, cf]daxfb'/ a:g]t, ;'g;/Lsf
of]u]Gb| ofbj, 6+saxfb'/ /fO{, rGb|axfb'/ vqL, s'df/L
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf, ;+v'jf;efsf x'k]Gb| sfsL{,
emfkfsf hf]xgs'df/ clwsf/L /x]sf 5g\ . tL afx]s yk
& cf]6f bfjL e'QmfgLsf] k|lqmof rln/x]sf] >]i7n] atfP .
t/ t];|f] kIf ljdfsf] bfjL e'QmfgLdf w]/}+cf]6f kmhL{
s]z cfpg] u/]sf]n] ;d:of ePsf] zfvf k|jGws >]i7
atfpF5g\ . pgsf cg';f/ c? g} 36gfdf d/]sfnfO{ klg
b'3{6gfaf6 d/]sf] eg]/ kmhL{ sfuhkq agfP/ k]z u/L

bfjL e'QmfgL lng vf]Hg] ;d:of /x]sf] 5 . t];|f] kIf
ladfjf/] ;/sf/n] ;r]tgf u/fpg' kg]{ tyf k|x/L
k|zf;gn] 36gfsf] ulx/fO;Dd cg';Gwfg ug'{kg]{
cfjZostf /x]sf] 5 . bfjL e'QmfgL jl9 /x]sf] a]nf t];|f]
kIf ladf eg] 36]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{ @* xhf/ t];|f] kIf
ladfn]v hf/L u/]sf]df o; jif{ eg] sl/j !$ xhf/ dfq
hf/L ePsf] atfOPsf] 5 .

xflb{s z'esfdgf

;DkGg x'g] ;a}sf] sfdgf
;Ifd rfns agfpg] xfd|f] rfxgf

k"jf{~rnsf] O6x/L / cf;kf;df
/x]sf ;xsf/Lx?sf] ultljlwnfO{
d'Vo cfwf/ agfP/ cy{la6n]
;xsf/L ljz]iffª\s k|sflzt
u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf o:tf
sfo{sf] lg/Gt/tfsf] nflu d+undo
z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
u'?eQm >]i7 -cWoIf_

g]kfM ax'p2]ZoLo ;xsf/L
;+:yf lnld6]8
O6x/L–!, ;'g;/L

14

h]7 @)&)

tkfO{ ;jf/L rnfpg l;Sb} x'gx' G' 5 <
To;f] eP xfdLnfO{ ;Demg'xf];\ .

g]kfn ;/sf/af6 dfGotf k|fKt u/L ( jif{bl] v ;~rfng
x'b“ } cfPsf] o; 8«fOleª ;]G6/df ljb]zaf6 ;d]t cg'ej
k|fKt k|lzIfsaf6 df]6/;fOsn, hLk,sf/ tyf Eofg rnfpg]
k|lzIf0f lbOG5 . ;fy} ;jf/Lrfns cg'dltkqsf nflu
cfjZos sf]if{;d]t u/fpg] Joj:yf 5 .

6f9faf6 cfpg]sf nflu xf]:6nsf] ;d]t Joj:yf 5 .
;~rfns M uf]kfn l3ld/]

tfKn]hª
' 8«fOleª 6«l] gª ;]G6/
O6x/L–!,;'g;/L
kmf]g M )@%–%*)(#$, (*$@)#^$&(, (*)$#)$)&^
Og?jf ;Dks{ M bLks l3ld/] -(*%@)%%*&%,(*$@!@!*&%_

a}ªs
\ ahf/

PlS;;sf] #^%
lbg] a}ªl\ sª ;]jf
PlS;; 8]enkd]06 a}ªs
\ lnld6]8n] ;WofsfnLg sfp06/
tyf # ;o ^% lbg]
a}ª\lsª ;]jf z'¿
u/]sf] 5 .
a} ª ssf] d' V o
zfvf sfof{ n o
xfQL;f/sf ;fy} ag]kf, gf/fo0fu9, kf]v/f, O6x/L / l;Gw'nLsf
zfvf sfof{nodf z'¿ ePsf] xf] . pQm ;]jf cfOtjf/b]lv
laxLjf/;Dd ;fF´ $ b]lv & ah];Dd / z'qmjf/ # b]lv %
ah];Dd k|bfg ul/g] lj1lKtdf pNn]v 5 .

lxdfnog / PgPdaL
aLr ;D´f}tf

lacf]ss
] f]
pBdzLn shf{
a}+s ckm sf7df08"n] ;fgf
tyf d´f}nf pBf]u Joj;fo
ug]n
{ fO{ ljlQo kx'r
F k'¥ofpg]
p2]Zon] ljcf]s] pBdzLn shf{
of]hgf nfu' u/]sf] 5 .
pQm of]hgf cg';f/ pBdL Joj;foLnfO{ Go"gtd @ nfvb]lv
@) nfv ?k}ofF;Dd shf{ pknAw u/fOg] 5 . gofF Joj;fo z'?
ug{, k'/fgf] Joj;fo k|j4{g ug{,ef}lts ;+/rgf lgdf{0f / k]zfsdL{
eP gofF Joj;fo :yfkgf ug{ o:tf] shf{ lng ;Sg] k|fjwfg 5
. o; k|sf/sf] shf{ lnO ;s]kl5 a}s
+ n] C0f lng] C0fLsf]]
shf{sf] cjwLe/ shf{ /sd a/fa/sf] JolQmut b'36{ gf ladf
;d]t ul/lbg] 5 . o;/L ul/Psf] ljdfsf] nfUg] ladf z'Ns a}s
+ n]
g} Joxf]g{ ] hgfPsf] 5 . ljcf]s] pBdzLn shf{ cGtu{t lnPsf]
shf{sf] e'StfgL cjlw Go"gtd @ jif{ / a9Ldf ^ jif{ lgwf{/0f
ul/Psf] 5 . t/ Joj;foLn] lgwf{l/t ;doeGbf klxn] g} shf{
r'Stf ug{ rfx]df Tof] ;'ljwf klg pknAw 5 . clu|d e'QmfgL
ubf{ a}s
+ n] s'g} b:t'/ glng] hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 . b]ze/L $*
cf]6f zfvf sfof{no /x]sf] lacf]s]sf k"j{df O6x/L,w/fg,
pnf{jf/L, ljtf{df]8, vfFbjf/L, nxfg / lj/f6gu/ ul/ & cf]6f
zfvf ;Grflnt 5g\ .

Eof6 cg'lzIf0f

lxdfnog a}ªssf] slG6g]G6n kmfOgflG;on ;le;]h
{ n] PgPdaL
a}ªs;Fu lxdfn /]ld6 ;~rfng ug]{ ;D´f}tf u/sf] 5 .
;+emf}tf cg';f/ lxdfn /]ld6sf Uf|fxsn] ca PgPdaL
a}ªssf zfvfx?af6 klg e'StfgL lng kfpg] 5g\ .
slG6g]G6nsf tkm{af6 sDkgLsf cWoIf /fh]z pkfWofo /
PgPdaL a}ªs
\ sf tkm{af6 k|dv
' sfo{sf/L clws[t pk]Gb|
kf}8\ofnn] x:tfIf/ ul/ ;+emf}tf nfu' u/]sf x'g\ .
PgPdaL a}ªssf b]ze/ @) cf]6f zfvf sfo{no /x]sf
5g\ . ;a} zfvfx?af6 lxdfn /]ld6sf u|fxsx?n] e'StfgL
lng ;Sg] atfOPsf] 5 .
slG6g]G6nn] bz jif{bv
] L d'ns
' e/ lxdfn /]ld6sf] ;~hfn
lj:tf/ ug{ ;xof]u ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
PgPdaL a}ªssf @) zfvf;lxt lxdfn /]ld6sf] e'StfgL
sfpG6/sf] ;+Vof b]ze/L # ;o gf3]sf] 5 .

cfGtl/s /fhZj sfof{no w/fgn] s/bftfx?sf nflu d"No
clej[l4 s/ - Eof6_ ;DaGwL cg'lzIf0f sfo{qmd ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
cg'lzIf0fdf s/bftfx?df s/ k|0ffnLjf/] hfgsf/L lbP/
d"No clej[l4 s/sf] ljj/0f /fVg],ljj/0f kmf/d eg]{, s/of]Uo
k}7f/L / s/5'6 ;DaGwL a:t'x?sf] sf/f]jf/ jf/] hfgsf/L
u/fpFg] u/]sf] 5 . Aoj;fonfO{ r':t b'?:t agfpg tyf
k|lqmof ga'em\ bf x'g] b08 hl/jfgfaf6 hf]lug ;xof]u k'¥ofpg]
cg'lzIf0fsf] p2]Zo /x]sf] ;f] sfof{non] hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 .
cfGtl/s /fh:j sfof{no w/fgn] cfk\mgf] sfo{If]q sf]zL
cGrnsf ;'g;/L, wgs'6f, t]xy« d' , ef]hk'/ / ;+vj' f;ef lhNnfsf
s/bftfx?nfO{ w/fgl:yt s/ sfof{no jf ;djgwLt s/bftf
;]jf sfof{nodf
af]nfP/ cg'lzIf0f
lbb}
cfPsf]
hgfPsf] 5 . ;f]
sfof{no cGt{ut
O6x/L / wgs'6fdf
s/bftf ;] j f
sfof{no ;Grfng
x'bF } cfPsf 5g\ .

h]7 @)&)

15

kflv|jf;df hgtf a}s
+
hgtf a}ª\s g]kfn lnld6]8n] wgs'6fsf] kflv|jf; ahf/df
zfvf lj:tf/ u/]sf] 5 .
g]kfn /fi6« a}ª\saf6 @& cf}+ jfl0fHo a}ª\ssf] ?kdf
cg'dlt kfPsf] hgtfsf] of] @^ cf}+ zfvf xf] . a}+ssf cWoIf
pbo g]kfnL >]i7n] u|fdL0f e]usf hgtf;dIf j}l+ sª kx'r
F
k'¥ofpg] p2]Zon] zfvf lj:tf/ u/]sf] jtfP .
a}+sLª sf/f]jf/ z'? u/]sf] # jif{ leqdf a}ª\sn]
;f9] !) cj{ ?k}of lgIf]k ;+sng u/]sf] 5 . xfn;Dd !) cj{
?k}of shf{ nufgL u/]sf] a}ª\sdf * ;o #^ hgf ;+:yfks
z]o/ ;b:o /x]sf 5g\ . ut jif{ z]o/ ;b:ox?nfO{ # bzdnj

^* k|ltztsf b/n] nfef+z ljt/0f u/]sf] a}ª\sn] Aoj;foLs
s[lifdf shf{ nufgL ug]{ of]hgf u/]sf] 5 . kflv|jf; ahf/df
zfvf :yfkgf ePkl5 wgs'6fsf n]uj' f, cvf}n
{ ] hLtk'/ nufotsf
Ps bh{g jl9 uflj;sf ;fy} ef]hk'/sf] 3f]/6] f/;Ddsf jfl;GbfnfO{
a}l+ sª\ ;'ljwf lng ;lhnf] x'g] atfOPsf] 5 .

s[lif a}ªs
\ n] % k|ltzt
gub nfef+z lbg]

d]uf a}ªs
\ / a]i6
/]ld6 ;Demf}tf

s[lif ljsf; a}s
+ n] cflys{ jif{ @)^*÷)^( sf] gfkmfaf6 ;]o/
wgLnfO{ % k|ltzt gub nfef+z lbg] ePsf] 5 .
a}s
+ n] klxnf] k6s ;]o/wgLnfO{ k|ltkmn lbg] lg0f{o{ u/]sf] xf] .
a}s
+ ;Grfns ;ldltsf] a}zfv !( sf]] a}7+ sn] u/]sf] lg0f{o g]kfn
/fi6« a}s
+ df :jLs[ltsf nflu k7fPsf] a}s
+ n] hgfPsf] 5 .
a}s
+ n] lg0f{o u/]sf]] % k|ltzt nfef+z s'n r'Qmfk"h
F Lsf] !^
s/f]8 *# nfv ?k}ofF x'g cfp5 . a}s
+ n] ut cfly{s jif{df ! ca{
*^ s/f]8 !) nfv ?k}ofF v'b gfkmf u/]sf] lyof] . ;f] cjlwdf
a}s
+ sf] ;lGrtsf]ifdf $ ca{ $* s/f]8 (@ nfv ?k}ofF lyof] . t/,
;f] cjlwdf a}s
+ sf] cfDbfgL ;Defljt hf]lvd afktsf] Joj:yf
ubf{ ;~rfng cfDbfgL @@ s/f]8 () nfv ?k}ofF gsf/fTds lyof]
. ;f] cjlwdf a}s
+ n] $# ca{ @# s/f]8 ?k}ofF lgIf]k ;+sng u/L #(
ca{ #( s/f]8 ?k}ofF shf{ k|jfx u/]sf] lyof] .
a}s
+ sf] r'Stfk"h
F Ldf ;j{;fwf/0fsf] ;]o/ lx:;f #) k|ltzt 5
. hf/L k"h
F L # ca{ @) s/f]8dWo] # ca{ # s/f]8 %# nfv ?k}ofF
r'Qmf eO;s]sf] 5 . afFsL !^ s/f]8 @% nfv ?k}ofF sd{rf/Laf6
r'Stf x'gk' g]{ ;]o/ afF8kmfF8 gePsf] x'gfn] /f]lsPsf] 5 . a}s
+ df
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] %! k|ltzt ;+:yfks ;]o/ 5 eg] !$ k|ltzt
ls;fgsf] 5 . a}s
+ n] ;f{;fwf/0fdf ;]o/ laqmL ug'e{ Gbf cl3 C0fL
ls;fgnfO{ ;]o/ lbPsf] lyof] .
a}s
+ n] lgisfzg u/]sf] kl/jt{g gx'g] ^ ca{ $# s/f]8 ^*
nfv ?k}ofF a/fa/sf] cu|flwsf/ ;]o/;lxt xfn a}s
+ sf] r'Qmfk"h
F L
( ca{ $& s/f]8 $# nfv ?k}ofF 5 . g]kfn :6s PS;r]Gh -g]K;]_
df a}s
+ sf] # s/f]8 # nfv &% xhf/ lsQf ;]o/ sf/f]af/sf nflu
;"rLs[t 5 . a}s
+ ;~rfns ;ldltn] u/]sf] % k|ltzt gub
nfef+zsf] k|:tfj g]kfn /fi6« a}s
+ n] :jLs[lt lbPdf a}s
+ sf] cfufdL
;fwf/0f;efn] :jLs[t u/]kl5 sfof{Gjog x'g] atfOPsf] 5 .
16

h]7 @)&)

d]uf a}ªs
\ g]kfn lnld6]8 / a]i6 /]ld6 sDkgL aLr
/]ld6]G; e'QmfgL ;DaGwL ;+emf}tf ePsf] 5 .
;+emf}tf cg';f/ a]i6 /]ld6 dfkm{t a]nfot, xªsª, hfkfg,
sf]l/of, ci6«]lnof, cd]l/sf nufotsf b]zaf6 toxfF sfo{/t
g]kfnLn] k7fPsf] /sd pgLx?sf cfkmGtn] d]uf a}ª\ssf
b]ze/Lsf @* zfvf sfof{noaf6 e'QmfgL lng ;Sg]5g\ .
;+emf}tfkqdf a}ªs
\ sL gfoa dxfk|jGws /ljgf b]z/fh >]i7 /
a]i6 /]ld6sf] tkm{af6 cWoIf /fh]Gb| >]i7n] x:tfIf/ u/]sf x'g\ .

l;6L PS;k|;
] /
PgPdaLr ;D´f}tf
ljk|i] f0f e'QmfgLsf] sfd ub}{ cfPsf] l;6L PS;k|;
] dgL
6«fG;km/ / PgPdaL a}ªs
\ aLr /]ld6\ofG; e'StfgL ;D´f}tf
ePsf] 5 . ;D´f}tfkqdf sDkgLsf tkm{af6 k|aGw lgb]z
{ s
rGb| 608g / PgPdaLsf tkm{af6 k|dv
' sfo{sf/L clws[t
pk]Gb| kf}8]nn] x:tfIf/ u/]sf lyP .
;D´f} t f cg' ; f/ lab] z af6 l;6L PS;k| ] ; dgL
6«fG;km/dfkm{t k7fPsf] k};f PgPdaLsf d'n'se/ /x]sf
zfvfaf6 u|fxsn] e'StfgL lng ;Sg]5g\ . ^ aif{bl] v lab]zaf6
;'/lIft / e/kbf]{ tl/sfn] /]ld6\ofG; leqfpFb} cfPsf] sDkgLsf]
hfkfgdf cfk\mg} sfof{no /x]sf] 5 . sDkgLn] vf8L d'ns
' ;lxt
cGo d'n'sx?af6 laleGg /]ld6\ofG; sDkgLx?;Fu ;xsfo{
ul/ b]zdf /]ld6\ofG; leqfpFb} cfPsf] atfPsf] 5 .
PgPdaLsf zfvf ;lxt sDkgLsf d'ns
' e/ ´08} @ xhf/
% ;o cflwsf/Ls :yfgLo /]ld6fG; e'QmfgL s]Gb| /x]sf 5g\ .

gf/fo0fLsf] Pl6Pdaf6

lgMz'Ns e'QmfgL
gf/fo0fL g]zgn kmfOgfG;af6 Pl6Pd sf8{ lnPsf
u|fxsn] b]ze/Lsf $) cf]6f a}ª\s tyf kmfOgfG;sf
Pl6Pdaf6 /sd lemSbf s'g} klg z'Ns gnfUg] ;'ljwf 5 .
:yfkgfsf] @) jif{ k'/f ul/;s]sf] gf/fo0fL g]zgn
kmfOgfG;sf] k"jf{Grndf O6x/L, lj/f6gu/ tyf t]x«y'dsf]
Dofª\n'ª\ ;lxt b]ze/L !! cf]6f sfof{no /x]sf 5g\ .
gf/fo0fL g]zgn kmfOgfG;n] hf/L u/]sf] Pl6Pd k|of]u
u/]/ s >]0fLsf a}ªsx? /fli6«o jfl0fHo, s'df/L,Unf]jn
cfOPdO,df5fk'5]«,l;4fy{, ;g/fOh, l;l6hg,
;]Gr'/L,l;len,s[lif ljsf; / g]kfn OGe]i6d]G6 a}ªssf
b]ze/Lsf Pl6Pd d]l;gx?af6 lgMz'Ns /sd lemSg kfOg]
kmfOgfG;sf O6x/L zfvf k|d"v s'df/ v8\sfn] atfP .
pgsf cg';f/ lahg]z 8]enkd]G6 a}ªs, 6'l/hd
8]enkd]G6 a}ªs,dgsfdgf, 8]enkd]G6, Pr P08 la,
u08sL ljsf; a}ªs, ul/df ljsf; a}ªs, ;f]l;on
8]enkd]G6 a}ªs, a'6jn kmfOgfG;, km]jf kmfOgfG; ,
z'enIdL kmfOgfG;, ODk]l/on kmfOgfG;, u'xZ] j/L dr]G{ 6

cfO{PdO{sf]
gofF of]hgf
OG6/g]zgn dlg PS;k|;
] -cfO{PdO{_ n] /]ld6fG; e'QmfgLdf
gofF of]hgf NofPsf] 5 . pQm of]hgf cg';f/ cfO{PdO{sf
u| f xsn] @$
?k} o fF af] g ;
Aofn]G; / Ps
?k} o fF d' V o
Aofn]G;;lxtsf]
P g ; ] n
l;dsf8{
kfpg] 5g .
cfO{ P dO{ /
Pg;]njLrsf] ;xsfo{df cfO{PdO{af6 sf/f]af/ ug]{ ;j}

a}ªs nufot /fli6«o e'QmfgL ;Ghfn (National payment
network –NPN) sf] ;b:otf lnPsf $)cf]6f a}ªs tyf
ljlQo ;+:yfn] /fv]sf b]ze/Lsf $ ;o eGbf jl9 Pl6Pd
d]l;gaf6 ljgf ;]jf z'Ns e'QmfgL lng ;lsG5 . tL a}ªs
tyf ljlQo ;+:yfsf Pl6Pd d]l;gaf6 /sd lgsfNbf
gf/fo0fLsf u|fxssf] ;]jf z'Ns jfkt s'g} /sd sfl6b}g .
;fdfGot P;l;l6 g]6js{ cGt{utsf Pl6Pd sf8{ k|of]u
u/]/ ;DaGwLt a}ª\s afx]ssf Pl6Pd d]l;gaf6 /sd
e'QmfgL l+nbf k|To]s k6ssf] Go"gtd @% ?k}ofF ;]jf z'Ns
sfl6g] ub{5 . t/ gf/fo0fL g]zgnn] eg] PgkLPgsf]
;b:otf lnPsf a}ªs tyf ljlQo ;+:yfsf Pl6Pdaf6 ;]jf
z'Ns gnfUg] ;'ljwf cfk\mgf u|fxsx?nfO{ lbPsf] 5 .
kmfOgfG;n] sf7df8f}sf] Go"/f]8 / lrtjgsf]
gf/fo0fu9 If]qLo sfof{nodf cfk\mg} Pl6Pd d]l;g /fv]sf]
5 eg] cGo :yfgdf PglkPg ;b:os} Pl6Pdaf6 lgMz'Ns
e"QmfgL kfpg] ul/ u|fxsnfO{ Pl6Pd sf8{ ljt/0f ub}{
cfPsf] 5 .
^$ s/f]8 &$ nfv *% xhf/ ?k}ofF r'Qmfk"h
F L /x]sf]
gf/fo0fL g]zgn kmfOgfG;n] rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] k';
d;fGt;Dd @ s/f]8 %& nfv $% xhf/ v'b d'gfkmf cfh{g
u/]sf] 5 . kmfOgfG;n] ut jif{sf] ;f]xL cjwLdf ! s/f]8 @^
nfv ^) xhf/ ?k}ofF dfq v'b gfkmf sdfPsf] lyof] . k';
d;fGt;Dd sl/j $ ca{ ?k}ofF lgIf]k /x]sf] kmfOgfG;n] #
ca{ $^ s/f]8 @$ nfv ?k}ofF nufgLdf /x]sf]] hgfPsf] 5 .
;]jfu|fxLnfO{ æPg;]n cfO{PdO{ Kofs gfdsf]Æ–a|f08]8 l;d
pkxf/ :j?k k|bfg ug{] of]hgf NofPsf] xf] .
…cfO{PdO{ u/f}, Pg;]nsf] l;d pkxf/ :j?k kfcf}+ Ú eGg]
gf/fsf ;fy NofOPsf] of] of]hgf
@)&) h]7 dlxgfel/ ;~rfng
ul/g] 5 . b' j } sDkgLsf
;] j fUf| f xLnfO{ nlIft ul/
nofOPsf]] of]hgf cg';f/ g]kfn
el/ 5l/P/ /x]sf cfO{PdO{sf &^
cfO{PdO{ ;]G6/, Psxhf/ eGbf
a9L k|fO{e]6 Ph]G6 ;fy} s]lx
jfl0fHo a} ª s tyf ljlQo
;+:yfaf6 k|To]s cfO{PdO{ ug]{ ;]jfu|flxn] Pg;]nsf] l;d k|fKt
ug]{ cfO{PdOn] hgfPsf] 5 .
l;d k|fKt ug{ gful/stf jf ;jf/L rfns cg'dtL kq jf
/fxbfgLsf] kmf]6f]skLsf ;fydf Ps k|lt kf;kf]6{ ;fO{hsf] kmf]6f]
;lxt] lgMz'Ns pknAw x'g] kmf/d tf]lsP adf]lhd eg'k{ g]5
{ .

h]7 @)&)

17

/faf a}ªs
\ a]njf/L gfkmfdf
/fli6«o jfl0fHo a}ª\s a]njf/L,
df]/ª zfvfn] rfn' cfly{s jif{sf]
r}t dlxgf;Dd Ps s/f]8 !) nfv
?k}ofF v'b gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf] 5 .
a}{ª\sn] ;f] cjlwdf $$ s/f]8
?k}off lgIf]k ;+sng / @^ s/f]8
?k}ofF shf{ nufgL u/]sf] a}ªssL
zfvf k| j Gws hfg' s f yfkfn]
hfgsf/L lbOg . o; cjlwdf efvf
gf3]sf] shf{ xfdLn] Ps k|ltztsf]
xf/fxf/Ldf emf/] s f 5f} + c;f/
d;fGt5;Dd cem} 36fpF5f}+ pgn]
a}ªsn] $$ s/f]8 lgIf]k ;+sng / @^ s/f]8
egLg\ . @# xhf/ % ;o u|fxsnfO{ ;]jf lbb} cfPsf] a}ª\s ?k}ofF shf{ nufgL u/]/ ! s/f]8 !) nfv
zfvfsf] sfo{If]q df]/ª\ lhNnfsf pQ/L If]qsf Ps bh{g jl9 gfkmf cfh{g ug{ ;kmn ePsf] 5 .
uflj; kb{5g\ .
s[lif shf{nfO{ jl9 k|fyldstf lbP/ nufgL ug]{ nIo 5l/tf] ?kdf shf{ ;]jf lbb} cfPsf] zfvfaf6 ;j} sfuhkq
/fv]sf] zfvfn] Aofkfl/s, z}lIfs,;'grfFbL, 3/ shf{sf] ;fy} k'/f u/]/ cfPdf shf{ dfu u/]sf] $ lbg leq} nufgL ug]{
ljkGg ju{df ;d]t nufgL ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . …u|fxsnfO{ l56f] u/]sf 5f+} .Ú k|jGws yfkfn] egLg .

18

h]7 @)&)

k|e' kmfOgfG;sf] $)
cf}+ zfvf lj/f6gu/df
k|e' kmfOgfG; sDkgLn] cfk\mgf] $) cf}+ zfvf lj/f6gu/sf]
/+u]nL/f]8df ;Grfngdf NofPsf] 5 .
k"jf{Grnsf k|fo ;j} zx/df o; cl3 g} cfk\mgf zfvf
lj:tf/ ul/ ;]jf lbb} cfPsf] kmfOgfG;n] k"j{sf] k|d"v zx/df
eg] ev{/} zfvf ;Grfngdf NofPsf] xf] .
sDkgLsf k|dv
" sfo{sf/L clws[t czf]s z]/rgn] a}zfv
clgtd ;ftf cf}krfl/s pb\3f6g u/]kl5 zfvf ;Grfngdf
cfPsf] xf] .
/]ld6]G; e'QmfgL nufot ;j} k|sf/sf a}lª\sª sf/f]af/
ub}{ cfPsf] k|e' kmfOgfG;sf b]ze/L #% zfvf ;lxt $)

:yfgdf sfof{no / !( :yfgdf Pl6Pd ;d]t ;Grfng x'bF }
cfPsf 5g\ . kmfOgfG;sf k"jf{Grnsf] O6x/L, w/fg, /fhlj/fh,
nxfg, ldr}{of,l;/xf, lj/f6gu/ / bdsdf zfvf sfof{no
tyf ky/L / a]njf/Ldf PS;6]G;g sfpG6/ /x]sf 5g\ .

Unf]an cfOPdO{df ;f]l;on
8]enkd]G6 ufleg]
Unf]an cfO{PdO{ a}ªs
\ df ;f]l;on 8]enkd]G6 a}ªs
\ ufleg]
;dembf/L ePsf] 5 . Unf]an cfO{PdO{n] a}+lsª Joj;fo
lj:tf/ u/L sl/a % ca{ k'¥ofpg] p2]Zon] ;f]l;onnfO{ ufEg]
ePsf] xf] .
;d´bf/L kqdf Unf]an cfO{PdO{ a}ª\ssf]tkm{af6 cWoIf
rGb|k;
| fb 9sfn Pj+ ;f]l;on 8]enkd]G6 a}ªssf] tkm{af6
cWoIf s[ i 0fuf] k fn >] i 7n] x:tfIf/ u/] s f 5g\ .
;d´bfl/kq;lxt k|f/lDes :jLs[ltsf nflu g]kfn /fi6« a}ªs
\ df
;+o'St lgj]bg lbPsf] a}ª\sn] hgfPsf] 5 .
;f]l;onn] xfn;Dd ;j{;fwf/0f ;]o/ lgisfzg ;]o/
lgisfzg u/]sf] 5}g . Unf]ann] ;fd"lxs nufgLsf]if ;~rfng
ug]{ tof/L ul//x]sf] xFb' f Joj;fo a9fpg] p2]Zon] ;f]l;onnfO{
ufEg nfu]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .
tTsfnLg Unf]an a+}ª\sdf utjif{ cfO{PdO{ kmfOgflG;on
OGli6Ro";g / n8{a'4 kmfOgfG; sDkgL uflePkl5 xfnsf]
Unf]an cfO{PdO{ a}ª\s ePsf] xf] . a}ª\ssf] xfn r'Stfk"FhL @
ca{ @% s/f]8 @% nfv ?k}ofF 5 .
a}ª\sn] rfn" cfjsf] r}t d;fGt;Dddf #^ s/f]8 !)
nfv ?k}ofF v'bgfkmf cfh{g u/]sf] 5 . ;f]l;onsf] eg] #*
s/f]8 ?k}ofF r'Qmfk"FhL /x]sf] 5 . ;f]l;onsf k|d'v sfo{sf/L
clws[t ;'/]Gb|axfb'/ g'R5] k|wfgn] g]kfn /fi6« a}ª\sdf lgj]bg
lbO;s]sfn] ufEg]÷ufleg] klqmof ;Sbf] l56f] k"/f ug]{ of]hgf
/x]sf] atfP .

tTsfnLg Unf]an a+}ª\sdf utjif{ cfO{PdO{
kmfOgflG;on OGli6Ro";g / n8{a'4 kmfOgfG;
sDkgL uflePkl5 xfnsf] Unf]an cfO{PdO{
a}ª\s ePsf] xf] . a}ª\ssf] xfn r'Stfk"FhL @ ca{
@% s/f]8 @% nfv ?k}ofF 5 .
@)^& c;f]h @& ut]bl] v cf}krfl/s ¿kdf a}l+ sª sf/f]af/
;'? u/]sf] ;f]l;onsf] s]lGb|o sfof{no gf/fo0frf}/ gS;fndf
5 . Unf]an cfOPdO{sf xfn ^$ j6f zfvfx¿sf] ;~hfn
tyf ;f]xL ;+Vofdf P6LPd ;Grfngdf /x]sf5g\ . ;f]l;on
8]enkd]G6 a}ª\ssf] eg] ;'g;/Lsf] w/fg / ;+v'jf;efsf]
r}gk'/df zfvf sfof{no /x]sf 5g\ .

h]7 @)&)

19

‘k"h
“ L a9fP/ dfq
zfvf lj:tf/ u5f}’+{
gjns'df/ /fO{ -cWoIf_
kfyLe/f ljsf; a}ªs lnld6]8, pnf{af/L
a}ªs ;Grfngsf] 5 jif{sf] cg'ejn] xfdLnfO{ l7s}
u/]5f}+ eGg] nfu]sf] 5 . o; cjlw;Ddsf] k|ult Hofb}
/fd|f] 5 . u|fld0f hgtfnfO{ a}ªsLª ;'ljwf lbg kfPsf
5f}+ . xfdL v';L 5f}= . xfd|f s'g} klg zfvf 3f6fdf
5}gg\ . zx/df vf]lnPsf zfvfn] klg Aofkf/df /fd|f]
;xof]u u/]sf5g\ .
vf]6fªsf] jflS;nfdf hlGdPsf gjns'df/ /fO{n] pRr
lzIffsf] cWoog ;s]kl5 nfdf] ;do cfk\mg} lhNnfsf] lzIff
;]jfdf latfP . lzIfs x'Fb} ljBfno lgl/Ifs;Ddsf] sfd u/]/
nfdf] cg'ej lnPkl5 df]/ªsf] a]njf/L a;fOF ;/]sf /fOn]
cjsf;sf] hLjg klg lzIff ;]jfd} nufP . pgL a]njf/Ll:yt
uf] b fj/L ljBfdlGb/ dfljdf ;] o / nufgL u/L xfn ;f]
ljBfnosf k|aGw lgb]{zs /x]sf 5g\ . lzIff;Fu} a}lª\sª\
If]qdf ;d]t nufgL u/]sf /fO{ pnf{jf/Ldf k|wfg sfof{no /x]sf]
kfyLe/f ljsf; a}ªssf ;+:yfks ;d]t x'g\ . b'O jif{eGbf
al9 ;dob]vL kfyLe/f a}ª\ssf] ;Grfns ;ldlt cWoIfsf]
lhDd]jf/L ;+xfNb} cfPsf /fO{;Fu cy{la6n] u/]sf] ;+lIfKt
s'/fsfgL .

;a} a}ªs tyf ljlQo ;+:yfx? zx/ s]lGb|t eO /x]sf]
;dodf s]lGb|o sfof{no g} ufpFdf /fv]/ a}ªs vf]Ng'sf]
p2]Zo s] lyof] <
u|fld0f If]qdf w]/} k"FhL 5l/P/ /x]sf] t/ Tof] kF'hL
;'ljwfsf] cefjn] a}ªs;Dd k'Ug g;s]sf] xfdLn]
a'e\mof}+ . u|fld0f e]usf w]/} jfl;Gbfdf xfd|f] glhs klg
a}ªs e}lbP x'GYof] eGg] efjgf kfPkl5 ufpFdf a:g] tL
hgtfnfO{ a}ªsLª ;'ljwf lbg g} xfdLn] kfyLe/f
a}ª\snfO{ u|fld0f d'vL agfPsf xf}+ . pnf{jf/L gu/f]Gd'v
ufpFdf /x]sf] xfd|f] d'Vo sfof{no ;lxt xfn;Dd
zfvfsf] ;Vof !@ k'us
] f] 5 . !@ dWo] *% k|ltzt
zfvf sfof{nox? ufpFdf 5g\ . ufpFsf hgtfsf] b}lgs
hLjg ofkgdf k|of]u x'g] ;fdfu|L ahf/af6 hfg] x'gfn]
kfyLe/fsf u|fxsnfO{ zx/ cfpFbf hfFbf /sd af]Sg] hf]lvd
gxf]; eg]/ lgMz'Ns PlalaP; ;'ljwf ;lxt lj/f6gu/ /
O6x/Ldf xfdLn] zfvf :yfkgf u/]sf xf}+ . zx/sf zfvf
eg]sf] xfd|f] g]6js{ dfq} x'g\ . xfd|f] d"n p2]Zo xfd|f
u|fxsn] ;lhnf] ul/ ;]jf kfpg ;s'g eGg] g} xf] .
u|fld0f If]qdf a}ªs ;Grfngsf] ^ jif{sf] cg'ej s:tf]
/xof] <
20

h]7 @)&)

a}ªsn] u|fxssf nflu s] s] ;'ljwf lbPsf] 5 <
xfn;Dd a}ª\saf6 cGt/zfvf sf/f]jf/ - PlalaP;_,
PgPdla a}ª\s;Fu ;xsfo{ u/]/ g]kfne/Lsf PgPdaL
a}ª\ssf zfvfx?df /sd hDdf ug]{ / e'QmfgL lng;Sg]
Aoj:yf ldnfOPsf] 5 . P;PdP; a}lªsª\ ;]jf klg
lbOPsf] 5 . h;af6 vftfdf /sd hDdf u/]sf] tyf
lgsfn]sf] hfgsf/L ;DaGwLt u|fxsnfO{ P;PdP;
dfkm{t lbg] ul/Psf] 5 .
a}ªssf yk gof“ of]hgf s] s] 5g\ <
clxn] tTsfn k"FhL a[l4ug]{ / bf];|f] r/0fdf zfvf
lj:tf/ ug]{ of]hgf 5 . k"h
F L a[l4 ug]{ qmddf s'g} cGo
a}ªs;Fu dh{ x'g] jf dh{ x'g g;s] xsk|b ;]o/ hf/L
u/]/ k"FhL a[l4 ug]{ eGg] ljifodf cWoog eO/x]sf] 5 .
dh{sf] ljifodf # cf]6f a}ªs;Fu 5nkmn eO /x]sf] 5
. dh{ x'g] jf gx'g] eGg] lg0f{o s]xL dlxgfkl5 :ki6
x'g5
] . a}ªs
\ n] o;} dlxgfb]vL Pl6Pd sf8{ hf/L ug]{
tof/L u/]sf]5 . pnf{jf/Ll:yt d"Vo sfof{nodf Pl6Pd
d]l;g h8fg ug]{ / cGo :yfgdf cGo a}ªs
\ sf] Pl6Pd
d]l;gaf6} Go"gtd ;]jf z'Nsdf /sd lgsfNg kfpg]
;'ljwf lbb}5f}+ .

