You are on page 1of 568

ifd'- Is/^

-J

THE

PHILOSOPHICAL

PRINCIPLES
OF

NATURAL AND REVEALED

RELIGION,
UNFOLDED
IN

GEOMETRICAL ORDER
BY

THE CHEVALIER RAMSAY


AUTHOR
OF

THE TRAVELS OF CYRUS.

GLASGOW:
PRINTED AND SOLD BY ROBERT FOULIE.
MDCGXLVHI,

PREFACE.
IN
'

this twilight

of human underftanding
glafs.'

we

fee things

darkly as in a

The

moft fublime reafonings, the

noblefl: ideas, the

moft perfeft fchcmcs we can form of

God

and Nature
of
*

are

no doubt looked upon by

angelical minds, as

the childifh difcourfes of little babes, according to the cxprefCion


a fine poet

Superior beings

when of late
all

they faw

A mortal man unfold


Admir'd fuch wifdom

nature's law,

in an earthly fhape,
as

And fhew'd a Newton,

we fhew an

ape.

It

is

therefore with the greateft fclf-diffidence that

we

under-

take the refearch and demonftration of the principles contai-

ned in the following


feel

trcatife.

We know their fublimity,


ways of coming
to the

we

our

own

weaknefs.

There
tion.

are but

two

pofFible

know-

ledge of truth,

by

natural evidence, or

by fupernatural revelaand both are em-

Both

are emanations

of that fovereign wifdom which


our
afTent,

alone has the right to

command

ployed in this

effay.

Tho' natural

light is

not always fufficient

to difcover fupernatural truths, yet revelation never contra6iO:s reafon.

The former ferves

to exalt

and ennoble, but ne-

ver to degrade and extinguifh the latter. Philofophy therefore


as

an handinaid

may very well be employed


a 2

to

fhow

that rcli-

iv

PREFACE.
IS

glon

perfeftly conformable to reafon.

So long

as Deifts

and

Freethinkers fee no fublimity,dignity,nor beauty in the Chrifti-

an fcheme,they will of God.

ftill

cry out that our myfteries are blaipheall

mous, and that feveral do6lrines of faith deftroy


attributes

the moral

PrepofTelTed with thefe falfe ideas, they


tricks

muft look upon miracles as


infpiration as enthufiafm
ftic
;

of art; prophecy as impofture;


the reafons of credibility

facred hiftory as fabulous ; ecclefiaall

authority as prieftcraft, and

as plaufible falfhoods.

We do not

here attempt to prove by

fuch prophecies and miracles as could have proceeded only

from omnifcience and omnipotence, that God has fpoken to his creatures in a fupernatural manner; far lefs that the books
of the Old and

New Teftament
is,

were thus infpired and have

been preferved ever fince pure and uncorrupted.


pretend to fhow
that fuppofing thefe
is

What we
divine, the

books

do<flrine contained therein

the only religion which juftifies

the ways of eternal providence, renders the Deity amiable to


his creatures, reconciles all his

moral

attributes, far

from de-

ftroying

them

and

in fine that the

Holy

Scriptures con-

tain the mofl: fublime fyftem

of theology and philofophy coninvifible

cerning

God

and nature the vifible and


;

world, that

has ever yet been difcovcred.

In order
part
*

to this,

we

endeavour to demonftrate in the


eflay,
*

firft

of the following

That

the great principles

of

NATURAL RELIGION
cible evidence;

are

foundcd upon the moft invineffential doftrines

and that the

of REVEA-

LED RELIGION
principal do<5lrines

are perfectly conformable to


fhall

reason.'
of
all

In the fecond part we


*

fhow

'

That

vcftiges

the

of the Chriftian religion are to be found

PREFACE.
*

in the
ages,

monuments,
;

writings, or mythologies

of all nations,

'

and religions and that thefe veftlges are emanations of

the primitive, antlent, imlverfal religion of mankind, tranf-

'

mitted from the beginning of the world by the Antidiluvians to the Poftdiluvian patriarchs, and
fterlty that

by them

to their po-

peopled the face of the earth.'

In the whole

courfeof this work

we attempt to fhow, that as the Pagan myby degrees the


fo
firft

thologifts adulterated

original traditions

of the by ma-

patriarchal religion

the Jewifli rabbins, and then the

Chriftlan fchoolmen have disfigured revealed religion,

ny abfurd

opinions, popular errors, and wild fictions,

which

being neither founded in fcrlpture, nor authorized by the con-

fentof the univerfal church, ought not to pafs for do^rines

of

faith.

Thus we hope

to feparate the pure

from the im-

pure, and thereby remove

many

fcandals, ftumbling blocks,

and

prejudices, that

make minute

philofophers fcoiFat, and

delpife

ChrKHanlty,

We have digefted the great principles of thefirfl: part Into a


geometrical order,which
Is

certainly the mofl: exa(5l

wayof rea-

foning,the mofl proper to convince others, and undeceive ourfelves.

Each demonftration

confifls ofonefyllogiflTi, of which


al-

the premifes are either a definition, an axiom, apropofition

ready demonftrated, or fome corollary drawn from


is eafy upon a review

it.

Thus it
and

to detect the error

where it lay s.The lem-

mas

are incidental propofitions defigned to prove others,


in this treatife

they are demonflrated

by a combination of felf-

evident maxims. In the fcholiums we do not pretend to demonftrate,

but only to explain the principles already proved, or to

anfwer obje6tions made againfl them.

Tho' fome of our de-

.vl

PREFACE.
lefs evident,

monftrations or corollaries fhould fecm

or even

prove

falfe;

yet this will not deflroy the truth of the principle


it,

advanced, if other demonftrations can be found to fupport

and therefore our

adverfaries

muft not triumph,

till

they can

fhow, not only that fome of the proofs

we give are lefs


by
feparate

cogent

and

exa61:

but

alfo that

no

better ones can be given.


is

The ufual way of demonftrating


fame
principle.

and indein the


this

pendent proofs, which do not flow from, nor re-unite

All the propofitions and corollaries of

effay are derived

from the fimple idea ofasELF-ExisTENT


all

BEING which
;

muft allow, whether Atheifts or Theifts;

Deifts or Chriftlans.

This

is

the feed which contains the

hidden
fruits.

tree,

with

all its

roots, branches, leaves, flowers,

and

The harmony,

order,
;

and connccllon of truths


tlie

the unity of the principle

the multiplicity of

confe-

quences; their mutual dependence upon each other; their

tendency to elevate the heart,


lighten the underftanding
this life,
;

at the

fame time that they en-

to fecure

human

focicty during

while they prepare us for a happy immortality In the

next; tore-unite natural and revealed religion; and to reconcile

reafon with revelation, are fo

many additional

proofs that

give a

new

light to

each particular propofition.


firft

We
objects

have divided the

part into fix books, becaufe the


fix

we treat of may be
fubje^l

reduced to

heads.

