The hidden potential of public-private partnerships p.5 Post-carbon pioneers: Are you part of the “eco-elite”? Financing solutions of tomorrow p.12
The hidden resources of our cities
n resources The hidde of our cities
Benefitting from natural resources
Energy Cities becomes the European Association of local authorities in energy transition
We have entered a new era in our history. The good news is that we have local resources all around us, just waiting to be rediscovered. Cities’ wasted or untapped heat sources are underground, in lakes and wastewater networks. Renewable energy sources such as biomass and biogas providing heat and electricity and many others represent a huge energy saving potential and our most important source of wealth. The sun, the wind and water are not our only resources. Citizens, with their visions and desires, the private sector with its flair for innovation and political decision-makers daring to make radical course changes also represent a priceless potential and a source of huge opportunities if properly mobilised at the local level. We are leaving a world of absolute globalisation to enter a world that advocates the relocation of many economic activities and promotes new production and consumption modes. Energy is at the heart of this massive change, as the energy transition is not only an economic transition but also a transition towards new lifestyles. By becoming the European Association of local authorities in energy transition, Energy Cities wishes to embody and promote such a change. It is the only way for Europe, which is arousing more and more scepticism, to become a land of hope for new generations again. This is why we have almost exclusively dedicated this issue - as well as our “30 proposals for the energy transition of cities and towns” available online - to local initiatives that are today paving the way for tomorrow.
Geneva: unsuspected resources under the city
No massive heat supply from renewable energy sources is possible without active distribution networks. It is vital that cities lacking such facilities take another look at their existing underground infrastructures and explore the possibility of putting them to new uses. Geneva (Switzerland) has a network extending over dozens of kilometres of underground galleries and pipes aimed at conveying water from the lake to the various districts throughout the city in case of a conflict or fire. Part of this civil protection infrastructure is no longer required and can therefore be integrated into the city’s energy planning strategy e.g. for installing underground heat pipes. Using such infrastructure, which include wastewater and stormwater sewers as well as underground systems, can significantly reduce renewable energy deployment costs, thus increasing their competitiveness. A word to the wise: go ahead and start discussing this with your colleagues from the urban planning, civil defence, wastewater and drinking water supply departments. Who knows what hidden treasures you may find!
Eckart Würzner, Mayor of Heidelberg and President of Energy Cities
Benefitting from natural resources: the examples of Geneva, Paris, Brussels.......................... p.2-3 DOSSIER Riga’s heat connection.............................................................................................................................................................. p.3 Sparkling ideas! Water management in Porto and Samsø............................................................................p.4 The hidden potential of public-private partnerships...........................................................................................p.5 When decision-makers dare............................................................................................................................................... p.6-7 Successful renovation stories................................................................................................................................................p.7 The power of (extra)ordinary citizens..............................................................................................................................p.8 Post-carbon pioneers: Are you part of the “eco-elite”?...................................................................................p.9 Energy transition: Local authorities setting their own rules................................................................. p.10-11 Financing solutions of tomorrow.......................................................................................................................................p.12 Updates from the network.....................................................................................................................................................p.13 Publications........................................................................................................................................................................................p.14 Energy at the heart of the Franco-German partnership..................................................................................p.14
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Energy Cities No. 41 I p.2
Contributors to this issue: the Energy Cities staff and members of the network Translation: Nathalie Fauchadour
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Riga’s heat connection
Supplying heat may be technically and financially challenging, especially when the district energy infrastructure delivers close to 75% of a city’s demand as is the case in the Latvian capital. No wonder that Riga has been investing in new information and communication technologies (ICT) to optimise its district heating system built during Soviet times.
Treasure hunt in Paris
What about a Paris travel guidebook that recommends walking tours to data centres or bakeries reusing heat, to quarries sharing their “coolness”, to intelligent rainwater harvesting stations or to pedestrian zones producing kinetic energy? This is not impossible as the French capital has launched a call for contribution this spring, inviting all citizens, scientists, researchers and industrialists to look for the hidden resources available within the city and for the means to take advantage of them. This is the first call of its kind in France – and possibly in Europe. We are looking forward to the outcome.