O6x/Lsf d"Vo ;d:of
b]xAofkf/, nfu'cf}ifw /
u'08fubL{ x'g\
a}zfv @@ ut]bv
] L Onfsf k|x/L sfof{no O6x/Lsf]
g]tT[ j ;Dxfn]sf l8P;kL ljBfgGb dfemL;Fu O6x/Lsf
ck/fw ;DaGwL ;d:of, r'gf}tL / lgoGq0f of]hgfsf]
ljifodf ul/Psf] s'/fsfgL ;f/ oxf“ k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .
O6x/Lsf d"Vo ;'/Iff ;d:of s] x'g <
O6x/Lsf d"Vo ;d:of eg]sf] b]xAofkf/, nfu' cf}ifw /
u'08fubL{ x'g\ . o;n] O6x/LnfO{ jbgfd u/fPsf] 5 .
lgoGq0f s;/L ub}{ x'g'x'G5 <
oxfFsf /fhgLlts bn, ;Grf/sdL{, ;fdflhs ;+3
;+:yfx?sf] /fo lnP/ ck/fw lgoGq0fsf] sfd yflnPsf]
5 . d}n] cfPs} lbgb]vL z+sf:kb :yfgdf r]shfFr ug],{
;'/fs nufP/ kqmfp ug]{ cleofg z'? u/]sf]5' . o;
cjlwdf w]/} b]xAofkf/,nfu' cf}ifw / u'08fubL{df
;+nUgx?nfO{ kqmfp ul/ d'2f ;d]t rnfpg z'? ul/
;s]sf] 5' . k|To]s a]ns
' f ck/fw jl9 x'g] :yfgdf
lgoldt r]s hfFr / lgu/fgL a9fPsf] 5' . dfk;] u/]/
;jf/L rnfpg], df]6/;fOsndf # hgf r9\gx] ?nfO{
;d]t klqmP/ sfjf{xL u/L /x]sf 5f}+ . b]xJofkf/sf
sf/0f O6x/LnfO{ aflx/sf dflg;n] h;/L x]5{g Tof]
wf/0ffdf kl/jt{g Nofpg] ul/ sfd ug]{ of]hgf d}n]

ljBfgGb dfemL -l8P;kL_,
Onfsf k|x/L sfof{no O6x/L

O6x/L ;lxt k"js{ f 5 cf]6f
Onfsf k|x/Ldf l8P;kL
hg3gTj;Fu} ck/fw a9\g yfn]kl5 k"j{sf O6x/L;lxt
^ cf]6f zx/sf Onfsf k|x/L sfof{nox? k|x/L gfoj pkl/
Ifs -l8P;kL_ sf] g]tT[ jdf ;Grfng x'g yfn]sf5g\ .
k"j{ If]qLo k|x/L sfof{nosf cg';f/ sfs8le6\6f,
ljtf{df]8, bds, nxfg / s6f/Ldf l8P;kL v6fOPsf] 5 .
w/fgdf eg] o; cl3b]vL g} l8P;kLsf] g]t[Tj lyof] .
agfPsf] 5' . oxfFsf /fhgLlts bn, ;Grf/sdL{,
a'l4hLjL ;j}n] of] cleofgdf ;fy lbg] jrg lbg'
ePsf] 5 . ;j}sf] ;fy kfpg] xf] eg] ljs[lt x6fpg
ufx«f] 5}g .
Onfsf k|x/Lsf] g]t[Tj a9\of] hgzlQmrfFxL <
hgzlQm t oyfjt g} 5 . t/ d}n] clxn]sf] eGbf
bf]Aa/ hgzlQm yk ug'{ kg]{ dfu u/]/ k7fO ;s]sf] 5' .
clg ef}lts k"jf{wf/ gL <
hgzlQm ylkPkl5 k"jf{wf/sf] ;d:of x'G5 g} . ;d:of
;dfwfg ug{ /fhgLlts bn, :yfgLo lgsfo;Fu
;/;Nnfx u/]/ tTsfnnfO{ ef8fdf lng] jf s'g}
;+3;+:yfsf] ejg k|of]u ug]{ eGg] ljifodf lg0f{o
ul/g]5 . t/ lb3{sfnsf] nflu eg] ef}lts ;+/rgf yKg}
kg]{ cfjZostf 5 .
O6x/Ldf x'g] b]xJofkf/ nufotdf k|x/L
k|zf;gs} s]xL AolQmx?sf] ;+/If0fsf] s'/f
;fj{hlgs eO ;s]sf] 5,To;nfO{ s;/L
lng' x'G5 <
d}n] ;j} k|x/L sd{rf/LnfO{ ;fd]n u/]/ To:tf unt
lqmofsnfknfO{ ;d{yg gug{ s8f / :ki6 lgb]z
{ g lbO
;s]sf] 5' . s;}n] To;f] u/]sf] yf]/} dfq yfxf eof] eg]
klg s8f sfjf{xLsf] eflubf/ x'g]5 .

h]7 @)&)

21

lbNnL klAns :s'nnfO{

cfOP;cf]

lj/f6gu/l:yt lbNnL klAns :s"nnfO{
ga]s
{ f] g:s{ Ps|l] 86]l/ª ;+:yfn] lzIff
k|0ffnLdf u'0f:t/Lo dfkb08 k'/f u/]sf]
eGb} cGt{/fli6|o| :t/sf] ISO-9001:2008
af6 ;Ddflgt u/]sf] 5 .
;Ddfgn] cGt{/fli6||o :t/sf] lzIff;Fu}
u'0f:t/Lo lzIffsf nflu cema9L lhDd]jf/L
ylkPsf] ljBfnosf k|aGw lgb]z
{ s
c?0fs'df/ /f7Ln] atfP .
laBfnonfO{ gfkmfd'vL eGbf klg
lzIffsf] u'0f:t/;Fu Aoa:yfkgn] s'g}
;d:of cfOkg{ glbO{ ;w} ljBfyL{x?sf] ?lr
/ ljBfnosf] jftfj/0fnfO{ ;'d'w'/ sfod
/fVg ;s]sfn] pQm k|df0fkq k|fKt ug{ ;lsPsf] /f7Lsf]

rt/fdf cfo'jb{]
ljBfkL7 lgdf{0f x'g]

;'g;/Lsf] a/fxIf]ql:yt k|frLg xl/4f/ rt/fwfddf cfo'jb]{
ljBflk7 lgdf{0f x'g] ePsf] 5 .
hutu'? >L /fdfgGbrfo{ ;]jfkL7af6 ;f]xL lk7sf] kl/;/df
lgdf{0f ul/g] a/fxIf]q cfo'jb{] laBfkL7sf] g]kfnsf nflu ef/tLo
/fhb"t hoGtk|;fbn] a}zfv t];f] ;ftf lznfGof; u/]sf x'g\ .
/fhb"t hoGtk|;fbn] g]kfndf kfOg] h8La'6Lsf] k|of]u ug]{
ljBflk7nfO{ ef/tn] ljz]if ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] cfZj;g lbP
.sfo{qmddf cfo'jb{] frfo{ s[i0fbf;hL dxf/fhn] a/fxIf]qnfO{
lbAohfu/0fsf nflu w]/} k|oTgx? yflnPsf] pNn]v ub}{ k|frLgsfndf
clws k|of]udf cfP/ clxn] ljn'Kt cj:yfdf k'us
] f] cfo'jb{] nfO{
hufpg k'gM k|oTg eO{ /x]sf] hfgsf/L lbP .
@)&! ;fnb]vL k|df0fkq txsf] cWoog yfNg] / o;nfO{ lj:tf/
u/]/ ljZj ljBfnosf] ?kdf :yflkt ug]{ nIo /x]sf] pgn] atfP .
s[i0fbf;hLn] ljZjsf lrlsT;sx?n] Uof/]G6L lbP/ lgsf] kfg{ g;s]sf]
SofG;/ /f]unfO{ cfkm'n] Uof/]06Lsf;fy pkrf/ ug]{ bfjL ;d]t
u/]sf lyP . h8La'6Laf6g} dfgj hLjgnfO{ ;xh 9Ën] pkrf/ ug{
;Sg] cfk'm;Fu cr's 1fg /x]sf] / To;nfO{ k|of]u ug{sf nflu
cfjZos bIf hgzlQm pTkfbg ug{ of] cfo'jb{ ] laBfkL7 :yfkgf
ug'{ k/]sf] s[i0fbf;hLn] :ki6 kf/]sf lyP .
k|To]s Aofrdf $) hgf ljBfyL{n] cWoog ug{;Sg] Ifdtfsf]
5fqfjf; ;lxtsf] ljBflk7sf] ejg lgdf{0fsf] nflu % s/f]8
?k}ofF nfUg] cg'dfg /x]sf] lgdf{0f ;ldltsf u0f]z ;'Aaf lj/xLn]
hfgsf/L lbP .
22

h]7 @)&)

egfO 5 . aflif{s n]vfkl/If0f nufot
ljBfnosf] ef}lts ;fdfu|L, z}lIfs ultlalw,]
lzIffaf6 ljBfyL{x?df cfPsf] kl/jt{g g}
pQm k|df0fkq k|fKt ug]{ cfwf/ x'g\ .
laBfnon] x/]s aif{ z}lIfs Sofn]08/
cg';f/g} k9fO{;Fu} cGo cltl/Qm lqmofsnfk
;Grfng ul/ laBfyL{x?nfO{ plrt aftfj/0f
lbb} cfPsf] 5 /f7L eG5g\ .
lbNnL klAns :s"n lj/f6gu/df
dG6]Zj/Lb]lv sIff !@ ;Dd Ps xhf/ # ;o
eGbf a9L ljBfyL{ cWoog/t /x]sf5g\ .
k"jf{~rndf ;Grfng x'bF } cfPsf sl/j !%
xhf/ ljBfnodf pQm k|df0fkq k|fKt ug]{
lbNnL klAns klxnf] ljBfno ePsf] atfOPsf] 5 .

3/]n' t]nnfO{ cfOP;cf]
lj/f6gu/l:yt Zofd Pu|f] k|f]8S6n] pTkfbg ug]{ 3/]n' 5fk tf]/Lsf] t]nn]
cfOP:fcf] k|fKt u/]sf] 5 . pBf]unfO{ ef/tsf] e]l/6f; l;lecfO{ ;l6{lkms];G;
k|flnn] cfOP:fcf] @@)))M@))% sf] k|df0fk|q lbPsf] xf] . ut ;fpg dlxgfb]lv
3/]n' 5fk tf]/Lsf] t]n pTkfbg / laqmL ljt/0f ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . l;lecfO{n] Zofd
Pu|fn
] fO{ lbPsf] k|df0f–kqdf pBf]usf] Joj:yfkg / pTkfbg k|lqmof ;d]t pTs[i6
/x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . k|df0fk|qdf l;lecfO{sf lgb]z
{ s OlGhlgo/ hg Uof:k/n] x:tfIf/
u/]sf 5g\ .
cfO{P;cf]sf] k|df0fk|qn] tf]/Lsf] u'0f:t/Lo t]n pTkfbg ug{ cem pT;fx /
ldn]sf] Zofd Pu|f]sf ;~rfns >j0f cu|jfnn] atfP . cu|jfnn] eg], u'0f:t/xLg
t]nn] dfgj :jf:Yodf uDeL/ c;/ u5{ eGg] ljifonfO{ a'em]/ g} xfdLn] z'4 /
:t/Lo t]n pTkfbg u/]sf xf}+ .

ahf/ lj:tf/ ub}{ :sfO z'h
:sfO z'h k|flnn] cfk\mgf pTkfbgx?sf] ahf/ lj:tf/ ug]{
qmddf k"jf{Grn If]qdf l8n/ lgo"lQmnfO{ lta|tf lbPsf] 5 .
o;} qmddf k"jf{Grnsf] nflu If]qLo ljlqml8kf]] O6x/Lsf]
lj/f6gu/ nfOgl:yt ;kgf dfs]{6df :yfkgf u/]sf] 5 .
a}zfv #) ut] pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3 O6x/Lsf jfl0fHo
pkfWoIf pd]z kf}8n
] / kqsf/ dxf;+3 ;'g;/Lsf ;lrj
cd/ v8\sfn] pb\3f6g u/]kl5 :sfO z'hn] cf}krfl/s sf/f]jf/
z'? u/]sf] xf] . ljut & jif{b]vL sf7df8f}sf] snª\sLdf
sf/vfgf :yfkgf ul/ u'0f:t/Lo 5fnf h'Qf / rKkn pTkfbg
/ ljlqm ljt/0f ub}{ cfPsf] sDkgLn] b]ze/L g} h'Qf rKkn ljlqm
ljt/0f ub}{ cfPsf] sfo{sf/L cWoIf dgf]h >]i7n] atfP .
sfo{sf/L cWoIf >]i7n] sDkgLn] cfk\mgf] pTkfbg Ifdtf
a9fpFb} jhf/ lj:tf/df ug{] qmddf O6x/Ldf ljlqm l8kf]
vf]n]sf] / ljlqm l8kf]n] k"jf{Grn e/Lsf l8n/nfO{ dfu
cg';f/sf] ;fdfg pknAw u/fg] p2]Zo /x]sf] hfgsf/L lbP .
xfn O6x/L, w/fg / bdsdf dfq l8n/ /fv]sf] sDkgLn] Ps
dlxgfleq k"jf{Grnsf ;j} zx/df l8n/ lgo"lQm ul/ ;Sg]
nIo /fv]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
;j} pd]/ ;d"xsf nflu u'0f:tl/o 5fnf h'Qf / rKkn
pTkfbg ub}{ cfPsf] :sfO z'hn] h'Qfsf u|fxsnfO{ ^ dlxgfsf]
jf/]lG6 ;d]t lbb} cfPsf] sDkgLsf lgb]z
{ s czf]s >]i7n]
atfP . jflif{s &) xhf/ eGbf jl9 hf]/ h'Qf rKkn pTkfbg
ub}{ cfPsf] pBf]un] cfk\mgf] pTkfbgnfO{ bf]Aa/ agfpg] nIon]
ahf/ lj:tf/ ug{ yfn]sf] czf]sn] hfgsf/L lbP .

h]7 @)&)

23

rGbf cftª\s / c;'/Iff
pBf]u–Jofkf/ If]qsf r'gf}tL x'g\
;/f]h >]i7 -cWoIf_, ;'g;/L pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3, w/fg
;'g;/L pjf;+3sf] cWoIfdf lgjf{lrt x'g' ePkl5 gof s] s]
sfo{qmd Nofpb} x'g' x'G5 <
/fhgLlts cl:y/tfaf6 pBf]u Aofkf/ If]q hh{/ eO
/x]sf] cj:yfdf 5ftf ;+u7gsf] x}l;otn] Joj;flos ;d:of
;dfwfg ug]{ g} xfd|f] d"n Ph]08f xf] . nf]8 ;]l8ª\sf]
ljs/fntf, aGb x8tfn,/fhgLlts bnsf eft[ ;+u7g
nufot ljleGg ;d"xsf] rGbf cftª\sn] hh{/ eO /x]sf]
cj:yfdf pBf]u Jofkf/ If]qnfO{ cem hh{/tfaf6 s;/L
hf]ufpg] egg] xfd|f] lrGtfsf] ljifo xf] .

. To;}n] pxfFx?n] rfx]/ klg k|efjsf/L x'g ;s]sf] 5}g .
k|zf;gsf] sfdnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg Onfsf k|x/L sfof{no
/ j8f k|x/L sfof{nodf sDtLdf @ ÷@ ;jf/L ;fwgsf]
Aoj:yf ug'{k5{ eg]/ u[x dGqfno;Fu dfu u/]sf 5f}+ .
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/kflnsf / pjf;+3sf] ;+o'Qm
nufgLdf l;l; Sofd]/f h8fg ug]{ sfd z'? ePsf] 5 .
l;;L Sofd]/f h8fg u/]sf 7fpFdf ^) k|ltzt ck/fw
:jtM 36]sf] cGo ljleGg zx/sf] cg'ejn] xfdLnfO{ o;tkm{
Wofgfsif{0f ePsf] xf] . If]qLo k|zf;s / cGrn k|x/L
k|d'v;Fu 5nkmn / ;Nnfx u/]/ pxfFx?sf] kxn /
cu|;/tfdf lglh If]qs} nufgLdf l;;L Sofd]/fsf] sfd
z'? ePsf] xf] .

tL ;d:of t /fli6«o ;d:o} x'g gL <
tL ;d:ofsf cltl/St :yfgLo ;d:of klg 5g\ . :yfgLo
?kdf cd"s AolQm / ;d"xn] l;l; Sofd]/fn] rf]/L rsf/L t 36fpnf rGbf cftª\s gL <
rGbf dfu ug] { glbP
rGbf hj/h:tLsf] geO{ :j]R5fdf x'gk' 5{ eGg] xfd|f] egfO
wDsfpg] ;d:of klg
xf] . rGbf lbg} kg]{ cj:yf ePdf PsfpG6 k]oL r]s
5g\ . To:t} w/fgsf
dfkm{t lbg] Joj:yf eP hf] kfof] Tolx JolQmn] kf6L{ /
d" V o
cfly{ s
;+u7gsf] gfd lnP/ cgflws[t rGbf dfu]/ b'?kof]u ug]{
ultljlw ePsf /
k|jl[ t 36\5 . clxn] cgflws[t JolQmn] al9 rGbf dfUg]
x'g] If]qdf ck/fw
k|j[lt a9]sf] eGg] xfd|f] a'emfO 5 . To;}n] ;a} pBf]uL
jl9 /x]sf 5g\ .
Aoj;foLnfO{ rGbf lbFbf P;Lk]oL r]saf6dfq lbg xfdLn]
cfu|x u/]sf 5f}+ . To;f] ubf{ cflwsfl/s dfG5]dfq rGbf
;d:of ;dfwfg ug{
lng cfpF5g\ / rGbf dfUg] qmd klg] sd x'G5 eGg] xfd|f]
s;/L xf]nfg t 5 <
ljZjf; 5 . ;'g;/L pjf;+3 w/fgn] @ jif{ cl3b]vL g}
xfdLn] k| z f;g;F u
rGbf / cfly{s ;xfotf /sd P;Lk]oL r]s dfkm{t lbg
;xof]u dfuL /x]sf 5f}+
yfn]sf] 5 .
.
t/ k|x/L k|zf;gn] klg w/fgsf cGo ;d:of s] s] b]Vg' ePsf] 5 <
Go"g ;fwg ;|ft] af6 sfd
w/fgsf] d"n ;d:of eg]sf] vfg]kfgLsf] ;d:of xf] .
ug'k{ g]{ cj:yf 5
vfg]kfgL ;d:ofn] oxfFaf6 w]/} pBf]uL Joj;foLx? lj:yflkt
ePsf 5g\ eg] cem}+ lj:yflkt x'g] qmd5 . vfg]kfgLsf]
:yfoL ;|ft] Joj:yfkg ug'{ k5{ eg]/ ;'g;/L pjf;+3n]
s]xL jif{cl3 vfg]kfgL ;xof]ufy{ dxf]T;j ;d]t ;Grfng
ul/ !) nfv ?k}ofF ;+sng u/]/ l;8 dgL tof/ ul/
/fv]sf] 5 . t/ kl5Nnf] k6s pjf;+3 / gu/kflnsfsf]
kxndf Pl;ofnL ljsf; a}ªssf] sl/j 8]9 ca{ ?k}ofF
nufgLdf vfg]kfgLsf] lb3{sflng of]hgf lgdf{0f ug]{
k|lqmof z'? ePsf] 5 . of] of]hgf ;Grfngdf
cfpFbf w/fgdf %) jif{;Ddsf] nflu vfg]kfgL
;d:of x6\g] ljZjf; 5 .
w/fgsf ;+efjgf rfxL+ s] s] 5g <
24

h]7 @)&)

d'6/' f]usf d"n sf/0f

w'dk| fg / 3fF6Lsf] v/faL
w'dk| fg / dWokfgsf] ;]jg ug]{ tyf 3fF6Lsf] ;d:of
ePsf dflg;nfO{ d'6/' f]usf] ;+efjgf jl9 x'g] jl/i7 d'6/' f]u
ljz]if1 8f= eujfg sf]O/fnfn] atfPsf5g\ .
8f=sf] O /fnfn] xfn;Ddsf] cWoog / cg' e jn]
w'dk| fg,dWokfg gug]d{ f eGbf ug]d{ f jl9 dfqfdf d'6s
' f] ;d:of
kfOPsf] atfP .
8f=sf]O/fnfn] ue{jtL dlxnfn] lrlsT;ssf] ;Nnfx ljgf
cf}ifwL ;]jg u/]df ue{sf] aRrfdf hGdhft d'6'sf] ;d:of
x'g ;Sg] ;d]t hfgsf/L lbP . cS;/ jfn aRrfx?df af/Djf/
?3f vf]sL nfu]/ 3fF6L b'Vg] ;d:of eO /x\of] eg] klg To:tf
aRrfx?df d'6'sf] ;d:of cfpg] ePsfn] nfdf] ;do 3fF6L
b'Vg] ;d:of ePdf lrlsT;saf6 k/fdz{ lnP/ tTsfn pkrf/
u/]df /f]uaf6 hf]lug / hf]ufpg ;lsg] pgsf] ;'emfj 5 .
df]6f]kg,dw'dx] , pRr /Qmrfksf] sf/0faf6 klg d'6/' f]u
nfUg] ;+efjgf ePsfn] zl//df af];f]sf] dfqf sd ug{ b}lgs
lgoldt ?kdf Aofofd jf kl;gf cfpGh]n k}bn lx8\g] afFgL
w/fg lzIff / :jf:Yosf] b[li6n] k"jf{Grnsf] s]Gb| xf] .
To;kl5 ko{6gsf] klg s]Gb| xf] . pkTosf kl5 ;j} eGbf
jl9 wfld{s ko{6g If]q w/fgd} k5{g . k|fs[lts ko{6gsf]
b[li6n] klg w/fg cu|0fL 5 . w/fgnfO{ s]Gb| agfP/ blIf0fdf
sf]zL6Kk' b]vL pQ/df e]8]6f/, lxn] tyf ldNs],ltgh'/],
hnhn];Dd hfg ;lsG5 . k"j{sf] ko{6gsf] s]Gb| ePsfn]
oxfF xf]6n Aoj;fosf] /fd|f] ;+efjgf 5 . To;}n] wfld{s
tyf k|fs[lts ko{6lso If]qsf] k"jf{wf/ ljsf;df klg
pjf;+3n] ;DjGwLt lgsfo;Fu lg/Gt/ kxn ug]5
{ . ;fy}
k|j4{gdf cfFkm' klg nfUg] 5 . To:t} k"jd{ f Kof/fUnfOl8ª\sf]
Psdfq ;+efljt :yn w/fg g} xf] ;fy} hnofqfdf hfg]x?sf
nflu klg w/fg s]Gb| aGg ;S5 oL ljifon] w/fgsf]
cfly{s ultljlwnfO{ a9fpg] ePsfn] oL ;+efjgfsf] k|j4{g
klg pjf;+3n] ug]{ 5 .
ko{6gsf] d"n cfwf/ xjfO oftfoftsf] s'/f sxf k'Uof] <
w/fgdf Po/kf]6{ aGg' k5{ eGg] ljifodf pjf;+3n] aiff}b+{ v
] L
cfjfh p7fpFb} cfPsf] xf] . gu/kflnsfsf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf]
hUufdf Po/kf]6{ lgdf{0fsf] ;+efJotf cWoog ePsf] 5 . t/
gful/s p8\8og k|flws/0fn] Po/kf]6{ aGg] hUuf k|flws/0fs}
:jfldTjdf x'gk' g]{ eg]sfn] tTsfnnfO{ ;d:of ePsf] xf] .
gkfsf] gfdsf] hUuf hgk|ltlglw gePsf] cj:yfdf sd{rf/L
:t/af6 lg0f{o u/]/ k|flws/0fsf] gfddf gfd;f/L ug{ sl7g
ePsf] 5 . w/fgdf Po/kf]6{ x'g] xf] eg] jiff{ jf lxpFbdf df};d
v/fj eP/ hxfh cjt/0f ug{ g;Sg] ;d:of klg x'bF g}
lsgsL oxfF hlxn] klg df};d ;kmf x'G5 .
k|:t'tL M PnkL k/fh'nL

j;fpg ;'emfj lbb} 8f= sf]O/fnfn] /f]u nfu]/ pkrf/ ug'e
{ Gbf
/f]u nfUg} glbg] tkm{ ;r]t x'g' kg{] ;'emfj lbP . …d'6s
' f]
;d:of h'g pd]/ ;d"xnfO{ klg x'G5 To;dWo]klg pd]/ a9\b}
hfFbf hf]lvd klg jl9 x'g] ePsfn] Wofg lbg' cfjZos 5 j9\bf]
k|bi' f0f / vfgkfgsf sf/0f ufpFdf a:g] eGbf zx/df a:g]
d'6/' f]usf] al9 hf]lvddf x'G5g\ 8f= sf]O/fnfn] eg] .

k|sfzk'/df kf]nL SnLlgs

;'g;/Lsf] u|fld0f ahf/ k|sfzk'/df l/df kf]nL SnLlgs
;Grfngdf cfPsf] 5 .
@$ 306] Od/h]G;L ;]jf ;lxt % z}ofsf] ;'ljwf /x]sf]
kf]nL SnLlgs g]kfnsf k|yd hutu'? jfn;Gt df]xg z/0f
b]jfrfo{n] pb\3f6g u/]kl5 ;Grfngdf cfPsf] xf] .
:yfgLo /ljg l3dL/], tf]ofgfy 9sfn tyf :jf:Yo
k|fljlwsx? pd]z ;fx / dfwj ;fxsf] ;+oQ
' m nufgLdf :yfkgf
ePsf] SnLlgsdf PS;–/], lel8of] PS;–/], k|of]uzfnf tyf
clS;hg g]jf]nfOh/ ;'ljwf ;d]t /x]sf] c:ktfnsf ;Grfns
/ljg l3dL/]n] hfgsf/L lbP . pgsf cg';f/ SnLlgsn] ;'/lIft
k|;'lt ;]jfsf] ;fy} ;fKtflxs ?kdf jfn /f]u / Go"/f] ;h{/L
;DaGwL ljz]if1 ;]jf ;d]t lbb} cfPsf] 5 .

h]7 @)&)

25

26

h]7 @)&)

snf÷dgf]/~hg
n k|]d

af:tf]nf

;ft hgfnfO{ lx/f] agfp“b}

Ps JolQmsf 6 ?k M w'd;
{'
Pp6} snfsf/sf] clego xf]] eGg] kQf] kfpg d'l:sn k5{ .
…w'd;
{' sf] e"ldsfn] l;/Lon df]gf]6f]gf]; eof] eg]/ c?
e"ldsfnfO{ al9 k|fyldstf lbPsf] x',F cxLn] ;j} e'ldsfnfO{
bz{sn]
?rfOlbg' ePsf] 5Ú ;Ltf/fd
eG5g\,…To;df klg cxLn] v8\sfhL /
d':sfg kf;f sf] e'ldsfsf] ;j}af6 k|z;+ f
kfO/x]sf] 5' .Ú kxLn] w'd;
{' sf] gfdaf6
lrgLg] ;Ltf/fd cxLn] v8\sf hL /
d':sfg kf;fsf] ?kdf a9L nf]slk|otf
r'ld/x]sf 5g\ .
olta]nf pgn] lgjf{x u/]sf
e'ldsf Pskl5 csf]{ nf]slk|o aGb}
uPkl5 bz{sdfem dfq} x}g gofF
k'/fgf snfsf/ dfem klg pgn]
jfxL jfxL a6'ln/x]sf 5g\ . s]xL
;do klxn] pgn] xl/j+ z
cfrfo{n] ljleGg & l;/Londf
clego u/]sf & e'ldsfnfO{ Ps}
rf]6L d]/L jf:;}df gSsn u/L
k|:t't ePsf lyP . pgn]
xl/j+zn] clego u/]sf] l6s]sf]
# dGqsf] l6s], nfnk'hf{sf]
tnl;+x, sflGtk'/sf] j8fWoIf,
/ftsf] nfx' / ] , lr/GhLjLsf]
lr/GhLjL, agkfn]sf] ;fw'/fd
;'sD' af;L, dbgaxfb'/ xl/axfb'/sf]
xl/axfb'/sf] e'ldsfnfO{ d]/Ljf:;}df
ptf/] s f lyP . gofF k' : tfsf
xf:osnfsf/ ;Ltf/fd s§] n n]
d]/Ljf:;}df u/]sf ljleGg rl/qaf6
pgnfO{ cxLn] bf];f| ] xl/j+z eGg
yflnPsf] 5 . ;f]nv
' D' a'sf] g]rf a]t3f/L
% df hGd]sf ;Ltf/fd ljut * jif{
b]lv xf:o snfsfl/tfsf] If]qdf 5g\ .
snfsd{af6 s]xL ug]{ c7f]6sf ;fy
/fhwfgL k;]sf pgL 5f]6f] cjlwd}
rNtLsf xf:o snfsf/df ulgPsf
x'g\ .
xfF:osnfsf/ s]bf/ l3dL/]
…dfUg] a ' 9 f] Ú ;F u hf] 8 Lsf] ?kdf
snfsd{df cfPsf pgL cxLn] eg]

cfkm\g} >LdtL s'Ghgf l3dL/];uF :6]hdf k|:t't x'G5g\ . s]bf/;Fu
eg] pgsf] hf]8L ;DaGw 6'6L;s]sf] 5 . kl5Nnf] ;dodf
:jb]z / ljb]zsf sfo{qmddf ;j}eGbf al9 dfu ePsf xf:o
snfsf/df k5{g ;Ltf/fd . clxn];Dd !% cf]6f b]zdf
sfo{sd| b]vfO ;s]sf] pgL atfpF5g\ .
d]/Ljf:;} afx]s lj1fkg agfpg]
clego ug]{ b]lv :6]hsf sfo{qmdn]
;d]t pgnfO{ EofO gEofO 5 .
;:tf]
nf] s lk| o tf
/
dgf]/~hgsfnflu dfq xfF:oJoUo+ ug{
gx'g] pgn] ts{ 5 . …k'jL{If]qsf]
;xof]u k|fKt eP oxfFsf P]ltxfl;s,
wfld{s tyf ko{6lso :ynx?df
d]/Laf:;}nfO{ 5fof+sg ug{] of]hgf
5Ú b'O;ftf cl3 O6x/L cfpFbf
pgn] eg] .
cfkm' , dgf] h uh' / ] n /
ljN;glas|d /fO{ k'js
{ } gfd
rn]sf xfF:osnfsf/ ePsf]
pgn] hfgsf/L lbP . cem} klg
cj;/ gkfP/ cfkm\gf] snf
n'sfP/ v'DrgafWo w]/} k|ltef
k'jd
{ f /x]sfn] d]/Laf:;}dfkm{t
k'ja{ f6 8jn x\of6Ls dfg{] of]hgf
/x]sf] pgn] ;'gfP . To;sf nflu
k'jd{ f 5fofª\sg z'? ugf{;fy k"js
{ }
k|ltefnfO{ d]/Laf:;}df ;xefuL
u/fpg] pgn] atfP . pgn]
xfF:osnfsf/Ltf;Fu} ;dflhs sfd
/ s[lif k]zfnfO{ klg pgn] cuf8L
a9fO{ /x]sf 5g\ .

xf“:osnfsf/ s]bf/ l3dL/]
‘dfUg]a9' f]’;“u hf]8Lsf] ?kdf
snfsd{df cfPsf pgL clxn]
eg] cfkm\g} >LdtL s'Ghgf
l3dL/];“u :6]hdf k|:t't x'G5g\
. s]bf/;“u eg] pgsf] hf]8L
;DaGw 6'6L;s]sf] 5 .

h]7 @)&)

27

j}bl] zs /f]huf/L

ljb]zdf g]kfnL gf/Lsf] ljhf]u
n l6sf/fd

g]lt

ljb]zL e"dLdf sfdbf/sf] ?kdf uPsf g]kfnL
o'jtLx? ljb]zL gfu/Lsx?Aff6 zf]lift, lkl8t
ePkl5 g]kfnLsf] z/0f dfUg' :jefljs xf] . t/
z/0f lbg] gfddf ToxfF pgLx? g]kfnLaf6 ;d]t
bf]xf]/f] zf]if0fdf kg]{ u/]sf 5g\ .
lkl8t g]kfnL dlxnfnfO{ p4f/ ug]{ axfgfdf
:yfgLo sfdbf/sf ?kdf /x]sf g]kfnLx?n]g} yk
zf]if0f ug]{ u/]sf 5g\ . b'jOdf cnkq k/]sf / b'tfjf;sf] z/0fdf
k'us
] f g]kfnL o'jtLdWo] cfwfeGbf w]/} lkl8tx? g]kfnL o'jfx?af6}
bf]xf]/f] zf]if0fdf kg]{ u/]sf] kfOPsf] xf] . b'jOl:yt g]kfnL b'tfjf;sf
cg';f/ @)^( sflt{sb]lv kmfu'g bf];f| ] ;ftf;Dddf b'tfjf;n] !
;o %! dlxnfsf] p4f/ u/]sf] 5 . p4f/ ul/PsfdWo] w]/} dlxnf
g]kfnL o'jfx?sf] ;+Dks{df k'Ug] / pgLx?sf] pS;fx6df nfu]/
sfd u/L/x]sf] 7fpF 5f8]/ lx8\g] / ce/ k/]kl5 b'tfjf;sf] z/0fdf
cfpg] u/]sf] b'tfjf;sf pklgof]u k|dv
' lbks clwsf/L jtfpF5g\ .
g]kfnL bnfn Ph]G6 / d]gkfj/jf6} 7uLb} / n'l6b} jNn
aNn oxfF cfOk[us
] f o'jtLx? km]l/ oxfF klg g]kfnL bfh'efOaf6}
n'l6G5g pkk|d[v clwsf/L eG5g\ sfdub}{ u/]sf] 7fpFaf6
PSsf;L x/fPsf tL o'jtLx? nfdf] ;do;Dd ;dks{ ljlxg
x'g] u/]sf 5g\ . g]kfnL sfdbf/n] csf]{ 7fpFdf /fd|f] sfd
nfufO lbg] / ;u}a:g] cfZjf;g lbPkl5 ;Dks{ ljlxg x'g]
o'jtLx? tL o'jfaf6 klg zf]lift ePkl5 dfq b'tfjf;df
cfpg] u/]sf 5g\ .
cj'wfjLdf 6]lS; 8fOe/sf] sfd u/L/x]sf b'Ohgf g]kfnLn]
o:t} cfZjf;g lbP/ gjnk/f;L / pbok'/ 3/ eO b'jOdf
3/]n' sfd ul/ /x]sf b'O o'jtLnfO{ eufP/ cnkq agfPkl5
b'j} 6\ofS;L rfnssf] vf]hL eO /x]sf] b'tfjf;n] hgfPsf] 5
. tL b'j} o'jtLnfO{ eg] ue{jtL cj:yfdf g]kfn kmsf{OPsf] 5
. bnfn dfkm{t cj}w tj/n] b'jO l5/]sf g]kfnL o'jtLx?
:yfgLo c/jLs / Ol08ogsf] 3/df sfdbf/sf] ?kdf sfd
ug]{ u/]sf 5g\ . t/ oxfF xfp; d]8sf] ?kdf sfdug{ k"j{
:jLs[lt lng'k[ j" g{ } % xhf/ l/on w/f}l6 /fVg' kg]{ sfg"gL
k|fjfwfg 5 . t/ ljleGg sDkgLsf] gSsnL le;f agfP/ o'PO
l5/]sf o'jtLx? dWo] clwsf+;n] 3/]n' lx+;f Joxf]g'{ k/]sf]
/fhb"t wgGho emfn] atfP . ;fdfGo ;d:ofdf klg g]kfnL
o'jfx?sf] pS;fx6df nfu]/ sfd u/L/x]sf] 7fpF 5f]8\5g\ /
clg emg 7"nf] ajf{bLdf k5{g b'tfjf; ;|f]t eG5 .
b'tfjf;df g]kfnL o'jtLx? lkl8t ePsf] ph'/L lbgfg'
lbg j8\bf] 5 . xfn em08} Ps dlxgf cl3b]lv ^ hgf o'jtLx?
cfFkm"x? 7uLPsf] / ljleGg oftgf kfPsf] eGb} z/0f lnP/
jl;/x]sf 5g\ . h;dWo] $ hgf kl5Nnf] k6s g]kfnL o'jfaf6g}
ljnvjGwdf k/]sf x'g .
cfk\mg}af6 ;d]t zf]lift
g'jfsf]6 ljb'/ gu/kflnsf ( sL 88\uf]n y/sL o'jtLnfO{
28

h]7 @)&)

pgs} legfh' nIdLk|;fb rf}xfgn] km;fPsf] pgn] jtfOg\ .
pbok'/ afF;af]6]sL /fOy/sL o'jtLn] pgs} dfdfsf 5f]/f
jns'df/ /fOn] sfd u/L/x]sf] 3/af6 af]nfP/ k|x/Ldf kqmfPsf]
u'gf;f] u/]sL5g\ . b'tfjf;d} z/0f lnO/x]sL kf]v/f au/–(
sL kl/of/ / ?kGb]lx b]jbx enjO –( sL v8|s
\ f y/sL o'jtL
klg sfd ug{ ufx«f] ePsf] eGb} ;f/hxfaf6 efu]/ Ps dlxgfb]vL
b'tfjf;sf] z/0fdf 5g\ . emfkf wfOhgsL /fhj+zL y/sL
o'jtL klg g]kfnL o'jfsf] zf]if0fs} sf/0f g]kfn kmls{g b'tfjf;df
%) lbgb]lv a;]sL l5g\ . sl/j b'Onfv g]kfnL sfdbf/ /x]sf]
b'jOdf @) xhf/ g]kfnL dlxnf 3/]n' sfdbf/sf] ?kdf sfo{/t
/x]sf 5g\ . tL dWo] % xhf/ dlxnf cj}w ?kdf sfddf 5g\ eg]
! ;o %) hgf o'jtL kf;kf]6{ / leifflag} ljleGg /]i6'/fF / 8fG;
jf/df sfd u/L/x]sf] b"tfjf; ;|ft] n] hgfPsf] 5 .
cj}w / ;]l68\ ldnfP/ g]kfnaf6} ljleGg leiffdf b'jO
l5/]sf g]kfnL o'jtLx? cf]dgsf] jf]8{/df /fVg] / ljb];Ln]
5fgL 5fgL cf]dg tyf cGo d'n's nfg] u/]sf] ;d]t ;|f]tn]
bfjL u/]sf]5 . ;|f]t eG5 o'jtLsf] ?k pd]/ x]/]/ bnfn;fu
jflu{lg8\ u5{g / rfx]sf] d'n's nfg] u5{g . t/ b'tfjf;;Fu
To;sf] cfwf/ k|df0f gePsf sf/0f sfjf{xL ug{ g;sLPsf]
b'tfjf;sf sd{rf/Lsf] egfO 5 .
b'tfjf;nfO{ o'jtL 3f“8f]
cj}w tj/n] b'jO k|j]z u/]sf g]kfnL o'jtLx? z/0f
dfUb} b' t fjf; k' U g] qmd j9] k l5 b' t fjf;nfO{ o;sf]
Joj:yfkg / g]kfn lkmtf{ u/fpg 3fF8f] ePsf] 5 . pk
lgof]u k|d[v clwsf/Lsf cg[;f/ slDtdf ! hgf nfO{
g]kfn kmsf{pg % ;o lb/fd vr{ x'G5 . b[tfjf;df z/0f
lng cfPsfx? dWo] s]lxnfO{ k|s[of ldnfpg / kmsf{pg
!) dlxgf;Dd nfUg] u/]sf] 5 .