God

con-

fidered in himfelf,

and then with regard to


firft

his creatures

makes the

of the two

books; the third confiders


finite

the properties and diflerenccs of

beings; the creatures


ftatc,

confidered in an elevated, lapfed, and rc-cftabliflied

make

the fubjeft of the three

laft.

By

this diftribution

we

PREFACE.
embrace the
eflentlal parts

vii

of philofophy, both phyfical and


only a book of principles,

moral, and of theology both natural and revealed. I fay theeffential parts
it is
;

for fince this efTay

is

not to be expelled that we fliould defcend into an ample

detail

and explication of

all

the confequences deducible from

them.

We

content ourfelves to prefent to thinking minds,

the original feeds from


ories, that

whence

fpring vaft fields


beautified,

of new the-

may be further cultivated,

and enlarged.

Truth however being of a coherent nature, it is impoffible to feparate one branch from another, and fee it in all its beauty.
I beg therefore
cels
;

my readers not

to judge

of the work by par-

but to continue to the end, that fo they

may fee the con-

ne<flion

of every part with the whole.


;

Scattered rays do not

always enlighten
iuftre to

but

when

re-united they give a mutual

each other.

VVe
with

forefee that this performance will not equally fuccced

all forts

of incredulous minds. Thefewho are blinded by


it

their paflions, will rejedt

with fcorn, and cry out at


fay?'

firft

fight

of the Title-page,
ned

'

What would this babbler

Determiaffraid

to indulge fenfe, appetite,


its

and pleafure; they are

to fee truth in

native colours.
fiiut their

The fulleft funfhine


eyes to
its

cannot

enlighten thofe
ces.

who

luminous influen-

Truth

is

hidden treafure which none can difcover but


it

thofe
heart,

who
and

fearch after

with a generous mind, and upright


all

are refolved to facrifice

to the love

of

it,

when

known.
ons,
this
is

Whofoever does not find in himfelf thefe


needlefs to read this
Chrifiianity.

dilpofiti-

not yet prepared for the fearch of truth: and without


it is

preparation of the heart

work or

any other that pleads the caufe of

We hope

viii

PREFACE.
all

however, that

ferious Freethinkers,

who

are

become fuch
of the

only by the
tlie

falfe ideas that

have been given of religion, or by

prejudices of education,will profit

by the

difcoveries

great men of all nations

and

times,

which we have endeavou-

red to re-unite under one view, and into one regular fyftcm
for

we do not pretend to give


difcoveries

here a fcheme of new,unheard

of

theories; but only to concenter in

one fyftem the


ages,

lights

and

of the fages of all countries and

whether

antient or modern.

In the

firft

part of this effay,

we

give only the philofophireligion, in fo far as

cal principles

of natural and revealed

they

are demonftrable
it,

by reafon, or can be proved compatible with by


it.

tho' not always difcoverable

In the fecond part

we

prove that the great principles advanced are conformable to


the tradition of all nations, both facred and profane.

If there
firft

be therefore fome principles in


feem contradi<n:ory to Scripture,
to prove that they are not fo.

this part

which

at

fight

we

refer to the fecond part

THE

PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES
OF

NATURAL AND REVEALED

RELIGION.
BOOK
all

OF THE ABSOLUTE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

DEFINITIONS.
demonftrablefciences whether metaphy IN matical, whether they regard
ileal

or mathe-

Being

in general, or

Qu a n-

TITY

in general,

we fhould begin by defining the things that


of demonftration.
Exa6l and clear denecefTary in metaphyfics than in

are to be the fubje(5ts


finitions are far

more

ma-

thematics.

In

this later fcience, fenfible figures

and images
fo that

recall to us continually the definitions


:

of things,

we

cannot miftake but in the former pure intelledual ideas cannot always be exaftly reprefented by fenfible figns, and fo the
terms by which

we exprefs thofe ideas may be

equivocal.

a
I.

OF THE ABSOLUTE
By
is,

Book

I.

Being

or a Reality, I underftand in general


attribute, a

whatever

whether it be a fubftance, an

mode, a

Power, or Perfeftion.
2.

By Substance,

mean a Being which


is
is

is

the founda-

tion

of attributes, modes, powers, and perfections.

3.

By Attribute

or Property,

meant

a reality that

necefTarily belongs to, flows from,

and

contained in the idea

of a being,
ing
its

fo that it cannot be taken

from it without deftroy-

effence.

4.

By

Mo D e or Quality,
in all times, in
all

I underftand a reality given to

a fubftance that does not necefTarily flow

from its

effence,

nor

belong to
ces,

it,

places,

and

in all circumftan-

and that may be communicated to


its

it,

or taken from

it

without deftroying
5.

nature.

By Power, Cau-se, Activity, Force, we mean


can produce fomething in
itfelf,

a reality that does or that

or

diftind

from

itfelf,

freely or necefTarily ;

whether

this

produc-

tion be a fubftance, an attribute, a

mode, or a being of any

kind.
6.

By Per F ECTioN, we mean an attribute or quality that


all

excludes
acflivity,

bounds

in the

firft

caufe, or that fuppofes

power,

and

caufality in fecond caufes.

It exprefTes infinite

or an image of infinity.
7.

By Finite, we mean what

contains only fome de

grees
8.

of reality, power, and perfection.

By Absolute Infinite, we mean


is

the moft perfe<ft

negation of finite, what

unbounded

in

all fenfes,

and what

contains the fulnefs of all perfe<5tion in the higheft degree.


9.

By Self-existent substance, we meanaBeing

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
in itfelf a reality
its

3
exiftence ne-

that contains
cefTary ;
10.

which makes

its

and

non-exiftence impoflible.
that

By Idea, I mean perceives when it thinks.

which the mind conceives or

SCHOLIUM.
From
the foregoing definitions,
it is

clear that the

word
be

Being does not fignifythe fame thing asfubftance: but (imply a reality or fomething that
fubftantial or
finite
is

and that exifts, whether


;

It

modal
;

a<5live

or paflive necelfary or contingent;

or infinite material or immaterial.

All fubftances, attri-

butes,

modes and powers


;

are equally realities, tho' they be not


little

equal

realities

as great

and

fpheres are equally fpheres,

The Cartefians feem to confound the idea of Being with that of fubftance. This may occafion great miftakes for we fhall fhew afterwards, that there may be intho' they are not equal.
;

telle(5tual

felf-confcious agents that are diftinft beings,


;

hypo-

flafes

or perfonalities, tho' not diflind fubflances

and that

there

may be a plurality of fuch agents,


fchoolmen define a Subflance,

beings, hypoftafes, or

perfonalities in the

fame individual and indivifible fubftance.


*

The
*
*

That which
exifls in

exlflrs

by itfelf, and which can be conceived by itfelf without another."

They define

mode, " That which

ano-

ther and cannot be conceived, nor fubfift without another.'