© Oskars Kupics © Fotolia
More than 8,000 customers are connected to Riga’s district heating system, all of which are equipped with automatic thermal substations. Since 2012, each building with a heat substation has been equipped with a telemetering system enabling remote heat consumption measurements to be taken (other data, such as cold and hot water as well as electricity, can be read in accordance with the client’s needs). In Riga ICT accompanied a recent modernisation of CHP units, boiler houses and distribution pipelines. The latter has led to a 13% reduction in transfer losses in the city. More than 90% of the heat supplied is produced in high efficiency cogeneration mode. District energy is one of the many initiatives Riga is implementing to meet the ambitious CO2 emission reductions that its Mayor, Nils Ušakovs, is committed to. Head of the Club of Covenant of Mayors Signatories in Latvia, Mr Ušakovs is making Riga a frontrunner city in the region and beyond as he also exports the city’s expertise abroad through decentralised co-operation. As a European Capital of Culture and host of Energy Cities’ Annual Rendezvous in 2014, the city will put even more emphasis on promoting its great achievements and know-how. www.riga.lv/en www.energy-cities.eu/-Annual-RendezVous-
Urban farming: growing vegetables and jobs
Urban farming has expanded in recent years with the development of various initiatives: shared gardens, associations like CSAs (Community-Supported Agriculture), roof culture systems and citizens’ collective actions like the Incredible Edibles movement. Local food initiatives are gaining momentum, especially in the light of the horse meat scandal and related traceability problems.
A study by the Brussels’ Institute for Environment Management carried out in June 2012, entitled “Système d’alimentation durable”- Sustainable Food System*, listed the potentially arable surface areas available in the city of Brussels for market gardening, fruit growing and aquaponics, i.e. labour-intensive organic crops. Including waste lands, gardens, parks and flat roofs where cultivation is possible, we obtain a total arable area of 1,300 hectares and a potential of thousands of full-time jobs. According to those experimenting in food self-sufficiency, it is widely agreed that one hectare is required to feed one family on a predominantly vegetarian diet. These 1,300 hectares would, therefore, not be enough to feed the entire population of the city. Urban farming will never enable food selfsufficiency to be achieved in large cities
in view of the potentially arable surface areas. It could, however, become the most economical and profitable farming mode in terms of energy and transportation costs in a context of ever increasing fossil energy prices. Cities host the largest concentrations of both manpower and mouths to be fed, thus making this type of farming a significant source of jobs at European level. * http://wiki.opengreens.net/lib/exe/ fetch.php?media=ua:sad_rapport_ final_010812.pdf www.incredible-edible.info
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.3
n resources The hidde of our cities
Benefitting from natural resources
Sparkl . . . s a ing ide
Dirty bubble busters: wastewater treatment on the spot!
Both energy and water are vital elements for our cities and their citizens. Numerous pioneer cities are now seeking ways to improve water management as a crucial dimension of resource efficiency. An excellent way of doing so is to create synergies between water and energy just as the small Danish island of Samsø does. The municipality uses a small-scale, mobile wastewater treatment plant named “Biobooster” developed by a Danish pump manufacturing company. Wastewater is being treated close to where it is generated, in a decentralised fashion, eliminating the need for infrastructure related to its transport. It is thus contributing to the reduction of CO2 emissions and energy spending. In line with the principle of optimising resource flows, the sludge resulting from the treatment process can then be re-used for irrigation purposes or for the production of biogas! Water management is only one of the many resource-efficient priorities of Covenant Signatory Samsø, where electricity is 100% generated by wind turbines and 70% of heating requirements are covered by solar power and biomass. Find out all about the recently created Network for Water in European Regions and Cities, NETWERCH2O, an association of European municipal and regional governments. Its objective is the promotion and development of sustainable practices related to the management of water. Energy Cities is an associate member of the network. www.netwerch2o.eu
In 2013, as part of the recentlylaunched European Innovation Partnership on Water, Energy Cities’ member Växjö (Sweden) was given the opportunity to share its experience in the field with the Steering Group. http://ec.europa.eu/ environment/water/ innovationpartnership/ index_en.htm
Porto’s hills, a precious source of energy efficiency
The key success factor for an efficient city is not only technologies. The essential step is a clever planning and management of the systems themselves. An outstanding illustration of the above is the accomplishment of the water service utility of Porto in Portugal. Through careful analysis of the city’s topography and clever organisation of the transmission lines between the higher network line and the pumping stations, an annual reduction of electricity consumption of about 95%, from 4,500 MWh down to 220 MWh, was reached in 2012. The Águas do Porto, EEM is a public service company, created and owned by the municipality, for managing the water supply and sewage in the City of Porto. The city is a member of Energy Cities and has signed the Covenant of Mayors. It is currently setting up an observatory to monitor the implementation progress of its Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP), approved in 2010.