sf]l/ofdf kfl/>lds a9\of]
blIf0f sf]l/ofdf OlkP;dfkm{t hfg]] cfk|jf;L sfdbf/sf]
Go"gtd kfl/>lds j[l4 ePsf] 5 .
sf]l/og >d tyf /f]huf/ dGqfnon] @)!# hgj/Lb]lv
l8;]Da/;Dd nfu" x'g] ul/ Go"gtd kfl/>ldsdf ^ bzdnj !
k|ltztn] j[l4 u/]sf] xf] .
gofF kfl/>lds cg';f/ ;ftfdf $) 3G6f sfdug]{ @)
hgfeGbf a9L sfdbf/ ePsf] sDkgLn] dfl;s ( nfv %&
xhf/ jgaf6 a9fP/ !) nfv !% xhf/ & ;o $) jg /
;ftfdf $$ 3G6f sfdug]{ @) hgfeGbf sd sfdbf/ ePsf]
sDkgLn] !) nfv (* xhf/ # ;o ^) jg lbg'kg]5
{ .
h;cGtu{t cltl/St ;do sfd u/]sf] ! 3G6fsf] & xhf/ @
;o () jg, /fltsf] @ xhf/ $ ;o #) jg yk / b}lgs #*
xhf/ * ;o *) jg k'u]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .
sf]l/og !;o jg a/fa/ g]kfnL & ?k}ofF *$ k};f - @)
j}zfv @)&) sf] ljlgdob/ cg';f/_ x'G5 .

k}tfln; Dofgkfj/nfO{ sfjf{xL
sfdsf] nflu ljb]z hfg vf]Hg] g]kfnL sfdbf/nfO{ 7uL
u/]sf] cf/f]kdf j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefun] Ps jif{sf] cjlwdf
$% cf]6f Dofgkfj/ sDkgLnfO{ sfjf{xL u/]sf] 5 .
ljefun] kl5Nnf] k6s * cf]6f sDkgLnfO{ !! nfv ?k}ofF
hl/jfgf / sfjf{xL;Fu} ut jif{sf] h]7b]vL a}zfv klxnf] ;ftf;Dd
$% Dofgkfj/nfO{ sfjf{xL u/]sf] xf] . Dofgkfj/nfO{ g]kfnL
sfdbf/;Fu a9L /sd c;'n]sf], :jb]z tyf ljb]zdf cnkq
kf/]sf], s/f/adf]lhd ;]jf ;'ljwf glbPsf] tyf gSsnL
;D´f}tfkqdf k7fpg] u/]sf] cfwf/df sf/afxL ul/Psf] ljefun]
hgfPsf] 5 .
sfjf{xLdf k/]sf] o'y Dofgkfj/ sDkgLnfO{ s/f/adf]lhd
sfdbf/nfO{ ;]jf ;'ljwf glbPsf] eGb} ! nfv ?k}ofF hl/jfgf
ul/ dfgj a]rlavg d'2f ;d]t bfo/ ul/Psf] 5 . ljefudf
ePsf] ;xdlt adf]lhd sfdbf/nfO{ ;dodf /sd lkmtf{
glbPkl5 Go' An':6f/ cf]e/l;hnfO{ klg ! nfv ?k}ofF hl/jfgf
u/]sf] 5 .
ljefusf dxflgb]{zs ljgf]b s];Ln] sfg'gljk/Lt sfd
ug]{ Dofgkfj/ Ph]G;LnfO{ hl/jfgf;lxt sf/afxL ul/Fb} cfPsf]
atfP . hyfefjL le;f z'Ns tf]Sg] / …Ps k|ltil7t sDkgLdf
sfdbf/sf] dfuÚ egL cd"s lj1fkg ug]{ Dofgkfj/ Ph]G;LnfO{
;d]t :kli6s/0f ;f]lwPsf] pgn] atfP . h'g Dofgkfj/

Dofgkfj/ Ph]G;Ln] sfdbf/;Fu c;'n u/]sf] a9L /sd
lkmtf{ u/] k'UYof] . clxn];Dd sl/a $% Dofgkfj/ Ph]G;L
sf/afxLdf kl/;s]sf 5g\ .
Ph]G;Ln] sfdbf/nfO{ b'Mv lbG5, 7uL u5{, p;nfO{ sfg'gn]
tf]s]adf]lhd sf/afxL ul/Fb} cfPsf] pgn] atfP .
ljefusf cg';f/ sf/afxLdf k/]sf Dofgkfj/ Ph]G;Ldf
a9L /sd c;'Ng]nfO{ ! nfv ?k}ofF / cgflws[t zfvf sfof{no
vf]Ng]nfO{ @ nfv ?k}ofF hl/jfgf ul/Psf] 5 . cgflws[t
zfvf sfof{no vf]Ng] pkxf/ x\o'dg l/;f];{, h'lk6/ sG;g{ /
cf]zf] l/s'l6ª cf]e/l;hnfO{ klg ljefun] @–@ nfv ?k}ofF
hl/jfgf u/]sf] 5 .
To:t}, j]e cf]e/l;hn] vf8L d'n'sdf hfg] sfdbf/af6
sl/a kfFr u'0ff a9L /sd c;'n u/]sf] eGb} ljefun] c;'n
ul/Psf] /sd lkmtf{ ug{ nufO{ ! nfv ?k}ofF gub hl/jfgf
u/]sf] 5 . j]en] k|ltsfdbf/ # nfv #% xhf/ ?k}ofF lnPsf]
lyof] .
ljefun] ut h]7b]lv unt sfd ug]{ Dofgkfj/ Ph]G;LnfO{
sf/afxL ug{ yfn]sf] xf] . To;cl3, Dofgkfj/ Ph]G;Ln]
sfdbf/;Fu c;'n u/]sf] a9L /sd lkmtf{ u/] k'UYof] . clxn];Dd
sl/a $% Dofgkfj/ Ph]G;L sf/afxLdf kl/;s]sf 5g\ .

h]7 @)&)

29

;"rgf k|ljlw

j]a;fO6
lsg /
s;/L <
;xsf/L tyf lalQo ;+:yfsf] j]a;fO{6 lsg
!= cfkm\gf] ;+:yfsf] ;]jf ;'lawfnfO{ b]z tyf ljb];;Dd
klxrfg ug{ ;lsg] .
@=j]a;fO{6af6 cgnfO{gdf sf/f]af/ ug{ ;lsg],vl/b jf
lals| ug{ ;lsg],cfkm\gf] k|f]8S; / ;]jfx?nfO{ cgnfO{g
dfkm{t ;+;f/sf] ;a} s'gfdf b]vfpg ;lsg] .
#=;+:yfsf] lelhl6ª sf8{, a|f];/, klqsfsf] la1fkg,cflbdf
j]a;fO{6sf] 7]ufgf lbbf tkfO{sf] ;+:yfsf] af/]df ;Dk"0f{ s'/f
b]vfpg ;lsG5, lelhl6ª sf8{ a|f];/ cflbn] cf+lzs
hfgsf/L lbG5g t/ j]a;fO{6n] k"0f{ hfgsf/L lbG5 .
$=cfkm\gf] ;+:yfnfO{ ljb]z;Dd klxrfg ug{] ;a}eGbf
;lhnf] dfWodsf] ?kdf :yfkgf u/fpg ;lsg]
%=;+:yfsf] kmf]6f], lel8of], k|f]kmfO{n, tkfO{sf] ;+:yfsf]
nf]s];g Dofk cflb O{Toflb ;a} s'/fx? Ps} k6s ;a}nfO{
x]g{ / b]vfpg ;lsg] .
^= ;+:yfn] lbg] Aofh tyf C0fsf] af/]df hfgsfl/
j]a;fO6df /fVg ;lsg] .
lalQo ;+:yfsf] j]a;fO6 agfp“bfsf kmfObfx? M
!= cfkm\gf] ;+:yfnfO{ b]z tyf ljb]zdf lrlgg] dfWodsf]
?kdf :yfkgf ug{ ;lsg] .
@= ;+:yfn] lbg] Aofh tyf C0fsf] af/]df j]a;fO6df /fv]/
hfgsf/L lbg ;lsg] .
#= ;+:yfsf] gofF tfhf ;"rgf j]a;fO6df g} ;Dk|i] f0f ug{
;lsg] .
$= j]a;fO{6df kmf]6f], lel8of], cl8of] clg c? w]/} s'/f
b]vfpg ;lsg] .
%= j]a;fO{6af6 cgnfO{gdf sf/f]af/ ug{ ;lsg], vl/b jf
laqmL ug{ ;lsg],cfkm\gf] k|f]8S; / ;]jfx? nfO{ cgnfO{g
dfkm{t ;+;f/sf] ;a} s'gfdf b]vfpg ;lsg] .
^= ;+;f/sf] h'g;'s} s'gfaf6 hlt v]/ klg vf]n]/ ;+:yfsf]
af/]df ;Dk"0f{ hfgsf/L kfpg ;lsg] .
&= cfk\mg} ;+:yfut Od]n x'g,] h;n] ubf{ ;+:yfut lrgf/L
x'g] tyf uf]klgotf x'g] .
*= af]8{ d]Da/, cu{gfO{h]zg rf6{ /fVg ;lsg] .
(= nf]g Sofns'n]6/ /fVg ;lsg] .
!)= Eofs]G;L, Pg'cn l/kf]6{ ;fy} cGo y'k} s'/fx? cflb .
j]a;fO{6 agfpbf Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx?
j]j;fO{6 hxfFaf6 / hf] ;'s}af6 klg agfpFbf x'G5 . t/ w]/}
30

h]7 @)&)

k|sfz pk|]tL
s'/fn] o;df e"ldsf v]Ng] ePsf]n] o;df w]/} Wofg lbg'kg]{
x'G5 .
n tkfO{n] j]a;fO{6 agfpg nfUg' ePsf] ;+:yf btf{ 5 5}g <
n tkfO{n] xf]:6 u/]sf] ;e{/ slt e/kbf]{ 5 <
n tkfO{sf] j]a;fO{6 u'undf ;r{ ubf{ sltsf] /fd|f] glthf
b]vf k5{g <
n tkfO{sf] j]a;fO{6 agfpg] sDkgLsf k|fljlws sltsf]
6]Sgf]nf]hL hfGg] 5g\ <
n st} tkfO{n] ;:tf] d"No eg]/ g/fd|f] j]a;fO{6 t kfpg'
ePsf] 5}g . tkfO{sf] j]a;fO{6n] ljZjJofkL ?kdf tkfO{sf]
;+:yfut kl/ro lbG5 <
n j]a;fO{6 /fd|f] ;fy} ;a} OGk{md]l6e x'gk
' b{5 . g]kfndf
dfq} x]l/g] eP g]kfnLdf ;fy} c+u|]hLdf x]l/g] eP c+u|]hLdf
/ ;+;f/sf] cGo s'gfjf6 x]l/g] eP efiff kl/jt{gsf] cK;g
klg x'gk' b{5 .
n 8f]dg
] g]d h:t} M www.jeevanbikas.org.np cyjf
www.skdbl.com.np btf{ ubf{ clt g} ljZjfl;nf] tyf
e/kbf]{ ;+:yfaf6 ug'k{ 5{ . lsgsL ef]nL uP/ j]a;fO{6df
;d:of cfPdf 8f]d]gsf] cg/;Lk kl/jt{g ug{ ufx|f] x'G5 .
t;y{ 8f]d]g /lh:6/ u/lbFbf ;f]xL j]a;fO{6 agfpg]
sDkgLsf] 8f]dg] /lh:6/ ug]{ cfk\mg} l;:6d 5 5}g, Tof]
jf/] hfgsf/L /fVg'k5{ . j]a;fO{6 sxF xf]:6Lª u/]sf] xf] ;f]
jf/] Wofg lbg' h?/L 5 . j]a;fO{6 agfpg] sDkgLsf]
cfk\mg} ;e{/ 5 ls 5}g Tof] g} d'Vo s'/f xf] . lsg eg]
ef]nL ;d:of cfof] eg] ;dfwfgdf w]/} ;do nfU5 . cfk\mg}
;e{/ eGgfn]
ns1.pracasinfosys.com
ns2.pracasinfosys.com

tkfOn] j]a;fO{6 agfpg nfUg' ePsf] ;+:yfn] ljutsf
lbgdf s] s:tf sfd ul/ ;s]sf 5g\ . slt ;Ddsf]
ljZjfl;nf] tyf e/kbf]{ 5 . oL ;a} s'/f k|lt tkfO{ rgfvf]
aGg' kb{5 . oL dfyL lbOPsf s'/fx?df tkfO{n] clt g}
Wofg lbg' kg]{ cj:yf x'G5 .
pk|t] L k|sfz OGkmf]l;; lj/f6gu/sf lgb]z
{ s x'g\ .

Aofkf/

k"js
{ f tLg zx/df
zfvf lj:tf/ ub}{ uf]vf{ l*kf^{dG] ^
O6x/Ll:yt uf]vf{ l8kf6{dG] 6 :6f]/ k|flnn] k"js
{ f]
cf}Bf]lus zx/ lj/f6gu/ ;lxt tLg d"Vo zx/df zfvf
lj:tf/ ug]{ ePsf] 5 .
:6f]/sf k|aGw lgb]{zs an/fd cfrfo{n] u|fxssf] dfu
cg';f/ w/fg, lj/f6gu/ / bdsdf :6f]/sf] zfvf lj:tf/
ug{ nfluPsf] hfgsf/L lbP . cfrfo{sf cg';f/ w/fgdf
zfvf lj:tf/ ug{ ef]6k] n
" l:yt aLkL k|lti7fg hfg]
;8s;Fu hf]l8Psf] $ s6\7f !# w'/ hUuf vl/b u/]/
kfFrtn] Aofkfl/s ejg lgdf{0f ug{ nfut cg'dfg tof/
kfg]{ / ;e]{ l8hfOg ug]{ sfd k'/f eO ;s]sf] 5 .
ToxfF lgdf{0f x'g] ejgsf] nfut hldg ;lxt @% s/f]8
?k}ofF cg'dfg /x]sf] 5 . ejg / hldg afx]s leqL
;+/rgfsf] nfuL yk nufgL x'g]5 . cfrfo{n] eg] …8]9
jif{leq Aofkfl/s sf/f]jf/ z'? ug]{ nIo /x]sf] pQm
:yfgdf s]xL xKtf leq} l;nfGof; u/]/ ejg lgdf{0fsf]
sfd z'? ug]{ tof/L eO /x]sf] 5 .Ú
:6f]/n] lj/f6gu/ / bdsdf eg] w/fg eGbf cuf8L g}
zfvf lj:tf/ ul/;Sg] nIo /fv]sf] 5 . t/ a}ª\ssf]
Aofhb/df ePsf] a[l4n] s]xL ;d:of eO/x]sf] 5 . cfrfo{
eG5g\ …b'j} :yfgdf s]xL 3/x? e]l6Psf 5g\ t/ tL eGbf
cem} pko"Qm :yfgdf km]nf k/] /fd|f] x'g] 7fg]/ cem} vf]hL
/x]sf 5f}+ tL b'j} :yfgdf xfnnfO{ ejg ef8fdf lnP/ :6f]/
;Grfng ug{ nfluPsfn] w/fg eGbf l56f] sf/f]jf/ z'? ug{
;lsg] cfzf /x]sf] 5 .Ú lj:tf/ x'g] k|To]s zfvfdf
O6x/Lsf] h:t} ;fdfgsf cfO6dx? /fVg'sf ;fy} uf]vf{
lsrg;d]t ;Grfng ug]{ of]hgf /x]sf] k|aGw lgb]z
{ s
cfrfo{n] hfgsf/L lbP .

uf]vf{n] sf7df8f}, kf]v/f / a'6andf ;d]t zfvf
lj:tf/ ug{ /fv]sf] of]hgf rfFxL bf];|f] r/0fdf ;f/]sf] 5 .
klxn] k"js
{ f zx/df lj:tf/ u/]/ s]xL jif{ rNg lbpF
clgdfq klZrdlt/ nfuf}+nf eg]/ xfnnfO{ klZRfdsf of]hgf
:ylut u/]sf] cfrfo{n] atfP . uf]vf{n] k"j{sf] k|l;4
ko{6lso :yn e]86] f/df ko{6s:t/Lo ?km6k xf]6n ;d]t
;Grfng ug]{ of]hgf /fv]sf] 5 . ?km6k xf]6nsf] klxnf]
l8hfOgdf s]xL sdL sdhf]/L ePsfn] xfn csf]{
l8hfOgsf] sfd eO /x]sf] cfrfo{n] hfgsf/L lbP .
@)%^ ;fn c;f/ # ut]b]vL ef8fdf z'? ePsf]
l8kf6{dG] 6 :6f]/ xfn cfk\mg} ;'ljwf ;DkGg ( tn] ejgdf
;Grfng eO /x]sf] 5 . :6f]/df b}lgs pkef]Uo ;fdfu|L,
dlb/fhGo k]o kbfy{, ;hfj6 tyf >[+uf/sf ;fdfu|L,
aRrfx?sf ;Dk"0f{ ;fdfu|Lsf] ;fy} /]l8d]8 tyf ;l6{ª\ ;'l6ª
sk8f, h'Qf, rKkn, efG;fdf k|of]u x'g] pks/0f, sDKo'6/
nufot On]S6«f]lgS; ;lxt b'Onfv eGbf jl9 e]/fOl6sf
;fdfu|Lx? pknAw /x]sf 5g\ eg] tfhf t/sf/L /
kmnk"mnsf] k;n ;d]t ;Grflnt 5 .
To:t} uf]vf{ lsrg, uf]vf{ z'4hn pBf]u, uf]vf{ a]s/L
Sofkm] / uf]vf{ ufO e};
+ L kmd{ ;d]t ;Grfng x'bF } cfPsf] 5 .
xfn $ ;o hgfnfO{ /f]huf/L lbPsf] uf]vf{sf] zfvf
lj:tf/kl5 Psxhf/ eGbf jl9n] /f]huf/L kfpg] hgfOPsf] 5 .

h]7 @)&)

31

of}g :jf:Yo

cgf/sf] /;n]

of}g Ifdtf a9fp“5

cgf/df w]/} /f]u;Fu n8\g] Ifdtf ;lxtsf] cf}iflwo
u'0f ePsfn] o;sf] e"ldsf lj/fdLx?sf nflu 8fS6/sf]
h:t} x'G5, . x/]s lj/fdLnfO{ lj/fdL cj:yfdf tfutsf]
nflu cgf/ v'jfpg] k|rngn] klg o;sf] k'li6 ub{5 .

xflb{s z'esfdgf
k"jf{~rnsf] O6x/L / cf;kf;df /x]sf
;xsf/Lx?sf] ultljlwnfO{ d'Vo cfwf/ agfP/
cy{la6n] ;xsf/L ljz]iffª\s k|sflzt u/]sf]df
xflb{s wGojfb tyf o:tf sfo{sf] lg/Gt/tfsf]
nflu d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
nIdLk|;fb ef/tL -cWoIf_

dflnsf art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=
O6x/L, ;'g;/L, kmf]g M )@%–%*&#(%
malika_ith@ntc.net.np

xflb{s cg'/f]w
z]o/ ;b:o dxfg'efjx?nfO{ ;+:yfdf hDdf ug'k{ g]{ art
/sd lgoldt ?kdf hDdf u/]/ ;lqmo ;b:osf] e"ldsf
lgjf{x ul/lbg'xg' xflb{s cg'/f]w ub{5f}+ .
/fwfs[i0f g]kfn -cWoIf_

cgf/sf] pkof]lutfsf
ljifodf ;o ladf/ Ps
cgf/ eGg] egfO klg
k|rngdf 5 . cgf/sf]
/;df sfd zlQm j4{s
cb\e"t Ifdtf x'G5 .
Soflnkmf]lg{ofsf
j}1flgsx?sf cg';f/ Ps
dlxgf;Dd nuftf/ Ps
lunf; cgf/sf] /; lkpg]
s'g} klg k'?ifsf nflu
sfdf]Q]hs cf}iflw leofu|f
cfjZos kb}g{ . cgf/sf]
/;af6 z/L/df PG6L clS;8] G 6 a9\ 5 / of} g f+ u x?df
/St;~rf/ tLa| x' g ] ePsfn] o;af6 JolQm of} g
lqmofdf a9L ;lqmo x' g ;S5 .

xflb{s
z'esfdgf
k"jf{~rnsf] O6x/L / cf;kf;df /x]sf
;xsf/Lx?sf] ultljlwnfO{ d'Vo cfwf/ agfP/
cy{la6n] ;xsf/L ljz]iffª\s k|sflzt u/]sf]df
xflb{s wGojfb tyf o:tf sfo{sf] lg/Gt/tfsf]
nflu d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
o; ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf] ultljlwdf ;lqmo ;xefuLtf hgfP/
;xof]u ub}{ cfpg'ePsf ;Dk"0f{ ;]o/ ;b:o dxfg'efjx?df
cfef/ JoQm ub}{ lg/Gt/ ;xof]usf] ck]Iff ub{5f}+ .
uf]kfnk|;fb g]kfn -cWoIf_
/fdafa' g]kfn -Joj:yf lgb]{zs_

tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=
;+/lIft art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf ln= blIf0fsfnL artO6x/L–!,
;'g;/L
O6x/L, ;'g;/L

32

h]7 @)&)

;xsf/L ljz]if

a'4f]bodf kfl6{ Kofn];
lj/f6gu/ $ kf]vl/ofdf cjl:yt a'4f]bo art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yfn] :yfkgfsf] 5f]6f] cjlwd} ;'ljwf ;DkGg gLlh
ejg lgdf{0f u/]/ cfk\mg} ejgaf6 sf/f]jf/ yfn]sf] 5 .
:yfkgf ePsf] 5f]6f] cjlwd} cfk\mg} ejg lgdf{0f u/]sf]
of] ;+:yfn] @* nfv %) xhf/df ! s6\7f !$ w'/ hUuf vl/b
ul/ &)nfv ?k}ofF nufgL u/]/ cTofw'lgs ejg lgdf{0f u/]/
gofF jif{ @)&);Fu} gofF ejgaf6 sf/f]jf/ z'? u/]sf] xf] .
;+:yfn] lgdf{0f u/]sf] gofF ejgsf] dflyNnf] tnfdf sfof{no
;Grfng ul/ e'OF tnfdf % ;ohgf Ifdtfsf] ;efxn tyf
kfl6{ Kofn]; agfPsf] 5 . To;nfO{ ef8fdf nufpg] / ;+:yfsf]
lgoldt cfDbfgLsf] ;|f]t agfpg] nIo /x]sf] ;+:yfsf cWoIf
uf]ljGb bfxfnn] hfgsf/L lbP . bfxfnsf cg';f/ @ dlxgf
cl3 b]vLg} kfl6{ Kofn]; ef8fdf nfUg yfnL ;s]sf] 5 .
lj/f6gu/sf % cf]6f j8f sfo{If]q /x]sf] a'4f]bo art
tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfdf @)^% ;fndf ^# hgfn] @) xhf/sf

b/n] ;]o/ hDdf u/]/ z'? u/]sf lyP . ;f] ;+:yfdf xfn $ ;o
@@ hgf ;]o/ ;b:osf] ^^ nfv (@ xhf/ ?k}ofF ;]o/kFh
" L
k'us
] f] 5 . lj/f6gu/sf] j8f g+j/ !, #, $, % / ^ g+j/ j8fsf
k|ltli7t AolQmx? ldn]/ z'/ u/]sf] a'4f]bon] 5f]6f] cjlwd}
pbfx/0fLo k|ult ug{ ;kmn ePsf] 5 . xfn ! s/f]8 @* nfv
art ;+sng u/]sf] ;+:yfn] *& nfv ?k}ofF C0f nufgL u/]sf]
5 . clwsf+z nufgL pTkfbg d"ns Aofkf/ Aoj;fodf u/]sf]
;+:yfsf] shf{df efvf g3fpg] sf]xL klg C0fL 5}gg\ .

‘lgs6 eljiod} ;]jf ljljlws/0f ub}{5f}+’
n uf]ljGbk|;fb

bfxfn -cWoIf_, a'4f]bo art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf lj/f6gu/
jl9 ;+:yfksx?af6 a}+s :yfkgf ug{ ;]o/ nufgL ug]{
k|ltj4tf lyof] eg] w]/}n] ;]o/ /sd ;d]t lbO ;s]sf
lyP . k|jGw kq / lgodfjln ;d]t tof/ u/]/ g]kfn
/fi6« a}ª\sdf k]z ug]{ tof/L uof}{ t/ Tolx a]nf /fi6«
a}ª\sn] gofF a}ª\s ;Grfng cg'dlt glbg] lg0f{o
;fj{hlgs uof]{ . To;kl5 xfdLn] 6f9f6f9fsf ;a}sf]
;]o/ lkmtf{ ul/ :yfgLoaLr 5nkmn rnfP/ ;xsf/L
ePklg vf]nf}+ eg]/ ;xsf/L hlGdPsf] xf] .
5f]6f] cjlwd} ;+:yfsf] cfk\mg} ejg lgdf{0f ul/
;Sg' eof] ;]o/ k"“hLklg sof}+ u'0ff a9fO ;Sg'
ePsf] 5 s] /fh 5 of] ;kmntfsf] <

;xsf/L ;+:yf :yfkgf ug]{ of]hgf s;/L ug'{
ePsf] xf] <

of] ;+:yf hGdg'df klg P]ltxfl;stf 5 . xfdL lj/f6gu/df
ljsf; a}+s :yfkgf ug]{ nIodf lyof}+ . rf/;o eGbf

xfd|f] ;+:yfn] 5f]6f] ;dod} of] cj:yf xfl;n ug'{df
o;sf ;]o/ ;b:o, sd{rf/L / ;Grfns ;ldltsf]
;lqmotf xf] . of] ;+:yfdf o; If]qsf lzIfs, sd{rf/L,
j'l4hLlj, pBf]ukltx? ;]o/ ;b:o x'g'x'G5 . pxfFx?n]
cfFk'mn] :yfkgf u/]sf] ;+:yfsf] /fd|f] k|ult b]Vg rfxfg]
/ ;lqmo ;xeflutf hgfpg] ug'{ ePsfn] g} of] ;+:yfn]
ljsf; ug{ ;s]sf] xf] . cfk\mg} ejg / :yfoL cfDbfgLsf]
;|f]t agfpg ;s] ;xsf/L dha"t x'G5 / :yfgLo ?kdf
s]xL ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] ;f]rn] ;fwf/0f;efaf6} kfl/t
u/]/ hUuf vl/b ul/ ejg lgdf{0f u/]sf xf}+ .

h]7 @)&)

33

;+:yfut ljBfnosf] klg ;xsf/L
df]/ª\sf ;+:yfut ljBfnosf ;Grfnsx? ldn]/ lj/f6gu/df
;+:yfut ljBfno art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf ;Grfng ub}{
cfPsf 5g\ . ;xsf/L :yfkgf ug{;s] ;+:yfut ljBfnox?n]
;fgf] ltgf] shf{ n]gb]gsf] nflu a}ªs
\ x?df emGeml6nf] k|lqmof
ckgfP/ sf/f]jf/ ug'{ kb}g{ eGg] dx;'z ul/ ;f9] b'Ojif{ cl3
df]/ª\sf @& cf]6f ljBfnox?n] !)÷!) xhf/ ?k}ofF ;]o/
nufgL ul/ ;xsf/l :yfkgf u/]sf x'g\ .
;xsf/Ldf xfn *) cf]6f ljBfno ;]o/ ;b:o eO;s]sf
5g\ . of] ;xsf/Ldf AolQm geP/ ;+:yfut ljBfnonfO{ g}
;]o/ ;b:o agfpg] k|fjwfg /flvPsf] ;xsf/Lsf sfof{no
;lrj eLd kf}8n
] n] hfgsf/L lbP . ;+:yfut ljBfnosf] cfly{s,
;fdflhs,z}lIfs / ;fF:s[lts ljsf;df of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] p2]Zo
/x]sf] ;+:yfdf xfn @* nfv r'Qmf ;]o/ k"h
F L /x]sf] 5 . ;+:yfdf
xfn gofF ;b:o x'g rfxfg]nfO{ Go"gtd @) xhf/ ?k}ofFsf] ;]o/

vl/b ug'{ kg]{ k|fjwfg /flvPsf] 5 . ;j} ljBfnodf k'u/] ;+:yf
jf/] hfgsf/L u/fO ;]o/ ;b:o aGg cg'/f]w u/]sf 5f} . OR5's
ljbfnox?nfO{ af6f] v'Nnf ul/Psf] 5 . sfof{no ;lrj kf}8n
] n]
eg] . ;]o/ ;b:o ePsf ljBfnonfO{ xfn lagflwtf] Psnfv
?k}ofF;Dd C0f nufgL ub}[ cfPsf] ;+:yfn] ;]o/ k"h
F Lsf] ;j}
/sd nufgL u/]sf] 5 . ;xsf/Ln] ljBfnonfO{ artdf !)
k|ltzt;Dd Jofh lbg] u/]sf] 5 eg] C0fdf !% k|ltzt;Dd
lng] u/]sf] 5 .
;xsf/Ldf xfn;Dd lj/f6gu/, pnf{jf/L, lj/f6rf}s, a]njf/L,
l;h'jf, /+un
] L,e'mls{of,ky/L, n]6fª\, hfft] nufotsf :yfgsf
ljbfnon] ;]o/ ;b:otf lnPsf 5g\ . ;]o/ ;b:o ljBfnonfO{
dfl;s Go"gtd Ps xhf/ ?k}ofF clgjfo{ jrt ug'{ kg]{ Aoj:yf
ul/Psf] 5 . olb s;}n] Tof] eGbf jl9 art ug{ rfx]df hlt
klg ;Sg]] kf}8n
] n] atfP .

tkfO{+x?n] ;xsf/Ldf kfl6{ Kofn]; ;d]t rnfpg]
eg]/ Tolx cg';f/sf] ejg lgdf{0f ug'{eof]
o;sf] ;+efjgf s] 5 <

O6x/L gu/kflnsfsf] ;"rgf

xfd|f] ;xsf/L ePsf] If]qdf clxn] 3gf j:tL eO ;s]sf]
5 . Toltdfq geP/ of] 7fpF *÷!) cf]6f uflj;sf]
s]Gb| ;d]t xf] . o; If]qdf s'g} klg kfl6{ Kofn]; 5}gg\
. t/ kl5Nnf] ;do 3/df eGbf kfl6{ Kofn];df sfo{qmd
ug]{ k/Dk/f j9]sf] 5 . oxfFsf dflg;x? wfld{s,
j}jflxs nufotsf sfo{qmd ug{ 6f9fsf kf6L{ Kofn];
wfpg' kg]{ jfWotf lyof] . olxF eOlbof] eg] w]/}n] k|of]u
ug]{ ;+efjgf x'G5 . lgdf{0fflwg cj:yfd} oxfF !)÷!@
cf]6f ljjfx nufotsf sfo{qmd eO;s]sf] / %) xhf/
hlt cfDbfgL eO;Sof] . o;n] klg oxfF lgs} cfjZostf
/x]5 eGg] b]lvPsf] 5 . of] xfd|f] ;xsf/Lsf] nflu
:yfoL cfDbfgLsf] ;|f]t aGg ;S5 . xfdLn] jflif{s
%b]vL !) nfv ?k}ofF;Dd kfl6{ Kofn];sf] ef8f cfDbfgL
ug{ ;Sg] ;+efjgf b]v]sf 5f}+ . To;f] x'Fbf ;xsf/Lsf
sd{rf/Lsf] tnj eQfsf] nflu xfdLn] lrGtf ug'{ kb}{g
clg ;xsf/Laf6 sd Aofhb/d} nufgL ug{ ;Sg] cj:yf
x'g ;S5 .

g]kfnsf d]rL–dxfsfnL / ljb]zdf ;d]t k'u]/
;xsf/Lx?sf] cWoog cjnf] s g ug' { e of]
:jb]z / ljb]zsf] ;xsf/Ldf s] km/s kfpg'
eof] <

ljb]zsf] t'ngfdf g]kfnsf ;xsf/L k'/fgf 5g\ t/
g]kfnsf ;xsf/L k'/fgf eP/ klg l;:6d eg] ev{/
ljsf; x'Fb} u/]sf] cj:yf xfdLn] cg'ej uof}{ .
j+unfb]z,dn]lzof, l+;+ufk'/df ;xsf/Ln] pRr k|ult

34

h]7 @)&)

n gkfnfO{

a'emfpg'kg]{ s/ b:t'/ ;dodf g} lt/f},+ gu/sf]
ljsf; ug]{ sfo{df ;xof]u u/f}+ .
n 3/sf] kmf]xf]/ 3/df g} tx nufcf+,} kmf]xf]/nfO{ k'g k|of]u /
k'g rqm0f u/f}+ .
n JolQmut 36gf -hGd, d[To', ljjfx,a;fO;/fO{,
;DaGwljR5]b_ ;dodf g} btf{ u/f}+ .
n 3/ j/k/ ?v /f]kf},+ gu/nfO{ xl/t agfcf}+ .
n h}ljs kmf]xf]/nfO{ k|fª\ufl/s dn agfcf}+ .
n gu/nfO { :jR5 ;kmf, xl/t agfcf}+ .
n rf}kfof 5f8f g5f8f},+ ;Defljt b'36
{ gf x'gaf6 arf},+
n af;L, ;8]un]sf vfB j:t' laqmL ljt/0f tyf pkef]u
gu/f}} .
n dxfdf/L, x}hf h:tf /f]uaf6 arf} :j:y hLjg afFrf},+
n ;8s÷af6f]df lgdf{0f ;fdu|L g/fvf}, cfjt hfjtdf ;xh
/ ;/n agfcf}+ .
u/]sf] xfdLn] kfof}+ . tL b]zdf ;xsf/L olt lhDd]jf/ /
7"nf 5g\ sL ;/sf/n]g} ;xsf/LnfO{ C0f nufgL ug]{
u/]sf] 5 . ljb]zdf oftfoft, pBf]u, Aofkf/, s[lif nufotsf
w]/} sfddf ;xsf/Ln] pRr :yfg xfl;n u/]sf xfdLn]
b]Vof}+ . oL pbfx/0f x]bf{ g]kfndf t ;xsf/Lx? s]jn
art / C0fdf dfq} s]lGb|t ePsf] b]vLG5 .
tkfO{+x?n] s]xL cg's/0f ub}{ x'g'x'G5sL <

xfdLn] ;]jfd'ns sfd PDj'n]G; ;Grfng ug]{, /]ld6fG;
e'QmfgLsf] sf/f]jf/ / 3/]n' pBf]u vf]Ng] of]hgf agfPsf
5f}+ . TodWo] /]ld6fG;sf] sf/]fjf/ tTsfn} z'? x'Fb}5 .