Thefe two definitions are altogether equivocal, and may have


a double fenfe.
*

They may
that

fignify either

'

That

a fubftancc

can
lar

exift, fubfift

and be conceived without any one particu-

mode; and

no mode can

exift, fubfift,

nor be con-

A2

4
*

OF THE ABSOLUTE
celved feparate from,

Book
which
;'

I.

and independent of fome


*

fubftance:*
exifts

or they
*

may

fignify that

a fubftance

is

that

by

itfelf,

independent of any other fubftance


another.

and that a

mode is that which exifts in and by

Spinofa under-

ftood the fchool definitions in the later fenfe; and fo confoun-

ded the idea of fubftance with that of

felf-exiftence.

Hence

he maintained
that
all

that there

was but one fubftance in nature, and

other things were modes of this only fubftance.

Now
in

fince thefe definitions

of the fchoolmen may be underftood

the latter fenfe as well as in the former, they are not only equivocal but dangerous, and therefore ought to be rejected.

We have chofen to define a fubltance,


*
*

Something
'

that

is

the foundation of modes,' and a mode,

Something that
All Mr. Locke's

may be given to or taken from a fubftance.'


againft thefe definitions
his

cavils

of fubftance and mode come


with adequate ones.

from

confounding

clear ideas

The

former fufEce to

diftinguifti things,

the later fuppofe a perfed:

knowledge of their intimate


the intimate eflence

Tho' we do not know of any one fubftance nor the manner


eflence.
,

how modes are produced in it;


ports and the other
is

yet to

know that the one

fup-

fupported fuffices to diftinguifh them.

Now

all

the knowledge

we

can acquire in our prefent

ftate,

confifts in

comparing the differences and relations of things,


effcnces,

and not their intimate


ideas
;

of which we have no adequate

as fhall be demonftrated.

We
qualities

have feldom made ufe of the words properties and


;

becaufe thefe terms are equivocal, and fometimes

confounded as fynonimous.

A property fignifies in

its

etymolo-

gy, fomething that belongs to a thing exclufively of all others.

Book
It
is

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
when we
is

5
fay

apply'd fometimes to eflential attributes; as


a property

that thought

of

fplrit;

and extenfion a property

of matter; and fometimes


that language

to accejGTory modes, as

and baldnefs are properties

when we fay of human nature,

becaufe they belong to

men

only, tho' not always, nor to eve-

ry individual. It

is

to be

remarked however that attributes, ge-

nerally fpeaking, exprefs whatiseflential to fubftances; whereas properties

denote what

is

eflential to beings

of

all

kinds,

whether

fubftantial or

modal.

Thus we

fay the properties

not the atrributes of a triangle. Moreover


ly that underftanding

we fay indifferenteflential attributes,

and

will, as

well as fciences and virtues,

are qualities

of the mind,

tho' the

one be
is

and the other acquired modes.

It

true indeed that

when

we

call

underftanding and will qualities,

we mean

rather the

a<5lual exercife

of thefe powers, than the


qualities

faculties themfelves;

and generally fpeaking,


tributes
;

denote rather modes than atall

as foft, hard, dry,

humid, and

the other fenfible

qualities;
all

they are accidental, not effential to matter.

Tofhun
its

confufion,

we advertife that in this elfay, we mean by proeffential to a thing, or

perties

what

is

what flows from

na-

ture neceffarily.
is

acceffory

on the contrary we mean what and communicated tho' durable and permanent.
qualities
is

By

Thus we
ter; tho'

fay that felicity

fallen fpirits,

and motion
of

permanent quality of pure unconfhnt quality of ethereal mata


effential attri-

both be communicated, and no ways


either.

butes, nor properties

The
free, in

Unitarians and Socinians maintain that


a<n:s:

all a<5tion is
is

order to deny God's immanent

but this

abfo-

lutely falfe; for the love

of happincfs, of good

in general,

or

6
aftion,

OF THE ABSOLUTE
is

Book

I.

the tendency of the foul to beatifying objeds,

no doubt an

and yet it is neceflary


adion

as Ihall be demonftrated.
affert

The

Spinofifts,Fatalifts,

and Predeftinarians

on the contrary
this is alfo

that

all

is

necefTary ; but

we fhall fliew that


forts

falfe,

and that there may be two

of a<5tion, one neceflary

and another free.

There have been


fome maintain
and even
that

great difj5Utes about the term perfe(n:ion


it is

altogether indeterminate, equivocal,


it
;

unfignificant, unlefs

be underftood in the fame


others fay that
,

fenfe as the general term reality

it

may be
;

apply'd to fomething, to nothing


therefore that
it

and

to every thing

and

ought to be banifh'd from philofophy.

We

grant that the

word

perfeft confidered in a relative concrete

fenfe, may be apply'd to all fort

of realities, and even to the neall

gation of thefe realities the object

but then

the

word means,
others.

is

that

we

fpeak of is poffelTed or deprived of fome reality

in a fuperlative degree,

when compared with

Thus

we

fay a perfect mettal, a perfeft folid, a perfeft circle; yea


perfe(5l

perfed darknefs,

ignorance, and perfe<5t malice.

We
but
ar-

fay alfo that beauty, order

and regularity are

perfe<5tions,

they are fuch only in a

relative fenfe,

with regard to fome

chetype or model to which

we fuppofe them conformed:


of all
reality.

per-

feftion in an abfolute abftrad fenfe, independent

relati-

on, cannot be faid of every being or


fubftance, an attribute or a

To be (imply a
a mettal, divifible

mode, a ftone or
circle, is
ftrift

or indivilible, a triangle or a
call

not a perfection.

We

nothing a perfection in a

and abfolute

fenfe but what

fuppofes infinity, or fome image of infinity.

All God's at-

tributes are perfections, becaufe they are infinite in all fenfes.

Book.

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD
and figurability

All the attributes

of the creatures are not called perfedions.


in matter are not called

Divifibility, mobility,

Perfedions, but attributes or properties. Underftanding, reafon,

and will, in

fpirits

are called

more or lefs perfe6lionsaccorbecaufe


all

-ding to their degree.

The reafon is

thefe proper-

dies in intellectual beings exprefs power.


caufality fuppofes

Now all power or


fo
is

an efFed produced that was not before ; and

jJierefore a palfage

from nothing to fomething; and


force,

an

image of infinity of power. Thus


perfeftion then in

knowledge, and be-

neficence are called perfedions, tho' in a finite degree.

an abfolute fenfe is not a (imple


but a

reality, at-

tribute, property, or quality ;

reality, attribute,
activity,
it is

properall

ty, or quality that implies

power or

and excludes

.bounds in the

firft

caufe.

In one word

a divine attribute,
is

or an imitation of fome

divine attribute.

It

then an egre-

gious miftake in philofophy to confound the idea of perfedli-

on with that of fimple reality.


Spinofa fays that
finite is that
is

which can be
;

limited

by a-

nother of its kind.