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.4
© DDiego Delso, CC-BY-SA 3.0
THE HIDDEN POTENTIAL OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS
Local authorities are currently working within ever tightening human and financial constraints, which are forcing them to use their resources creatively and effectively – while increasingly relying on external resources. In what ways can the public service mission be combined with the efficiency and the innovation of the private sector? Here is some food for thought...
Product innovation, especially in the field of ICT-automated energy management systems such as smart metering or smart grids, is fast-moving. However, embedding these products into ‘user-friendly’ solutions that can quickly be adopted by municipalities requires a good knowledge of local authorities’ realities. Process innovation consists in delivering sustainable energy goods and services to the end user in a new way. It accelerates the market uptake of innovative technologies and can generate significant (often around 20% or more) energy savings for end users at lower costs. Companies from various sectors are trying to achieve this by providing integrated, “one-stopshop” energy management solutions. For instance, with a well-managed energy services contract, the municipality can save on upfront investment (capital costs) by obtaining third-party financing and on maintenance costs (operational costs). In addition, it can reduce its transaction costs by dealing with just one supplier, while gaining additional technical and financial expertise. Innovative purchasing approaches are another beneficial dimension for municipalities. Public-private partnerships can generate creative business models which handle a fundamental flaw of the modern
unsustainable consumer economy: the more companies sell, the more they earn. Alternative business models focus on the service instead of the goods: a car, a building control system or a washing machine is not sold, but leased throughout its lifecycle by a service provider whose property it remains. Contracts are typically based on Companies the use of the product from various – so called ‘pay as you use’ systems – sectors are encouraging business providing partners to provide as integrated, durable and efficient “one-stop-shop” a product as possible. These contracts can energy incentivise the colmanagement lection and reuse of waste products. solutions. We believe that Energy Cities can make a significant contribution to the development of these innovations required for change. The network and its members are happy to act as catalysts for the local energy transition in partnership with the private sector. Interested to know more or to collaborate? Contact Kristina Dely, Head of European Affairs at Energy Cities www.energy-cities.eu/kristina
The first step for keeping money at home or in the municipal wallet should remain the prevention and the correct management of energy consumption. This does not mean making any major investments in municipal assets or outsourcing them, but having an appropriate energy management system. Most municipalities lack the human capacity to run such a system, controlling consumption and installations, providing and evaluating energy consumption data. At the same time, a growing number of complete, increasingly customer-friendly and less time-consuming solutions are available. These are not only helpful for communicating a positive and responsible image of your municipality, but also for primarily generating revenue and answering questions like: – What can I do with limited funds and scarce human capacities to achieve meaningful energy savings in the short and medium term? – How can I access funds and pay them back from the cost savings achieved, without a great deal of risk?
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.5
n resources The hidde of our cities
When decision-makers dare
Swedish cities: ambitious and planning for the future
In Sweden, municipalities have widespread authority over local land use, also referred to as a certain “planning monopoly”. Responsible for land and water management, they produce binding municipal development plans and issue building permits in compliance with these plans. In the rapidly-growing city of Stockholm, brown-field sites close to the city centre with good transport systems are considered valuable areas: the municipality requires the land to be reused in order to contain urban sprawl and preserve green spaces on the outskirts. This policy has led to a complete revitalisation of abandoned industrial sites that have been converted into modern and energyefficient residential and business communities. In Malmö, a dynamic Energy Cities member, a central part of the energy strategy lies in the supply of district heating in winter and district cooling in warmer months. 95% of households are connected to the district heating system and the waste-to-energy scheme providing electricity for 40% of them. Converted food waste provides biogas for 25% of public transport. The land use plan of the city of Lund only allows for expansion in areas where sustainable modes of transport are developed (bicycle lanes, public transport, etc.). There has been no increase in the use of cars over the past ten years, and the city is determined to decrease it even further. 43% of all trips are made by bicycle in Lund!