%) j]8sf] c:ktfn
agfP/ gl;{ª\ sn]h
rnfpg] of]hgfdf 5f}+
n uf]kfn

u'?ª -cWoIf_
;fd'bflos :jf:Yo ;xsf/L ;+:yf -;fd'bflos c:ktfn_, O6x/L
jl/i7 :jf:Yo ;xfos uf]kfn u'?ª O6x/Ll:yt ;fd'bflos
c:ktfnsf kl/sNkgfsf/ ;+:yfks cWoIf tyf jt{dfg cWoIf
;d]t x'g . ;'g;/L lhNnfsf] klxnf] ;fd'bflos :jf:Yo ;xsf/L
;+:yf :yfkgfsf] !$ jif{ ljt]sf] 5 . of] cjlwdf xfn !% z}ofsf]
cGt/+u ;]jf ;lxt ;Dk"0f{ ljz]if1 ;]jf lbb} cfPsf] ;fd'bflos
;xsf/L ;+:yfn] O6x/L $ sf] x/u8fdf lgs6 elj:od} gofF ejg
lgdf{0f ul/ %) z}ofsf] c:ktfn / gl;{ª\ sn]h ;d]t ;Grfng ug]{
of]hgf u/]sf] 5 . ug{ rfx\of] / s]xL ;b:o dfq nflu kof]{ eg]
;xsf/Laf6 klg /fd|f] ;fdflhs ;]jfsf] ;fy} /f]huf/Lsf] cj;/
lbg ;lsG5 eGg] pbfx/0f xf] ;fd'bflos :jf:Yo ;xsf/L . xfn $&
hgfnfO{ k|ToIf /f]huf/L lbPsf] ;fd'bflos c:ktfnsf] kl/sNkgf
/ efjL of]hgf jf/] ;+:yfsf cWoIf uf]kfn u'?ª\;Fusf] s'/fsfgL .
;fd'bflos ;xsf/L c:ktfnsf] cjwf/0ff s;/L
cfPsf] xf] <
@)%^ ;fndf :jf:Yo dGqfnon] hgtfåf/f :jf:Yo / ;kmntfsf
kfOnf eGg] k':ts k|sfzg u/]sf] lyof] . k':tsdf ljZje/Ls}
:jf:Yo ;]jfsf] ljifodf hfgsf/L lbOPsf] lyof] . ;xsf/L /
;d'bfoaf6 ;Grflnt :jf:Yo ;+:yfsf] ;kmntfsf syfx?klg
lyP . ;fd'bflos ?kdf rn]sf ;+:yfx?sf] ;kmntfsf] syf
k9\bf ;xsf/L dfkm{t xfdLn] klg ;]jfd'ns :jf:Yo ;+:yf
rnfpg' k5{ eGg] ;f]r aGof] . clg dg ldNg] ;fyLefO;Fu
;Nnfx ubf{ ;fyLx? ;sf/fTds aGg' eof] / ;j} ldn]/ of]
;+:yf :yfkgf uof{} . @)%^ d+l;/ !& ut]b]vL ;Grfngdf
cfPsf] ;+:yfdfkm{t hgtfåf/f hgtfsf nflu :jf:Yo eGg]
gf/fnfO{ ;fsf/ kfg{ xfdL s]xL xb;Dd ;kmn ePsf 5f} .
;'ljwf s] s] 5g\ oxfF <
xfdLn] of] c:ktfn z'? ubf{;Dd O6x/Ldf sf]xLklg PdlalaP;
8fS6/ cfpFb}gy] . xfdLn] oxfF z'?b]vL g} ;x'lnot ?kdf
xKtfdf Ps k6s ePklg Pd8L pkfwL k|fKt ljz]if1sf] ;d]t
;]jf lbGYof} . PdljljP; ;]jf t k|To]s lbgg} lyof] . To;/L ub}{
hfFbf clxn] xfd|fd] f ;j} k|sf/sf ljz]if1 lrlsT;sf] ;]jf pknAw
5 . ljxfg * jh]b]vL ;Ffem ^ jh];Dd Pd8L pkfwL k|fKt
lrlsT;sn] lj/fdL hfFr ;]jf lbO /xg' ePsf] 5 . xf8hf]gL{
tyf gzf,:qL/f]u, 5fnf/f]u,jfn/f]u, lkmlhl;og nufot ;j}
k|sf/sf ljz]if1 ;]jf lbb} cfPsf 5f}+ . :jf:Yo ;xfosaf6 @$
306f g} Od/h]G;L ;]jf pknAw 5 . ;/sf/L c:ktfndf h:t}
lgMz'Ns ue{jtL hfFr ;]jf,lgMz'Ns k|;'lt ;]jf, c:ktfndf
cfP/ ;'Ts]/L x'g] dlxnfnfO{ kfFr;o ?k}ofF oftfoft vr{ /

:jf:Yo ;+:yfdf rf/k6s ue{ kl/If0f u/]sf dlxnfnfO{ yk
rf/;o ?k}ofF k|f]T;fxg eQf,afnaflnsfnfO{ ;j} vf]k lgMz'Ns
;]jf, Ifo/f]u kl/If0f / lgMz'Ns pkrf/ ;]jf, 86\; ;]jf ;d]t
;Grflnt 5 .
To:t} ;/sf/L :jf:Yo ;+:yfs} a/fa/sf] z'Nsdf PS;–/], lel8of]
PS;–/], Kofyf]nf]hLsf ;j} ;]jf lbb} cfPsf] 5 . ;fy} @$ 306]
kmfd]{;L / lj/fdL af]Sg] PDa'n]G; ;'ljwf ;d]t pknAw 5 .
k};f ltg}{ g;Sg] ul/j lj/fdLsf] nflu gL <
ljkGg a]vrL{ lj/fdLnfO{ lgMz'Ns k|fyld pkrf/ ub}{ cfPsf
5f}+ . b'3{6gfdf k/]sf lj/fdLnfO{ ;+:yfsf] PDa'n]G;af6 7"nf
c:ktfn;Dd k'¥ofpFbf k};f ltg{ g;Sg] lj/fdL ePdf lgMz'Ns
;]jf lbb} cfPsf 5f}+ .
:jf:Yo ;DaGwL ;r]tgfsf sfo{qmd klg 5g\ sL <
/f]u nfu]/ pkrf/ ug'{ eGbf /f]ug} nfUg glbg] pkfo ckgfpg
;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ xfdLn] ;Sbf] ;r]tgf hufpFb} cfPsf 5f}+ .
ljBfnox?df :jf:Yo lzIff / ;r]tgf sfo{qmd,;fd'bflos :jf:Yo
;'/Iff sfo{qmd ljleGg :jf:Yo ;d"x u7g ul/ :jf:Yo tflnd /
r]tgf sfo{qmd rnfpFb} cfPsf 5f}+ . …;d'bfosf] c;n :jf:Yo
xfd|f] p2]Zo, xfd|f] nIoÚ eGg] gf/f /fv]/ rf/cf]6f cleofg rnfPsf
5f}+ . :j:y / ;d[4 kl/jf/, cfly{s ?kn] cfTd lge{/ kl/jf/,:j:y
/ ;+ul7t kl/jf/ tyf ;fd'bflos ?kn] :j:y / r]tglzn
;d'bfo eGg] xfd|f] cleofg 5 . of] cleofgnfO{ ;kmn agfpg
;fd'bflos :jf:Yo ;d"x sfo{qmd ;Grfng u/]sf 5f}+ . ;d"x
sfo{qmd cGt{ut ;+:yfs} ;]o/ ;b:o agfO k|lzIf0f lbg], cfo
cfh{gsf nflu lagflwtf] !) k|ltztdfq Aofhdf C0f lbg], tLg
dlxgfsf nflu cfsl:ds ;fk6L lgJof{hL lbg], ;]o/ ;b:osf
kl/jf/ ;b:o lj/fdLx'bF f pkrf/ ug{ 7"nf c:ktfn nfg' kg]{ eof]
eg] @% xhf/;Dd pkrf/ vr{ ;fk6L lbg] ;d]t u/]sf] 5 .
;+:yfdf pkrf/ ug{ cfpg] ;]o/ ;b:osf] tTsfn pkrf/ vr{
ug{ g;Sg] eP # dlxgf;Dd pkrf/ vr{ ;fk6L lbb} cfPsf] 5
eg] ;]o/ ;b:onfO{ ;]jfdf %) k|ltzt;Dd 5'6 lbb} cfPsf] 5
. O6x/L gu/kflnsf,xfF;kf];f,ksnL / vgf/ uflj; ;+:yfsf]
sfo{If]q /x]sf] 5 .
c? of]hgf s] s] 5g\ <
x/u8fdf /x]sf] ;+:yfsf] hUufdf o;} jif{b]vL b'Os/f]8 %)
nfv ?k}ofFsf] nufgLdf tLgtn] c:ktfn d}qL ejg lgdf{0f
z'? ug]{ of]hgf 5 . h;sf] nflu Ps s/f]8 ?k}ofF a}ª\saf6
C0f lng] s'/f ePsf] 5 . cfjf; tyf ef}lts of]hgf dGqfnoaf6
c:ktfn ejgsf] gSzf l8hfOg kf; eO ;s]sf] 5 . gofF
ejg lgdf{0f ePkl5 %) z+}ofsf] c:ktfn / jflif{s $) hgf
sf]6fsf] gl;{ª\ sn]h ;Grfng ug]{ nIo 5 . gl;{ª\ sn]hsf]
cg'dlt k|lqmof ;d]t clGtd r/0fdf k'u]sf] 5 .

h]7 @)&)

35

‘Ps nfv;Dd lagf
lwtf] nufgL u/]/
Aoj;foL agfp“b5
} f}’+
jLlkg ;'Aaf -cWoIf_,
r]tgf art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf w/fg
r]tgf art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfdf Psxhf/ b'O;o
hgf ;]o/ ;b:o 5g\ . !@ nfv ;]o/ k"FhL /x]sf] of] ;:yfn]
art lgIf]k eGbf n3' C0f nufgL u/]/ ljkGg tyf ;fgf
Aoj;fo ug]{x?nfO{ Aofkf/ Aoj;fodf k|f]T;flxt ub}{ cfPsf]
5 . o;n] @) xhf/b]vL ! nfv ?k}ofF;Dd ;fd"lxs hdfgLdf
C0f lbg] u/]sf] 5 . ;xsf/L a}ª\saf6 C0f lnP/ nufgL ul/b}
cfPsf] 5 . clxn];Dd o;sf] nufgL $% nfv ?k}ofF k'u]sf] 5
. C0f lnP/ Aoj;fo ug]{ ;]o/ ;b:o 5 ;ohgf 5g\ . ;j}n]
O6x/Lsf] h]7f] ;xsf/L ax'p2]ZoLo ;xsf/L ;+:yfn] cfk\mgf]
sfo{If]qdf ;]jf s]Gb| :yfkgf ug{ ;]o/ ;b:o / ;]o/ k"h
F L ;d]t
j9fpg] cleofg z'? u/]sf] 5 . kGrfotsfndf tTsflng e"ld;'wf/
/ ;xsf/L ljefun] rnfPsf] ;+:yfnfO{ ;xsf/L P]g @)$* hf/L
ePkl5 :yfgLo hgtfdf x:tfGt/0f ul/Psf] lyof] . ;/sf/n] x:tfGt/0f
u/]kl5 @)$* ;fnb]vL lg/Gt/ !^ jif{;Dd ;f] ;+:yfnfO{ cWoIf
hoaxfb'/ sfsL{sf] l6dn] ;Grfng u¥of] . @)^% ;fnb]vL rf/
jif{;Dd k"mn/fh ;'jb] L cWoIf /x]sf] ;+:yfdf o; jif{sf] ;fwf/0f;efn]
k'gM hoaxfb'/nfO{ g} cWoIf r'g]sf] 5 . ca k'gM rf/jif{;Dd
;+:yfsf] g]t[Tj ug]{ lhDd]jf/L kfPsf sfsL{n] ;xsf/Lsf] sfo{If]qdf
kg]{ vgf/ uflj;df ;]jf s]Gb| ;Grfngdf NofOPsf] hfgsf/L lbP .
xfF;kf];f, O6x/L / vgf/ sfo{If]q /x]sf] ;xsf/Lsf] sf/f]jf/
jl9dfqf vgf/ If]qdf x'g] u/]sfn] ToxfFsf ;]o/ ;b:osf] ;'ljwfsf]
nflu ;]jf s]Gb| :yfkgf ul/Psf] xf] . xfn ;+:yfdf Psxhf/ hgf
;]o/ ;b:o /x]sf5g\ . @)$* ;fndf #@ xhf/ ;]o/k"FhL /x]sf]
;+:yf ;d'bfon] lhDdf lnPkl5 jiff}{gL ;]o/k"FhL al9 /x]sf] 5 .
;+:yfsf] ;]o/kF"hL rfNf' cfly{s jif{leq} Pss/f]8 ?k}ofF k'¥ofpg
;fwf/0f;efdf ax'dt ;b:on] lg0f{o u/]sf lyP . df}h'bf ;]o/
/sddf k|To]sn] % xhf/ ?k}ofF yk ug]{ ;xdlt hgfPsfn] c;f/
d;fGt;Dd pQm nIo k'/f x'g] cg'dfg 5 sfsL{n] eg] .
sfsL{ cWoIf ePkl5sf] csf]{ d"n Ph]08f gofF ejg lgdf{0f ug]{
5 . O6x/L gu/kflnsf cuf8L ;+:yfsf] cfk\mg} sl/j 8]9 s6\7f
hUuf 5 . To;df ePsf] ejg lh0f{ /x]sfn] gofF ejg agfpg] nIo
/x]sf] sfsL{ atfpF5g\ . cfufdL cfly{s jif{df ejg lgdf{0f z'?ug{
$) nfv ?k}ofFsf] cg'dflgt nfut ljj/0f tof/ kfl/Psf] pgn]
hfgsf/L lbP . …O6x/Lsf] klxnf] / ls;fgdf ;dlk{t ;xsf/L
36

h]7 @)&)

lgoldt Aofh / ls:tf ltl//x]sf 5g\ . kfFr hgfsf] b/n] b'O
;o %) cf]6f s]Gb| lqmoflzn 5g\ .
w/fgsf clwsf+z ;'s'Djf;L a:tLdf xfdL k'u]sf 5f}+ /
;a}df k'Ug] xfd|f] nIo 5 . xfd|f] ;+:yf zx/L ul/jsf] ;+:yf xf]
. h;sf] lwtf] /fv]/ C0f lng ;Sg] Ifdtf 5}g,p;nfO{ ;]o/
;b:o agfP/ lagf lwtf] C0f nufgL ul/ Aoj;foL / cfTdlge{/
agfpg] xfd|f] nIo 5 . ;jf]Q
{ d ljsNk ljlQo ;xsf/L eGg]
xfd|f] gf/f xf] . w/fgdf of] gf/fnfO{ k'/f ug{ xfdL plrt
k|ltkmn, ;/n shf{ / artdf cfsif{s Aofh xfd|f] ld;g xf]
. art ug]{ r]tgfsf] sdLn] xfdL ul/a eO/x]sf 5f}+ . slt
sdfpg] eGbf klg slt arfpg] eGg] s'/fdf dflg;n] Wofg
lbg'k5{ . ;fg} dfq ePklg art lgoldt ug]{ xfg] eg]
hLjgdf /fd|f] cfly{s ;'wf/ ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] xfdL ;xsf/L
dfkm{t r]tgf lbO /x]sf 5f} .

k"h
“ L a9fp“b} O6x/Lsf]
h]7f] ;xsf/L
ePsfn] o;nfO{ ;fRr} ls;fgsf] ;]js ;xsf/L agfpg] xfd|f] nIo 5,
gfkmfd"ns geP/ ;]jfd'ns ;xsf/LnfO{ ;do ;fk]If agfpFb} O6x/Ldf
s[lif sd{ 36]sfn] vgf/nfO{ hf]8 lbg ;]jf s]Gb| vf]ns
] f xf}+ .ÚsfsL{n]
eg] . ut cfly{s jif{ # s/f]8 &) nfv lgIf]k ;+sng / $ s/f]8 !$
nfv ?k}ofF C0f nufgL u/]sf] ;+:yfn] o;jif{ eg] lgIf]k / nufgL b'j}
a9fpg] nIo /fv]sf] 5 . aLp tyf dn vl/b ljlqm ub}{ cfPsf]
;+:yfn] jLp ljhg sfo{qmd ;Grfng ul/ ls;fgaf6 aLp ;+sng
u/]/ jhf/L s/0f ug]{ nIo /fv]sf] 5 . ;+:yfn] vgf/df ;]jf s]Gb|
:yfkgf u/]kl5 n3'ljQ sfo{qmd ;d]t ;Grfng ug]{ hgfPsf] 5 .

ls;fg sNof0fsf] ufp“ ufp“df n3'ljQ ;]jf
;'g;/Lsf] PsDjfl:yt ls;fg sNof0f art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yfn] ljut $ jif{b]vL ;fgf ls;fgx?sf nflu
n3'ljQ ;]jf ;Grfng ul/ /x]sf] 5 .
g]kfn /fi6« a}ª\ssf] n3'ljQ sfo{qmd cGt{ut C0f lnP/
u|fld0f ;fgf ls;fgx?nfO{ Aoj;fodf pTk]|l/t ub}{ cfPsf]
ls;fg sNof0fn] n3'ljQ sfo{qmd /fd|f];Fu ;Grfng u/]sf]
eGb} /fi6« a}ª\n] x/]s jif{ C0fsf] dfqf j9fpFb} cfPsf] 5 .
z'?df !)nfv ?k}ofF C0f kfPsf] ;+:yfnfO{ @% nfv x'Fb} o;
jif{ %) nfv ?k}ofF C0f k|fKt ePsf] atfOPsf] 5 .
@)%# ;fndf :yfkgf ePsf] ls;fg sNof0fdf ut
d+l;/;Dd # xhf/ % ;o hgf ;]o/ ;b:osf] Ps s/f]8 #
nfv ?k}ofF r'Qmf k"FhL 5 . ( s/f]8 ?k}off k"FhL ePsf]
;xsf/Ldf ( s/f]8 ?k}ofF ;Dklt 5 eg] lgIf]k % s/f]8 /
nufgL & s/f]8 @! nfv 5 .
ljkGg ju{nfO{ ;xsf/Lsf] kx'r
F df NofP/ n3'ljQ sfo{qmd
dfkm{t pgLx?sf] hLjg:t/ kl/jt{gdf ;xof]u ub}{ cfPsf]
;+:yfn] O6x/L, Og?jf gu/kflnsfsf] ;fy} PsDjf, ksnL,
ef;L, aSnf}/L, e/f}n, l;+uLof, k|sfzk'/, dx]Gb|gu/ nufot
@) uflj;df sfo{qmd ;Grfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ;+:yfn]
n3'ljQ, jrt C0fsf] ;fy} /]ld6]G; e'QmfgL ;]jf ;d]t ;Grfng
ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
PlzofnL C0f dxf;+3sf] dfkb08 k'/f ul/ o;} jif{b]vL
PS;]; a|fl08ª\df k/]sf] ls;fg sNof0f ;'g;/Lsf % ;o eGbf
jl9 ;xsf/LdWo] pTs[i6 b'O ;xsf/Ldf kb{5 .
;]o/ ;b:o ;'/Iff

;xsf/Ln] ;]o/ ;b:osf nflu ;'/Iff sfo{qmd ;Grfng
ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ;+:yfn] ;Grfng u/]sf] ;f] of]hgfdf !^
jif{b]vL %% jif{ pd]/sf @ ;o hgf ;xeflu /x]sf] ;+:yfsf
Aoj:yfks v]d Gof}kfg]n] hfgsf/L lbP . ;f] of]hgfdf ;xeflu
x'g] ;b:osf] b'3{6gfsf sf/0f d[To' ePdf sjf]n c+ssf]
bf]Aa/ / sfnultn] d[To'x'Fbf sjf]n c+s a/fa/sf] /sd /fxt
:j?k lghsf kl/jf/nfO{ lbg] ;+:yfn] hgfPsf] 5 .

‘$) xhf/ ;]o/ ;b:o /
Ps ca{ r'Qmf k"h
“ L k'¥ofp“5f}’+
♦r'8f/fh vltj8f -cWoIf_, ls;fg sNof0f art tyf C0f ;xsf/L PsDaf,;'g;/L
ls;fg sNof0fnfO{ of] cj:yfd Nofpg ;Dk"0f{ ;]o/
;b:o, ;Grfns ;ldlt, Joj:yfkg ;ldlt ;lxtsf] l;ª\uf]
l6dsf] e"ldsf 5 . ;kmntfsf] d"Vo >]o ;d'bfosf] ;]jf xf]
. ;d'bfon] xfd|f] l6dnfO{ ljZjf; u/]sf] 5 .
t/ xfdLn] ;d'bfosf] nflu ug{ cem} w]/} afFsL 5 .
xfdLn] ;fdfGo dfq} ubf{ klg xfdL k|lt ;d'bfosf] ljZjf;
a9]sf] 5 / of] ljzjf;nfO{ sfod /fVb} ;d'bfo k|lt cem
;dlk{t eP/ hfg] xfd|f] nIo 5 .
t/ ljlQo jhf/n] xfdLnfO{ s]xL c;/ kf/]sf] 5 .
;xsf/Lsf] ;+Vof j9];fu} u}/ ;b:odf sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;+:sf/
a9\b} uPsfn] lglt lgoddf rNg] ;+:yfx?nfO{ jfwf

lglzrt ?kdf k/]sf] 5 t/ Tof] jfwf;fu h'4} ;d'bfonfO{
oyfy{ ;';"lrt ub}{ xfdL cl3 al9 /x]sf 5f}+ .
xfdLn] tTsfnsf] nflu lqjifL{o / lb3{sfnsf] nflu !)
jlif{o of]hgf cuf8L ;f/]sf 5f}+ . cfufdL !) jif{df $)
xhf/ ;]o/ ;b:o / ! ca{ r'QmfkF"hL k"FhL k'of{pg] nIo5 .

h]7 @)&)

37

;fgf Aoj;foLsf] ;fyL dflnsf art
O6x/L gu/kflnsf If]qdf yf]/} k"h
F L nufgL
u/]/ Aofkf/ Aoj;fo ub}{ cfPsf dlxnf
Aoj;foLx?sf] ;'v b'Mvsf] ;fyL ag]sf] 5
dflnsf art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf .
O6x/L gu/If] q sf sl/j () cf] 6 f
;xsf/Lsf] dfemdf cfk\mg} klxrfg /fVg ;kmn
dflnsfn] cfk\mgf ;]o/ ;fgf Aoj;foLnfO{ #
hgf ;]o/ ;b:osf] hdfgLdf %) xhf/
?k}ofF;Dd lagflwtf] nufgL ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . b}lgs art
;+sng tyf ;]o/ ;b:oaf6 shf{sf] ls:tf / Jofh ;+sngsf]
nflu ;+:yfn] % hgf ;+sns sd{rf/Lsf] Joj:yf u/]sf]
;+:yfsf cWoIf nIdLk|;fb ef/tL atfpF5g\ .
…pxfFx? ;w} cfk\mgf] sfddf Ao:t eO /xg' ePsf] x'G5
art / C0fsf] ls:tf /sd af]s]/ ;w}+ ;+:yfsf] sfof{nodf
cfpg ufx|f] x'G5 . pxfFx?nfO{ xfdLn] Toltdfq ;'ljwf lbg
;Sof}+ eg] klg w]/} /fxt x'g] dx;'z ul/ 3/b}nf] ;]jf ;Grfng
u/]sf xf}+ .Ú ef/tL eG5g\ . olx ;]jfsf sf/0f xfd|f ;]o/
;b:o dWo] $) k|ltzt dlxnfx? Aoj;fodf nfUg' ePsf] 5
pxfFx?sf] ;xof]uL dflnsf art aGg kfPsf] 5 .

;+:yfn] 3/hUuf lwtf] b[li6aGws u/]/ eg]
# nfv ?k}ofF;Dd nufgL ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . @)^&
;fndf #% hgf ;]o/ ;b:osf] $ nfv &&
xhf/ ;]/k"FhLaf6 z'? ePsf] ;+:yfdf xfn !
;o $) hgf ;]o/ ;b:osf] @* nfv ?k}ofF
;]o/ k"h
F L / Ps s/f]8 ?k}ofF art lgIf]k
/x]sf] 5 . (% nfv ?k}ofF shf{ nufgL u/]sf]
;+:yfsf] nufgLsf] () k|ltzt eGbf jl9
Jofkf/ Aoj;fod} /x]sf] cWoIf ef/tLsf] egfO 5 . xfn
Aoj;fodf cfj4 gePsf dlxnfnfO{ lgs6 elj:od} cfod"ns
tflnd ;Grfng ul/ cfTdlge{/tfsf] nflu Aoj;fodf nfUg
pTk|]/0ff lbg] sfo{qmd /x]sf] ;xsf/Ln] ;+:yfsf ;]o/ ;b:o
dWo] jif{e/Lsf pTs[i6, C0fL / art stf{nfO{{ k|To]s jif{sf]
;fwf/0f ;efdf ;Ddfg ug]{ k/Dk/f a;fPsf]5 .
cWoIf ef/tL eG5g\–z'?b]vL g} xfdLn] of] sfo{qmd
/fv]sf sf/0f ;j} ;]o/;b:ox? pTk|]l/t eO sf]eGbf sf]
sdsf] efjgfn] ;+:yfdf ;lqmo x'Fb} cfpg' ePsf]5 .
P;Pn;Ldf pTs[i6 cª\s Nofpg] ;]o/ ;b:osf 5f]/f
5f]/LnfO{ klg xfdLn] k'[/:s[t ug]{ u/]sf 5f}+ .

;kmntfdf d]3f art
@! cf}+ ztfAbLsf] o'u ;'xfpFbf] k|ljlw leq\ofP/
klxnf]lbgb]vL g} cTofw'lgs k|ljlw dfkm{t ;]o/ ;b:onfO{
;]jf lbg yfn]sf] O6x/Ll:yt d]3f art tyf C0f ;xsf/L
;+:yfn] Ps jif{sf] pknlAw pT;fx hgs ePsf] hgfPsf]5 .
;xsf/Lsf cWoIf clgn u'/fufOFn] klxnf] jif{ sfof{no
Aoj:yfkg / k|ljlw ljsf;df jl9 vr{ ePsfn] d'gfkmf
cfh{g ug{ g;s]klg ;]o/;b:ox?n] u/]sf] ljZjf; /
sf/f]jf/n] cfFk'mx?nfO{ pT;flxt agfPsf] atfP .
O6x/Lsf *) cf]6f ;xsf/Lsf] le8df a]Un} klxrfg
agfP/ xfdL cfPsf lyof}+ . k|ltikwf{df l6Sg ;lsPnfsL
g;lsPnf eGg] lrGtf AofKt lyof] t/ ;xsf/L :yfkgf eP/
sf/f]jf/ z'? u/]sf] 8]9 jif{sf] ;ldIff ubf{ xfdL k"0f{ ;kmn
ePsf5f} .
o;jif{ utjif{sf] 3f6f k"lt{ u/]/ /fd|} gfkmf x'g] cg'dfg
5 u'/fufOFn] eg]…xfdLn] &÷* hgf o'jfnfO{ /f]huf/L lbPsf
5f}+ of] xfd|f] pknlAw xf] . o'jf zlQmn] ljb]zg} hfg' k5{
eGg] dfGotf :yflkt eO /x]sf] a]nf olx klg s]xL ug{
;lsG5 eg]/ xfdL o'jf ldn]/ of] ;+:yf z'? u/]sf lyof}+ . Ú
o; jif{bv
] L ;+:yfnfO{ cem ;zQm 9+un] rnfpg] xfd|f]
of]hgf 5 . z'?df xfd|f] sfof{no Aoj:yfkgdf jl9 vr{
ePklg ;k\m6j]o/, kmlg{r/ nufotsf ;Dklt xfdLn] hf]8s
] f

38

h]7 @)&)

5f} @÷$ jif{ To;df vr{ gx'g] ePsfn] xfd|f] casf] vr{
eg]sf] sd{rf/Lsf] tnj eQf dfq xf] . ;xsf/L If]qsf
r'gf}tL eg]sf] ;xsf/Lk|ltsf] j9\bf] cljZjf; xf] . w]/}
;xsf/Lsf] le8df st}klg cfj4 gePsf ;]o/ ;b:o x'g]
dfG5] e]6g\ } ufx«f] 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf klg xfdLn] gofF
;xsf/L :yfkgf u/]/ o;/L ;Grfng ug'{ Tolt ;lhnf]
lyPg To}klg xfd|f] p2]ZonfO{ ;j} ;]o/ ;b:ox?n] ;fy lbg'
eof] / xfdLn] pxfFx?sf] ;]jf ug]{] cj;/ kfPsf 5f}+ .

s[lifdf k|ljlw leq\ofp“b}
ax'dv
' L s[lif ;xsf/L
k|ljlw leq\ofPkl5 s[lif dhb'/sf] cefj em]Nb}
cfPsf ls;fgx?nfO{ /fxt ldNg] xfdLn]
cfzf u/]sf 5f}+ .
– cWoIf
o'j/fh uf}td
;'g;/Lsf] dx]Gb|gu/ –( ;fnjlGbl:yt ax'dv
' L s[lif ;xsf/L
;+:yfn] :yfgLo ?kdf s[lif k]zfnfO{ k|j4{g ug{ cfw'lgs s[lif
k|ljlw leq\ofpg] ePsf] 5 .
Pstfsf g]kfne/L vkt x'g] l6lko; cfn'sf] aLpm @&
k|ltzt Pp6} 6f]ndf vkt u/]/ l6lko; cfn' v]tLdf cu|0fL
ePsf] ;fnjlGbdf @)^% ;fndf sf]zL glbsf] afFw k'm6]/
;8s cj?4 ePkl5 pTkflbt cfn' ljlqm ug{ gkfP/ 3f6f
;xg' k/]kl5 ls;fgn] r6\Ss} cfn' v]tL 5f]8] . xfn cfn'sf]
;6\6f pGgt hftsf] ds} / /fhdf v]tLdf o; If]qsf ls;fg
Psf]xf]/f] 9ª\un] nfu]sf 5g\ . klxn] l6lko; cfn'sf] aLpm
pknAw u/fpg] / ahf/Ls/0f ug]{ u/]sf] ax'dv
' L s[lif ;xsf/Ln]
clxn] ds} / /fhdfdf klg Tolx ul//x]sf] 5 .
;+:yfn] dnsf] ;fy} aLpm klg pknAw u/fpF5 . ;fnjlGbdf
dfq sl/j @ ;o %) lj3fdf ds} / %) lj3fdf /fhdf v]tL
x'g] u/]sf] 5 . ds} / /fhdf b'j}n] # dlxgfdf wfg uFx' eGbf
# u'0ff;Dd jl9 cfDbfgL u/fpg] ePsfn] ls;fgx? otf
cfslif{t ePsf x'g\ . s[lifdf sfd ug]{ dhb'/x?sf] ljb]z

knfogn] ubf{ s[lifdf oflGqs/0f clt h?/L ePsf]5 . Ps
÷8]9 lj3f hUuf x'g] ls;fgn] cfFkm} s[lif oGq vl/b ubf{
nfut al9 x'g] ePsfn] ;xsf/Ln] oGq vl/b u/]/ ls;fgnfO{
;x'lnot ?kdf k|of]u ug{ lbg] gLlt agfpg nfu]sf] ;+:yfsf
Joj:yfks z+s/ e§/fO{n] hfgsf/L lbP .
!% jif{ cl3 :yfkgf ePsf] ;xsf/Ldf $ ;o hgf ;]o/
;b:o 5g\ . !) nfv ;]o/k"h
F L /x]sf] ;+:yfdf &@ nfv lgIf]k
/ ^) nfv shf{ nufgL 5 . dx]Gb|gu/;lxt % cf]6f uflj;
sfo{If]q /x]sf] ;+:yfn] dx]Gb|gu/ jhf/df ;]jf s]Gb| ;d]t
rnfpFb} cfPsf] 5 . ls;fgsf] dfu cg';f/ ;+:yfn] o;}jif{ @
cf]6f 6\ofs6/, 6«nL, @ yfg /f]6fe]6/, - hf]Tg] cf}hf/_, sN6L
/ n]jn/ Nofpg] of]hgf /x]sf] ;+:yfsf cWoIf o'j/fh uf}tdn]
atfP . pgsf cg';f/ #) nfv nfut l:6d]6sf cf}hf/sf]
nflu xfn ;+:yfn] #) k|ltzt nufgL ug]{ 5 eg] &) k|ltzt
Pe/]i6 a}ª\sn] shf{ nufgL ug s'/f rln/x]sf] 5 . …o;
jif{b]vL s[lif dhb'/sf] cefjn] lrlGtt ls;fgsf] nflu /fxt
ldNg] cfzf xfdLnfO{ 5 .Ú uf}td eG5g\ .

;'g;/Lsf] dx]Gb|gu/l:yt ;lGrt gf/L ljsf; art tyf
C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfn] dlxnfsf] z;lQms/0fsf] ;fy} Aoj;foLs
Ifdtf clej[l4df dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpFb} cfPsf] 5 .
gf/L ljsf; ;+3df cfj4 ! ;o %) hgf dlxnfx?n]
@)%* ;fndf :yfkgf u/]sf] ;lGrt gf/L ljsf; ;xsf/Ln]
dlxnfx?nfO{ /sd ;Gro ug{ / cfTdlge{/tfsf nflu Joj;fo
ug{ pTk|]l/t u/L Joj;foLs tflnd ;d]t lbb} cfPsf] 5 .
;+:yfn] ljleGg vfnsf n3'pBd,l;nfO s6fO, a'l6s
nufotsf tflnd lbP/ Aoj;fodf C0f;d]t nufgL ul/
pTk|]/0ff ub}{ cfPsf] hgfPsf] 5 .
xfn $ ;o hgf dlxnf ;]o/ ;b:o /x]sf] ;xsf/Lsf] #
nfv &) xhf/ ;]o/kF"hL / sl/j ## nfv art lgIf]k /x]sf]
5 . sl/j %)
nfv ?k} o fF
C0f nufgL
u/]sf] ;+:yfsf
;b:onfO{
;] G 6/ km/
dfOqmf]
kmfOgfG;

u|fld0f dlxnfnfO{ Joj;foL
agfp“b} ;lGrt gf/L
gfds ;+:yfn] z;lQms/0fdf ;xof]u ub}{ cfPsf] ;+:yfsL
cWoIf lxdf lg/f}nf atfpFl5g\ . ;xsf/Ldf cfj4 dlxnf ;]o/
;b:ox?nfO{ Joj;fodf pTk|]l/t ug{ ;+:yfn] ufO, jfv|f,
ju'/ nufotsf kz'kfng, s'v'/fkfng tyf Aofkf/ Aoj;fo
;Grfng ug{ ljgf lwtf] % xhf/b]vL Psnfv ?k}ofF;Dd C0f
nufgL ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . b}lgs ls:tfjlGbdf C0f c;'nL ub}{
cfPsf] ;+:yfaf6 sl/j @ ;o %) hgf dlxnfn] C0f lnP/
cfk\mgf] /f]hfOsf] Aoj;fo ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . u|fld0f If]qdf /x]/
dlxnf z;lQms/0fsf] nflu pbfx/0fLo sfd ub}{ cfPsf] ;+:yfsf]
sfdsf] d"Nofª\sg ub}{ ;xsf/L k|lzIf0f tyf l8lehg sfof{no
;'g;/Ln] @)^* ;fndf lhNnfsf] pTs[i6 ;xsf/Lsf] ?kdf
k'/:s[t u/]sf] lyof] . Go"g cfly{s cj:yf ePsf tyf Psn
dlxnfnfO{ ljz]iful/ k|fyldstfdf /fv]/ ;]jf k'¥ofpFb} cfPsf]
;xsf/Laf6 C0f lnP/ w]/n
} ] cfk\mgf] hLjg ofkgsf] dfWod
Aoj;fonfO{ agfPsf5g\ . Aoj;fo ub}{ cfPsf dlxnf dWo]
lgd{nf ;fx, nLnfb]jL ;fx, ozf]bf ;'jb] L, nIdL >]i7sf] k|ult
To; If]qd} pbfx/0fLo /x]sf] ;+:yfsL cWoIf lxdf atfpFl5g\ .

h]7 @)&)

39

kf}/v l;sfp“b} kf}/vL art
tkfOF lzIfs jf sd{rf/L x'gx' G' 5 / df]/ª\ afx'gL uflj;sf]
jfl;Gbf x'g'x'G5 eg] tkfOFnfO{ v';Lsf] vj/ 5 .
afx'gL –( l:yt kf}/vL art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfn]
tkfOF sfo{/t sfof{nosf] kqsf] cfwf/df ^ dlxgfsf] tnj
a/fa/sf] /sd tkfOFn] kl/jf/sf] Aoj;fo ;Grfngsf] nflu
jf 3/ Aojxf/sf] nflu shf{ :j?k kfpg' x'g]5 t/ tkfOF
pQm ;+:yfsf] ;]o/ ;b:o x'g' h?/L 5 .
kf}/vL artn] kf}/v ug{ rfxfg] t/ k"FhL gePsfx?nfO{
k"FhLsf] Aoj:yfkg / kf}/v ug]{ l;ksf]nflu tflnddf ;d]t
;xof]u ub{5 . ;+:yfsf cWoIf OGb|k|;fb uf}tdsf cg';f/
@)%! ;fndf :yfkgf ePsf] pQm ;xsf/Ldf ut df3
d;fGt;Dd * ;o @ hgf ;]o/ ;b:o ag]sf 5g\ / ;+:yfdf
pgLx?sf] r'QmfkFhL $$nfv /x]sf] 5 . ;ldIff cjlwdf Ps
s/f]8 *# nfv ?k}ofF art lgIf]k ;+sng u/]sf] kf}/vLn] b'O
s/f]8 !% nfv ?k}ofF shf{ nufgL u/]sf] 5 . ;ft;o
hgfnfO{ C0f nufgL u/]sf] ;+:yfn] ! ;o %) hgfnfO{
Aofkf/ Joj;fodf nufgL u/]sf] 5 . afFsL nufgL s[lif,
kz'kfng, jfof]UofF; nufotdf 5 .
;+:yfs} nufgLdf Ps;o kl/jf/n] uf]j/UofF; KnfG6
h8fg u/]sf 5g\ . uf]j/UofF; h8fg ug]{nfO{ ;+:yfn] nfUg]
Aofhsf] ^) k|ltzt 5'6 lbg] u/]sf] cWoIf uf}tdn] hfgsf/L
lbP . …shf{ nufgL p2]Zo cg'?k x'gk' 5{ eGg] d"n w]o xf] .
xfdLn] e}+;L kfNg s;}n] C0f lng rfxG5 eg] klxn] e}+;L
vf]h]/ bfd l5Gg nufpF5f}+ clg e}+;Lsf] df]n e}+;L laqm]tfnfO{
af]nfP/ e'QmfgL lbG5f} / e};L lng] ;]o/ ;b:osf] gfddf
C0f n]V5f}+ . e}+;Lsf] b'w a]Rg p;nfO{ sl7g eof] eg] 8]/L;Fu
s'/f u/]/ b'w lsGg] aftfj/0f ldnfOlbG5f}+ .Ú uf}td eG5g\ .
olb s;}n] ds} v]tLsf] nflu C0f lng rfxG5 eg] p;n]
slt hUufdf ds} v]tL nufpg] xf] To;sf] nflu slt vr{
nfU5 Tof] l:6d]6 dfU5f}+ . To;kl5 hUuf hf]Tg nufpF5f}+ .
aLp sxfF kfOG5 th'{df ul/lbG5f}+ .
hldg hf]ts
] f] ;"rgf cfPkl5 xfd|f] lgl/If0f 6f]nLn] hldg
hf]t] ghf]t]sf] cg'udg u/]/ lbPsf] k|ltj]bg cg';f/ 6\ofS6/
jf uf]?wgLnfO{ g} ;+:yfn] /sd e'QmfgL ul/lbG5 . aLp, dn,
uf]8d]n ug]{,jfnL p7fpg] dhb'/sf] Hofnf klg ;+:yfn] g}
ltl/lbG5 . jfnL p7fPkl5 ljlqm ug{ sl7g ePdf ljlqm
ul/lbg] lhDdf ;d]t ;+:yfn] g} lng] pgL atfpF5g\ .
;+:yfn] ;of}+nfO{ o;/L g} C0f nufgL u/]/ pgLx?n]
rfx]sf] sfddf ;xof]u ub}{ cfPsf]5 . xfd|f] ;+:yf u|fld0f
dlxnf ul/jL Go"gLs/0f sfo{qmd nfu' ug]{ g]kfns} klxnf]
;+:yf xf] . xfdLn] rnfPsf] sfo{qmdsf]cg's/0f u/]/ g]km\ :s"gn]
b]ze/L rnfO /x]sf] 5 . xfdLn] cfk\mg} lx;fjn] clxn] klg !
;o$% hgf dlxnfx?nfO{ n3'ljQdf ;xeflu u/fPsf 5f} .
t/ Pp6} AolQmnfO{ $ cf]6f;Dd n3'ljQ ;+:yfn] ;xeflu
u/fpg] k|j[lt 5 . xfdLn] ;xsf/Laf6 kfFr xhf/ C0f nufgL
u/]/ Ps jif{df % xhf/ $ ;o lnG5f}+ t/ n3'ljQ sDkgLn]
^ xhf/ $ ;o lnG5g\ . uf}td eG5g\ olt ubf{klg /fHon]
;xsf/LnfO{ x]g]{ b[li6sf]0f g} /fd|f] agfPsf] 5}g . l8lehg
40

h]7 @)&)

;xsf/L sfof{nosf sd{rf/Ln] ;d]t ;xsf/Lsf] dxTj a'em]sf
5g h:tf] nfUb}g . /fHon] ;xsf/L btf{ ug]{ afx]ssf] s'g}
bfloTj lgjf{x u/]sf] 5}g .

xflb{s z'esfdgf
gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o
dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+
. ;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L ljz]if
k|sflzt u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf lg/Gt/tfsf]
z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
OGb|k|;fb uf}td -cWoIf_

kf}/vL art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=
afx'gL–(, df]/ª

‘gofF pBf]u, lr:ofg s]Gb| /
kfp8/ KnfG6 k|fyldstfdf 5g\’
afa'/fd vqL -cWoIf_
sfdw]g' b'Uw ljsf; ;xsf/L ;+:yf ln, t/x/f

sfdw]g' b'Uw ljsf; ;xsf/L ;+:yf t/x/fsf] ut sflt{sdf
ePsf] !# cf}+ jflif{s ;fwf/0f;efaf6 ;+:yfsf] cWoIfdf afa'/fd
bfxfn vqL r'lgPsf 5g\ . nfdf] ;dob]vL ;xsf/Ldf lqmoflzn
vqL rt/fl:yt ;fd'bflos ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf Aoj:yfks ;d]t
x'g\ . pgL sfdw]gs
' f] cWoIf ePkl5 s] s] ub}5
{ g\ pgL;Fusf]
s'/fsfgL oxfF k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .

:yfkgf ug{ vl/b ul/Psf] cfk\mg} @ /f]kgL hUufdf cfufdL
jif{ ejg lgdf{0f ul/ lr:ofg s]Gb| :yfkgf ug],{ ldgL
kfp8/ KnfG6 :yfkgf ul/ xfn vkt eO/x]sf] b}lgs !)
xhf/ ln6/ b'wnfO{ bf]Aa/ agfpg] nIo 5 .
pTkfbg ljljwLs/0f ug]{ gL <
xfn blx, dlx, £o", klg/, v'jf pTkfbg u/]/ ljlqm ljt/0f
ul//x]sf 5f}+ . oL pTkfbgdf ld7fO{,cfO;lqmd,km\n]j/
ldNs,k]8+ f, /;j/L nfndf]xg OToflbsf] pTkfbg ykug]{
of]hgf 5 . xfn ;+:yf cfFkm}n] ahf/Ls/0f ;d]t ub}{
cfPsf]df cj ahf/Ls/0fsf] sfd l8n/dfkm{t ug]{ eg]/
xfdLn] ljleGg :yfgdf l8n/ ;d]t lgo"lQm ul/ ;s]sf5f}
. ls;fgnfO{ bIf agfO Aoj;foLs kz'kfngdf k|f]T;flxt
ug{ ljleGg tflnd lbg] nufotsf sfo{qmd nfu' ub}{5f}+ .

sfdw] g ' s f] cWoIf ePkl5 s] s] sfdnfO{
k|fyldstfdf /fVg' ePsf] 5 <
sfdw]gs
' f pTkfbg u'0f:t/Lo / :jf:Yoj4{s 5g\
clxn] ;Grfng eO/x]sf] 8]/L pBf]usf] :yn w]/} ;fF3'/f] eGg] cfwf/ s] xf] <

ePsf] 5 . 8]/L pBf]unfO{ km/flsnf] 7fpFdf ;fg]{ eg]/
cl3Nnf] sfo{;ldltn] g}+ lg0f{o u/]/ cfFkuf5Ldf @ lj3f !
s6\7f hUuf ;d]t vl/b ul/;s]sfn] ;f]xL :yfgdf gofFKnfG6
lgdf{0f z'?ug],{ To:t} wgs'6fsf] hf]/kf6Ldf lr:ofg s]Gb|

;+:yfn] b'Ohgf vfB k|fljlwsaf6 u'0f:t/ hfFr u/fO{
pkef]u of]Uo 5 eGg] lglZrt u/]kl5 dfq pTkfbg ahf/df
nfg] u/]sfn] oxfFsf pTkfbg :jf:Yoj4{s / u'0f:t/Lo
5g\ eGg] ;j}nfO{ ljZjf; lbnfpg rfxG5' .

b'w lbg]nfO{ uf]7 dd{t ;xof]u
Aoj;foLs kz'kfngsf] k|j4{g ub}{ cfPsf] ;+ejt k"jf{Grns}
Psdfq ;xsf/L t/x/fsf] sfdw]g' b'Uw ljsf; ;xsf/Ln]
;+:yfdf lgoldt b'w ljlqm ug]{ ls;fgnfO{ aflif{s ?kdf uf]7
dd{t vr{ cg'bfg :j?k pknAw u/fpFb} cfPsf] 5 . ;fy}
;+:yfn] ;]o/ ;b:ox?nfO{ kz'kfngsf nflu ;x'lnot
jofhb/df C0f lbg] / Aofhsf] && k|ltzt 5'6 lbg] ;d]t
u/]sf] 5 .
;+:yfn] b}lgs !) ln6/ b'w pknAw u/fpg]nfO{ jflif{s
?kdf ^ xhf/ ?k}ofFsf b/n] ;xof]u ub}{ cfPsf] hgfPsf] 5 .
;+:yfnfO{ k|ToIf ?kdf b'w lbg] Aoj;foLs kz'kfns ls;fgsf]
;+Vof @% 5 eg] df]/ª\, ;'g;/L / wgs'6faf6 sl/j tLgbh{g
;xsf/L ;+:yfn] b'w pknAw u/fpFb} cfPsf 5g\ . b}lgs !)
xhf/ ln6/ b'w vl/b ul/ blx,dlx,£o",klg/,v'jf OToflb agfP/
ljlqm ljt/0f ub}{ cfPsf] ;+:yfn] kz'kfns ls;fgnfO{ b'w
pknAw u/fPsf] cfwf/df jflif{s ^ xhf/b]vL ! nfv *)

xhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd uf]7 dd{t vr{ lbb} cfPsf] 5 . kz'kfng ug]{
;]o/ ;b:onfO{ ;+:yfn] kz'sf] k/n d"Nosf] *) k|ltzt;Dd
C0f nufgL ug]{ / ;+:yfdf lgoldt b'w pknAw u/fPdf nfUg]
Jofhsf] && k|ltzt ldgfxflbg] u/]sf] ;+:yfsf ;x Aoj:yf
lgb]{zs s[i0fk|;fb l3dL/]n] hfgsf/L lbP .
@)%& ;fndf $% hgfn] :yfkgf u/]sf] sfdw]gd
' f xfn !
;o &* ;+:yf tyf AolQm ;]o/ ;b:o /x]sf 5g\ . ut k';
d;fGt;Ddsf] r'Qmf ;]o/k"FhL # s/f]8 $^ nfv , lgIf]k @
s/f]8 *( nfv / shf{ nufgL $ s/f]8 ^@ nfv ?k}ofF /x]sf]
5 . ;ldIff cjlwdf ;+:yfn] ^ s/f]8 @# nfvsf] !%nfv %&
xhf/ ln6/ b'w vl/b u/]/ ljleGg ;fdfg pTkfbg ul/ ljlqm
ljt/0f u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
;fy} ;+:yfn] kz' ljsf; sf]ifsf] Joj:yf ul/ ;xsf/Lsf
;]o/;b:o kz'kfns ls;fgnfO{ ;x'lnot ?kdf bfgf,cf}ifwL
/ k|fljlws ;]jf ;d]t lbb} cfPsf] 5 .

h]7 @)&)

41

ljB't ;xsf/L k|flws/0fsf] uf]7fnf]
;d'bfodf ljB't ljt/0f, ld6/
l/l8ª\ , dxz'n ;+sng / dd{t ;+ef/sf]
sfd ub}{ cfPsf ljB't ;xsf/L
;+:yfx? g]kfn ljB't k|flws/0fsf
uf]7fnf dfq ePsf 5g\ .
ljB't lgodfjln @)^% df %)
s]leP eGbf jl9 Ifdtfsf] 6|fG;kmd{/ /fVg]
u|fxssf] :jfldTj k|flws/0fdf x'g]
n k'/g /fO{
elgPklg Tof] eGbf sd Ifdtfsf
6|fG;km/d{/sf] :jfldTj ;d]t ;xsf/LnfO{
lbPsf] 5}g . ;xsf/Ln] ;fgf u|fxssf] dfq dx'n p7fpg kfpF5
. to:t} 7fpFdf jl9 x'lsª\ u/]/ ljB't rf]/L x'g] ;d:of 5 .
@)^! ;fndf :yfkgf ePsf] df]/ª\ ;fd'bflos u|fld0f
ljB't ;xsf/L ;+:yfn] sfd z'? ubf{ ;'Gb/k'/, b'nf/L /
d[uf}lnofsf ! xhf/ * ;o u|fxs lyP clxn] %& ;o u|fxs
5g\ t/ bzsf}+ k'/fgf] kf]n, 6|fG;kmd{/ nufotsf ;+/rgf
kl/jt{g gul/ lbPsf sf/0f k|fljlws ?kdf klg r'xfj6
cTolws a9]sf] 5 . h;n] ubf{ ;+:yfn] jiff}{gL 3f6f ;xb}
cfPsf] 5 . ;fdfGo dd{t ;+ef/ jfx]s 7"nf] dd{t ;+ef/sf]
sfd k|flws/0fn] g} ug'{ kg]{ ;+emf}tfdf ePklg !! s]eLPsf
kf]n xfjfx'/Ln] eTsfPsf] dlxgf};
+ Dd klg k|flws/0fn] kl/jt{g
gug]{ ;d:of 5 .
hgtfn] u'gf;f] ubf{ ljlu|Psf] cj:yfsf] dd{t ;'wf/ ug]{
sfd ;xsf/Lsf] xf] eg]/ hgtfdf xfdL k|lt clj:jf; a9fpg]
sfd k|flws/0fsf sd{rf/Ln] ug]{ ub{5g\ . ljlgoddf ;xsf/Lsf]
If]qdf ;j :6]zgaf6 5'66} lkm8/sf] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{ s'/f
pNn]v ePklg sfo{If]q aflx/ !^ lsnf]dL6/ 3'dfP/ xfdLnfO{
ljB't lbPsf] 5 . sfo{If]q aflx/ ljlu|bf klg ;xsf/Ln] g}
agfpg' kg]{ jfWotf 5 . ljlu|LPsf] ld6/ aif{ ljTbf klg dd{t
gug],{ 6f]8 ld6/ ljlu|Pdf k|flws/0fn] agfpg' kg]{ ePklg
gul/ lbg] ul/ /x]sf] 5 .
rf/306f nf]8;]l8\ x'bF f p7\g] dx;'nsf] cfwf/df !^ 306f
nf]8;]l8\ x'Fbf klg cf};t dxz'n lng] u/]sf] 5 . l;+rfOdf
;/sf/n] lbPsf] cg'bfg k|flws/0fn] lng] t/ To;df sfd eg]
;xsf/LnfO{ u/fpg] cGofok"0f{ Aojxf/ eO /x]sf5g\ . b]ze/L
g} k|flws/0fn] ljB't ;xsf/L dfly cGofo ul/ /x]sf] u'gf;f]
5 . b]ze/L @ ;o %% cf]6f ljB't ;xsf/L 5g\ . w]/}
;xsf/Ln] k|flws/0fsf] cGofok"0f{ Aoaxf/n] sfd 5f]l8 ;s]sf]
cj:yf 5 . olb k|flws/0fn] ;dod} cgofok"0f{ Aoaxf/
;RofpFb}g eg] xfdL xfd|f] 3/ 3/gfaf6 k|flws/0fnfO{ /sd
a'emfpg ;Sb}gf} a? ;xsf/L g} k|flws/0fnfO{ lhDdf nufpg
jfWo x'g' kg]{ cj:yf 5 . lj/f6gu/ If]qLo sfof{no cGt{ut
k|flws/0f sd{rf/Ln] ;j}eGbf jl9 lgod pnª\3g u/]sf] ljB't
;xsf/L s]lGb|o ;+3n] klg /]s8{ /fv]sf] 5 . xfdLn] af/Djf/
42

h]7 @)&)

b]ze/L @ ;o %%
ljB't ;xsf/L
b]ze/L @ ;o %%cf]6f ljB't ;xsf/L ;+:yf btf{
ePsf 5g\ . tL dWo] xfn @ ;o $! cf]6fdfq ;Grfngdf
/x]sf] ljB't ;xsf/L dxf;+3sf s]lGb|o dxf;lrj gf/fo0f
1jfnL atfpF5g\ . 1jfnLsf cg';f/ @ ;o $! cf]6f
ljB't ;xsf/L dWo] ! ;o *) cf]6fn] ljB't ;]jf ;Grfng
ul/ /x]sf 5g\ . cGon] eg] pTkfbgsf] sfd u5{g\ . ! ;o
*) ;xsf/Ln] b]ze/L @ nfv #( xhf/ 3/nfO{ ljB't
;]jf lbb} cfPsf 5g\ . ! nfv $* 3/df ljB't lj:tf/sf]
sfd eO /x]sf] 5 eg] %) xhf/ 3/df ljB't lj:tf/sf
nflu nfut :6Ld]6 ePsf] 5 . pgsf cg';f/ b]ze/L
;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n] k|flws/0fsf] eGbf /fd|f];Fu ljB't
Joj:yfkg u/]sf 5g\ . Tof] k|flws/0fsf clwsf/Lx?n]
;d]t :jLsf/ ub}{ cfPsf] s'/f xf] . …t/ k"jf{Grn If]qdf
eg] k|flws/0fsf] tkm{af6 ljlgodfjln pnª\3gsf] sfd
eO /x]sf] 5 . ljlgodfjln kfngdf k|flws/0fsf clwsf/Lx?
lhDd]jf/ x'g' k5{ eGg] xfd|f] dfu xf] .Ú 1jfnLn] eG5g\
cfu|x ul/ /x]sf 5f}+ . olb k|flws/0fn] o:t} xs{t b]vfO /xG5
eg] xfdL ;xs/L ;+:yf p;}nfO{ lhDdf nufpg afWo x'g]5f}+ .
-/fO{, df]/ª\ ;fd'bflos u|fld0f ljB't ;xsf/L ;+:yf,
ul5ofsf cWoIf x'g\ pgL;“usf] s'/fsfgLsf] cfwf/df of] n]v
tof/ ul/Psf] xf] . _

cg'/f]w
Pshgfn] PhgfnfO{ ;fIf/ agfpg]
‘Or jfg l6r jfg’ sfo{qmd ;kmn kf/f}+
;'g;/L lhNnfdf lg/If/tf pGd'ng ug{
;Grfng ul/Psf] of] sfo{qmd ;kmn agfpg
;j}n] cf–cfk\mgf :yfgaf6 ;xof]u k'¥ofpg
lhNnfjf;L ;j}df cg'/f]w ul/G5 .

lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt
;'g;/L

3/b}nf] ;]jf lbb} blIf0fsfnL
O6x/Lsf] blIf0fsfnL art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfn]
;]o/ ;b:ox?nfO{ 3/b}nf] art tyf C0f ;]jf lbb} cfPsf]
5 . lbgrof{df cToGt Ao:t /x]sf ;b:ox?nfO{ 3/b}nf]d}
;]jf lbg;s] ;+:yf / ;]o/ ;b:o b'j}sf] lxt x'g] b]v]/ 3/b}nf]
;]jf lbb} cfPsf] ;+:yfsf Aoj:yf lgb]{zs /fdafa' g]kfn
atfpF5g\ .
b'O;o hgf ;]o/ ;b:o /x]sf] ;+:yfn] ;+sns sd{rf/L
dfkm{t art /sd ;+sng / C0fsf] Jofh tyf ls:tf c;'nL
ug]{ ;'ljwf lbPsf] 5 . ut k'; d;fGt;Dd #@nfv %^ xhf/
;]o/ k"h
F L /x]sf] ;+:yfdf ;ldIff cjlwsf] art lgIf]k !
s/f]8 @* nfv / C0f nufgL ! s/f]8 $^ nfv ?k}ofF /x]sf]
5 . ;+:yfn] lgIf]k j[l4 ug{ d'2tL vftf vf]nL # jif{ eLq @%
xhf/ art k'¥ofpg] ;j} ;]o/ ;b:o jLr ;fwf/0f;efdf
;xdlt u/] cg';f/ Ps;o hgf ;]o/ ;b:on] art ug{ z'?

u/]sf] ;+:yfn] hgfPsf] 5 . artdf clwstd !# k|ltzt;Dd
Aofh lbb} cfPsf] ;+:yfn] C0fdf clwstd !( k|ltzt;Dd
lng] u/]sf] 5 . ;dodf dfl;s Aofh a'emfpg] ;b:onfO{
;+:yfn] !) k|ltzt 5'6 ;d]t lbb} cfPsf] 5 .
O6x/Ldf :yflkt / ;fdflhs k|lti7f sdfPsf ;]o/
;b:ox?sf] jfx'Notf /x]sf] ;+:yfn] cfk\mg} ejg agfP/ sfof{no
;Grfng ug'k{ g]{ cfjZostf dx;'z ul/ cleofg ;d]t yfn]sf]
5 . ut ;fwf/0f;efaf6 cg'df]bg ul/ ;+:yfn] ejg lgdf{0fsf]
nflu 38]/L vl/b ug{ 38]/Lsf]if ;Grfng u/]sf] 5 .
;]o/ ;b:on] cfDbfgL u/]sf] Aofhsf] @ k|ltzt /sd
:j]lR5s ?kdf 38]/L sf]ifsf] nflu ;xof]u ug]{ ;fwf/0f;efdf
jx'dtn] lg0f{o u/] cg';f/ k'; d;fGt;Dd @ nfv @# xhf/
?k}off hDdf eO ;s]sf] 5 . cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf] z'?cftd}
38]/L vl/b ug]{ nIfo /x]sf] Aoj:yf lgb]z
{ s g]kfn atfpF5g\ .

bfgf artsf] !^ k|ltzt v/fa C0f
;'g;/Lsf] e'mDsfl:yt bfgf u|fld0f art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yfsf] nufgLdf /lx/x]sf] ^! nfv (( xhf/
C0f dWo] !) nfveGbf jl9 v/fa C0f /x]sf] 5 .
;+:yfsf cWoIf rGb|s'df/ rf}w/Lsf cg';f/ @)%^
;fndf :yfkgf ePsf] ;+:yfn] @)^@÷)^# eGbf cl3
nufgL ePsf] C0f dWo] c;'n x'g afFsL C0f v/fadf
/fvLPsf] xf] . To;j]nf l/S;f rfnsnfO{ dflns agfpg]
l:sd /fv]/ #) hgfnfO{ l/S;f C0f nufgL u/]sf]df !%
hgfn] cem} C0f lkmtf{ u/]sf 5}gg\ . To:t} $ cf]6f
df]6/;fOsndf u/]sf] nufgL dWo] Pp6fsf] cem} p7\g
;s]sf] 5}g .
;+:yfn] pBf]u, Jofkf/, j}b]lzs /f]huf/L, s[lif,
n3'pBd nufotdf C0f nufgL u/LPsf] ePklg To;j]nf
jrt ;+sng / C0f c;'nLdf ;+:yfaf6 k|efjsf/L k|of;
gePsf sf/0f w]/} C0f p7\g g;s]sf] rGb|s'df/ atfpF5g\
. To; j]nf h'g p2]Zosf nflu C0f nu]sf lyP . pgLx?n]
Tof] p2]Zodf ;b'kof]u gu/]sf sf/0f C0f p7\g g;s]sf] xf]
. clxn] xfdLn] C0f a'emfpg 3/b}nf]df k'u]/ tfu]tf ul/
/x]sf 5f}+ . lagf lwtf]sf] C0f ePsfn] a'emfpg c6]/ u/]sf
5g\ To}klg xfdLn] ;+emfO a'emfO u/]/ C0f a'emfpg cg'/f]w
ul//x]sf 5f}+ .
;fFjf / Aofh b'j} a'emfpg]nfO{ $) k|ltzt Aofh 5'6 /
Jofh dfq} a'emfP/ C0f gljs/0f ug{ rfxfg]nfO{ Jofhsf]
@% k|ltzt 5'6 lbg] lg0f{o ;fwf/0f;efaf6} u/]sf 5f}+ .
pgL eG5g\ .

Psxhf/ % hgf ;]o/ ;b:o /x]sf] bfgf u|fld0f
artdf 5;o$& hgf ;b:o dlxnf 5g\ . c;f/
d;fGt;Dd sl/j !# nfv r'Qmf k"h
F L /x]sf] ;+:yfdf art
/sd $! nfv !* xhf/ /x]sf] 5 . ;+:yfn] g]kfn /fi6«
a}ª\saf6 n3'laQ sf]ifsf] C0f lnP/ n3'ljQ sfo{qmd
;d]t ;Grfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .

h]7 @)&)

43

g]kfn ax'p2]ZoLo k"jf{~rns} &"nf] ;xsf/L
g]kfnsf] k"jL{åf/ sfs8le§fsf] j8f g+j/ * sfo{ If]q
lnP/ @) jif{ cl3 :yfkgf ePsf] g]kfn ax'p2]ZoLo ;xsf/L
;+:yf clxn] k"jf{Grns} 7"nf] ;xsf/L ag]sf] 5 .
g]kfn ax'p2]ZoLon] @)&% ;fn;Dd @) xhf/ ;]o/
;b:osf] @) s/f]8 r'Qmfk"FhL ;lxt lgIf]k bfloTj b'O ca{
?k}ofF / shf{ nufgL b'O ca{ @) s/f]8 k'¥ofpg] nIo /fv]sf]
5 . ;fy} ;f] cjlwdf ;+:yfsf k|wfg sfof{no ;lxt % cf]6f
sfof{nosf cfk\mg} ejg lgdf{0f ul/;Sg] ;d]t nIo /fv]sf] 5
. @)%) ;fndf @^ hgf ;]o/ ;b:osf] b'Onfv %% xhf/
;]o/k"h
F Laf6 z'? ePsf] g]kfn ;xsf/Ldf )^( k'; d;fGt;Dd
xhf/ # ;o &* hgf ;]o/ ;b:osf] ( s/f]8 ^@ nfv
r'Qmfk"FhL k'u]sf] 5 . ut cfly{s jif{ # s/f]8 *^ nfv #&
xhf/ ?k}ofF gfkmf sdfPsf] ;+:yfn] ;/sf/nfO{ cfos/ dfq
%* nfv #@ xhf/ / cGo s/ ul/ sl/j Ps s/f]8 ?k}ofF
a'emfPsf] lyof] .
;+:yfsf] d]rLgu/–!) sfs8le6\6fl:yt s]lGb|o sfof{no
/ ljtf{df]8, rGb|u9L, ;'?ª\uf,rf/cfnL, a'wjf/],algofgL,
w'nfjf/L,/ zlgZr/] ul/ * cf]6f 7fpFdf ;]jfs]Gb| /x]sf 5g\ .
@)^^ ;fndf () nfv ?k}ofF vr{ul/ s]lGb|o sfof{no ejg
lgdf{0f u/]sf] ;+:yfsf xfn ljtf{df]8 / rGb|ul9 ;]jf s]Gb|df
$÷$ tn] ejg lgdf{0f eO/x]sf5g\ . b'j} ejgsf] s"n nfut
cg'dfg @ s/f]8 @% nfv /x]sf] 5 . b'Ocf]6} ejg cfufdL
c;f/ d;fGt;Dd lgdf{0f ;DkGg ul/ cfk\mg} ejgaf6 sf/f]jf/
z'? ul/g] ;+:yfn] hgfPsf] 5 . ;]jf s]Gb|x?sf] cfk\mg} ejg
lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu % cf]6f ;]jfs]Gb|df 38]/Lsf] hUuf vl/b
ul/ ;s]sf] ;+:yfsf cWoIf /fdrGb| pk|]tLn] hfgsf/L lbP .
;+:yfn] ( cf]6} sfof{nodf cGt/ sfof{no cgnfOg sf/f]jf/
;Grfng ul/;s]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
g]kfn /fi6« a}ªs
\ af6 l;ldt a}ªl\ su sf/f]jf/ ug]{ :jLs[lt
k|fKt u/]sf] d]rL cGrns} Psdfq ;xsf/L g]kfn ax'p2]ZoLon]
ut k'; d;fGt;Dd lgIf]k df}Hbft *& s/f]8 #% nfv / shf{
nufgL (@ s/f]8 @& nfv 5 . rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] cGTo;Dd
;]o/ ;b:o * xhf/ gf3\g] / r'Qmfk"h
F L !! s/f]8 k'Ug] cg'dfg
u/]sf] ;+:yfn] (^ s/f]8 lgIf]k / Ps ca{ ^ s/f]8 nufgL k'¥ofpg]
nIo /fv]sf] k|jGw lgb]z
{ s nIdLk|;fb pk|t] Ln] hfgsf/L lbP .
;fdflhs sfddf g]kfn ;xsf/L

g]kfn ;xsf/Ln] Aoj;foLs dfq x}g u}/ Joj;foLs sfd
;d]t ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ;+:yfn] ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj sfo{qmd
cGt{ut :jf:Yo tyf v]ns'b Snj u7g ul/ ljleGg k|sf/sf
:jf:Yo lzlj/ ;Grfng ul/ :jf:Yosf] kx'r
F df k'Ug g;s]sf
;j{;fwf/0f hgtfnfO{ lzlj/sf] dfWodaf6 cf}ifwL ;lxt lgMz'Ns
:jf:o ;]jf lbb} cfPsf] 5 . To:t} gofF v]nf8L pTkfbg /
k|ltef k|fT] ;fxgsf nflu l;lgo/ / h'lgo/ lqms]6 tyf elnjn
44

h]7 @)&)

l6d tof/ ul/ ljleGg k|ltof]lutf u/fpg] u/]sf] 5 .
To:t} dlxnf ljefu u7g ul/ dlxnfx?nfO{ n}lª\us
lje]b lg?k0f sfo{qmddf ;Grfng ug]{, dlxnfx?sf nflu
Ifdtf clej[l4 tflnd, l;kd"ns tflnd OToflb ub}{ cfPsf]
5 . ;fy} h]i7 gful/sx?sf nflu ljleGg sfo{qmd ub}{
cfPsf] 5 . &) jif{ pd]/ k'/f u/]sf h]i7 ;]o/ ;b:ox?nfO{
jflif{s ?kdf ;Ddfg, lhNnf leqsf lty{x?sf] tLyf{6g,k|To]s
bz}+df hgxL Psxhf/ bz}eQf pknAw u/fpFb} cfPsf] 5 .
;+:yfn]hi] 7 gful/ssf] lb3{sflng ;Ddfgsf nflu l;lgo/ l;l6hG;
xf]dsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ ;d]t of]hgf agfPsf] 5 . pQm of]hgf cg';f/
d]rLgu/ –!@ df (^ nfv ?k}ofFdf cfjZos hUuf vl/b ul/
;s]sf] ;+:yfsf cWoIf pk|t] Ln] hfgsf/L lbP .
8]/L pBf]u
g]kfn ax'p2]ZoLo ;xsf/L ;+:yfn] kz'kfng Joj;fonfO{
k|f]T;flxt ug{ ls;fgn] pTkfbg u/]sf] b'wsf] jhf/Ls/0f ug{
d]rLgu/ –!@ sf] OF6fe§fdf % s/f]8 ?k}ofF nufgLdf 8]/L
pBf]u ;Grfng ug]{ ePsf]5 . b'w, blx, £o",cfO;lqmd
nufotsf b'UwhGo pTkfbg ug{] pBf]udf b}lgs !) xhf/
ln6/ b'w k|zf]wg ug]{ nIo /x]sf] cWoIf pk|t] L atfpF5g\ .
;+:yfsf] gfsf] $ s67f hUufdf pQm 8]/L pBf]u lgdf{0fsf]
sfd eO /x]sf] ;+:yfn] hgfPsf] 5 .

km8\sf] dfb}{ lgw{g u|fld0f ;xsf/L
;'g;/Lsf] e'mDsfdf @% hgf ;]o/ ;b:osf] #) xhf/
r'Qmfk"h
F Laf6 @)^@ d+l;/b]vL sf/f]jf/ z'? u/]sf] lgw{g u|fld0f
art ;xsf/L ;+:yf clxn] em'Dsf If]qs} jl9 sf/f]jf/ ug]{
;+:yf ag]sf] 5 .
lgw{g u|fld0f ;xsf/Ldf cfly{s jif{ @)^*÷)^(sf]
cGTo;Dd ^ ;o !^ hgf ;]o/ ;b:osf] $^ nfv &# xhf/
;]o/k"FhL /x]sf]5 . ;+:yfn] ;f] cjlwdf *& nfv ?k}ofF art
lgIf]k ;+sngul/ Ps s/f]8 $# nfv $# xhf/ ?k}ofF C0f
nufgL u/]sf] lyof] . ;+:yfn] ^) k|ltzt nufgL Aofkf/
Aoj;fodf u/]sf] 5 . ;fy} s[lif / xfo/ kr]{hdf @)÷@)
k|ltzt nufgL /x]sf] ;+:yfsf cWoIf lk|tgf/fo0f rf}w/L
atfpF5g\ .
;+:yfn]] g]kfn /fi6« a}ª\saf6 u|fld0f :jfnDjg sf]ifsf]
@$ nfv ?k}ofF C0f lnP/ n3'ljQ sfo{qmd ;d]t ;Grfng
ub}{ cfPsf] cWoIf rf}w/Ln] hfgsf/L lbP . efbufpF l;gjf/L,
dw]zf,ksnL,xfF;kf];f,aSnf}/L uflj;df sfo{qmd ;Grfng ub}{
cfPsf] ;+:yfn] u|fld0f ljkGg dlxnfx?nfO{ cfo cfh{gdf
pTk|]/0ff hufpFb} cfPsf] 5 .
@)^@ ;fnb]vLg} n3'ljQ sfo{qmd ;Grfng ub}{ cfPsf]
;+:yfn] g]kfn /fi6« a}ªs
\ af6 z'?df !% nfv C0f lnP/ ;b:ox?df
nufgL u/]sf] lyof] . pQm C0f tf]lsPs} ;dodf lkmtf{ u/]kl5
a}ªs
\ af6 x/]s jif{ a9bf] cª\sdf C0f kfpFb} cfPsf] ;+:yfn] o;
jif{ eg] @$ nfv ?k}ofF kl/rfng ul/;s]sf] 5 . ca xfdL #)
nfv ?k}ofF lng] k|lqmofdf 5f}+ cWoIf rf}w/L eG5g\ .
cflbjf;L hghftL dlxnfx? dfem n3'ljQ sfo{qmd
;Grfng u/]sf] ;+:yfn] @% cf]6f ;d"xdf @ ;o &% hgf

dlxnfnfO{ ;d]6]sf] 5 . n3'ljQ sfo{qmd ;Grfng ePsf
If]qdf lgoldt ?kdf ;xsf/L ;DaGwL ;r]tgf rnfpFb}
cfPsf] ;+:yfn] P;Pn;Ldf pTs[i6 cª\s Nofpg] # hgf
ljBfyL{nfO{ pRr lzIff cWoogsf nflu 5fqj[lt lbg] u/]sf]
5 eg] pTs[i6 art stf{ / pTs[i6 C0fLnfO{ ;d]t k'/:s[t
ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
;+:yfn] :yfkgfsf] % jif{ leq} cfk\mgf ;]o/ ;b:osf]
;'ljwfsf] nflu PDj'n]G; ;]jf ;d]t ;Grfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5
. PDa'n]G; ;]jf ;Grfng ug]{ e'mDsf If]qs} of] klxnf] /
Psdfq ;xsf/L xf] .