This

abfolutely falfe

for a thing
its

may
pro-

be limited by
perties, as

its

quality, as well as

by its quantity; by
as

by its magnitude; by its attributes,


a fuperior kind, as well as
is

by its modes;

by a being of
kind.

by a being of its own

A being

called finite, not only

of its kind may be added

to

it,

when fome fubftance but alfo when it contains only


*

a determinate degree of reality and perfection.

The fame author defines


*

Abfolute Infinite

A fubftance
Thus God

compofed of infinite
fes

attributes, every

one of which expref^

an eternal and

infinite effence.'

Thus

material exten-

fion if boundlefs

would be an attribute of God.

OF THE ABSOLUTE
all

Book
of

I.

would contain
ftance, if they

beings as

modes or
infinite in

attributes

his fub-

were fuppofed
is

number and eternal in

duration.
after.

This

a falfe fuppofition as

we fhall fhew here-

All Spinofa's errors, fophifms, and pretended demonftrati-

ons are founded upon his

falfe
*

and equivocal
of

definitions.

He

underflands by a Subftance
*

That which
fubfifl

exifls

by itfelf, may

be conceived by
all

itfelf,

and
is

itfelf,

independent of
felf-exiflent fub-

other beings.'

This

true only

of the

ftance,
fines
'

of the fupremc

infinite,

of

God

himfelf.

He

de-

an Attribute,* That which conftitutes or compofes afub-

fiance'

This

is falfe,

for tho' attributes flow neceffarily

from a
whole.
'

fubfl:ance,yet they do

not compofe

it

as the parts

do the

He
In

calls

Mode, Something
'

that exifls in another,

is

fupported by another, and cannot fubfift without anothis fenfe all finite beings
*

ther.'

would be modes of
were
then

God.
*

He defines a Power That which produces fomething


by
neceffity

in itfelf

of

nature.'

If

this

fo,

all

finite

beings would be confubflantial hypoflafes of the diit.

vine effence, and flow neceffarily from


idea

He
;

confounds the
if this

of

perfe^ftion

with that of fimple reality


properties,

were

fo,

then
leafl

all attributes,

and modes
is

in the lowefl

and

degree would be perfections, which


*

abfurd.

He calls
all

finite

That which

is

limited in quantity / not in quality.


'

He
*

calls

Abfolute Infinite
attributes,

That which

is

compofed of

forts

of beings,

modes, and

realities.'

This is na-

ture

Thus he confounds from the beginning of his work all the common received definitions of things, the
and not God. of fubftancc with that of
felf-exiftence ; the idea

idea

of

at-

Book L
tributes

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
;

with that of component parts


eiFefts
; ;

the idea of modes,


a<5livity,

with that of

the idea of necefTary

with that

of

free a(5lion

the idea of perfection, with that of reahty


finite in all fen-

the idea of finite in one fenfe, with that of


fes;

and the idea of God, with that of univerfal nature.

If

his definitions

were

true,

it

would have been

needlefs for

him

to have heapt

up proportion upon propofition, and employed


of it

near a thoufand theorems, corollaries, lemmas, and fcholiums


to prove his fyftem; for the demonftration
in
is

included

and

necelTarily refults

from the

definitions themfelves.
all

To
felf-

maintain that

God is

the only fubflance, and that

things

are necelTary, eternal emanations, parts, or forms


exiftent nature;

of this of

and to found

all

his demonllrations

this

abfurd, impious fyftem,

upon
is

falfe definitions,

which fuppofe
in-

what he is

going to prove,

a weaknefs or

an impudence

excufable in a philofopher; and difcovers either a feeble

mind

that deceives itfelf ; or a falfe heart that intends to deceive others.

After having defined the terms of the propofitions that are


to be demonftrated,

we come

next to explain their different

divifions, branches, or kinds, to avoid confufion.

DIVISIONS.
The
mathematicians fometimes negled to give clear
;

di-

flindions and divifions of things and this negligence hinders


the perfpicuity and order of their demonftrations.

Every

thing or reality, that


prefents itfelf to the

is

or can be the objeft of our perception,


either as a fubftance, an attribute,

mind

O
lo

OF THE

A:BS

LUTE

Book
it is

I.

a mode, a power, or a perfection.

But as thefe generical term s


necefr,

exprefs objects that are of feveral different kinds,


fary to difHnguifh
I.

them exactly.
be
diftinguiftied cither

Substances may

by the

dif^

fercnt degrees of reality they contain, as finite and infinite;

or by the different attributes that belong to them, as material

and immaterial; or by the


dents that
dies

different
;

modes, changes and

acci-

may befal them

thus the numberlefs fpecies of bo-

and

fpirits

are diilinguiihed; or in fine

by

their feparate
fpecies.

and independent
2.
five.

exiftence, as the individuals

of each

Attributes maybe diftinguiihed into adtivc and paf^ The active are fuch whofe ideas fuppofe the production
as conception, reafon,

of fomething;

and

will in fpirits,

and

then they are called powers or

faculties.

The

pafTive are

fuch whofe ideas include a mere aptitude of receiving fomething; as figurabihty, divifibiUty, and mobility in bodies, and

they are called capacides.


3.

Modes may alfo


tranfient.

be diftinguifhed into two

forts, peral-

manent or

The

firit

are thefe

which remain
to the

ways the fame,

tho' they

do not belong effendally


are the primitive

mo-

dified fubffance.

Such

forms of the con-

Itituent fmalleft particles

of matter.

The other are thofe which

change or

may change
bodies.

continually, as the figures of vifible

compound
4.

Powers are alfo of two kinds


and they

effential

and accidental.
as activity

The

former flow from the nature of a thing,

and

love in fpirits ;

are called inherent properties.


it

The

other arc communicated to

by

a fuperior force, as

motion

BookL
lities.

attributes of god.
in bodies;

ir

and gravitation

and they are

called imprefTed qua-

5.

Perfections

are either relative or abfolute.

The
real or

former fuppofe always fome degree fuperior to them,


pofTible.

The later exprefs an


kind,

infinite

boundlefs degree ; or

at leaft the higheft degree pofTible.

Thus a being may be perto beings

fect in

its

and yet imperfe6l with regard

of a

fuperior degree.
periority ;

What
is

is

abfolutely perfed excludes


all

all fu-

and what

abfolutely perfed in
hereafter.

fenfes excludes

all equality, as

we fhall fhow

SCHOLIUM.
Since by the foregoing divifions and definitions,
perties, faculties, qualities, capacities,
all

pro-

powers, and perfecti-

ons, are either attributes or

modes the whole of nature may


;

therefore be confidered as compofed of three forts of obje(n:s

or

realities that

include and exprefs

all

that

we

can conceive

fubftances, attributes, or modes.

Great care muft be taken

not to confound them, and


with the
a
eflential properties.

efpecially the impreifed qualities

This

as

we ihall (how has been


reduce

fatal fource

of great miilakes

in philofophy.