© Diane Morel
Local Energy Roadmaps 2050:
The Swedish city of Växjö is on a quest to become carbonneutral by 2050.
a lot of courage, a pinch of madness
In 1996, the city council decided to become a “fossilfuel free” city. A few minutes after this vote, when adrenaline and emotions had calmed down, some of the members may have looked at each other and asked themselves: “What have we done?” They may have been scared at the thought of a “fossil fuel free” work programme and the considerable changes required for the municipality and its 78,000 inhabitants. “No regrets”, as says Bo Frank, current Mayor of Växjö. The Växjöians have kept their promise. Step by step, they have built energy-efficient dwellings, extended the use of biomass and district heating and turned their city into one of the greenest in the world. The ambitious vision helped them figure out the right path: they renewed their energy strategy in 2011 and are heading towards their objective which they expect to achieve by 2030! Eight cities (Bistrita, Dobrich, Figueres, Lille, Milton Keynes, Modena, Munich and Odense) have started a similar exercise and committed to finalising their Local Energy Roadmaps 2050 by the end of 2014 as part of the IMAGINE project, co-financed under the INTERREG IVC programme. Is this about courage or is it a kind of madness? Does it really matter, as long as both lead to change? www.imaginelowenergycities.eu
The Swedish way of city networking
Joining the nonprofit association Klimatkommunerna (Climate Municipalities) is for many active cities a good means of sharing experiences, getting support and being represented in national legislation and strategies. www.klimatkommunerna.se
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.6
3% of public buildings renovated per year: a utopian objective?
The European Energy Efficiency Directive (October 2012) compels Member States to renovate 3% of government-owned buildings every year. The European Commission tried to extend this measure to local and regional authorities’ buildings but the proposition was discarded under various pretexts. This is a Pavlovian reflex linked to the principle of subsidiarity, according to which the European level should not be able to compel the local level to do anything. Energy Cities supports the 3% objective because: – It is a strong political signal potentially leading to the total renovation of the public building stock by 2050, – It provides an excellent opportunity for all public governance levels to meet around a common challenge, – It sets the private sector an example and gives investors an economic signal, – It is a good way of compelling Member States to establish a favourable, inciting framework.
If we look at things “statically” (considering current resources) nothing will be done. But if we take a “dynamic” look, anything becomes possible. As Seneca said: ”It is not because things are difficult that we do not dare; it is because we do not dare that they are difficult. ” Follow Energy Cities political work closely on: www.energy-cities.eu/POSITIONS,10-
Members in the spotlight
Brussels-Capital (Belgium) had one of Europe’s most energyhungry building stock a few years ago. Two calls for projects, each with a 7.5 million euro budget, made it possible to move from zero passive buildings in 2007 to over 200,000 m² in 2012. Low energy use became a compulsory renovation standard in 2010.
Successful renovation stories
Built in 1877, the Montbenon Court of Justice is one of the most notable historic buildings in Lausanne (Switzerland). The challenge was to improve the building’s energy efficiency by undertaking renovation works compatible with its listed monument status. It seems to be a success as the building is in category A for water consumption and in category B for energy and CO2 emissions according to the Display® rating system. Ivanic-Grad (Croatia) is very much engaged in the Display® campaign and is very keen to display its buildings’ energy performances on posters, even those in “class G”! The municipality has also launched an ambitious programme for the refurbishment of one municipal building per year, which corresponds to the 3% objective defended by Energy Cities.
© Olivier Bruchez
® For further information on Display : www.display-campaign.org
© Ville d’Ivanic-Grad
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.7
n resources The hidde of our cities
The power of (extra)ordinary citizens
Who’s afraid of the active citizen?
Negative myths about citizen engagement sometimes prevent elected representatives and decision-makers from engaging as it is: “too risky”, “too expensive”, “inefficient”. Ingrid Prikken, from Involve, has helped us understand how to overcome these myths.
Ingrid Prikken is Project Manager at Involve. The charity organisation seeks, through both research and practice, to radically transform the relationship between citizens and their governments to better use the creativity, energy, knowledge, skills and resources of all. www.involve.org.uk
Myths and mistakes Mob rule. Decision-makers may have had negative experiences of engaging citizens when they were confronted with combative people. Yet, most people are polite and keen to have a civilised and informed discussion. Citizens cannot discuss complex issues. There are so many examples of engagement processes where groups of ‘ordinary’ citizens engaged intelligently in complex topics. Engaging people in a meaningful way can have a positive impact on attitudes and behaviours. We may find that ‘ordinary’ citizens are able to come up with ingenious solutions which may have eluded experts. Engagement is too expensive... unless the costs of not engaging are considered together with the costs of your project. Non-engagement may result in obstacles with rather serious consequences in terms of costs, both from a monetary (complaints procedures or legal costs) and non-monetary (negative impact on image or decrease in trust) point of view.