;xsf/L ;DalGw pkof]uL k':ts
emfkfsf] sfs8le6\6fl:yt
g]kfn ax'p2]zLo ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf
cWoIf tyf /fli6«o ;xsf/L ;+3sf
;Grfns /fdrGb| pk|t] Ln] ;xsf/L
;DaGwL pkof]uL k':ts k|sflzt
ub}{ cfPsf5g\ . tLg bzs jl9
;dob]vL ;xsf/L cfGbf]ngdf
lqmoflzn x'bF } cfPsf pk|t] Ln]
ljleGg b]zsf] e|d0f ul/ tL b]zsf
;xsf/Lsf ultljlw ;d]t cWoog
u/]/ k|fKt cg'ej ;d]t k':tsdf ;dfj]z ug]{ u/]sf 5g\ . xfn;Dd
% cf]6f k':ts k|sfzg ul/ ;s]sf pk|t] Ln] ;xsf/L Ps rrf{ /
;xsf/L dfu{ bz{g gfds ;xsf/L ;Dj4 dflg;x?n] k9\g} kg]{
pkof]uL k':ts k|sfzg u/]sf x'g\ . cGt{/fli6«o ;xsf/L jif{

@)!@ sf] cj;/df pgn] k|sflzt u/]sf] k':ts ;xsf/L dfu{bz{gdf
;xsf/L k|lt rf;f] /fVg], ;xsf/L jf/] s]xL l;Sg vf]Hg], ;xsf/L
a'em\ g vf]Hg], ;xsf/L ;Grfng ug]{ / ;xsf/L k9\g vf]Hg]nfO{
ultnf] v'/fs kfpg ;lsG5 . ;/n 9+uaf6 n]lvPsf] k':tsdf
ljZjdf ;xsf/L cleofgsf] z'?cft s;/L eof] b]vL ;xsf/Lsf
d"No, dfGotf, l;4fGt, ;xsf/Ldf ;b:osf] e"ldsf, ;fwf/0f;efsf]
dxTj nufot @* cf]6f ljifo a:t' ;dfj]z 5g\ . To:t} ;xsf/L
Ps rrf{ gfds k':tsdf ;xsf/Lsf] oyfy{tf, ;fdflhs
kl/jt{gsf nflu ;xsf/Lsf] e"ldsf, ;xsf/Laf6 lbuf] ljsf;,
:jlgod,;xsf/Lx?sf] of]ubfg, >Ln+sfsf] ;xsf/L cjnf]sgsf]
cg'ej cflb ljifo ;d]l6Psf] 5 . pk|]tLn] xfn;Dd % cf]6f
k':ts k|sflzt u/]sf 5g\ tL dWo] d lxF8]sf] af6f]df pgs}
hLjg ;+3if{sf] syf ;d]l6Psf] 5 eg] h]n 8fo/L / cd]l/sf
ofqf cg'ej klg pgn] k|sflzt u/]sf 5g\ .

h]7 @)&)

45

O6x/Lsf ;xsf/Lsf] ;fgf] rrf{
;g\ !*$$ cu:t !% sf] /f]h]n
kfof] l go/ OSo' 6 ] j n ;f] ; fO6L sf]
a]nfotdf :yfkgf ePkl5 k|f/De ePsf]
;xsf/L ;+ : yf :yfkgfsf] nx/
ljZjJofkL ?kdf a9\bf] 5 . g]kfndf
$^ nfv dflg;x? b]ze/L @^ xhf/
% ;o eGbf jl9 ;xsf/Ldf cfj4 5g\
. ;g\ @))( sf] ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3sf]
n ?b|k|;fb pk|]tL ^$ cf}+ dxf;efn] Co-opretive enterprise build better world sf]
d"ngf/f ;lxt ;g\ @)!! b]vL @)@) nfO{ ;xsf/L bzssf]
?kdf 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 .
o;} ;Gbe{df Psk6s O6x/Ldf /x]sf ;xsf/Lx?sf] ;fgf]
rrf{ u/f}+ . oxfF art tyf C0f (&, ax'p2]ZoLo $, b'Uw !,
sl[if %, kz'kfng @, pkef]Qmf !, ;"rgf @, n3' pBdL !,
:jf:Yo @ u/L hDdf *% j6f ;+:yfx? /x]sf 5g\ . sltko
;+:yfn] cfˆgf] ;fOgjf]8{ /fv]sf 5}gg\ . /fv]sf sltn] x6fP
. slt dmf]nfdf xf]nfg . slt ;fgf] sf]7fdf a:g yfn]sf 5g\
. sltko ;+:yfsf] sfof{no cfSsn em'Ssn vf]lnG5g\ . sltko
;+:yfsf ;+rfnsx? 7"nf] sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;+:yf eg]/ tyf sltko
;+rfnsx? w]/} ;b:o ePsf] eg]/ uf}/jflGjt x'g'x'G5 . s;}n]
klg cfkm"nfO{ d sxfF 5' eg]/ vf]Hg' ePsf] 5}g .
slt ;+:yfx? s'g} hflt ljz]if dfqsf] eg]/ klg lx8]sf]
cf/f]k v]k]/ cl3 a9L /x]sf]df clxn] ;a}nfO{ v'Nnf ;b:otf
lbP/ rf}8f 5ftL kf/]/ lx8\b}5g\ . s'g} ;+:yfsf] ;fOgjf]8{
ljlgoddf Pp6f ljifo 5 eg] Joj;fo cs}{ ug]{ klg 5g\ .
ahf/ k|ltlgwL /fVg] t oxfF km];g g} eO;Sof] . Pp6f
Joj;foLsf] k;ndf *÷!) ;xsf/Lsf kf;j's e]l6G5g\ .
ljlgoddf pNn]v ePsf] sfo{If]q aflx/ uP/ sf/f]jf/ ug]{
b]vL 3f]ifLt sfo{If]q g} gk'Ug] ;+:yf klg 5g\ . sfg'g–lgod
eg]sf] x'bu} 5{, sfd ub}{ ug'k{ 5{ cfvL/ efUg] xf]Og . artstf{sf]
art a]nfdf lkmtf{ lbPs} 5f} eGg] Psflt/ 5g\ eg] A1 competitive choice excellence in service & soundness-ACCESS -cg'udg, of]hgfsf] cEof; / u'0f:t/ lgoGq0fdf

:jlgodg_ eGg] g]ˆm\ :s'gsf] sfo{qmddf efu lnP/ PlzofnL:t/sf]
u'0f:t/ sfod ug{ nfu]sf ;+:yf klg O6x/Ld} 5g\ .
cfˆgf] ;+:yf btf{ sxfF ePsf] xf] < art÷lgIf]k ;+sng
ug{ z]o/ ;b:o agfpg' k5{sL kb{g} ;Fu ;/f]sf/ g/fvL ufFp
6f]nsf a'h'u{nfO{ ahf/ k|ltlglwsf] cu'jf agfP/ kmnfgfhL
klg x'gx' G' 5 eg]/ ljZjf; agfO{ /sd ;+sng ug]{ t/ !
?k}of klg oxfF nufgL gug]{ ;+:yf aflx/af6 cfPsf 5g\ .
ltgnfO{ s;n] lgodg ug]{ / lgIf]kstf{sf] /sdsf] lhDdf
s;n] lng] of] 7"nf] cGof]n 5 . :yflgo ;+:yf eLq klg 7"nf]
z]o/ /sd nufgL ug]{sf] a9L af]njfnf 5 / lg0f{o k|s[ofdf
xfjL ePsf] kfOG5 . 3/ hUuf / kf6L{ Kofn];;Ddsf s'/f
O6x/Ldf rNg yfn]sf] emgs kfOG5 . o;af6 lgIf]kstf{sf]
/sd e"QmfgLsf] ;+t'ng n8v8fpnf ls < ljrf/ u/f}+ .

46

h]7 @)&)

;+:yf ;fgf] jf 7"nf] eGbf klg ca ;+:yfx?sf] u'0f:t/
lgoGq0fsf] s'/f d'Vo xf] . u'0f:t/ s] df cfwfl/t 5 t <
!*$$ df /f]r8]nLx?n] ;xsf/L Joj;fo c? s'g} Jojofo
eGbf km/s ePsf] atfP . km/s b]vLg] sf/0fx? vf]hf}+ . tL
x'g ;xsf/Lsf df}nLs lgodx? s_ wfdL{s÷ /fhg}lts t6:ytf
v_ ;a}sf nfuL ;+:yfsf] ;b:otf v"NNff u_ z]o/ -k"FhL_ df
Go"g Ifltk"lt{ -nfe_ 3_ sf/f]jf/af6 x'g] kmfObfaf6 ;b:on]
u/]sf] vl/bsf] cg'kftdf ljt/0f -Joj;fosf] k|s[lt cg';f/
vl/b u/Lg] j:t' jf ;]jf km/s x'g ;S5 . _ / ª_ kmfObfsf]
lgZrLt k|ltzt lzIffdf vr{ ug]{ . lo c? s'g} Joj;fo eGbf
lgtfGt k[ys / cfbz{ lgod g} lyP .
t/ xfdL Psl5g lgwf/ v'DrfP/ ;f]rf}+ . s] xfdLn]
/f]r8]nL cfbz{ kfng ub{}5f}+ < ;xsf/Lsf ;ft l;4fGt -gLlt_
/ !) d"No / dfGotfsf cfwf/df ;xsf/L rnfPsf 5f}+ <
;xsf/Lsf] l;4fGt jf gLlt cg';f/ ;+:yf rnfpg] xf] eg]
s;}sf] s"enf] x'Fb}g . ;xsf/L cy{ Joj:yf tnaf6 dfyL
ljs;Lt x'Fb} hfg] -Bottom to top approach _ xf] / o;n] g}
cfkm} h'6]/ cfk\mgf nflu cfFkm} sfd ug]{ ljwL ckgfFp5 . t/
lj8Djgf g} xf] ls ;xsf/L ;+:yf h:tf] kljq / ljz'4 Joj;fodf
5bd ?kaf6 k|jz
] u/L Joj;fonfO{ g} abgfd / rf}k6
agfpg Pp6f lu/f]x nflu/x]sf] 5 . blIf0fsfnLdf sfnf] af]sf]
efs]/ k"hf ug{ uPsf] s'/f ut jif{ rrf{df cfPs} xf] .
;xsf/L h;n] hlt ;Qf] ;/fk u/]klg ljZjsf] cy{tGqdf
bl/nf] vDjfsf] ?kdf pleO;s]sf] s'/f ca s;}af6 l5k]sf]
5}g . ;xsf/Lsf cu|hx? cleoGtfx? / ;Dk"0f{ ;b:ox? .
Psrf]6L 5ftLdf xft /fv]/ lrGtg / k|lt1f u/f} sL cfh;Ddsf]
;xsf/L cleofgaf6 k|fKt lzIff, cu|hx?sf cg'ej, g]tT[ jbfoL
/ lgodgsf/L lgsfosf] lgb]{zgnfO{ ulx/f] u/L cWoog /
k|of]u u/f}+ . lgodLt cfTd ;ldIff u/f}+ . uNtLaf6 ;Lsf}+ /
cuf8L a9f}+ . ;+:yf ;fgf] jf 7"nf] eGbf klg ;b:onfO{ k|efjsf/L
ljQLo tyf u}/ljQLo ;]jf k|bfg ug{ ;Sg] x'gk' 5{ / ;b:osf]
kxFr
' k'Ug] u/L ;]jf lbg'k5{ .
;+:yf 7"nf] agfpg] gfddf k};fjfnfn] dfq ;b:o aGg]
/ z]o/ vl/b ug]{ u/L dfq gLlt agfpg' x'b}g . gq nlIft
;d"xsf] kx'Fr k'Ub}g . s'g} ;+:yfn] olt lsQf z]o/ vl/b
ubf{ olt /sd hu]8f sf]ifdf÷cGosf]ifdf hDdf ug'{kg]{ elg
gLlt agfPsf] kfOG5 . hasL ;xsf/Lsf] z]o/ d"No hlxn]
klg 3f]lift d"Nodf g} sfod /xg] Aoj:yf 5 . olt w]/} z]o/
vl/b ug]{nfO{ of] pkxf/ elgG5 hasL z]o/ -nufgL_ df
l;dLt Ifltk"lt{ -nfef+;_ lbg] ;xsf/L cfbz{ xf] . oL ;a}
s'/fx?nfO{ dgg\ u/f}+ . ;xsf/Lsf] dxf;+3 -ICA_ n] kf/Lt
u/]sf l;4fGt, d"No–dfGotf, kl/efiff, k|rng tyf k/Dk/fsf]
cg'z/0f / sfg'g, lgodsf] kfngf u/]/ cl3 a9f}+ . ……
;xsf/L o'uÚÚ cfhsf] o'u xf] . ;d[4tfsf] lhjg (Fullness
of life ) sf nflu ;xsf/L Joj;fosf] dfWodaf6 ;xsf/L
cy{Joj:yf lgdf{0fdf h'6f}+ .
n]vs art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+3 ;'g;/Lsf cWoIf x'g .

g]kfM ax'p2]ZoLo ;+:yfut ladf clestf{
O6x/Ll:yt g]kfM ax'p2]ZoLo ;xsf/L ;+:yfn] ;fdflhs
/ ;]jfd'ns sfdnfO{ k|fyldstf lbb} cfPsf] 5 . ;+:yfn]
;xsf/L dWo]af6 k"jf{Grnd} klxnf] ;+:yfut
ladf clestf{ eP/ cfk\mgf ;]o/ ;b:o /
;b:osf kl/jf/x?sf] hLjg ladf u/fpFb}
cfPsf] cWoIf u'? eQm >]i7 atfpF5g\ .
@)%* ;fn ;fpg ! ut]bv
] L ;Grfng
x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . #% hgf ;]o/ ;b:osf] !
nfv &% xhf/ ;]o/kfhLaf6 z'? ePsf] g]kfMdf
ut r}t d;fG;Dd ( ;o $ hgf ;]o/
;b:osf] ! s/f]8 *) nfv $) xhf/ ;]o/k"h
F L
/x]sf] 5 . *( nfv ?k}ofF hu]8fsf]if /x]sf]
;+:yfdf ;ldIff cjlwsf] lgIf]k % s/f]8 ^(
nfv / nufgL ^ s/f]8 ^) nfv /x]sf] ;+:yfsf
Aoj:yfks ?k]z hf]zLn] hfgsf/L lbP .
;fdflhs ;]jfdf ljz]if Wofg lbPsf] ;+:yfn]
g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fOl6s} ;]jf z'Nsdf
PDa'ng] ; ;]jf ;Grfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 eg]
;]o/ ;b:onfO{ PDa'nG] ; z'Nsdf !) k|ltzt
5'6 ;d]t lbb} cfPsf] hgfPsf] 5 .
O6x/Lsf] w/fg /f]8df cfk\mg} ! s6\7f @ w'/ hUufdf
;'ljwf ;DkGg # tn] ejg lgdf{0f ul/ cTofw'lgs sDKo"6/
k|0fnLaf6 ;]jf ;Grfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ;+:yfn] cltl/St

cfDbfgLsf nflu jftfg'sl' nt ;'ljwf ;lxtsf] ;efxnsf] ;d]t
Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5 . ;b:ox?nfO{ l;k d'n's, cfod'ns tyf
pTkfbglzn sfdsf nflu ;x'lnot ?kdf
C0f nufgL ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
;+:yfn] btf{ ePsf] lbg k|To]s jif{sf]
df3 @* ut] lgoldt ?kdf :jf:Yo lzlj/
;Grfng ug]{ u/]sf] 5 eg] ;+:yfn] sfg"gL
dfGotf kfPsf] h]7 !) ut] lgoldt
/Qmbfg cfof] h gf ug] { u/] s f] 5 .
/Qmbfgdf ;xeflu x'g] k|To]snfO{ PsPs
yfg e]i6 pkxf/ lbb} cfPsf] 5 .
;+:yfn] ;]o/ ;b:osf] d[To' x'Fbf
sfhlqmof vr{jfkt @% xhf/ cg'bfg
;xof]u, d'6s
' f] eNe km]g,{ d[uf}nf pkrf/
/ SofG;/ pkrf/sf] nflu @% xhf/ ,
b'3{6gf pkrf/ vr{ % xhf/, ;'Ts]/L
vr{ @ xhf/ / h]i7 gful/snfO{ dfl;s
eQf @ ;o pknAw u/fpFb} cfPsf]
;+:yfsf cWoIf u'?eQm >]i7n] hfgsf/L
lbP . g]kfMsf] ;'g;/Lsf O6x/L, w/fg gu/kflnsf, xfF;kf];f,
aSnf}/L, ksnL, vgf/,ef;L, dw]zf, e/f}n, l;+uLof,dx]Gb|gu/
/ a/fxIf]q uflj; sfo{If]q /x]sf] 5 . ;+:yfn] artstf{x?sf
nflu ljleGg of]hgfx? nfu' u/]sf] 5 .

‘@! cf}+ ztfAbL cg's'nsf] k|0ffnL z'? u/]sf 5f}+’
@! cf}+ ztfAbL ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] ztfAbL xf]= . o'u cg';f/
rn]g eg] kl5 kl/G5 To;}n] xfdLn] klg xfd|f] ;xsf/LnfO{
o'u ;'xfpFbf] agfpg k|ljlwd}qL k|0ffnL nfu' ug{ z'/ u/]sf 5f}+
. ;+:yfn] k]m;a's agfP/ km];a's dfkm{t cfk\mgf ;]o/
;b:ox?nfO{ gofF s'/fsf] hfgsf/L u/fpg] s'g} sfo{qmdsf]
lgdGq0f ubf{ kq n]Vg] geO df]jfOn P;PdP; dfkm{t hfgsf/L
u/fpg] ul/Psf] 5 . xfd|f] ;+:yfsf ( ;o eGbf jl9 ;]o/
;b:onfO{ Ps}k6s pxfFx?sf] df]jfOn Dof;]hdf s'g}klg
sfo{qmdsf] lgdGq0ff k7fpg] nufotsf ;'ljwf lbPsf 5f}+ .
;+:yfsf ultljlw ;]o/ ;b:o, lgofds lgsfo jf cjnf]sg
stf{x?nfO{ kfj/ kf]OG6sf] k|of]u ul/ k|f]h]S6/ dfk{mt ug]{
ul/Psf] 5 eg] xfd|f] ;+:yf ax'p2]ZoLo ePklg w]/} k|sf/sf
sfd eg] ug{ g;s]sf] oyfy{ xf] t/ p2]Zo cg';f/ ;+:yfnfO{
;Grfng ug{ cfufdL jif{ hUuf vl/b u/]/ ;do ;fk]If gofF
Joj;fo z'? ug]{ of]hgf 5 .

u'?eQm >]i7 -cWoIf_,
g]kfM ax'p2]ZoLo ;xsf/L ;+:yf, O6x/L

h]7 @)&)

47

k|sfzk'/] hgtfsf] a}ªs
\ M

/fdw'gL ;xsf/L
;'g;/Lsf] sf]zL glb k|efljt k|sfzk'/sf hgtfsf] nflu
a}ª\ssf] e/kbf]{ ljsNk /fdw'gL art tyf C0f ;xsf/L
;+:yf xf] . a}ª\ssf] ;]jfsf] nflu em08} @) lsnf]dL6/ ofqf
u/]/ em'Dsf jf Og?jf k'Ug'kg]{ jfWotfdf /x]sf hgtfsf]
9's9'sLdf j;]sf] 5 /fdw'gL ;xsf/L .
klxn] /fdw'gL ;xsf/L gv'Nbf j}bl] zs /f]huf/Ldf uPsfn]
k7fPsf] /sd e'QmfgL lng cfkmGtn] O6x/L jf w/fg g} hfg'
kg]{ jfWotf lyof] . t/ ljut &÷* jif{bv
] L /fdw'gLn] k|sfzk'/
ahf/d} Tof] ;'ljwf lbg z'? uof]{ . clxn] /]ld6]G;sf] sf/f]jf/
ug]{ ;j} sDkgLsf] Ph]G;L lnP/ sfd ul/ /x]sf] 5 . ;+:yfsf
Aoj:yfks zflnu|fd lg/f}nf eG5g xfd|f] d'n sfd h:t}
ePsf] 5 /]ld6fG;sf] sf/f]jf/ . ;+:yfaf6 b}lgs cf};tdf !%
nfv ?k}ofF eGbf jl9 /]ld6fG; e'QmfgL x'G5 .
@)%% ;fn d+l;/df @% hgfn] !÷! ;o ?k}ofF ;]o/ /sd
;+sng u/]/ z'? u/]sf] /fdw'gL artdf ut df3 d;fGt;Dd
! xhf/ ( ;o hgf ;]o/ ;b:o k'u]sf 5g\ eg] &% nfv ;]o/
kF"hL /x]sf] 5 . k|sfzk'/, dx]Gb|gu/, ef]qmfxf / dw'jg uflj;
sfo{If]q /x]sf] /fdw'gLn] ub}{ cfPsf] d'Vo sfd eg]sf] b}lgs
art ;+sng, C0f nufgL / /]ld6fG; e'QmfgL xf] . k|To]s
;b:on] dfl;s Go"gtd @ ;o ?k}ofF art ug}k{ g]{ lgod /
fv]sf] ;xsf/Ln] jflif{s…sl/j % s/f]8 ?k}ofF lgIf]k ;+sng /
sl/j # s/f]8 %) nfv ?k}ofF C0f nufgL ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
klxn] ! dfp ufO jf e};
+ L kfng ug]{ C0f lng dlxgf};Dd
s[lif ljsf; a}ª\s Og?jf wfpFbf klg clGtddf sd{rf/LnfO{

{ gf
bs
l
f
x sfd
ze'

48

3'; gVjfO C0f g} gkfpg] lttf] oyfy{ ef]u]sf To; If]qsf
jfl;Gbfx? clxn] /fdw'gLaf6 b'O 306fleq}df C0f kfpF5g\ .
3/fo;L sfdsfhsf nflu # xhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd ljgf lwtf]
tTsfn} C0f lbb} cfPsf] ;+:yfn] lwtf] /fv]/ # nfv;Dd C0f
nufgL ug]{ ub{5 .
/fdw'gL v'n]kl5 ;+:yfdf art ug]{ / C0f lnP/ ljleGg
Aoj;fo ug]{ qmd a9]sf] 5 . ;+:yfsf cWoIf dx]Gb|axfb'/ vqL
;+:yfaf6 C0f lnP/ k|sfzk'/ / cf;kf;sf ! ;o eGbf
jl9n] Aofkf/ Joj;fo ul//x]sf] atfpF5g\ . s[lif d"n k]zf
ePsf] x'Fbf s[lifsf nflu C0f t ;j}n] lnG5g g} s[lif eGbf
km/s k]zfdf klg dflg;x?nfO{ :yflkt ug]{ sfd ;xsf/Ln]
u/]sf] 5 . wg sdfpg] p2]Zon] ljb]z uP/ k};f 8'jfP/
kmls{PsfnfO{ ;d]t ;xf/Ln] Joj;fodf :yflkt u/fPsf] 5 .
j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf hfg nfUb} bnfnsf] kmGbfdf k/]/ ! nfv
?k}ofF 8'jfPsf s[i0f rGb|j+zLn] ;xsf/Laf6} C0f lnP/ r6k6]
Jofkf/ ul/ C0f ltg'{sf ;fy} k|sfzk'/df 3/ ;d]t agfPsf]
pbfx/0f lbG5g\ :yfgLo /ljg l3dL/] . l3dL/]sf cg';f/ /
fdw'gL oyfy{df ;xsf/L ePklg oxfFsf hgtfsf] nflu eg]
a}ªs
\ g} xf] . x/]ssf] hghLa|fd
] f /fdw'gL a}ªs
\ eGg] em'l08Psf]
5 . j}b]lzs /f]huf/ shf{, z}lIfs shf{ ;d]t nufgL ug]{ /
fdw'gLaf6 shf{ lnP/ ljb]z hfg]sf] ;+Vof klg cgluGtL 5 .
;xsf/Ln] kl5Nnf] ;do lzIffnfO{ klg hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . @
nfv ?k}ofF;Dd z}lIfs shf{ nufgL ub}{ cfPsf] ;xsf/Laf6
o;}jif{ % hgfn] z}lIfs shf{ lnP/ cfk\mgf 5f]/f 5f]/LnfO{
zx/df k7fP/ pRr k|fljlws lzIff lbnfpFb} 5g\ .
;]jfd'ns sfddf hf]8 lbb} cfPsf] /fdw'gLn] jfof] phf{sf]
k|j4{gdf ;d]t hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . xfn;Dd ;+:yfn] :yfgLo :t/
d} uf]j/ uoff; h8fg tflnd lbP/ k|fljlws pTkfbg ul/ %)
hgf eGbf jl9nfO{ jfof]UofF; KnfG6 h8fg ;DaGwL C0f
nufgL u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
ljut % jif{b]vL !^ w'/ hUufdf ejg lgdf{0f ul/ cfk\mg}
ejgaf6 sf/f]jf/ ;grfng ul/ /x]sf] 5 .

gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ . ;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L
ljz]if k|sflzt u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf lg/Gt/tfsf] z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
o;f]bf ;]g] -Aoj:yfks_

h]7 @)&)

uLtf >]i7 -cWoIf_

;xsf/Ln] ubf{
uf*L dflns ag]+
d]/f] 3/ df]/ª\ lhNnfsf] n]6fª\ uflj; j8f g+= & km8fgL
xf] . d}n] @)%* ;fndf ;]G6ck kl/Iff kf; u/]kl5 k9fO
5f8]/ *) xhf/ ?k}ofF C0f sf9L /f]huf/Lsf nflu dn]lzof
k'u]sf] lyP . ToxfF ;f9] # jif{ a:bf klg nufgL cg';f/sf]
sdfO ePg .
cfFk'mn] sfd ul//x]sf] sDkgL aGb ePkl5 3/ kmls{P
. ljb]z ghfg] a? 8«fOleª\ l;s]/ 6\ofS6/ rnfpg] eg]/
8«fOleª\ l;s] . C0f sf9]/ ePklg 6\ofS6/ lsGg'kof]{ eg]/
lj/f6gu/sf] Pp6f a}ªs;Fu C0fsf] s'/f] rnfOof] t/ a}ªsn]
w]/} em0em6 b]vfof] . 6\ofS6/ a}ª\ss} gfddf btf{ u/]/ klg
ePe/sf] hUuf lwtf] /fVbf ;d]t a}ªs
\ n] d"Nofª\g gk'Ug] eg]/
C0f lbg dfg]g .
n]6fª\sf] km8fgL art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf] ;]o/
;b:o ePsfn] ToxfFsf kbflwsf/Lx?n] d ef}tfl//x]sf] s'/f
yfxf kfpg' eP5 . dnfO af]nfP/ ;f]Wg' eof] …C0f lnP/
cfDbfgL x'g] sfd ug{ ;S5f} eg] xfdL lbpFnf . Ú To;j]nf;Dd
d]/f] dg s] ug]{ eGg]df t'na'n g} lyof] . d]/f] a'jfn] aiff}{b]vL
;fOsndf /fv]/ b'w a]njf/L;Dd k'of{pg] ug'{ x'GYof] . n]6fª\
/ km8fgLaf6 ;+sng x'g] b'w t/x/fsf] sfdw]g' ;xsf/Ln]
klg p7fpFYof] . sfdw]g'nfO{ xfd|f] ufpF;Dd ;w}+ b'w p7fpg
uf8L k7fpg sl7g eO/x]sf] a'em]kl5 d}n] ;fgf] uf8L lsg]/
Tof] sfd ug'{kof]{ eg]/ 3/df ;Nnfx u/]+ . ;Nnfx ldn]kl5
C0fsf] nflu ;xsf/Ldf s'/f /fv]+ . pxfFx?n] klg :jLsf/
ug'{ eof] .
To;kl5 ;xsf/Laf6 & nfv ?k}ofF C0f lnP/ lksck
uf8L lnPsf]5' . jflif{s $ nfv $) xhf/df sfdw]g'sf] b'w
af]Sg] 7]Ssf 5 . t's]{,a'wjf/], km8fgL / n]6fª\af6 b'w p7fP/
x/]s lbg t/x/f k'¥ofO lbG5' b}lgs $ 306f v6\bf Tof] sfd
x'G5 To;kl5 afFsL ;do ef8fdf Aofkf/Ls ;fdfg af]Sg]
sfd u5'{ . w]/} Aofkf/Lx?n] O6x/Laf6 ;fdfg Nofpg] x'Fbf
b'w k'¥ofP/ kmls{bf klg k|foM ;fdfg g} af]s]/ kms{g] u/]sf]
5' . o;f] ubf{ dnfO / Jofkf/L b'j} kIfnfO{ kmfObf ePsf] 5
. olx k]zfaf6 3/ Aojxf/ rnfpFb}, alxgLnfO{ sf7df8f}df
PdlaP; k9fpFb} 5' . ;xsf/Lsf] C0f klg ltl/;Sg cfF6] .

of] jif{ C0f ltl/;s]kl5 uf8L cfk\mg} x'G5 . d}n] elj:o;Dd}
olx k]zf u5'{ eGg] lg0f{o u/]sf] 5' . w]/} cK7\of/f] ;dodf
dnfO{ ;xsf/Ln] ;fy lbof] olb xfd|f] ufpFdf ;xsf/L x'g]
lyPg eg] d}n] clxn] sdfO u/L /x]eGbf cfwf dfq} sdfO
ug{ km]/Lklg ljb]lzg' kg]{ afWotf lyof] . d}n] hLjgdf uf8L
lsg]/ rnfpg ;S5' eGg] cfzf ;Ddug{ 5f]8]sf] a]nf C0f
lbP/ km8fgL artn] lj;{g g;Sg] u'g nufPsf]5 . clxn]
km8fgL artaf6 C0f lnP/ d afx]s cGo & hgfn] 6\ofS6/
/ Pshgfn] 6«s vl/b u/]/ rnfpFb} cfPsf 5g\ .
-kf}8]n;“usf] s'/fsfgLdf cfwfl/t _

;Dks{ M )@%–%*#@%$
6f]n lk|m M !^^)@%%*)))

h]7 @)&)

49

b'uf{ artsf]
;]jfs]Gb| w/fgdf
O6x/Ll:yt b'uf{ art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf]
klxnf] ;]jf s]Gb| w/fgdf :yfkgf u/]sf] 5 . nf]stGq lbj;sf]
cj;/ kf/]/ ;xsf/Ln] w/fg ahf/ ;]jf s]Gb|sf] sf/f]jf/ z'?
u/]sf] xf] . O6x/Ldfq sfo{ If]q /x]sf] ;+:yfsf] ut jif{bv
] L w/fg
gu/kflnsf, xfF;kf];f, vgf/, ;f]gfk'/, b'xjL, dw]nL,rfFbj]nf,
PsDjf, ksnL, ef;L,aSnf}/L, l;+luof, dx]Gb|gu/ / dw]zf sfo{If]q
lj:tf/ u/]sf] lyof] . klxnf] r/0fdf w/fgdf ;]jfs]Gb|sf] dfu
cTolws ePsfn] ToxfF ;]jfs]Gb| :yfkgf u/]sf] ;+:yfsf Aoj:yfks
s'df/ lg/f}nf atfpF5g\ . ;+:yfn] r"nf] rf}sfdf l;ldt Ps;o
%) eGbf jl9 dlxnfnfO{ /f]huf/L lbPsf] 5 . of] ;xsf/Ln]
b]ze/Lsf ;xsf/L ePsf] bfjL Aoj:yfks lg/f}nfsf] 5 .
ut df3 d;fGt;Dd ! xhf/ ^ ;o ^% hgf ;]o/ ;b:o
/x]sf] ;+:yfsf] ;]o/kFh
" L @ s/f]8 ^) nfv / hu]8fsf]ifdf !
s/f]8 !# nfv !$ xhf/ /x]sf] 5 . @) s/f]8 !( nfv ?k}off
lgIf]k /x]sf] ;+:yfn] !& s/f]8 @& nfv C0f nufgL u/]sf] 5 .
;+:yfn] ;]o/ ;b:osf kl/jf/sf] ;'/Iffsf] nflu ;+:yfdf
nufgL u/]sf] ;]o/ /sdsf] cfwf/df b'36{ gf ladfsf] sfo{qmd
NofPsf] 5 . ;+:yfsf ;lrj s'j]/ zdf{sf cg';f/ % xhf/b]vL

h?/L ;"rgf
;xsf/L ;+:yf btf{ePsf] # dlxgf leq k|f/lDes
;fwf/0f;ef ;DkGg ul/ lgjf{lrt ;Grfns ;ldlt
/ n]vf ;ldltsf] ljj/0f, cfo–Joo ljj/0f nufot
;fwf/0f;efsf] k|ltj]bg tyf dfl;s k|ult ljj/0f
o; sfof{nodf k]z ug'k
{ g]d
{ f o; jif{ btf{ ePsf
s]xL ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n] ;f] ljj/0f k]z u/]sf]
gb]lvPsfn] oyfl;3| cfk\mgf] ;+:yfsf] ;j} ljj/0f
o; sfof{nodf k]z ug'{ x'g ;"lrt ul/G5 . cGoyf
;xsf/L P]g @)$* adf]lhd hl/jfgf x'g] Aoxf]/f
hfgsf/L u/fOG5 . ;fy} art tyf C0fsf] sf/f]jf/
ug]{ s]xL ;+:yfx?n] dfl;s k|ult ljj/0f o;
sfof{nodf k]z u/]sf] gb]vLPsfn] ;f] jfkt k|lt
dlxgf ! xhf/ %;o ?k}ofF hl/jfgf x'g] ljefluo
dfkb08 / kl/kq /x]sf] ;d]t hfgsf/L u/fOG5 .

l8lehg ;xsf/L sfof{no
rGb|u8L, emfkf
50

h]7 @)&)

@% xhf/;Dd ;]o/ ePsfnfO{ %) xhf/, %) xhf/;Dd ;]o/
ePsfnfO{ Ps nfv, %! xhf/b]vL Ps nfv;Dd ;]o/ ePsfnfO{
b'O nfv / Ps nfv eGbf dfly ;]o/ ePsfnfO{ tLg nfv
?k}ofFsf] b'3{6gf ladf ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ;+:yfdf Ps nfv eGbf
jl9 ;]o/ /sd nufgL ug]{ ^% hgf ;]o/ ;b:o /x]sf 5g\ .
cfsl:ds :jf:Yo ;'/Iff sf]if
b'uf{ artn] ;+:yfsf sd{rf/L, ahf/ k|ltlglw / ;Grfns
;b:ox?sf nflu cfsl:ds :jf:Yo ;'/Iff sf]if :yfkgf u/]sf]
5 . sd{rf/L, ahf/ k|ltlglw / ;Grfns ;ldltsf ;b:oaf6
lglZrt /sd hDdf u/]/ :yfkgf ul/Psf] sf]ifdf xfn $
nfv ?k}ofF eGb jl9 /sd hDdf ePsf] 5 . sf]ifsf] /sdaf6
e}kl/ cfpg] b'3{6gf, d'6', d[uf}{nf nufotsf hl6n /f]udf
pkrf/ ;xof]u ug]{ ul/G5 . sf]ifaf6 xfn;Dd ;Grfns
;b:o ljdnf k|wfgn] $) xhf/, ;+sns wg]Zj/L ltlD;gfn]
%! xhf/ / k|ldnf e§/fOn] #) xhf/ ?k}ofF ;of]u k|fKt ul/
;s]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .
kfl6{ Kofn]; vf]Nb}
a9\bf] kfl6{ Kofn]; ;+:sf/sf] ljsf; eO /x]sf] j]nf O6x/Ldf
:tl/o kfl6{ Kofn]; lgdf{0f ul/ ;+:yfsf] :yfoL cfDbfgLsf]
;|f]t agfpg kfl6{ Kofn]; lgdf{0fsf] of]hgf cl3 ;f/]sf] 5 .
b'uf{ artn] kfl6{ kofn];sf nflu O6x/L $ sf] cfOtjf/]df
hUuf vl/b ul/ ;s]sf] / xfn sfof{no /x]sf] hUuf / ejg
ljlqm u/]/ kfl6{ Kofn]; lgdf{0f ug]{ / sfof{no ;d]t Tolx /fVg]
of]hgf /xsf] Aoj:yfks lg/f}nfn] hfgsf/L lbPsf 5g\ .