Some Cartefians and efpecially the Malebranchians


all

the objects of our perception to fubftances and modes, and

fay nothing

of powers, thereby to deftroy the

real activity

of

fecond caufes.
tial

It is true that they diftinguifh betwixt eftenactive

and accidental, inherent and impreffed,

and

paflive

modes: but what flows


is

neceffarily from the effence

of a

thing,

very improperly called its mode, manner, faihion, or form.

B2

12

OF THE ABSOLUTE
to fubftances,
is

Book

I.

We therefore believe that the mofl: natural, clear diftindion of


what belongs
or,

that into attributes and modes;


is

what is

eflential to

them, and what

only acceiTory.

All the other diftin^lions of objecfls, whether they be the


ten Ariftotelian categories, or
five univerfals, are either

what the fchoolmen

call

the

comprehended

in this triple divifion

of fubftances,
dangerous

attributes,
:

and modes, or they

are ufelefs

and
to

diftin(5lions

becaufe they accuftom the


for that

mind

miftake the knowledge of words

of things.

Spinofa adopts this threefold diftin6lion of objects: but he

maintains that fubftances are not diftinguiftied when they have


the fame attributes and modes.
pieces

Thus

according to him, two

of gold exactly

like in all things are

not two

diftinft

fubftances, tho' the


lated.

one might exift while the other is annihiaflerts

They are

as

he

only different modes of the fame

fubftance.
als;

He confounds always generical terms and individuall

and fuppofes that

beings of the fame kind are the fame


affertion,

individual fubftance.

But he gives no proof of his


it.

and he can never prove


fubftances
exiftence.
error,

He

forgets a third diftindion

of

which

is

that

of

their feparate

and independent

The fchoolmen give alfo occafion to this Spinofian by their wild difputes about universale a parte
Spinofa took occafion from this to maintain
this univerfal object,
all

R EI

or an univerfal objecfl that anfwers in nature to our uni-

verfal ideas.

that

God

is

and the only fubftance

exi-

ftent,

of which

other things are mere attributes or modes.


individuals
is

The diftin6tion of kinds and


cefTary,
abftracfl

therefore very neis

and founded upon the

difference there

betwixt our

general ideas, and the real particular objects exiftent.

Book
Hence
ftance,
*

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
alfo the diftincfllon

is

arifcs

betwixt efTence and fub-

which Spinofa always confounds.


idea,

An

EfTence

is

A general
kind.

which
and

reprefents to the

mind

all

the attri-

'

butes, properties

qualities
is

common to beings of the fame


and

Subftance

a particular being really exiftent,

which partakes of
modes.
kind
;

thefe attributes, properties, qualities

Thus

there can be but one ideal eflence of the fame

kind.
fible:

may be many different fubflances of the fame The general idea of human nature is one and indivibut there may be many different individuals of the hubut there

man

fpecies, that

have the fame attributes and modes.

Spi-

nofa' s defign in
flance,

confounding the ideas of efTence and fuball

was

to infinuate that

individuals

of the fame kind,

are the fame individual fubflance ;

and

that finite beings are

not

diflin^t feparate fubflances

but modes of the fame unifuppofes

verfal fubftance.

Thus he

ftill

what he

is

going to

prove.

Dr. Berkeley denies that there can be any abflraft univerfal

ideas

becaufe

all

the objects of our perception are con-

crete or particular.

We fhall defer this queflion,


and
divifion

till

we

ex-

plain the fource, nature

of our

ideas.

It fufRces

here to remark, that

all

mind

feels, perceives,

we mean by an Idea, is that which or conceives when it thinks and


;

the
for

this reafon

our ideas are divided into Senfations, Perceptions,


vaflly different, as fhall

and Conceptions, which are


plained hereafter.

be ex-

14

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book L

AXIOMS.
After exaft definitions and dividons, the next care in
demonftrable fciences,
axioms, whofe truth
is

all

is

to lay

down

felf-evident

maxims or
this reafon

perceived

by one fimple intuitive view,

without any fucceflive comparifon of ideas.


they are called
flrft

For

principles

and elementary

truths, becaufe

they are the ftandards, meafures, and rules of reafon and comparifon.

I fhall not

examine here whether they be innate


its

ideas imprelTed
Ofts

upon the mind from


would be premature.

origin, or percepti-

which prefent themfelves unto it upon the leaft reflexion.


difcufTion

This

All I advance

is

that

thofe axioms are fo felf-evident that

no

attentive

mind who

underftands them, can refufe


are the following truths.
1.

its

affent to

them.

Of this kind

Nothing, or the negation of all properties and reali-

ties

cannot be a caufe, fince nothing can have nothing, and

produce nothing.
2. Reality in

fome degree or other


a negation of

is

the only reafon of in-

ferring neceffary exiftence, fince nothing cannot be a caufe.


3.

Finite

is

all

fuperior reality or perfec-

tion.

4.

There can be nothing


all fenfes,

greater than abfblute infinite,

or infinite in
5.

In the

fcale

of

finites,

the progrefHon

may

be conti*
can

nual without end; becaufe no addition of


abfolute infinite.
6.

finites

make

The attributes, powers, qualities, and perfe<5tions of ma-

BooK.I.
ny

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD
fum than
of an

'i^

fubftanccs of the fame kind are a greater

thofe

of one of the fame kind.


7. Infinite activity, or the produ<n:ion
is

infinite effect

a fupreme perfedion.
8. Infinite perfeftion

known and enjoyed mufl neceffarily

produce

infinite love.

SCHOLIUM.
All Spinofa's axioms are either
fcure.
falfe,

equivocal, or obI fhall

They cannot be proved, and yet require proof.


two examples of
this infidious fallacy.
'

give only

He lays down for an


'

axiom, that

The knowledge of an
that a thing
it

efFe(5l
it'.

depends upon the knowledge of its caufe, and includes


is

This
efFe6l

abfolutely

falfe,

for

we may know

is

an

without knowing the caufe whence

proceeds.

Men knew certainly for many


tain height in a tube,

ages that water rofe to a cer-

without knowing the true caufe of this


general that this

afcent.
eflfed

They knew in
;

phenomenon was an
the prefTure
it is

of fome caufe

tho' they did not

know that

of the atmofphere was


ways that we know
certainly that a thing

this particular caufe.

Moreover

abfolutely falfe that the

knowledge of an effed fuppofes


it is

al-

how
is

produced; for

we may know
fubflan-

an

efFeft,

without knowing the manall finite

ner of

its

produ6lion.

Thus we know that

ces are effects


ftrated; tho'

of the

felf-exiftent fubftance, as fhall

be demonis

we do

not know,

how

the effeft produced

connected with the producing caufe.

Spinofa's defign in this

axiom was to infinuate that

creatfion is impofTible, becaufe in-

i6

OF THE ABSOLUTE
it is

Book

I.

conceivable; and that

a contradi(5lory idea, becaufe

we do

not

know

the

manner how God

creates, or gives exiftence to

beings that had none before the exercife of his creating energy.