Overcoming the myths Focus on what unites citizens, not on what divides them. Start framing with what you have in common and map the strengths. Make it relevant to citizens, but do not assume that the incentives that work for one group can automatically be transferred to another. Find out what the ‘entry’ point is for different types of people, who will have different attitudes and behaviours towards engaging with energy. Inspire citizens to engage. A powerful way of engaging citizens with transitioning to a low carbon future is to bring positive messages. Show the difference people are making, whether that is through ‘storytelling’, challenge prizes, or celebrating good practice… And make it fun! Engaging citizens is not straightforward. There are many obstacles and areas of confusion. However, engaging citizens can ensure that public values are taken into account, develop a better understanding of complex issues, and create greater ownership for energy transition decisions. The key is to find that space where citizens are empowered to engage and where those in power demonstrate strong leadership and have the courage to step back and let things happen. ➢ More information about dispelling myths around engagement can be found in “From Fairy Tale to Reality: Dispelling the Myths around Citizen Engagement”: www.involve.org.uk/from-fairytale-toreality/
Bielsko-Biala (Poland): Involving all local actors thanks to the ENGAGE campaign
“The ENGAGE campaign is a great idea for getting the local community involved in climate protection projects by promoting the message that anyone can be a co-author of success. The artistic performances accompanying the awareness-raising activities in our city have brought an atmosphere of joy and hope, which has inspired thousands of people to take action, rather than scare them with discouraging visions of danger.” Zbigniew Michniowski - Deputy Mayor of the City of Bielsko-Biała, member of Energy Cities’ Board of Directors “ENGAGE builds a sense of responsibility and encourages involvement through various activities. The local community is inspired by colourful posters of both well-known people and citizens who have publicly committed to support sustainable energy.” Aneta Gut-Sulima – Physics teacher
© Urząd Miasta Bielsko-Biała
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.8
Discover Bielsko-Biała’s actions in favour of sustainable energy: www.energy-cities.eu/db/Bielsko_ energy_management_and_efficient_ energy_use%20_2013_en.pdf
Post-carbon pioneers: Are you part of the “eco-elite”?
In recent years, the lifestyle of Europeans has considerably changed, notably as regards food, travel habits, transport choices and use of new technologies. However, efficiency gains made thanks to technological progress are often zeroed out by new individual attitudes that favour electronic gadgets, long-distance travel or spacious flats (rebound effect). How do we live in 2013 and what does this say about our ecological footprint? Three researchers (A.Huber, S.Girard, P.Le Marre) have looked into “sustainable urban settings” in France using the sociocultural segmentation developed by Sociovisio at the end of the 1990’s. It combines the classical parameters of social classes (revenue, level of education etc.) with sociocultural factors such as aspirations, motivations and individual value systems. The researchers found that the carbon footprint varies significantly depending on the lifestyle. All major influencing factors considered, the annual CO2 emissions are six times higher for the so-called “established milieu” (almost 34,000 kg eq. CO2) than for the so-called “alternative trendsetters” (around 4,000 kg eq.CO2). In addition to nine citizen profiles, the researchers identified three “emerging milieus”: the eco-helpers, the eco-elite and the creative class. They are already reflecting major societal trends including ecological awareness and the appetite for innovation. Due to their forerunner status, they influence the lifestyle of other milieus. Watch out for them as they are likely to become the pioneers of a post-carbon society - in France and elsewhere in Europe! Source: Futuribles no. 392, January-February 2013 www.futuribles.com
© Rodho | http://blorg.canalblog.com
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.9
Energy transition: Local authorities setting their own rules
The speed and decisiveness with which European countries are tackling the shift towards a new energy system is very different, depending on historical contexts, infrastructures and political will. A look at the local level, however, can provide a different, more positive picture. Many local authorities are already mobilised towards a decentralised, post-carbon energy future - some of them getting support from their national level while others have to challenge their national government to take action. Four elected people from European cities tell us what “transition” means from a local perspective.