OSHIL SAJHA
TRAVEL & TOURS

xfd|f ;]jfx? M
# /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o xjfO l6s6 tyf >d ;]jf
# /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o s'l/o/, sfuf]{ ;]jf
# P;6L8L÷cfOP;8L, k\mofS;, kmf]6f]skL, n]ldg]zg ;]jf
# :kfO/n a's jfolG8ª\, kmf]6f] tyf sDKo"6/ lk|G6
# l/rfh{ sf8{ tyf /]ld6\ofG; ;le{;
O6x/L rf}s, ;'g;/L
;Dks{ M )@%–%*#!^^
k\mofS; M )@%–%*$@@!
Od]n M sajhatravel@yahoo.com

;xsf/Lsf]
C)faf^ s/F]*klt
ef]hk'/ n]vs{af6 @)## ;fndf pbok'/ x'Fb} ;'g;/Lsf]
t/x/f a;f]jf; yfn]sf uf]kLs[i0f n'O6]n @)$) ;fn;Dd
csf{sf] hUuf clwofFdf sdfP/ kl/jf/ kfNby] . pgL
clwofFvt] Laf6 kl/jf/ kfNg g;s]kl5 ljb]z hfg kf;kf]6{
agfP/ $) xhf/ ?k}ofF 8'j]kl5 kz'kfngdf nfu]sf x'g\ .
To;a]nf Psdfp e}+;L kfNg] cfk\mgf] hUuf gx'Fbf x08/
vfPsf pgL;Fu t/x/f ahf/ / cf;kf;df clxn] # ÷$ cf]6f
38]/L 5g\ . pgsf uf]7df !^ dfp n}gf ufO / e}:fL afFlwPsf5g\
. t/x/fdf c9fOtn] kSsf 3/ 5 . 5f]/fnfO{ kz' k|fljlws
agfPsf5g\ . 3/d} kz' cf}ifwL / cfxf/f k;n ;Grflnt 5
. clxn] pgsf] cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs hLjgdf cfd"n kl/jt{g
5 . pgsf] ;Dkltsf] d"Nofª\sg ug]{ xf] eg] 8]9 s/f]8 ?k}ofF
eGbf dfly k'Ug] pgL hfgsf/L lbG5g\ .
d]/f] hLjgdf cfPsf] of] ;j} kl/jt{g ;xsf/Lsf] sf/0fn]
xf] . ljutnfO{ :d/0f ub}{ pgn] eg] To;a]nf csf{sf] hUuf
clwofFdf sdfpFbf jif{e/Lsf] cfDbfgLn] kl/jf/nfO{ k]6e/L
v'jfpg gkfpFbf clxn]sf] of] cj:yfsf] sNkgf;Dd ddf lyPg
. k/Dk/fut v]tL k|0ffnLaf6 v]tLsf] nfut g} al9 x'g] ePsfn]
hlt ldlxg]t u/]klg kl/jf/df @ 5fs jif{e/L k'of{pg] ;d:ofn]
ljsNkdf e};
+ L kfn]/ b'w ;d]t j]Rg] of]hgf dgdg} agfPF . t/
To;sf nflu k};f g} rflxGYof] . e};L lsGg k'Ug] % ÷ ^ xhf/
?k}ofF h'6fpg' eg]sf] To;j]nf lgs} 7"nf] s'/f x'GYof] .
cfkmGt / 5/l5d]sLsf] C0f ;xof]un] Psdfp e};
+ L lsGg
;kmn ePF t/ ;d:of C0f ltg]{ s;/L eGg] lyof] . t/ x/];
gvfO ldlxg]t ug{] xf] eg] af6f]x? cfFkm} lgdf{0f x'bF f /x]5g\ .
To;j]nf t/x/f ahf/df sfdw]g' ;xsf/L ;+:yf v'ns
] f] 5,

To;n] ufO e};
+ L kfNg C0f lbg] / b'w ;d]t lsgL lbg] ub{5 eGg]
;'gk] l5 d Tof] ;+:yf;Dd s'/f] a'em\ g uPF . ;xsf/Ldf s'/f
j'em]kl5 d}n] klg C0f ;xof]u kfPdf cem} e};
+ L yk]/ kfNg] / b'w
;xsf/LnfO{ g} lbg] k|ltj4tf hgfPF, ;xsf/Lsf ;Grnsx?n]
klg d]/f] ljZjf; ug'e
{ of] / PsdfpF e};L lsGg] C0f kfPkl5 d]/f
lbg kmlsP{ .
;xsf/Laf6 s;/L ;kmntf ldNof] eGg] lh1f;fdf pgL
eG5g\ –cfFkm" ;Fu ePsf] / ;xsf/Lsf] C0faf6 vl/b u/]sf] b'O6}
e};
+ Lsf] b'w ;+:yfdf a]Rg yfn]F+ Tof] C0f Ps jif{d} r'Qmf ul/lbPkl5
yk b'Odfpsf] nflu C0f kfPF . rf/cf]6f e};
+ L ePkl5 d aNn
Aoj;flos kz'kfns ePF eGg] nfUof] . 5/l5d]sLdf !÷@ cf]6fdfq
e};
+ L kfNg] rng lyof] . ;+:yfdf b'w ljlqm ug{ hfg 6f9f ePkl5
pgLx?n] klg ;+:yfn] lbg] eGbf Ps ÷b'O ?k}ofF sd lbg' xfd|f]
klg b'w nlulbg' eGg yfn] . t/ To;a]nf d;Fu b'w /fVg]
efF8f;Dd lyPgg\ . ;+:yfdf Tof] s'/f u/]kl5 b'w ;+sng ug{
Sofg pknAw eof] . To;kl5 d}n] ufpFe/Lsf] b'w ;+sng u/]/
;fOsnaf6 sfdw]g' ;xsf/Ldf k'ofpg yfn]F . To;sf] nflu
ln6/df @ ?k}ofF;Dd gfkmf cfpFYof] b}lgs @ ;o %) ln6/;Dd
b'w ;+:yfdf k'of{pbF f b}lgs $ ÷% ;o sdfO x'g yfNof] . ljxfg
# ÷$ 306fdf Tof] sfd ;s]/ afFsL ;do d v]tLkftL / uf]7d}
nufpFy] . o;/L ub}{ hfFbf !) jif{ To;/L b'wsf] sfd u/]+ /
cfk\mgf] uf]7df e};
+ L klg yKb} uPF . clxn] ufpFsf] b'w glhssf
l5d]sLsf] dfq p7fO lbG5' d]/f] cfk\mg} uf]7af6 b}lgs Ps;o
ln6/eGbfjl9 b'w pTkfbg x'G5 .
pgn] cuf8L eg] b'ws} cfDbfgLaf6 d}n] # s6\7f 38]/L
Ps}7fpFdf lsg]/ sl/j @% nfv ?k}ofFdf 3/ agfPsf] 5' .
cfk\mg} hUufdf uf]7 /fv]/ !^ dfp ufO / e}+;L kfn]sf] 5' .
tLg 5f]/f 5f]/LnfO{ pRr lzIff k9fPF . 5f]/fn] e]6]g/L h]l6P
;s]/ hflu/ vfFb} cfk\mgf] Aoj;fo ;d]t ub}{5 . pgL eG5g\
s'gk} lg sfddf tgdg nufP/ OdfGbfl/;fy nfUg] xf] eg]
;kmntf ldN5 . cfFk'mn] h] hfg]sf] 5 To;}nfO{ Aojl:yt
tl/sfn] x/]; gvfO hf/L /fVg'k5{ eGg] d]/f] cg'ej 5 .
…dnfOdfq x}g OdfGbfl/sf ;fy ldlxg]t ug]{ hf] sf]xLn] ;xsf/Ldf
nfu]/ art / C0f sf/f]jf/ u/]/ cfk'mn] hfg]sf] Aoj;fo ug]{
xf] eg] yf]/} sdfOsf] nflu nfvf}+ vr{ u/]/ kl/jf/af6 6f9f
hfg' kb}g{ eGg] d ;j}nfO{ ;Gb]z lbg rfxG5' . cfk\mg} ufpF
3/df >d / ldlxg]t u/]/ klg wg;Dklt hf]8\g / ;Ddfg;fy
afFRg ;lsG5 .Ú pgL eG5g\ .

h]7 @)&)

51

dlxnf art PS;];
a|fl08ª\df k"jf{~rnsf] klxnf]
O6x/Lsf] dlxnf art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf k"jf{Grnsf
dlxnf ;xsf/L dWo]df PS;]; a|fl08ª\df kg]{ klxnf] ;xsf/L
;+:yf ePsf] 5 . cg'udg, of]hgfsf] cEof; / u'0f:t/
lgoGq0fdf :jlgodg eGg] Pl;ofnL C0f dxf;+3n] tf]s]sf]
k|lqmof k'/f u/]/ dlxnf artn] pQm a|fl08ª\ k|fKt u/]sf]
;+:yfsL cWoIf uLtf >]i7n] hfgsf/L lbOg .
PlzofnL:t/sf] u'0f:t/ sfod u/]/ PS;]; a|fl08ª\ k|fKt
ug]d{ f ;'g;/Lsf b'O cf]6f / k"jf{Grnsf & cf]6f ;+:yf /x]sf 5g\
. tL dWo] dlxnfaf6 ;Grflntdf eg] dlxnf art g} klxnf]
ePsf] atfOPsf] 5 . dlxnfx?n] ;Grfng u/]sf k"jf{Grnsf
;+:yfx? dWo]af6 5gf}6 ePsf] dlxnf artdf ut df3 d;fGt;Dd
! xhf/ ( ;o *& hgf ;]o/ ;b:o /x]sf 5g\ .
@)%% ;fndf @% hgf ;b:oaf6 ! nfv ?k}ofF ;]o/kF"hL
hDdf ul/ :yfkgf ePsf] ;+:yfsf] ;ldIff cjlwsf] ;]o/kF"hL
Ps s/f]8 %^ nfv $) xhf/, lgIf]k ^ s/f]8 &^ nfv,
nufgL ( s/f]8 &^ nfv / ;+:yfsf] hu]8f sf]ifdf #@ nfv
@* xhf/ ?k}off /x]sf] 5 . O6x/L gu/kflnsf, xfF;kf];f,
ksnL / vgf/ uflj; sfo{If]q /x]sf] dlxnf ;fsf];n] o;}
jif{b]vL t/x/f ahf/df ;]jf s]Gb| vf]n]/ t/x/f If]qsf ;]o/
;b:onfO{ ;'ljwf lbg yfn]sf] 5 . ;+:yfn] b'O cf]6f ;d"xdf
n3'ljQ sfo{qmd ;d]t ;grfng ug{ yfn]sf] 5 . cfufdL

jif{b]vL n3'ljQ sfo{qmdnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;Grfng ug]{
of]hgf /x]sf] ;+:yfsL Aoj:yfks ozf]bf ;]g] atfpFl5g\ .
;+:yfn] k|e' Dofg]hd]G6 ;DaGwL ;+emf}tf ul/ cGt/ ;xsf/L
sf/f]jf/ / /]ld6fG; e'QmfgL ;DjlGw sf/f]jf/ ub{} cfPsf] 5 .
dlxnfn] dfq ;grfng u/]sf ;xsf/L dWo]df pts[i6
7xl/P/ dlxnf artn] @)^% ;fndf l8lehg ;xsf/L
;'g;/Laf6 pTs[i6 ;xsf/L, @)^* ;fndf b]ze/Lsf dlxnf
;xsf/L dWo]af6 g]k\m:s"gn] pTs[i6 ;xsf/Lsf] ?kdf k'/:s[t
u/]sf] dlxnf artn] /fli6«o ;xsf/L ;+3af6 pTs[i6
Joj;foLs k'/:sf/ ;d]t k|fKt ul/;s]sf] 5 .

w]/d
} f ;b:o x'g] Aoj:yf /f]Sg'k5{
@% hgf e]nf kf/]/ l8lehg sfof{no hfg]nfO{ t'?Gt}
;xsf/L ;+:yf btf{ ul/lbg] t/ sfd ;lx ?kdf u/]sf] 5 5}g
eGg] cg'udg ul/ untnfO{ sfjf{xL gug]{ k/Dk/fn] ;xsf/Ldf
ljs[lt cfPsf] 5 . Ps} AolQm w]/} ;xsf/Ldf ;b:o x'g] / C0f
lnP/ b'?kof]u ug]{ k|jl[ t jl9 /x]sf]5 . Pp6fdf dte]b ePdf
jf sfo{ ;ldltsf] r'gfjdf lgjf{lrt x'g g;s]df csf]{ ;xsf/L
vf]Ng] k|jl[ t 5 . o:tf k|jl[ tsf sf/0f ;xsf/L If]qsf] ljsf;df
afwf k'Ug'sf ;fy} s]xL :jfyL{ AolQmsf sf/0f ;xsf/L If]qg}
abgfd eO/x]sf] cj:yfsf] cGTo ug{ P]gdf ePsf] Aoj:yfnfO{
s8fOsf ;fy sfo{Gjog ul/g' kb{5 . ;xsf/Ldf lgoGq0f P]g
gePsf] x}g t/ sfo{Gjog kIf sdhf]/ 5 . sfo{Gjog ug]{
lgsfon] ;lx ?kdf sfd ug{ h?/L 5 . t/ cg'udg ;d]t
gx'g] ;d:ofn] ;xsf/Ldf ljs[lt e+mflª\g kfPsf] 5 . ;/sf/L
lgsfon] cfk\mgf] clwsf/nfO{ ;lx ;b'kof]u ub}{ ;xsf/L If]qsf]
lgodgdf s8fO ug{ cj l9nf ug'{ x'bF g} . hlt l9nf uof]{
Tolt unt tTj xfjL x'G5 / ;xsf/LIf]q emg jbgfd x'g]
52

cj:yf l;h{gf x'G5 . ;/sf/L lgsfon] ;+:yf btf{ ul/lbg] t/
P]g lgodcg';f/ rn] grn]sf] cg'udg gug]{ ;d:ofn] clwsf+z
;xsf/Ldf u}/ ;b:odf sf/f]jf/ ug]{ k|j[lt jl9 /x]sf] 5 .
Pp6} JolQm w]/} ;+:yfdf cfj4 x'g] / gfhfoh kmfObf lng]
k|j[lt a9]sf]5 o;nfO lgoGq0f ug}{k5{ P]gnfO{ s8fOsf;fy
sfo{Gjog ul/g' kb{5 . lgodgsf/L lgsfo cf}krfl/stfdf
l;ldt x'gx' bF' g} . lgofdsn] cfk\mgf] e"ldsf lgjf{x gu/]sfsf/0f
;xsf/Ldf ljs[ltn] emf+lª\g] df}sf kfPsf] xf] .

h]7 @)&)
uLtf >]i7 -cWoIf_
dlxnf art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf, O6x/L

s/ gLlt / ;xsf/Ldf o;sf] c;/
vf; u/L cfly{s If]qdf ljkGg ju{sf
JolQmx? cfk;df PsLs[ t eO{
cfly{ s ,;fdflhs tyf ;fF : s[ l ts
pGgogsf nflu cl3 a9\g] sfo{af6 g}
;xsf/L ;+3÷;+:yfsf] ;+:yfut ljsf;
x'b} cfPsf] 5 . o;/L ;xsf/L ;+:yf
;~rfng ubf{ ;xsf/L cGt{/fli6«o l;4fGt
d"No , dfGotfx?sf] cjnDag ub}{ ;xsf/L
n xl/k|;fb ;'jb
] L Joj;fonfO{ ;~rfng ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 .
;xsf/L Joj;fonfO{ ;~rfngaf6
gfkmfsf] cfzf eGbf klg ;]jfsf] efjgfnfO{ cª\uLsf/ ul/g'
kb{5 . o:tf] kljq efjgfaf6 cfkm\gf] hLjg:t/ cfkm\g}
;d'bfosf] ;xof]uaf6 u/f} eGg] efjgfdf ;xsf/L P]g lgodn]
s'7f/f3ft ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . o;sf] k|ToIf pbfx/0f @)$*
;fnsf] ;xsf/L P]gsf] bkmf @@^ nfO{ ;+zf]wg u/L @)%*
;fnaf6 ;xsf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx?nfO{ s/sf] bfo/fdf Nofpg]
lg0f{o lng'nfO{ dfGg ;lsG5 . ;xsf/L P]g @)$* sf] d"Vo
dd{ ;xsf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx?nfO{ /fHo lgolGqt gu/L :jfottf
/ :jtGqtfdf ;~rfng ug{ lbg' kb{5 eGg] xf] .
pQm P]gdf ;xsf/L ;+3 ;+:yfn] cfh{g u/]sf] cfodf s'g}
klg s/ gnfUg] Joj:yf x'bf x'b} s/ lng] lg0f{o ug'{ ;xsf/L
dd{ ljkl/t ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 . ;xsf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx?n]
d"Nodf cfwfl/t e} ;xsf/L Joj;fo ;~rfng ePsfn] /fHosf]
sfg"gL bfo/f eGbf aflx/ /xg ;Sb}gg\ . t/ /fHon] ;xsf/L
k|lt sfg'gL k|lqmof lgdf{0f ubf{ eg] ;f]Rg} kb{5 lsgsL gfkmf
cfh{g ug]{ geO{ ;]jfsf] efjgfaf6 ljkGg ju{n] cfkm\gf] ufF;
sf6]/ hf]ufPsf] /sdsf] cfDbfgLdf /fHon] efu vf]Hg' pko"Q
{ m
dfGg sl7g 5 .
ljZjsf cGo d"n'sx?df ;xsf/L Joj;fosf] cfodf s/
gnfUg] eg] xf]Og t/ tL d'n'sdf ;xsf/Laf6 lnPsf] s/sf]
/sddf /fHoaf6 Tolt g} yk u/L ;xsf/Lx?sf] k|j4{g /
ljsf;df vr{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . cd]l/sf h:tf] d"n'sn] klg
ljQLo ;xsf/Lx?nfO{ ;+3Lo cfos/df ;g\ !(#& b]lv g} 5'6
lbb} cfPsf] 5 . ;fy} cGo d"n'sx?df ;xsf/Ldf s/ lgwf{/0f
ubf{ Psn s/sf] l;4fGtnfO{ cjnDag u/]sf] kfOG5 . Psn
s/ eGgfn] JolQmn] s/ lt/]df ;+:yfut s/ 5'6 x'g] Joj:yf
xf] . h:t} ;xsf/L Joj;foaf6 v'b art ljt/0f ubf{ ;+:yfut
s/ gnfUg] t/ ;b:on] kfpg] lx:;fdf s/ u0fgf ul/g] k4lt
xf] . t/ bf]xf]/f] s/sf] Joj:yf eg] vf;} ePsf] kfOb}g .
g]kfndf eg] cfo s/, Aofh s/, nfef+z s/, C0f ;'/If0f
sf]if s/ cflb bf]xf]/f] dfq xf]Og tLg jf rf/ tL/af6 lng]
u/]sf] 5 . s/ lng] k|s[ofdf klg gu/ / u|fld0f If]qdf ;d]t
km/s 9ª\uaf6 lng] u/]sf] cj:yf 5 .
o;/L lgwf{/0f u/L s/ c;'Nbf gu/ If]qdf sl/a @%

o;/L lgwf{/0f u/L s/ c;'Nbf gu/ If]qdf sl/a
@% k|ltzt eGbf dfly s/ ltg{ ;xsf/L ;+3
;+:yfx?nfO{ afWo agfOPsf] 5 . o;sf] k|ToIf c;/
;+:yfsf] lbuf] ljsf; / :yfloTjdf kl//x]sf] 5 .
k|ltzt eGbf dfly s/ ltg{ ;xsf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx?nfO{ afWo
agfOPsf] 5 . o;sf] k|ToIf c;/ ;+:yfsf] lbuf] ljsf; /
:yfloTjdf kl//x]sf] 5 . o:tf] s/ gLltsf sf/0f ;xsf/L
Joj;fosf] j[l4 / ljsf;df sdL x'gfsf];fy} ;xsf/L leq
ljs[ltx? cfpg ;Sb5g\ . /fHo ;xsf/Lsf nflu p2f/ aGg
;Sg' kb{5 eGg] pbfx/0f l5d]sL d'ns
' aª\unfb]znfO{ x]bf{
a'em\g ;lsG5 . ToxfF ;xsf/Laf6 # k|ltzt s/ lnOG5 /
/fHon] To;df # k|ltzt g} yk u/L ;xsf/L ljsf; / k|j4{ gdf
k|ToIf jf k/f]If ?kdf lkmtf{ ub{5 .g]kfndf ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n]
cfh{g u/]sf] cfo tyf JolQmn] k|fKt ug]{ Jofh b'jd} f bf]xf]/f]
s/sf] Joj:yf ug]{ /fHosf] cfly{s P]g /x]sf] 5 . Psn
s/sf] Joj:yf Ps xb;Dd dfGo g} ePklg To;sf] abnf
/fHon] ;xsf/L ljsf; / k|j4{gsf nflu ;f]xL ;ª\slnt
/sdnfO{ k|ToIf k/f]If ?kdf lkmtf{ ug{ ;Sg' kb{5 . t/
To:tf] Joj:yf ug'{ t stf xf] stf a? bf]xf]/f] t]xf]/f] eGbf
dfly s/sf] Joj:yf leq ;xsf/L ;b:o / ;xsf/L
Joj;fonfO{ ?dNg] sfo{ ;d]t u/]sf] 5 .
cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] #%-@@_ df ;xsf/L ;DaGwL #
vDa] cy{gLlt -;xsf/L,;/sf/L / lglhIf]q_sf] cjwf/0ff klg
cl3 ;f/]sf] 5 . g]kfndf xfn ;Grfng x'Fb} cfsf sl/j @&
xhf/ ;xsf/Ldf sl/a *^ nfv JolQmx? ;xeflu eO{ k|ToIf
?kdf sl/a &% xhf/ / ck|ToIf sl/a & nfv JolQmn]
/f]huf/L k|fKt ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . ;xsf/Ln] /fHosf] s'n u|fx:y
pTkfbgdf # k|ltzt eGbf dfly / ljQLo If]qsf] !* k|ltzt
eGbf dflysf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ul//x]sf] 5 . /fHon] lgwf{/0f
u/]sf] s/sf] pkof]u / kl/rfng ;xL 9ª\uaf6 ug]{,bf]xf]/f]
t]xf]/f] s/sf] Joj:yfnfO{ x6fpg] / s/sf] k|ltzt Go"g ug]{ xf]
eg] ;xsf/Lsf nflu s/ dfGo b]lvG5 . t/ s/af6 ;ª\slnt
/sdsf] pkof]u / kl/rfng, ;DalGwt If]qdf g} gkmls{g] tyf
w]/} If]q / lje]bLs/0fsf ?kdf s/ Joj:yf sfod g} /xbf
;xsf/L cleoGtfx?sf] b[li6sf]0fdf ;xsf/L Joj;fodf
nufOPsf] s/ k|0ffnL pko'Qm dfGg ;lsb}g .
To;}n] ;xsf/Laf6 s/ lng] xf] eg] /fHon] ;xsf/L gLltdf
;'wf/ tyf gofFkg Nofpg h?/L 5 .
-n]vs art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+3 df]/ªsf cWoIf x'g\ ._

h]7 @)&)

53

z'enfesf] e'QmfgL c? ;xsf/Laf6 klg
O6x/Lsf] z'enfe art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfn] k|e'
Dofg]hd]G6 k|fln;Fu ;+emf}tf ul/ ;xsf/Lsf ;]jf ;Grfng
ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . pQm ;]jf cGt{ut z'enfesf] e'QmfgL k"hf{af6
;f] ;'ljwf lnPsf cGo s'g} klg ;xsf/L ;+:yfaf6 /sd
e'QmfgL lng ;lsG5 .
z'enfen] ;j} sDkgL dfkm{t cfpg] /]ld6]G;sf] e'QmfgL
;'ljwfsf] ;fy} ;]o/ ;b:ox?nfO{ kmf]gaf6} df]jfOnsf] l/rfh{
sf8{, Pg;]nsf] l/rfh{, Nof08 nfOg, l8;xf]dsf] ljn e'QmfgL
;]jf ;d]t lbb} cfPsf] Aoj:yfks sdn l3dL/]n] hfgsf/L
lbP . @)^% ;fndf ## hgf o'jfn] ^ nfv %% xhf/ ?k}ofF
;]o/k"h
F Laf6 z'? u/]sf] z'enfe ;xsf/Ldf ut k'; d;fGt;Dd
% ;o (^ hgfsf] Ps s/f]8 @@ nfv @% xhf/ ;]o/k"FhL
k'us
] f] 5 .
;ldIff cjlwdf @ s/f]8 @* nfv @( xhf/ / C0f
nufgL b'O s/f]8 (! nfv %% xhf/ u/]sf] ;+:yfn] ()
k|ltzt eGbf jl9 C0f Aofkf/ Aoj;fodf nufgL u/]sf] hgfPsf]
5 . o'jf ;d'bfoaf6 k|jl4{t ;+:yfdf !& hgfn] /f]huf/L ejg lgdf{0f ul//x]sf] 5 . lgs6 elj:od} cfk\mg} ejgdf
sfof{no ;Grfngsf] tof/L ul/ /x]sf] ;+:yfsf cWoIf ls/0f
kfPsf 5g\ .
;+:yfn] cfk\mg} hUuf lsg]/ ^) nfv ?k}ofFsf] nfutdf k/fh'nL atfpF5g\ .

kfg k;nb]vL xf8{jo] / ;~rfns;Dd ;]o/ ;b:o 5g\
ls/0f k/fh'nL -cWoIf_,
z'enfe art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf O6x/L
;xsf/Lx?n] art dfq p7fpg] t/ JolQmnfO{ Joj;foL
agfpg] / Joj;foLnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ vfnsf sfo{qmd u/]sf] gkfOPkl5
xfdL o'jfx? ldn]/ Joj;foL If]qnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ vfnsf sfo{qmd
;Grfng ug]{ p2]Zon] of] ;xsf/L :yfkgf u/]sf xf}+ .
xfdLn] kfg k;n, r6k6] Joj;foLb] v L xf8{ j ] o /
Joj;foL;DdnfO{ ;]o/ ;b:o agfPsf 5f}+ . pgLx?af6 lgoldt
art u/fpF5f}+ / cfjzos k/]sf] ;dodf pgLx?nfO{ nufgL
u5f}{ . Psnfv ?k}ofF;Dd AolQmut hdfgLd} X0f nufgL ub{5f}+
. t/ C0f nufgL ug'{ cl3 ;DaGwLt JolQmsf] ljifodf rf}tkmL{
cWoog ub{5f}+ tfsL p;n] C0fsf] ;lx ;b'kof]u u/f]; /
tf]lsPsf] ;dodf ;+:yfdf lkmtf{ ;d]t u/f]; . lwtf] /fv]/
kfFrnfv;Dd nufgL ug]{ u/]sf5f}+ . xfd|f] nufgL () k|ltzt
eGbf jl9 Aofkf/Ls If]qdf 5 . ;Grfns ;ldlt,C0f ;ldlt,;]o/
;b:os] ;xsfo{ tyf Aoj:yfkgdf bIf sd{rf/Lsf] ;lqmotfsf
sf/0f xfdL 5f]6f] cjlwd} ;kmn ePsf5f}+ .
:yfkgf ePsf] kfFr jif{ ljTbf gljTb} ejg / hUuf ul/
sl/j Ps s/f]8 ?k}ofF nufgL ug{ ;s]sf 5f}+ h;n] ;+:yfsf]
:yfoL ;Dklt a9]sf]n] ;+:yfk|ltsf] ljzjf; cem} j9]/ hfg
;S5 / cem k|ultdf nfg ;lsG5 eGg] xfdLnfO{ ljZjf; 5 .
;xsf/L P]gn] xfdLn] ug{ rfx]sf] ;a} sfd ug{ lbb}g . t/ klg
54

h]7 @)&)

xfdL cfk\mg} ejgdf ;/]/ clxn] eO /x]sf sfdnfO{ cem}
Jojl:yt ug{ ;Sof} eg] ;]o/ ;b:ox?nfO{ jl9 ;'ljwf /
nfef+z klg lbg ;S5f} eGg] cfzf u/]sf 5f}+ . xfd|f] nIo z'e
nfenfO{ O6x/Lsf] gd'gf ;xsf/L agfpg] xf] . ;xsf/LnfO{
nufgLsf] If]q km/flsnf] agfpg cfjZos 5 . uflj; / gkfdf
s/ ;daGwL 7"nf] lje]b5 . gu/kflnsf If]qsf ;xsf/LnfO{
nufOPsf] s/sf] b/ 36fpg h?/L 5 . lsgsL s/sf] b/ jl9
ePs} sf/0f ;xsf/Lx?df gfkmf n'sfpg] k/Dk/f b]vLPsf] 5 .

n8{a4' sf] nufgL Ps s/f]8 ^^ nfv
xfF;kf];fl:yt n8{a'4 ax'd'vL ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf] ut r}t
d;fGt;Ddsf] nufgLdf /lx /x]sf] /sd Ps s/f]8 ^^ nfv
/x]sf] 5 .
@)%( ;fndf :yfkgf ePsf] ;xsf/L ;+:yfdf $ ;o @
hgf ;]o/ ;b:o / pgLx?sf] r'QmfkFhL $^ nfv @) xhf/
?k}ofF /x]sf] 5 . ;ldIff cjlwdf ;+:yfsf] lgIf]k /sd Ps
s/f]8 ^@ nfv /x]sf] 5 .
Aofkf/ Aoj;fo / ;jf/L ;fwgdf nufgL ub}{ cfPsf]
;+:yfn] ljut jif{df ;jf/L ;fwgdf ePsf nufgL c;'nLsf
nflu ljz]if cleofg ;Grfng ub}{ cfPsf] cWoIf /fhs'df/
/fO atfpF5g\ .
nfdf] ;do a}lª\sª\ If]qdf sfd u/]sf /fO{ cWoIf ePkl5
n]vf k|0ffnL , nufgL c;'nLnfO{ Aojl:yt / kf/bzL{ u/]/
cuf8L jl9/x]sf] atfpF5g\ . ;+:yfsf] cfk\mg} ejg lgdf{0f ug{
hUuf ;d]t vl/b ul/ ;s]sf] 5 . t/x/f If]qdf ;Grfng x'Fb}
cfPsf ;+:yfx?nfO{ ;dGjo u/]/ ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTjdf
cu'jfO ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ;+:yfn] :jf:Yo lzlj/, /Qmbfg nufotsf
;fdlhs pQ/bfloTjsf sfo{qmd ub}{ cfPsf] cWoIf /fOn]
hfgsf/L lbPsf 5g\ .

l;d/agfsf] k|a4{gfTds sfo{qmd
O6x/L – % sf] l;d/agf art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfn]
pBf]u Aofkf/ k|j4{g ug{ k|lt AolQm % nfv ?k}ofF;Dd C0f
nufgL ug{ yfn]sf] 5 .
klxn] b'Onfv;Dddfq nufgL ub}{ cfPsf] ;+:yfn] pBf]uL
Aofkf/L ;]o/ ;b:osf] dfu cg';f/ o;}jif{b]vL C0fsf] l;df
a9fPsf] xf] . l;df a9fPkl5 sl/j % hgfn] kfFrnfvsf
b/n] C0f lnO ;s]sf] ;+:yfsf pkfWoIf zflnu|fd sfk\mn]n]

hfgsf/L lbP .
O6x/Lsf] j8f g+j/ ! / % dfq sfo{If]q /x]sf] ;+:yfn]
j8f g+j/ %sf Joj;foLx?df pQm nufgL u/]sf] xf] . ;+:yfn]
ljgflwtf] %) xhf/;Dd C0f ;'ljwf lbPsf] 5 . ;f] ;'ljwf
cGt{ut Ps ;o hgfn] C0f lnP/ clwsf+zn] Aoj;fod}
nufPsf 5g\ . To:t} b'Onfvsf] b/n] &) hgfn] C0f lnPsf
5g\ . a9\bf] ;x/Ls/0fsf sf/0f w]/} h;f] nufgL Aofkf/
Aoj;fod} uPsf] ePklg s]xLn] kz'kfng / 3/fo;L sfddf
klg lnPsf] sfk\mn] atfpF5g\ .
…;+:yfsf] sfof{no glhs g} clxn] ahf/ jl9;s]sf] 5 .
ToxfFsf clwsf+z Joj;foLx? xfd|f ;]o/ ;b:o x'g'x'G5 /
;+:yfaf6 w]/n
} ] C0f klg lng' ePsf] 5 .Ú sfk\mn]n] eg] .
;ft;o hgfeGbf jl9 ;]o/ ;b:o /x]sf] l;d/jgfsf]
;]o/k"FhL #% nfv ?k}ofF / art lgIf]k b'O s/f]8 ?k}ofFeGbf
jl9 5 . ;+:yfn] xfn;Ddsf] shf{ nufgL klg b'O s/f]8 eGbf
jl9 /x]sf] atfOPsf]5 .
;+:yfn] cfk\mg} ejg agfP/ sfof{no ;Grfng ug{ cfjZos
k|lqmof z'? ul/;s]sf] 5 . h; cg';f/ hUufsf] Aoj:yf u/]/
hUuf ;+/If0fsf] nflu & nfv @) xhf/ vr{df k|f]6]S;g jfn
nufO df6f] eg]{ sfd k'/f ul/;s]sf] 5 . ;+:yfn] o; jif{b]vL
O6x/L gu/sf ( cf]6} j8fdf sfo{If]q lj:tf/ ug{ klg ;]o/
;b:osf] gfdfjnL ;+sngsf] sfd ul//x]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .

h]7 @)&)

55

kfFr ?k}ofFaf6 z'? ePsf]

k|ultzLnsf] Pss/f]* al( sf/f]jf/
;'g;/Lsf] dx]Gb|gu/–$ sf ls;fgx?n] ufO{e}+;L kfng
u/] / pTkfbg u/] s f] b' w sf] ahf/ ;d:of ePkl5
ahf/Ls/0fsfnflu !@ jif{cl3 % ?k}ofFsf b/n] /sd p7fP/
;d"x u7g u/]sf lyP .
@) hgfsf] b/n] d}gjf/L, hLtk'/, ;fnjlGb, z'qmjf/] /
b]jL3f6df % cf]6f ;d"x u7g ul/ b'w ;+sng ug]{ / w/fgsf]
8]/Ldf ljlqm ug]{ul/ z'? ePsf] Tolx cleofgn] k|ultzLn
b'Uw pTkfbs ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf] ?k lnPsf] xf] . clxn] !)
jif{df k|j]z u/]sf] ;xsf/Lsf] k|ult nf]enfUbf] 5 .
tLg jif{;Dd ;d"x ldn]/ b'w ;+sng ul/ b]jL3f6 k'of{P/
/flv lbg] clg ToxfF w/fgsf] 8]/Ln] p7fP/ nfg] ub{Yof] .
To;kl5 ;j}sf] ;Nnfxn] @)^! ;fn;Dd ;d"xut ?kdf
hDdf ePsf] !* xhf/ ?k}ofFdf c? @ xhf/ yk]/ @) xhf/
;]o/kF"hL agfO k|ultzLn b'Uw pTkfbs ;xsf/L ;+:yf btf{
ul/Psf] lyof] .
ToxL ;+:yfdf clxn] # ;o %) hgf ;]o/ ;b:o k'u]sf
5g\ eg] sl/j !) nfv nfutdf cfk\mg} 38]/L lsg]/ 3/
lgdf{0f u/]sf] ;+:yfn] Ps xhf/ ln6/ b'w &@ 306f;Dd
hf]ufP/ /fVg ;lsg] lrlnª\Eof6 d]l;gdfq /fv]sf] 5}g b'w
9'jfgL ug]{ cfk\mg} ;jf/L ;fwg / ljB"t nfOg gx'bF fsf] nflu
h]g]/]6/sf] ;d]t Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
xfn ;]o/ k"FhL sl/j !@ nfv ?k}ofF /x]sf] ;+:yfdf ut
cfly{s jif{;Ddsf] art lgIf]k !( nfv $ xhf/ ?k}ofF /
hu]8fsf]ifdf ^ nfv * xhf/ /x]sf] 5 . jflif{s %@ nfv
eGbfjl9sf] b'w a]Rg] ;+:yfn] ;fnjlGb, z'qmjf/], hLtk'/,

;xsf/Lx?nfO{ ;"rgf
art tyf C0fsf] sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n]
dfl;s ?kdf a'emfpg' kg]{ k|ult k|ltj]bg ;j}n] tf]lsPsf]
;dol;df leq} a'emfO ;Sg ;"lrt ul/G5 . cGoyf
;xsf/L P]g tyf dfkb08 cg';f/ hl/jfgf tyf sfjf{xL
x'g] Joxf]/f] hfgsf/L u/fOG5 . ;fy} ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf
;Grfnsx?nfO{ ;]o/ ;b:o / sfo{If]q leq dfq sf/f]jf/
ug{, ;DalGwt ljifos} cGo ;xsf/Ldf ;]o/ ;b:o
ePsfx?nfO{ ;b:o gagfpg tyf sfo{If]q aflx/sf
dflg;x?nfO{ ;]o/ ;b:o gagfpg ;d]t cfu|x ul/G5
. ;fy} gofF btf{ ePsf ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n] btf{ePsf]
ldltn] # dlxgfleq k|f/lDes ;fwf/0f ;ef ;DkGg ul/
gofF sfo{;ldlt tyf n]vf ;ldltsf] lgjf{rg ul/
lgjf{lrt kbflwsf/Lx?sf] gfd / ;fwf/0f ;efsf] lg0f{o
;d]t oyfl;3| o; sfof{nodf k]z ug{ ;"lrt ul/G5 .

l8lehg ;xsf/L sfof{no
;'g;/L, Og?jf
56

h]7 @)&)

d}gjf/Ldf ;+sng u/]sf] b'w b]jL3f6l:yt ;+:yfsf] sfof{noaf6
ljlqm ljt/0f ug]{ ub{5 . xfn em08} ^) k|ltzt b'w w/fg
8]/LnfO{ ljlqm ub}{ cfPsf] ;+:yf cfFkm}n] 8]/L pBf]u ;Grfng
ug]{ of]hgf ul/ /x]sf] ;+:yfsf cWoIf gf/fo0fk|;fb cfrfo{
atfpF5g\ . pgL eG5g\ clxn];Dd xfdLn] £o" dfq} agfP/
ljqmL ub}}{ lyof}+ . oxfFsf pkef]Qmfsf] dfu pTkfbg ljljwLs/0f
ug'{ k5{ eGg] 5 . To;} cg';f/ cWoog eO /x]sf] 5 .

xflb{s z'esfdgf
gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o
dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm
ub{5f}+ . ;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L
ljz]if k|sflzt u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf
z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
?b|k|;fb pk|]tL -cWoIf_

art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+3
lhNnf ;ldlt
O6x/L–!, ;'g;/L

;xsf/L k;n vf]Nb} zflGt hgsNof0f

;'g;/Lsf] t/x/fl:yt zflGt hgsNof0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfn]
t/x/f ahf/df cf;kf;sf cGo ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?;Fu ;xsfo{
ul/ ;'ne ;xsf/L k;n ;Grfng ug]{ tof/L u/]sf] 5 .
;+:yfn] t/x/f ahf/l:yt sf]zL /fhdfu{df s]xL jif{cl3
vl/b u/]sf] ! s6\7f @ w'/ hUufdf ! s/f]8 ?k}ofF nufgL ul/
xfn} gofF ejg lgdf{0f u/]kl5 ;f] ejgdf ;xsf/L k;n
;Grfng ug]{ tof/L ul//x]sf] ;+:yfsf cWoIf v]d/fh bfxfnn]

xflb{s z'esfdgf

hfgsf/L lbP . nf]stGq lbj;sf] cj;/ kf/]/ ut a}zfv !!
ut] pb\3f6g ul/ sfof{no ;d]t Tolx ejgdf ;fl/;s]sf]
zflGt hgsNof0fn] e'OF tnf lkmlgl;ª\sf] sfd ;lsPkl5 k;n
z'?cft ug]{ tof/L ul//x]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
t/x/f / cf;kf;sf cGo ;xsf/L ;+:yfnfO{ ;d]t ;]o/
ljlqm u/]/ k;n ;Grfng ug]{ ljifodf cfjZos 5nkmn
eO/x]sf] cWoIf bfxfnn] hfgsf/L lbP . pgsf cg';f/
xfF;kf];fsf !^ cf]6f / O6x/L @ sf & cf]6f ;xsf/L ;+:yf;Fu
;xsf/L k;nsf ljifodf 5nkmn ePsf] / pgLx? ;sf/fTds
/x]sf 5g\ . s'/f 6'+uf]df k'u]kl5 xfdL Ps jif{leq} k;n
;Grfng ug]{ tof/Ldf 5f} cWoIf bfxfnn] eg] .
O6x/L –@sf l6sf cf]emf nufotsf s]xL AolQmx? ldn]/
;fKtflxs %) ?k}ofF hDdf ug]{ul/ z'? ePsf] ;+:yfn] @)%@
;fnb]vL zflGt hgsNof0f ;xsf/Lsf] ?k lnPsf] lyof] .
O6x/L, xfF;kf];f, ksnL, vgf/ / PsDjf uflj; sfo{If]q /x]sf]
;xsf/Ldf @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd & ;o %$ hgf ;]o/
;b:osf] ! s/f]8 $& nfv &$ xhf/ ;]o/k'FhL /x]sf] 5 .
;+:yfn] ;f] cjlwdf ( s/f]8 # nfv *@ xhf/ lgIf]k ;+sng
/ @ s/f]8 *@ nfv %( xhf/ shf{ nufgL u/]sf] lyof] .
ljleGg hu]8fsf]ifdf ! s/f]8 #^ nfv (* xhf/ ?k}ofF /x]sf]
;+:yfn] s[lif, Aofkf/ nufotdf k|ltAolQm @) xhf/b]vL !)
nfv ?k}ofF;Dd C0f nufgL ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
a}ªs
\ Lª kx'r
F eGbf jflx/sf hgtfnfO{ ;x'lnot tl/sfaf6
C0f nufgL u/]/ xfdLn] w]/}nfO{ :j/f]huf/ u/fpg'sf ;fy}
pBdL Joj;foL agfPsf 5f}+ bfxfn eG5g\ . cfk\mgf ;j} ;]o/
;b:ox?nfO{ ;xsf/L lzIff k|bfg u/]/ lgs6 elj:odf n3'ljQ
sfo{qmd ;d]t ;Grfng ug]{ of]hgf /x]sf] 5 . % jif]{ /0flglts
sfo{of]hgf tof/L ul/ /x]sf] ;+:yfn] lgs6 elj:od} PDa'n]G;
;]jf ;Grfng ug]{ ;d]t cwoIf bfxfnn] hfgsf/L lbP .

xflb{s z'esfdgf

gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o
dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L ljz]if k|sflzt
u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .

gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o
dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L ljz]if k|sflzt
u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .

lzj/fh >]i7 -cWoIf_

xl/k|;fb ;'j]bL -cWoIf_

gdf]M art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=

lhNnf art tyf
C0f ;xsf/L ;+3 ln=

w/fg, ;'g;/L

a]naf/L, df]/ª

h]7 @)&)

57

‘;xsf/Lsf] cg'udg / lgodgsf nflu
hgzlQm / ;|ft] ;fwgsf] ;d:of 5’
lzjs'df/ sfsL{ -k|frfo{_,
;xsf/L k|lzIf0f tyf l8lehg sfof{no , ;'g;/L
k|To]s jif{ gofF hgzlQm tof/ ug'{ kg]{ ;d:of 5 .
k"jf{wf/sf] lx;fjn] klg xfdL ;'Godf 5f}+ . k':tsfnosf]
;d]t Aoj:yf 5}g .
clg ;d:of ;dfwfg s;/L x'G5 t <
;xsf/L k|lzIf0f s]Gb|nfO{ ;xsf/L ;DaGwL k]zfut /
Aoj;foLs hgzlQmsf] Aoj:yf ul/ :jfoQ tflnd s]Gb|sf]
?kdf :yflkt ug{ cfjZos 5 . o;jf/]df xfdLn] xfd|f]
7fpFaf6 ;Djlgwt lgsfodf cg'/f]w ;d]t u/]sf 5f}= .
;xsf/Lx?sf] cj:yf rfFxL s:tf] 5 <
k|To]s jif{ ;xsf/Lsf] ;+Vof a9\bf] 5 . ;+VofTds ?kdf
w]/} / cfsf/df ;fgf ;xsf/L 5g\ . u}/ ;b:odf sf/f]jf/,
kfl/jfl/s ;+nUgtf nufotsf ;d:of klg ;'lgPsf 5g\
. P]g cg';f/ grNg] ;xsf/LnfO{ ;r]t u/fpg] sfd ul/
/x]sf 5f}+ . t/ ;xsf/Lsf] ;+Vof jl9 ePsfn] ;d:of klg
jl9g} x'g] ;+efjgf x'G5 To;}n] dh{df nfg' kg]{ :yLlt
klg b]lvPsf] 5 .