Another axiom of the fame philofopher runs thus


'

Things

that have nothing in

common cannot be underftood by each


trifling

'

other, or the idea

of the one does not include the idea of

the other.'
'

If the defign of this

maxim was to infi-

nuate that
*

when things

have fomething in

common the idea


other,'

of the one includes

neceflarily the idea

of the

then

it

is

abfolutely falfe: for things may have fomething in

common,

tho' the idea

of the one does not include the idea of the other.

All

finite

beings have fomething in

common,

as

having either

the fame attributes and modes; or as being effects of the fame

common
other.

caufe, or as reprefentative

of the fame archetype

tho'the idea of the one does not include neceffarily that of the

The idea of a man does not include that of his pidure,


common, which
is

yet they have fomething in


blance.

their refem-

The

idea

of one man does not include that of anois

ther, yet they

have fomething in common, which

that

of a

foul

and body.

The idea of minerals


is

and plants have fome-

thing in
ture,

common, which

their material

and vegetative na-

and yet the idea of the one does not include the idea of the other. In general all individuals of the fame kind have the
fame
attributes,

and yet the idea of the one does not include

the idea of the other.

We fhall fee afterwards why Spinofa


maxim.
is

advanced

this abfurd fallacious

Thus all the

Spinofian fcheme

founded upon

falfe defalfe

finitions, that fuppofe

what ke

is

going to prove, or upon

Book
ftand

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
fallacious.

17

axioms that are captious and

No folid edifice can


is

upon fuch

tottering foundations. It

ftrange that

men

of genius fhould be impofed upon by fuch an empty dream,

and fuch

a pitiful delufion.

Nothing

deceives

them but the


his funda-

geometrical form this fophift gave to his proportions. It muft

be granted that

his

confcquences are
falfe.

juft,

but

all

mental principles are


elementary truths

This

logical dilfertation

about

fuffices to

confute him ; but in the courfe

of this

effay v^^e Ihall unfold

and unmafk

all

his pretended de-

monftrations.

POSTULATES.
In
all

demonllrable fciences, there are befides definitions,

divifions,

and axioms, certain univerfal maxims or poftulates

that

all

muft grant unlefs they renounce reafon.

They are
illufliall

felf-evident
ftrate

when explained, and want only


fix,

fcholiums to
I

them, and not demonftrations to fupport them.

only mention

becaufe they are frequently employed in

the following eflay, and


in
all ftridl

may

rather be called proper rules

inquiry into truth.

POSTULATE
We muft affirm neceftarily,
doubt when we do not
caufe
fee;

when we fee clearly; we may but we fhould never deny be-

we do

not conceive.

SCROLIJJM.
I do not fay that
*

we may .affirm,

but that we muft affirm

i8

OF THE ABSOLUTE Book L necelfarlly when we fee clearly/ We are forced to afTent to
to us evident ; as

what appears

we

are forced to love

what apbe

pears to us good.

This
or

is

our nature.
conftituted

We do not yet know


it

what this nature


felf-exiftent or

is,

who

fuch; whether

it

produced by

another; material or immaterial;


it is,

good or bad;
is

true or deceitful; but whatever


afTent to

our efTence

fo

made, that we mufl:

what we fee

clearly.

There

are certain truths that


forts

we
;

pleafe.

No

we cannot deny let us make what efman can deny that the whole is greater
at the

than the part; that a thing cannot be and not be


time
laid

fame

that nothing cannot be a caufe.


all

The

axioms

we have

down, and

others of the fame kind, are reducible to


fays

thefe three.

Whofoever

he denies fuch axioms, either


not believe
it;

does not
ther a

know what he

fays, or does

he

is ei-

falfe,

or a very capricious man.


fevers,

The
life is

Pyrrhonifb will fay that in dreams and


oft, that

we
our

imagine very

we

fee

what we do not

fee; that

perhaps a continual dream; that

we

are oft deceived,

and therefore may be always fo; that our faculties are perhaps fomade, that error and delufion are inevitable; and in fine,
that

human

underflanding

is

incapable of demonftrating any

thing but geometrical truths ; and furrounded with uncertainties as to

God and

nature; becaufe

what it fees

clearly

on one

fide

is

counterballanced by obfcurities
all

on

another.
is

Hence
and

they cry out that

metaphyfical learning

chimerical,

that fyftem-makers

of every kind are ignorant of the true

bounds of the human mind.


I anfwer in the
firft

place, that

we may

be deceived in

at-

tributing to objcfts without us, fcnfations that are not caufed

Book L
by them;
cannot

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
as In

ip

dreams and

fevers:

but the dreamer and the

frantic cannot
feel

doubt that they

feel

when

they feel; for


Is

we

and perceive nothing; for feeling

perceiving;
at the

now it is
time.

impoffible to perceive
is

and not perceive


;

fame

Clear evidence

a perception
irrefiftibly.

a light that modifies

and determines the mind


this evidence cheats us.

I
It

do not yet examine

if

Suppofing

did fo,

we muft

fubmit

to

it

it is

an Invincible power, that has a fovereign dominion

over us, over the American and the European; the Afiatlc and
the African; the Hottentot and the Laplander; the Chinefe

and the Peruvian.


pire.

We cannot efcape from

Its

unlverfal

Emthe

Whoever

denies that there are fuch felf-evldent propo-

fitions,reje(5ls all

the fundamental principles of reafon;


affirm.
is

all

ftandards

by which we deny, doubt, or


doubful.

He can give no
nor for his
is

reafon for his denying that any thing


affirming that every thing
red, his
Is

certain;

His brain

diforde-

mind

is

frantic
Is

he cannot be cured by reafon.


is

He

denies that there

any fuch thing as reafon, fo there


is

no rea-

foning with him, fince he

unreafonable.

I anfwer in the fecond place, that

we may be

deceived In

comparing, combining and afTociatlng our complex ideas, and


that
us,

we are very oft fo: but then if we be reafonable which


;
;

v/e have the


Is

remedy within
mufl
I

to review our compariall

fons

reduce them to felf-evident principles, which


juft.

admit, and examine if the confcquences be

Yea

dare fay, that tho' prejudice, imagination, and paflion

may

blind fo Intircly the Intelleftual eye in fome, that they fancy

they fee what they do not


right hearts that

fee,

yet In

all recollecfled

and up-

know how

to enter into their fpiritual na-

C2

20
tures,

OF THE ABSOLUTE
and confult
felf-evident

Book
is

I.

maxims, there

always- a
total

central, internal

doubt and obfcurity, that hinders the


it

acqiiiefcence

of the mind, when

does not fee clearly the


all

connection and relation of ideas.


to profound reflexion feel.
it

This
is

men

accuftomed

The mind
I

fo

made, that when

afls

without paflion,

it

cannot alTent to falfhood, without

remorfe, inquietude, or hefitation.

do not pretend to give a

general criterion or characfleriftic by which we may know truth


infallibly.

This

is

impoffible.