City of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Councillor Barney Crockett
“Through the MUSIC project (Mitigation in Urban areas: Solutions for Innovative Cities), Aberdeen is going through a transition process aiming to make CO2 reduction an integral part of urban planning processes. It includes a series of workshops with a range of stakeholders (businesses, government, research institutes, citizens) which aim at jointly applying the scientifically underpinned Transition Management methodology. It consists of five phases: 1/ Preparation & Exploration 2/ Envisioning & Backcasting 3/ Agenda Building & Target Setting 4/ Experimenting & Implementing 5/ Monitoring & Evaluation The Transition Management methodology used provides an opportunity to experience ‘co-creation’, an approach where efforts of the local authority are aligned with those of local actors, and can bring about a leap in terms of sustainable development. ” www.drift.eur.nl
30 Energy Cities’ proposals for the energy transition
of cities and towns
Empowering local actors
Concrete proposals at: www.energy-cities.eu/ 30proposals
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.10
© Aberdeen: Russ Hamer
Litoměřice, Czech Republic
Mayor Ladislav Chlupáč
“Litoměřice has long been committed to protecting the environment and using renewable energy sources. The town is promoting new eco-friendly technologies by getting heat pumps and solar panels installed as well as providing financial support for households to improve their homes’ energy efficiency. Aiming to become an energy-independent city, Litoměřice started a one-of-a-kind geothermal energy project in 2008. The project consists of exploiting a local source of pumped geothermal energy thanks to 5km deep wells using the hot dry rock technology. The geothermal CHP plant will produce 18.4 GWh a year and will cover up to 70% of the city’s total heat consumption. The estimated budget for the whole project is about €80 million.”
Joachim Lorenz, Head of the City’s Department of Health and the Environment
“Munich’s city council adopted its new Action Programme for Climate Protection, IHKM (“Integriertes Handlungsprogramm Klimaschutz in München”). A budget of almost €63 million has been approved for the next two years, aiming for an annual CO2 reduction of 600,000 tonnes, as compared to 450,000 tonnes with the former programme. In 2008, the city set itself a CO2 reduction objective of 50% by 2030, based on 1990 levels. The programme includes a large panel of strategic and operational measures, which include thermal retrofitting, involvement of the private sector and an ambitious policy of the municipal energy utility “Stadtwerke” concerning the development of renewable energy sources. The German government has given the city a grant to hire nine “Climate Managers”. This is a mark of recognition for the city.”
© Litomerice: Wikimedia Commons
Jean-Patrick Masson, Deputy Mayor in charge of urban ecology
“The National debate on energy transition is now launched. The issues that were identified are of a technical, financial and societal nature. In my opinion, the major issue is that of energy decentralisation, an idea supported by the Local Energy Alliance. Decentralising energy means giving local authorities expertise in energy production and distribution as well as in energy spending control. Dijon wants to set an example in energy transition based, in particular, on buildings’ thermal retrofitting and the construction of an urban heat network using 80% of renewable energy and supplying the densest part of the urban area”. www.energy-cities.eu/-l-alliance-pour-l-energie-localeMember
© Paolo da Reggio
© gary718 | Shutterstock
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.11
Financing solutions of tomorrow
Energy co-operatives say YIMBY: Yes In My Backyard!
Governments and corporate investors alone cannot raise enough funds to meet the energy challenges: “crowdfunding” is emerging as a new financing scheme at local level. Citizens are recognised as important players in the game and they are a driving force behind sustainable energy co-operatives. This concept has now conquered Spain – thanks to the co-operative Som Energia. of 100 euros into the co-operative’s social capital. After 17 months of official activity, Som Energia now has more than 6,100 members – meaning a total of 610,000 euros in social capital. This is still growing as around 800 newcomers sign up every month! What makes this co-operative different is their goal to produce 100% of their members’ consumption via new renewable production projects, owned by the co-operative and financed by its participants. The co-operative has just made it possible for their members to invest. The first results are very encouraging with around 700 members investing a total of 2,800,000 euros. Experience shows that citizens sponsoring the installation of RES plants in return for a share of the output become supporters of the energy transition more easily. A new energy system definitely needs YIMBYs, not NIMBYs (not in my backyard)! Som Energia : www.somenergia.coop REScoop, the European federation of groups and cooperatives of citizens for renewable energy: www.rescoop.eu www.energy-cities.eu/IMG/ pdf/WS3_RESCoop-EnerCoop. pdf
TESTED AT EUROPEAN LEVEL…
Since the success of ELENA (European Local ENergy Assistance) launched in co-operation with the European Investment Bank, further financing mechanisms and technical assistance programmes have been developed at European level. They are adapted to different project sizes. France welcomes ELENA-KfW! In December 2012, the KfW bank signed a partnership agreement with BPCE*. As part of ELENA-KfW, the 2nd largest banking group in France now acts as an intermediary with the local authorities which benefit from the facility. ELENA-KfW includes loans with preferential interest rates and technical assistance services (up to 90% of costs may be covered) to set up local sustainable energy projects. Among other services, the bank will Did you know that contribute to financing the 90% of ELENA provalorisation of Energy Efficiency jects approved by the Certificates (an energy-saving European Investment mechanism set up in France) Bank were submitand, later on, domestic CO2 ted by Covenant reductions. Signatories and Four local authorities have Coordinators? already expressed their interest in ELENA-KfW in France: the www.eumayors.eu urban communities of Greater Lyon, Greater Nancy, GrenobleAlpes Métropole and Metz Métropole. More will certainly follow.