;xsf/Lsf] lgofds lgsfo l8lehg
sfof{nox?n] k|efjsf/L cg'udg gu/]sf]
u'gf;f] 5 gL <
xfdLn] hgzlQm / ;|ft] ;fwgn] EofP;Dd cg'udg ul/
/x]sf 5f}+ . t/ l8lehg sfof{nox?sf b/jlGb / ;|f]t
;fwg tf]lsbf hlt ;xsf/L lyP . clxn] ;xsf/Lsf] ;+Vof
% u'0ff eGbf jl9 k'us
] f] 5 . t/ ;fwg ;|ft] / hgzlQm
pxL g} /x]sfn] ;f]r] cg';f/ x'g g;s]sf] x'g ;S5 To}klg
xfdL k|oTgl;n 5f}+ . ;|ft] ;fwg / hgzlQm yk ug{ dfu
ul//x]sf 5f}= . clxn]sf] df}h'bf hgzlQmnfO{ sDtLdf klg
bf]Aa/ kfg{ h?/L 5 .
;'g;/Lsf] l8lehg t k"jf{Grnsf] ;xsf/L
tflnd s]Gb| xf] clg tflnd lbg] hgzlQmsf]
;d:of rfFxL s:tf] 5 <
oxfFklg hgzlQmsf] ;d:of p:t} 5 . ;xsf/Ldf cg'ej
xfl;n u/]sf hgzlQmnfO{ csf]{ dGqfnodf ;?jf ug]{ /
gofF hgzlQmnfO{ ;xsf/Ldf k7fpg] k/Dk/fn] bIf
hgzlQmsf] cefj ;d]t 5 . ;?jf j9'jfsf sf/0fn]
58

h]7 @)&)

afn–a[l4df Wofg k'¥ofpg' kg]{
dxTjk"0f{ s'/fx?
!_ 5 dlxgfb]vL # jif{;Ddsf s]6fs]6Lsf] k|To]s dlxgf tf}n
lng'k5{ . nuftf/ tf}n ga9] :jf:Yo ;+:yfdf hFrfpg' k5{ .
@_ hGd]b]vL % dlxgf;Ddsf aRrfnfO{ cfdfsf] b'weGbf kf]lifnf]
cgos'/f gx'g] ePsfn] b'w lgoldt v'jfpg' k5{ .
#_ aRrf ^ dlxgf gf3]kl5 cfdfsf] b'wn] gk'Ug] ePsfn] cGo
vfg]s'/f klg v'jfpg' k5{ .
$_ tLgjif{ d'lgsf s]6fs]6LnfO{ lbgdf ^ k6s;Dd vfg]s'/f
v'jfpg' k5{ / pgLx?sf] vfg]s'/fdf yf]/} 3Lp jf t]n yk]/
v'jfpg' k5{ .
%_ ;a} s]6fs]6Lx?nfO{ le6fldg P k|;:t ePsf] vfg]s/' f v'jfpg'
k5{ .
^_ lj/fdL ePsf] aRrfnfO{ lgsf] ePkl5 klg lj/fdL x'g' eGbf
cl3sf] j[l4 b/ e]6\g al9 kf]lifnf] vfg]s'/f v'jfpg' k5{ .
&_ s]6f–s]6Lx?sf] zfl//Ls, dfgl;s / efjgfTds ljsf;sf
nflu s'/fsfgL, v]ns'b, dfofsf] w]/} cfjZostf kb{5 . oL
s'/fx?df Wofg lbP/ cfk\mgf afnaflnsfsf] ;jf{ª\uL0f ljsf;df
;xof]u u/f}+ .
lhNnf :jf:Yo sfof{no
;'g;/L, Og?jf

‘w/fg If]qdf
emf]n] ;xsf/Lsf]
cl:tTj x/fp“b5
} ’
w/fg If]qdf art tyf C0f ;xsf/Lx?sf]
cj:yf s:tf] 5 <
;+:yfx?sf] ;du| cj:yf /fd|f] 5 . k'/fgf ;+:yfn] w]/}
u/]sf 5g\ t/ gofFnfO{ eg] ;]o/ ;b:o kfpg ;d]t
d'l:sn cj:yf 5 .
Pp6} AolQmn] hlt ;xsf/Lsf] ;b:o ag]klg
kfO xfN5g\ x}g / <
Pp6f AolQm w]/}df x'g' eg]sf] ljs[lt xf] . Ps} AolQm
!) cf]6f ;+:yfdf cfj4 x'bF f ;j}af6 C0f vfP/
clgoldttf ug]{ ;+efjgf /xg] ePsfn] Pp6f ;+:yfsf]
;b:onfO{ cGo ;+:yfn] ;b:o agfpg' x'bF g} . t/ gofF
;xsf/L v'Nbf To:tf AolQmn] rnv]n ug]{ df}sf
kfO/x]sf] cj:yf 5 . Ps AolQm Ps ;xsf/Lsfnflu
;+3af6 af/Djf/ ;r]t u/fO /x]sf 5f}+ .
w/fgdf emf]n] ;xsf/L klg 5g\ sL <
;xsf/L w]/} vf]lnP . cg'udg ug{ l8lehgn] ;ls
/x]sf] 5}g . l8lehgsf sd{rf/Lx? ;'ud 7fpFdf dfq
cg'udg ug{ hfG5g\ . klxn] ;xsf/LnfO{
lhNnfe/L,%÷& uflj;, gu/kflnsf e/L sfo{If]q lbg]
rng lyof] . To;n] ubf{ cg'dlt kfPsf ;xsf/L s'g
s'gfdf jf emf]nfdf rln/x]sf 5g\ eGg] l8lehgs}
sd{rf/LnfO{ yfxf gx'g ;S5 . t/ clxn] ;xsf/LnfO{
Pp6} j8fsf] dfq sfo{If]q lbg yfn]sfn] cj To:tf
emf]n] ;xsf/L cfFkm} x/fP/ hfg] cj:yf 5 . ;fob
w/fgdf ca kmf6\6 k"m6\6 dfq xf]nfg . clxn] hg3gTj
olt a9]sf] 5sL Pp6f ;xsf/Ln] Pp6f 6f]ndfq}
sfo{If]q kfpFbf klg /fd|f] sfd ug{ ;S5 . o;af6
lxgfldgfsf] ;+efjgf klg 36]/ hfG5 .
w/fgdf ;]o/ ;b:o / art stf{sf] /sd
lxgfldgf u/]sf pbfx/0f klg 5g\ sL <
;xsf/L b]vfl;lvdf v'Ng yfn] sltkon] vf]n]kl5
rnfpg g;s]/ aGb eP . sltko jflx/L dfG5]n]

lzj/fh >]i7 -;lrj_
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+3, ;'g;/L
:yflgo dfg5]nfO{ k|of]u u/]/ ;xsf/L vf]n]/ k};f
p7fP/ lxgf ldgf u/]sf 36gf xf]nfg\ . t/ tL klxn]sf
x'g cfh ef]nL to:tf] ;d:of 36]sf] 5 . jflx/ btf{
ePsf b ;xf/f, /fh>L h:tf ;xsf/Ln] zfvf vf]n]/
sf/f]jf/ ul/ /x]sf 5g\ a]nf a]nf ltgsf ljjfbsf s'/f
cfpF5g\ t/ cGo Tolt ;'lgPsf 5}gg\ .
w/fgsf ;xsf/LjLr cfk;df
;DaGw s:tf] 5 <
klxn] ;xsf/Lx? Pscsf{sf k|ltikwL{ h:tf lyP .
clxn] ldqjt x'g yfn]sf5g\ . clxn] Pp6f ;xsf/L
csf{]sf] ;xof]uL aGg yfn]sf5g\ . k};f vfP/
efUg],art /sd lxgfldgf ug],{ jrt /sd lkmtf{ ug{
g;Sg] cj:yf clxn] 5}g .
->]i7, gdf]M art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf w/fgsf cWoIf
;d]t x'g\ _\

h]7 @)&)

59

lkmlnlkG; / yfOn}08sf
n x]dGt

sfsL{
;g\ @)!@ sf] clk|ndf & lbg] cjnf]sg e|d0fdf yfOn}08sf
;xsf/Lx?sf] cjnf]sg / cg'ej ;f6f;f6 ug]{ cj;/ ldNof]
. ToxfFsf ;xsf/Lx?df C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx? al9 kfOP .
ToxfF /fHon] ug]{ nufgL ;xsf/L dfkm{t ug]{ l;:6d /x]5 .
/fHon] /sd ;xsf/LnfO{ lbg] / ;xsf/Lx?n] cfk\mgf ;]o/
;b:ox?nfO{ C0fsf] ?kdf nufgL ug]{ u/]sf] kfOof] .
ToxfF k|To]s k]zfsdL{sf 5'66\ f 5'66\ } ;xsf/L ;+:yf x'bF f
/x]5g\ . t/ Pp6f k]zfsdL{sf w]/} ;xsf/L klg agfpg gkfOg]
/ Pp6}df ;j}n] cfj4 x'g' kg]{ kl/kfl6 /x]5 . ;fy} Pp6f
;xsf/Ldf cfj4 JolQmn] csf]{ ;xsf/Ldf ;b:o x'g gkfpg]
lgod s8fOsf ;fy nfu' ePsf] /x]5 . ;j} hgtfdf To;
k|sf/sf] r]tgf klg ePsf] kfOof] .
cfk\mgf] k]zfut If]qsf] ;d:of / ;+efjgf ;DjGwLt
k]zfsdL{nfO{ dfq yfxf x'g] ePsfn] km/s k]zfsdL{n] To;df
;xeflu x'g' x'bF g} eGg] :ki6tf ToxfF /x]5 . t/ k]zfut ;xsf/L
km/s km/s ePklg 5ftf ;+u7g eg] Pp6} /xg] / 5ftf ;+u7gn]
sdhf]/ ePsf] If]qnfO{ ;j}n] ldn]/ ;xof]u u/]/ psf:g] l;:6d
;fx«} /fd|f] nfUof] .
ToxfF xfdLn] Pp6f ;xsf/Lsf] cjnf]sg ug]{ cj;/ kfof}+ .
Tof] ;xsf/Ln] ToxfF ;j} Joj;fo u/]sf] kfOof] . ;xsf/Ln]

/fli6«o :t/sf] a}ªs
\ sf] xf/fxf/Ldf sf/f]jf/ u/]sf] xfdLn] kfof}+ .
cfd ;b:osf] lxtsf nflu ;xsf/Ln] ;j} sfd ug{ kfpg] lgod
ToxfF /x]5 . ToxfFsf] ;/sf/n] hgpQ/bflo agfP/ ;xsf/LnfO{
cu'jf agfPsf] kfOof] . ;fy} ;xsf/LnfO{ s/d'Qm u/]sf] ePklg
;xsf/Ln] ;Grfng u/]sf] pBf]u Jofkf/af6 eg] s/ ltg'k{ g]{
lgod /x]5 ToxfF .
xfd|f]h:tf] 6f]n}lkR5] ToxfF ;xsf/L u7g ug{ kfOb}g /x]5
. Pp6} ;xsf/Ldf nfvf}+ dflg; ;b:o x'Fbf /x]5g\ . ToxfF ;fgf
eg]sf lhNnf :t/sf geP If]qLo / /fli6«o :t/sf ;xsf/L
dfq /x]5g\ . ToxfFsf ;xsf/Ln] 3/]n' pBf]u b]vL 7"nf /fli6«o
:t/sf pBf]u klg rnfPsf /x]5g\ . Pp6} ;xsf/Ldf $ ;o
hgf;Dd sd{rf/L sfo{/t /x]sf] kfOof] .
oxfF h:tf] ;Grfnsn] lgM z'Ns v6\g' kg]{ /x]g5 . ;xsf/Lsf]
;Grfns / sd{rf/L k"0f{t ;xsf/L k|lt ;dlk{t x'gk' g]{ / p;sf]
cfjZos cfwf/e"t cfjZostf ;xsf/Ln] k'/f ul/lbg] u/]sf]
kfOof] . To;f]xbF' f d]/f] olxg} ;j} lrh xf] eg]/ sfd ug]{ ckgTjsf]
efjgf sd{rf/L / ;Grfnsx?df x'g] /x]5 eg] sd{rf/LnfO{ klg
cfly{s ?kdf k"0f{t ;jn agfpg] bfloTj ;xsf/Ln] lng] /x]5 .
ToxfF ;xsf/Lsf ;Grfns / sd{rf/Ln] OdfGbfl/tf, jkmfbfl/tf,
k|ltj4tf / cg'zf;gsf] /fd|f] kfngf u/]sf] xfdLn] kfof}+ .
xfd|fd] f h:tf] JolQm k|wfg ;+:yf ToxfF s'g} kfOPg ToxfF

xflb{s z'esfdgf

xflb{s z'esfdgf

gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o
dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm
ub{5f}+ . ;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L
ljz]if k|sflzt u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf
z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .

gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o
dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm
ub{5f}+ . ;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L
ljz]if k|sflzt u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf
z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .

ls/0f k/fh'nL -cWoIf_
lbj;afa' ;'j]bL -n]vf ;+of]hs_
sdn l3dL/]-Aoj:yfks_

v]d/fh bfxfn -cWoIf_
d's'Gbs'df/ sfsL{-Aoj:yfks_

z'enfe art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=

zflGt hgsNof0f art tyf
C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=

O6x/L–!, ;'g;/L

xfF;kf];f–@, t/x/f

60

h]7 @)&)

;xsf/LnfO{ lgofNbf
JolQm uf}0f / ;+:yf k|wfg /x]sf] kfOof] . oxfFh:tf] kmnfgf
JolQm cfj4 ePsf] ;+:yf xf] of] lju|bg} eg]/ JolQmnfO{ k|wfg
dfg]/ ;]o/ ;b:o aGg] ÷agfpg] k/Dk/f ToxfF b]lvPg . ToxfF
;xsf/L eg]sf] 7"nf] ;d"x cfj4 eP/ rnfpg] ;+:yf xf] eGg]
s'/fdf ;j} ljZj:t ePsf] kfFof}+ .
;xsf/L ;+:yfn] ;]o/ ;b:ox?sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ ;j}
a:t'sf] pTkfbg jf cGo ;+:yfaf6 vl/b u/]/ ePklg pknAw
u/fpg] kl/kfl6 /x]5 .
To:t} lkmlnlkG;df rfFxL cs'sf] cGt{/fli6«o ;Dd]ngdf
efu lng ;g\ @)!@ sf] ;]K6]Dj/ @ b]vL (;Dd e|d0f ug]{
cj;/ ldn]sf] lyof] . ToxfF Tolt w]/} ;xsf/L ;+:yf cjnf]sg
ug]{ cj;/ ldn]g ToxfF xfdLnfO{ u|fld0f If]qsf dlxnfn] dfq
rnfPsf] ;xsf/L ;+:yf cjnf]sg ug{ nluPsf] lyof] . Tof]
;+:yfdf ! ;o hgfeGbf jl9 sd{rf/L sfo{/t /x]5g\ .
pQm ;xsf/Ln] 3/fo;L n'uf sk8f, u'l8of, v]nf}gf OToflb
agfpg] u/]sf] kfOof] . ;xsf/Ldf @ nfv dlxnf ;b:o /x]5g\
. ;f] ;xsf/Ln] c:ktfn ;d]t rnfpFbf] /x]5 . ;+:yfn] ;b:osf
5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ k|fljlws lzIffdf nufgL u/]/ bIf agfPkl5 ;+:yfd}
gf]s/L lbg] u/]sf] /x]5 . ;xsf/Ln] g} lj:s'6 , g'8N; OToflbsf]
pBf]u klg rnfPsf] /x]5 . xfdLnfO{ ;+:yfn] rnfPsf pbf]ux?sf]
cjnf]sg ug{ g} 306f}+ ;do nfUof] . o;sf] dtnj pBf]usf]

;fOh klg ;fgf] ltgf] x}g . lklnlkG;df klg
Ps AolQm Ps ;xsf/L eGbf jl9df cfj4
x'g gkfpg] lgod s8fOsf ;fy nfu' u/]sf]
/x]5 . xfdLn] cjnf]sg u/]sf yfOn}08 /
lkmlnlkG; b'j} b]zdf ;xsf/Lsf] vf;} nfdf]
Oltxf; /x]g5 . 5f]6f] ;dodf ;xsf/Lx?
cfd"n kl/jt{gsf ;+jfxssf] ?kdf cl3
j9]sf] xfdLn] a'em\g kfof}+ . tL b]zsf ;xsf/Ldf s'gk} lg åG4sf]
c;/ b]lvPg . g]kfndf h:tf] ;xsf/LnfO{ /fhgLlt ug]{ ynf]sf]
?kdf ToxfF s;}n] k|of]u u/]sf] kfOPg . ;xsf/L eg]sf] cfly{s
ljsf; / dfgljo ljsf;sf] ynf] xf] eGg] ;j}n] a'em]sf] kfOof]
. ToxfF w]/} e"ldlxgx? klg ;xsf/Ldf nfu]kl5 ;DkGg ePsf]
kfOof] . ;xsf/L eg]sf] d]/f] 9's9'sL xf] eGg] efjgf hgtfdf
xfdLn] b]Vof}+ . tL b]zsf] ;xsf/Lsf] ultljlw x]bf{ xfdLn] klg
;xsf/LnfO{ ljlQo ;+:yfsf] ?kdf dfq} lng] k/Dk/f TofUg
h?/L /x]5 eGg] a'em\of}+ . ;fy} ;j} gful/sn] ;xsf/L lzIff lng
h?/L /x]sf] 5 eGg] klg tL b]zsf] e|d0fn] xfdLnfO{ cg'ej
u/fPsf] 5 .
-sfsL{ df]/ª\sf] ul5ofl:yt b'nf/L art tyf C0f ;xsf/L
;+:yfsf cWoIf x'g\ . pgL;Fusf] s'/fsfgLsf cfwf/df of] n]v
tof/ ul/Psf] xf] ._

xflb{s z'esfdgf

xflb{s z'esfdgf

gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o
dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm
ub{5f}+ . ;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L
ljz]if k|sflzt u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf
z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .

gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o
dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm
ub{5f}+ . ;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L
ljz]if k|sflzt u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf
z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .

dx]Gb|axfb'/ vqL -cWoIf_
zfnLu|fd lg/f}nf -Aoj:yfks_

hoaxfb'/ sfsL{ -cWoIf_

/fdw'gL art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=

ax'p2]ZoLo
;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=

k|sfzk'/, ;'g;/L

O6x/L–!, ;'g;/L

h]7 @)&)

61

‘;xsf/L P]g kfngf u/fpg] lgsfo g} lkmtnf] 5’
;Ltf/fd d]xtf -cWoIf_, lhNnf ;xsf/L ;+3 lnld6]8, ;'g;/L
;+3sf] ultljlw s:tf] 5 <
lhNnfe/Lsf ;xsf/L ;+3,;+:yfsf] 5ftf ;+u7g ePsfn]
o;sf] sfd ;+:yfx?sf] ;+/If0f / k|j4{g ug'{ xf] . To;sf]
cltl/St ls;fgnfO{ ;x'lnot ?kdf /;folgs dn /
aLp pknAw u/fpg' klg xf] .
p2]Zo cg';f/ sfd rfFxL x'Fb}5g\ t <
eO /x]sf5g\ . ;xsf/LnfO{ cg'udg u/]/ ;xsf/L gLlt ,
lgod, P]g cg';f/ ;Grfng ug{ pTk|l] /t u/fpg], ljleGg
tflnd lbg] sfo{qmd 5 .
;xsf/Lx? P]g, lgod cg';f/ grn]sf] eGg]
u'gf;f] jl9/x]sf] xf] <
xf] . ;xsf/L P]g, lgod / l;4fGt ;xsf/Lx?n] kfng

gu/]sf] eGg] u'gf;f] a9]sf] 5 .
t/ P]g / P]g kfngf u/fpg]
lgsfo g} lkmtnf] 5 . To}klg
;+3n] o; ljifodf kxn ul//x]sf]
5 . o;s} nflu lhNnf ;xsf/L
;'bl[ 9s/0f lhNnf ;ldlt / lhNnf
:t/Lo cg'udg ;ldlt u7g
ul/Psf] 5 . ;+3sf] ;+of]hsTjdf
;ldltdf l8lehg sfof{ n o,
ljifout ;+3, /fli6«o ;xsf/L
a}ªssf] k|ltlglw ;+lDdlnt %
;b;Lo ;ldlt u7g u/]/ sfd ul/b} cfPsf] 5 .

xflb{s z'esfdgf

xflb{s z'esfdgf

gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o
dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L ljz]if k|sflzt
u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
ljlkg ;'Aaf -cWoIf_

gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o
dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L ljz]if k|sflzt
u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
l;tf/fd d]xtf -cWoIf_

r]tgf art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=
w/fg, ;'g;/L

xflb{s z'esfdgf
gof“ jif{ @)&) sf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o
dxfg'efjx? tyf ;xsf/L ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/L
dxfg'efjx?df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
;fy} cy{la6 cfly{s klqsfn] ;xsf/L ljz]if k|sflzt
u/]sf]df xflb{s wGojfb tyf z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .
o'j/fh uf}td -cWoIf_
dgs'df/ lnDa' -pkfWoIf_
;/f]h bfxfn -n]vf ;+of]hs_
z+s/ e§/fO{ -Joj:yfks_

ax'dv
' L s[lif
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62

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lhNnf ;xsf/L ;+3 lnld6]8
Og?jf, ;'g;/L

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n Hof]ltif

d]if nUg M d]if nUgsf dflg;x? Ps} 7fpFdf cl8P/ a:g
g;Sg] rnfodfg :jefjsf x'G5g\ . lg/Gt/ lqmofzLn x'g] logLx?sf]
:jefj x'G5 . o; nUgsf] dflns d+un ePsf sf/0f oLgLx?
cg'zfl;t t/ sfddf r'k nfu]/ a:g dg gug]{ :jefjsf x'G5g\ .
Ps}k6s w]/}cf]6f sfd z'? ug'{ / k|ltIff ug{ dg gk/fpg] klg
pgLx?sf] :jefj x'gfn] l56\6} kl/0ffd k|fKt gx'Fbf sfdnfO{ aLrdf
g} 5f]8g\ ] k|jl[ Q x'G5 . d]ifnUgsf dflg;x? ;]gf, k|x/L,kmfo/d]g,v]nf8L,
nufot ;fxl;s sfo{;Fu glhs x'G5Gf\ . cGj]if0fd"ns :jefj
x'gfn] cg';Gwftf, u'Ktr/, Hof]ltifL, tflGqs / vf]hstf{ klg x'g
;S5g\ . kf}8Ljfh, lr/kmf/sf] lrlsT;s-;h{g_, 7]sb] f/-sG6|o\ fS6/_
h:tf k]zfdf klg d]if nUgsf dflg;sf] ;+nUgtf x'g;S5 .
j[if nUg M j[if nUg :yL/ nUg x'gfn] logLx?sf] :jefj
:yL/tfo'St x'G5 . o:tf JolQmn] h:t} eP klg sfd u5{g /
To;nfO{ k"/f u/L 5f85g\ . o:tf JolQm cToGt ldlxg]tL x'G5g\
z'qmsf] k|efj x'gfn] cfkm\gf] sfo{:yndf oLgLx? of]hgfj4 tl/sfn]
sfd u5{g\ . xftdf lnPsf] k|To]s sfd k"0f{ug'{ oLgsf] ljz]iftf xf]
. ;+uLt snf, rnlrq, gf6s, nlntsnf, /fhgLlt, wfld{s If]q,
;/sf/L pRrk|zf;s, k|aGws, g]t[Tj cflb sfo{af6 o; nUgsf
JolQmx?n] ;kmntf k|fKt u5{g .
ldy'g nUg M ldy'g nUgdf a'wsf] k|efj x'G5 . o;
nUgdf hGdg] dflg;x? ax'dv
' L k|ltefsf wgL x'g] u5{g\ . zf/Ll/s
>d logLx?sf] JolQmTjsf] kf6f] aGb}g . w]/}h;f] sfdsf] Joj:yfkg
j'l4 / sf}znn] k'/f u5{g\ . oLgLx? x/]s lsl;dsf] jftfj/0fdf
cfFkm"nfO{ abNg ;S5g\ . s]xL gofF ug]{ rfxgf logLx?df eO
/xG5 . oLgLx?sf] xFl;nf] :jefjn] x/]s 7fpFdf nf]slk|o agfpF5
. ldy'g nUgsf] hftssf] :jefj dw'/efifL, 76\of}nf] / cfkm\gf
wf/0ff, ljrf/ / cfb]z csf{dfly yf]kg{] vfnsf] x'G5 . o:tf
dflg;n] /fd|f] Jofkf/L, s'zn k|aGws cflbsf] e"ldsf lgjf{x
ug{;S5 . / 7"n7"nf of]hgfljb\ klg aGg ;S5g\ .
ss{6 nUg M ss{6 nUgdf rGb|dfsf] k|efj x'gfn] logLx?
clt ;+j]bgzLn x'g] u5{g\ . h;/L kfgLn] cfkm\gf nflu af6f]
cfkm}+ agfpF5 To;/L g} ss{{6 nUgsf JolQmx? klg cfkm\gf] sfd
kmQ] u/L 5f8\5g\ . lg/Gt/ sfd ug{' oLgLx?sf] :jefj xf] . o;
nUgdf hlGdPsf dflg;sf] hLjgdf cfslZds kl/jt{g cfpF5 .
jg:klt lj1fg, afujfgL, k|s[lt;Fu ;DalGwt s'g} ljlzi6 1fg,
dgf]ljb\, xf:oJoª\Uosf] snfsf/, hn;]gfsf] sd{rf/L,kmf]6f]u|fkmL
cflb h:tf sfd o; nUgsf nflu ;xh x'G5 . s{s6 /fzLsf
dfG5]n] Pp6feGbf a9L cfo;|f]t 5gf]6 ug'{, sfo{If]q w]/} km]g'{ /
nfu'kbfy{, dfbs kbfy{ ;]jg ug'{ clt g} v/fj x'G5 .
l;+x nUg M l;+x nUgsf dflg; cToGt t]h:jL /
cfTdljZjf;L x'g] u5{g\ . h'g sfd k|f/De u5{g To;nfO{ k"/f u/L
5f85g\ . cg'zf;glxgtf logLx?nfO{ dg kb}{g . l;+x nUgsf]
dflns ;'o{ ePsfn]] o; nUgsf JolQm /fh;L :jefjsf x'g] u5{g\
. csf{nfO{ sfd nufpg] t/ cfFkm"rflx+ sfd gug]{ :jefj ePsf
oLgLx? /fd|} ePklg c?n] u/]sf] sfd dg k/fpFbg} g\ . o:tf JolQmn]
dfgl;s / k|zf;lgs sfd /fd|/L u5{g\ . Voflt k|fKt n]vs, 8fS6/,

s[i0fk|;fb sf]O/fnf

Sofld:6, k|zf;s / jf}l4s sfo{ ug]{ ljåfg, bfz{lgs cflbdf l;+x
nUgsf] d'Vo e"ldsf x'G5 .
sGof nUg M o; nUgsf] :jfdL a'w xf] . nUgdf a'wsf] k|efj
x'gfn] logLx? j'l4dfg x'gsf ;fy} k|To]s JolQmnfO{ cfFkm"tkm{ cfslif{t
ug]{ :jefj x'G5 . hlt;'s} sl7g ;d:of ePklg logLx? ;d:ofb]lv
8/fpFbg} g\ . kl08TofOF ug'{ , ljQ / jf0lfHosf] If]qdf sfd ug'{ n]vs,
slj, cWofks, ;Nnfxsf/, Hof]ltifL, s[ifs jf zf]wstf{ x'g' o; nUgsf]
ljz]iftf xf] . cfoftlgof{t, n]vf Jojf;foL, 9'jfgL, v]ns'b, oftfoft,
7]Ssfk6\6f -bnfnL_ cflbdf ;d]t oLgLx?sf] ?lr x'g] u5{ .
t'nf nUg M t'nf nUgsf] :jfdL z'qm ePsf sf/0f JolQmsf]
JolQmTjdf z'qmsf]] k|efj b]lvG5 . o; nUgsf dflg;n] ;+uLt,
ufog, g[To, clego cflb ljifo dg k/fpF5g\ . lrqsfl/tf,
;+uLt, g[To cflb /rgfTds sfo{df klg oLgLx?sf] ?lr x'G5 .
/fhgLlt1, Gofok|Lo dfq x}g oLgLx? slxn]sfFxL 3[l0ft sfo{df
;d]t lnKt x'g x'g ;S5g\ . u'Ktr/, wfjs, lrqsf/, ;'gf/,
dxFuf dxFuf j:q / cfe"if0fsf] Jofkf/L, ul0ft1, cf}ifwL Joj;foL
jf lrlsT;fsdL{ eP/ hLjgofkg u{b5g\ .
j[Zlrs nUg M j[Zlrs nUgdf hGdg] dflg; cToGt
;fx;L, pT;fxL,\ k/fqmdL,pBdL x'gfsf] ;fy} logLx?sf]] xftdf
Joj:yfkg x'Fbf To;nfO{ /fd|/L ;DxfN5g\ .] ;fxl;s sfo{df ulx/f]
?lr x'g] oLgLx? ;}Go;]jf, /x:ofTds ljifo, Hof]ltif, t+q–d+q,
bz{g, dgf]lrlsT;f cflb If]qdf nfUg ;S5g\ . oLgLx? /fhgLltsf
c;n v]nf8L / s"6gLlt1 klg aGg ;Sb5g\ .
wg' nUg M o; nUg ePsfx?sf] 1fg ;DaGwL ljifo /
wfld{s lqmofsnfksf ;fy} cfWofTd / Hof]ltifk|lt klg ?lr x'g] u5{
. lrgfdf b]ju'? a[x:klt alnof] :yLltdf 5 eg] o:tf JolQmdf
cfkm\gf] 1fgsf ;DaGwdf cx+sf/ klg x'G5, clg :jo+ cfkm} cfkm\gf]
1fgsf] avfg ug{ dg k/fpF5g\ . n]vf / Joj:yfkgsf] snfdf
logLx? k|jL0f x'G5g\ . ;dfh;]jL, syfjfrs, sd{sf08L, ;jf/L
rfns, e"u{eljb\, ;flxTosf/ cflb x'g' o; nUgsf] j}lzi6\o xf] .
ds/ nUg M o; nUgdf hGd lng] JolQm ldlxg]tL x'g]
u5{g\ . b[9 lgZroL x'g] ePsfn] hLjgdf cfOkg]{ afwfl;t 8/fpFbg} g\
. logLx?n] Goflos If]qdf rf;f] /fVg'sf ;fy} /fhgLlt, /ª\ud~r,
pRr ;/sf/L kbflwsf/L, kf}8Ljfh cflbdf ;kmntf kfpF5g\ .
s'De nUg M s'De nUgsf] JolQmTjdf zlgsf] k|efj b]lvG5
. o:tf JolQmsf] ;flxTodf ?lr x'G5 . s7f]/ kl/>dL / cN5L klg
x'g] ePsfn]] cfn:onfO{ Tofu]/ sfo{If]qdf lg/Gt/tf lbg' /fd|f] x'G5
. o:tf JolQmsf] b{zgzf:qdf klg ?lr x'G5 / cfkm\gf] lbgr{ofdf
klg To;nfO{ ;dfj] z u5{ g \ . u' K tljBfsf] cWoog ug] { ,
zf]wstf{,;Nnfxfsf/, lrqsf/, /fhgLlt1, gofF dfu{ bz{s, wd{1ftf,
k|f]km];/, ;dfh;]jL jf s'g} d+lb/ / d7sf] d7fwLz cflb x'g'df
s'De nUgsf] dxTjk"0f{ e"lds x'G5 .
dLg nUg M dLg nUgsf ePsfx?sf] P];cf/fd lhGbuL
afFRg] rfxfgf x'G5 . /fd|f] jStf, u'? / ;nfxsf/ aGg] u'0f ePsfn]
wfld{s u|Gy / ;flxTok|lt logLx?sf] ?lr x'G5 . Jofkf/ / jfl0fHo
sd{df lgk{0' f, ko{6g Joj;foL, ;dfh;]jL, sd{sf08L, z}lIfs ;+:yfsf]
k|d'v jf ;+:yfks, k|jrgstf{ cflb sfo{df bIftf ldNg ;S5 .
nf]6; Hof]ltif k/fdz{ s]Gb|

h]7 @)&)

63

/ of] klg

=========

8\o"6L t o:tf] kf] M ;'g;/Lsf] ;b/d'sfd Og?jfl:yt g]kfn ljB"t k|flws/0f pkzfvfsf] k\mo"h ;]jfsf sd{rf/L
6]jn / vftfdfly pk/v'l6\6 nufP/ s';L{df d:t lgGb|fdf lyP . ut a}zfv @& ut] laxfg !! jh] cy{la6 k|ltlglw k'Ubf
pgL o:tf] cj:yfdf e]l6Psf x'g\ . ljB"t sfof{nosf] k\mo"h ;]jf eg]sf] hgtfsf] k|ToIf ;d:of ;'Gg] zfvf xf] t/ clwsf+z
k\mo"h ;]jfdf xQkQ kmf]g nfUb}g nflu xfn]klg gp7\g] ;d:ofn] pkef]Qmf cflht 5g\ . o;/L lbpF;} sfof{nodf d:t
lgbfpg] sd{rf/Lsf] k|j[ltn] hgtfn] b'Mv kfO /x]sf 5g\ . t/ sfof{no k|d"vn] eg] sd{rf/Ln] sfd u/] gu/]sf] s'g}
cg'udg / jf:tf gug]{ sd{rf/Lx?sf] u'gf;f] 5 .

64

h]7 @)&)

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