It

is

known only by
It
is

itfclf,

as

funfhine
dent,

is

dift-inguifhed

from

twilight.

fo fimple, fo evi-

and fo luminous, that it can have no other token, proof,

nor badge but itfelf.


concomitants, that
impoflibility to
it

This however

is

one of its unfeparable


minds
in

leaves all thinking


;

an abfolute

doubt and in a perfect reft, acquiefcence, and


affirm.

peace

when they
is

We Ihall fee
mind
hefitation,
till

afterwards what this


its

evidence

that thus brings the


all

to tranquillity, fixes

inconftancy, diflipates
fent.

and commands our

af-

All
is

advance
that

at prefent,

we

inveftigate the nature


refift
it,

of man,

he

is

fo

made, that he cannot

the evi-

dence of what
not
refift

we

call

truth, when

he

fees

as

he can-

the love of what appears

good, when he feels it.


forts

We

anfwer in the third place, that there are two

of

metaphyfics.

One that confifh in vainfubtleties,ufelefsdiftincand barbarous terms, borrowed

tions, chimerical refinements,

from the AriftoteUan philofophy, fpoiled by the Arabians. This falfe fcience of the fchools is indeed contemptible. There is another fort of metaphyfics which afcends to firfl
principles, defcends to confequences
;

gives each truth

its

due

place,

and

rifes

from fimple

to

compound ideas, with

order,

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

21

clearnefs,ancl preclfioni

This is the fource of all mathematical


muft naturally fall into afceptlcal

knowledge. Thofe

who believe there can be no other demon-

ftrablefcience but geometry,

indolence, maintain thatPyrrho andBayle have wrote the true


hiftory

of the human mind; and that all other philofophers have

only given the romance of it.

A fyftem

is

nothing but

a chain

of truths well combined, whatever be

their nature,

whether
All

mathematical or moral, phyfical or metaphyfical.

weak

and effeminate minds that hover about the furface of truth,


that have not force

enough

to try

its

depths, and that cannot


necelTari-

fupport a long continued


ly cry out againft fyftems.
cal evidence,

feries

of reafonings, muft
extoll

They

and

exalt

mathemati-

notbecaufe they have any true knowledge of geo-

metry; but in order to flatter their irregular appetites and incredulous prejudices, by rejecting
monftrations.
all

moral and metaphyfical de-

They are, generally fpeaking, fuperficial minds,

that relifh nothing but poetical fiction, fprightly imagination^

and glaring wit; as well as corrupt hearts drunk with pafHon. We mud abandon them to the wanton fportof wildimagination,andto be undeceived in a future
ftate,

becaufe of all

men

they are the moft incorrigible.


I have added in the fame populate, that
*
'

we may doubt,
is

when we do not fee.*


;

In

this cafe

doubting

reafonable,

free

and voluntary; becaufe we ought never to

aflent firmly
firfb

without feeing
principles
;

without reducing our confequences to

weighing them in thefe ballances, and meafuring

them by

thefe flandards.
fully ; to retain

To doubt cautioufly,
our
affent,
till

till

we have
clearly;

examined
Is

we have feen

force of mind,

and not the fludluation of a wavering fouL

22

OF THE ABSOLUTE
upon any one objecl.

that cannot fix a fteady view

Book L The true,

wife hefitation and fufpenfc of the Old


in

Academy

has nothing

common

with the wild univerfal doubt of felf-evident ma-

xims, and the moft demonftrable truths.

To

doubt thus

without any reafon of doubting,


lieve

is

as great a defe^l as to be-

without any reafon of believing.


excefs

Both thefe extremes

come from an
tcllc6lual

of imagination which diforders the inis

eye in the credulous, fo that they fee what


fo that they
is,that

not,
is.

and blinds the incredulous,


deny becaufe we cannot

do not
'

fee

what

Thelaft branch of the poftulate


*

we ought
were not

never to
fo,

conceive.' If this

then

man born
*

blind

would reafon

right

when he forms
them

this fyl-

logifin.
*

We
it is it is

know

the figure of bodies only by handling


at a great diftance;

them: but
therefore
bodies.'

impoflible to handle
impofilble to

'

know

the figure of far diftant

To undeceive

the blind

man we

cannot give him


idea.

the

fifth fenfe

of feeing, of which he can have no


is

We
way

cannot convince him by experience that there

another

of knowing the
tho'
is

figure

of

far diftant bodies than

by contaft

we may endeavour to fhow him by other proofs that this

not only pofiible, and probable, but abfolutely certain.


prove to him that
this
is
;

We

may
ceive

fo

from the concurrent teftimo-

ny of all who furround him but we can never make him per-

how this

is

fo.

T his

is

precifcly our cafe in this mortal

ftate as to

muft be,

many intellecftual truths. We fee but wc cannot conceive how they

that
are.

many

things

We fee the
we fee
and modes

connexion betwixt fome

truths, but not betwixt all:

a part, but not the whole:

we

fee

fome

attributes

of things, but wc do not

fee their intimate cfTence.

Thus we

BooK.I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD
muft belong to Abfokite
Infinite,

25
and are incluef-

fee that eternity, Immenfity, creating energy,


perfc(5Lions

and many other

ded in
fence.

his idea; but

we do not

fee

how

they flow from his


is
;

We fee clearly that he


totality
;

is,

and a part of what he

but

not the

of his nature iince Abfolute Infinite muft be


It
is

incomprchcnfible to Finite.

therefore a fundamental
*

maxim
*

in

all

true philofophy, that

many

things

may be

incomprchcnfible and yet demonftrable, that tho' feeing


clearly be a fufiicient reafon for affirming; yet not feeing at
all

'

'

can never be a reafon of denying.

The negation of this


Perfuaded
all

principle

was the fource of


is

all

Spinofa's errors.
is

that whatever

inconceivable

impoflible,

he degrades
as

the divine attributes in order to

comprehend them,

we fhall

Ihow

hereafter.

POSTULATE
When
neceffarily be true, all but

II.

of three or more propofitions whereof one muft

one are proved

to

be

falfe,

abfurd

and impoflible,

this

one

is

evidently certain.

SCHOLIUM.
Thus
if it

can be proved that the curves defcribed by the

periodical revolutions

of the planets muft be fome of the four

conic fedions; circles, hyperbolas, parabolas, or ovals: and


if
it

be moreover demonftrated that they do not defcribe any


it is

of the three firft,


laft.

felf-evident that they

muft defcribe the


;

There

are

two

forts

of demonftrations one that comes


relations

from a

clear perception

of the immutable neceffary


arifes

betwixt things, and another tkat

from the

abfurdities

24
that
twallsht

OF THE ABSOLUTE
would follow upon denying
of human
this connection.
firfl:

Book
In

I.

this

underfl-andingj, the

fort

of demonftra-

tions are not always pofTible, becaufe ideas


ceive

of the intimate ciTence of things,

we have no adequate we cannot always perflow from them,

by an

intuitive view, the properties that

and therefore we

are obliged to have recourfe to the fecond

kind of demonftra tion called in the fchools

demonstratio
fol-

A B A BSUR do, by fhowing the contradictions that would

low from denying or


This
other
latter

attributing to
is

them

certain qualities.

way of

demonftrating

as furc as the other,

but

not fo

fatisfying.