*Banque Populaire-Caisse d’Epargne
© Heidelberger Genossenschaft, www.heidelberger-energiegenossenschaft.de
The success of the first Spanish renewable energy co-operative Som Energia may surprise…or not. In crisis-ridden Spain, there is a particular need for tapping unconventional financial sources. Som Energia, which is also being encouraged by Energy Cities’ member city Pamplona, sells and produces renewable electricity with relatively small-scale projects, set up close to where their members live. Joining requires a deposit
MLEI – Development Assistance for 16 projects The Mobilising Local Energy Investment (MLEI) is the technical assistance facility managed by the European Commission. It helps local and regional authorities prepare high quality sustainable energy investment programmes, often relying on innovative financing schemes. Two Energy Cities’ members made use of the MLEI: the Croatian city of Zagreb and the English city of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Other beneficiaries are: Comune di Padova (IT), Region Ile-de-France (FR), Province of Limburg (BE), Municipality of Hengelo (NL), Municipality of Solrod (DK), City of Graz (AT) and Province of Huelva (ES). A new facility called ELENA-CEB has just been created in partnership with the European Commission. It will support local sustainable energy projects benefitting disadvantaged populations or regions. More information on financing mechanisms: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/intelligent/gettingfunds/project-development-assistance/index_ en.htm
30 Energy Cities’ proposals for the energy transition
of cities and towns
Setting up financial structures dedicated to the energy transition Concrete proposals on:
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.12
Updates from the network
Energy Cities preparing the ground for local authorities
In its latest position papers, Energy Cities stressed that the future EU budget (20142020) and the EIB energy sector lending policies should be closely linked to the five priorities of the EU 2020 strategy and especially to the EU energy and climate policy. Both the EU budget and the EIB lending should support local and regional authorities’ efforts, given their huge potential to contribute to the energy transition in European Member States. Priority access to funding should be given to cities that have adopted a Sustainable Energy Action Plan under the Covenant of Mayors. Furthermore, the contribution of the Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) programme to the European energy and climate goals over the past years is undisputed. Therefore, Energy Cities underlined the importance of the future IEE III programme as a strong support to innovative non-technological solutions, addressing local authorities as the main actors. Find Energy Cities’ position papers on: www.energy-cities.eu/-POSITIONS,10-
EU Commissioner says local authorities have a lot to offer!
Energy Cities’ members have a lot to bring to and share with United Nations entities promoting sustainable energy in developing countries. This is what EU Commissioner for Development Andris Piebalgs said, when he met the association’s Board of Directors in February. More specifically, Mr Piebalgs referred to the UN Millennium Development Goals, which notably aim to eradicate poverty and ensure environmental sustainability. He stated that local authorities were the “key” to achieving these objectives as they are generally “better organised than national governments, ready to learn and to move faster”.
Energy for prosperity:
What does 40,000 tonnes of CO2 exactly mean?
40,000 tonnes of C02 – that is the impressive saving made by the 12 pioneer Energy Cities’ members participating in ENGAGE! Monitored inhabitants of the participating cities reduced their individual annual CO2 emissions by an incredible average of 12%! To know how they achieved this: www.citiesengage.eu
enGaGe, a CommuniCation CampaiGn leadinG to ConCrete enerGy SavinGS
CitizenS StakeholderS publiC ServantS/eleCted people
On-line: IMAGINE European Resource Centre dedicated to local energy foresight
Looking for information on energy and territorial cohesion? Tired of surfing on hundreds of different websites? Check out Energy Cities’ one-of-a-kind on-line resource centre IMAGINE. www.energy-cities.eu/imagine Initiated in 2006, IMAGINE has progressively become a real platform for multi-actor dialogue.
On average, a citizen has reduced his/her annual CO2 emissions by
annual CO2 emissions of 109 European citizens*
212 public servants/elected people
tonnes of CO2 avoided
tonnes of CO2 avoided
Organisations: private companies, firms, associations or NGOs Entities: the local authority or its individual departments, public institutions (such as Organisations: private companies, firms, etc.) associations or NGOs libraries, schools,
CO per capita for the EU-27 in 2009: 8,105 kgCO /cap *Source: EU energy in figures – statistical pocketbook 2012, European Commission: CO2 per capita for the EU-27 in 2009: 8,105 kgCO2/cap
Entities: the local authority or its individual departments, public institutions (such as libraries, schools, etc.) *Source: EU energy in figures – statistical pocketbook 2012, European Commission:
tonnes of CO2 avoided since 2011
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.13
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Urban Planning for City Leaders
Energy at the heart of the Franco-German partnership
Energy is a source of disagreement between France and Germany, two countries that have adopted very different strategies. In a nutshell, France tends to think that the German strategy based on renewable energy is costly and utopian. In contrast, Germany considers that the priority given by France to nuclear energy is not suited to the 21st century and does not encourage the emergence of a new economy. This makes energy co-operation difficult. Experience, however, shows that French and German cities have much in common when they talk about energy. Buildings’ energy retrofitting, renewable energy supply, decentralised energy management, sustainable mobility and public transportation as well as citizens’ involvement, local economic developments and jobs are common sources of concern. When cities implement policies focusing on final uses or their citizens’ quality of life, when they commit themselves to reaching the EU energy and climate objectives through the Covenant of Mayors, all they have are similarities. The French-German meeting organised by Energy Cities on 19th and 20th March 2013 in Stuttgart on the theme of energy transition clearly demonstrated that local levels can become recognised, active players concerning the French-German rapprochement in the energy and climate field, whilst giving Europe new impetus!
Atlas of Urban Expansion (2012)
The Atlas of Urban Expansion by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy provides the geographic and quantitative dimensions of urban expansion and its key attributes in cities all over the world. The global empirical evidence presented here is critical for an intelligent discussion of plans and policies to manage urban expansion everywhere. www.lincolninst.edu/ subcenters/atlas-urbanexpansion/
Urban Planning for City Leaders (2012)
This is a valuable source of information, inspiration and ideas on urban planning that is designed for city leaders and decision makers. Predicted human population growth over the next 50 years will have immense consequences for all cities, in particular intermediate cities with populations of up to two million people. www.unhabitat.org/ pmss/listItemDetails. aspx?publicationID=3385
A GUIDE TO DEVELOPING STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING ENERGY RENOVATION
Financing Green Urban Infrastructure
Merk, O., Saussier, S., Staropoli, C., Slack, E., Kim, J-H (2012), ―Financing Green Urban Infrastructure‖, OECD Regional Development Working Papers 2012/10, OECD Publishing; http://dc.doi.org/10.1787/5k92p0c6j6r0-en
OECD Regional Development Working Papers 2012/10
DELIVERING ARTICLE 4 OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY DIRECTIVE
Study on financing green growth (2012)
This paper presents the main funding tools for green growth currently being used by several major cities. The transition to green growth must be viewed from a long-term perspective, and requires both the development of new equipment and the transformation of existing infrastructure stock. The investments required have characteristics that make their financing risky but crucial. www.oecd.org/gov/ regional-policy/WP_ Financing_Green_Urban_ Infrastructure.pdf
A guide to develop strategies for building energy renovation (2013)
This document published by the Buildings Performance Institute Europe will help EU Member States to develop the first version of their renovation strategies to be published by April 2014. This guide is a template that can be used for strategy development, setting out the multiple benefits arising from improving the energy performance of buildings. It highlights the existence of numerous challenges to the achievement of the potential benefits. http://bpie.eu/documents/ BPIE/Developing_Building_ Renovation_Strategies.pdf
Site visits on both sides of the Rhine: QuattroPole’s Energietours
Created in 2000, QuattroPole is a virtual urban area of 500,000 inhabitants composed of four cities - Luxembourg, Metz, Saarbrücken and Trier - aiming to implement cross-border and metropolitan co-operation initiatives in order to ensure strong regional consistency. Energy is an important issue. Each QuattroPole city proposes an Energietour every year, that is, a free, bilingual bus trip open to anyone wanting to find out all about local initiatives focusing on private and public, eco-friendly constructions with rational energy use. These Energietours are extremely popular, with over 4,700 project managers, architects and craftsmen taking part in these annual trips over the last 5 years.
Energy Cities No. 41 I p.14