By

the one
it

we

fee

how

a thing

is

by the

we

fee

only that
it.

muft be, tho' we do not conceive


firft

the manner of

The

enlightens and perfuades; the


afTent.

fecond convinces and forces our


monftrations are
lefs

The latter fort of demodes of quangenerally fee

frequently excufable in mathematics, be-

caufe the objed of this fcience being only the


tity,

and not the effence of

things,

we may we

by
of

an

intuitive view, or fuccefllve comparifon, the relations


:

our ideas

but in metaphyfics, where

treat

of fubftances

both finite and infinite,coporeal and fpiritual, we cannot always


fee clearly

how

the attributes and

modes flow from the

ef-

fence,

and therefore we muft have recourfe to the dcmonftra-

tions ab abfurdo.

Thus we can

dcmonftrate again ft the Maleeffential

branchians that
rits;

activity

muft be an

property of

fpi-

not by fliewing

how it flows from

their effence; but


it.

by

the abfurdities that would follow upon denying

Thus we

prove againft the Spinofifts, that

God

muft have a creating

power, not only by the idea of his effence, but by the conxradiftions that

would enfue upon refufnig him

this

produc-

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
Thus
in fine

25
by
-

tive energy.

we confound
and

the Materialifls

fhowing
tory,

that thought

and extenfion are contrary, contradic


attributes;

and incompatible

fo cannot belong to

the fame fubftance.

POSTULATE
DEMONSTRATIONS,
content with

III.

In things of a "contingent nature, we fhould not require


but Only

PROOFS; yea fometimes be

probabilities.

SCHOLIUM.
A DEMONSTRATION
ble in
all
is

when
It
is

its

contrary

is

impofli-

times and in

all fenfes.

an eternal and immuis

table truth.

It fuppofes a relation that

founded upon the

nature of things, and a property that flows neceflarily from


their elTence.

Such

are all mathematical truths.

The

three

angles of a triangle are equal to

two

right ones.

This pro-

perty

is

contained in the definition, nature, and efTence of a

triangle;

and

in this fenfe demonftration

is

only an unfolding

of what is contained

neceffarily in the primitive idea

of things.

pR

doubt,

00 F is when we have all reafons to believe, none to and when evident abfurdities would follow from the
its

contrary fuppofition ; tho' abfolutely fpeaking the thing might

be otherwife, and
is

exiftence

is

only contingent.
is

Thus

it

ImpofTible to demonflrate that there


its

a city called
it

Rome

becaufe
been.

exiflence being contingent;


this

might never have

But to conclude from

metaphyfical principle than


'

'

26
there
is

OF THE ABSOLUTE
not,

Book L
Rome, would

and never was any fuch

city as

be abfurd and ridiculous.

The fchools fay very well that a POSSE AD ESSE NON VALET CONSEQ.UENTI A the fim;

ple poflibility or non-contradiclion of things cannot be a de-

monftration of their exiftence.


that

Thus we can

demonftrate

God

can create myriads of intelligent natures fuperior but that he has really done fo can only be

to

human fpirits;
that there

proved by revelation.
ftrate,
is

Thus we can only prove, not demon-

in nature a third fubftance befides


called matter.
all

God

and created fpirits,

prove, not demonftrate, that

Thus in fine we can only the men we {peak with and


mere appearances, and per-

that furround us are not fantoms,

ceptions excited in us; but real entities, fubftances, and beings fimilar to us. Befides thefe

two

forts

of evidence, there

is

a third kind,

that ferves only to anfwer obje5lions; but not to demonflrate


principles,

and

it is

probability.
a thing
r

We are fometimes obli-

ged in our fcholiums to make ufe of probabilities and hypothefes, to fliow

how

otherwife that
thefes to

it

mufl be

may be, when we have proved but we never employ thefe hypoyet the Cartefian, and

found fyflems and build confequences upon them.


efTential vice in

This

is

an

reafoning

even the Newtonian philofophy are not quite exempt from


this fallacious defect:, as

we fhall fhow hereafter.


confifls in
forts

The

greateft force

and accuracy of the mind

diflinguilhing

and applying thefe three

of evidence; in

not employing the one for the other, and in not confounding them together. To require demonflrations where proofs can

only be given ; to content ourfelves with proofs where de-

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
This
very oft the

27

monftratlons are not only poflible but neceflary; and in fine,


to heap up probable hypothefes to prove principles, are capital
defeats in reafoning.
is

method of Bayle.
he fhows

To throw
requiflte
;

the

mind

into an univerfal fcepticifm,

that demonftrations cannot be given

where only proofs are


of proofs he infinuates
is

and

to invalidate the force

that they are not demonftrations.


his fophifms.

This

the fource of

all

He has wit enough


a queftion,

to prefent to the

mind the
fhows

dark

fides

of

but he feldom or never difcovers the


affent.

luminous point that can determine our

He

very prettily and artfully the bounds of the


ding, but he feldom or never trys
true extent.
its

human underftanknows
its

depths, and

He

was an

excellent fophift, but not always a

philofopher; as

fliall

be proved elfewhere.

POSTULATE
truths
till

IV.

We ought not to require the demonftration of compound


we be convinced of fimpleones.

SCHOLIUM.
The
moft exafl order in demonftration
is

to begin with

'fimple truths 'ere

we

afcend to

more complicated

ones, not
alfo

only becaufe the

latter are

founded upon the former, but

becaufe the capacity of the

mind extends and


talk fo

dilates
is

by

re-

peated

acts,

producing habits of reflexion.

This

that lu-

minous order which the antients

much
it.

of; but few


It
is

of their philofophers have conftantly obferved

a mar-

28

OF THE ABSOLUTE
its

Book

I.

vellous art in demonftrating to give every truth


to fhcw^ how^
;

due place,

one flows from another,as a corollary or confefirft

quence to demonftrate
ciples, that

fome great luminous

fruitful prln.

flow from an intuitive view of the fimpleO: axioms


all

and then deduce


rifon

complex

truths, from afucceflive

compa-

and combination of thofe

original ones.

Without this

order the fublimeft difcoveries appear chimerical.

To

give

demonftrations of the complicated, intricate properties of


curves, 'ere

we know thofe of ftreight lines


is

is

impoilible.
finite 'ere

To
we

demand demonftrations of

the properties of

know

the attributes of infinite, which

the moft natural and

fimple of all ideas, as

we

fliall

fhow,

is

yet

more

abfurd.

To

pretend to prove the necefHty, excellency, and certainty of

fome fublime precepts


pofterior in the order

in the Chriftian morals, to a


is

man v/ho
in the

does not believe in God,

madnefs. Very oft truths that are

of demonftration, are fuperior

degree of excellency.
rous.

To begin by proving thefe is prepofte:

We muft afcend by degrees


to their proper place ;

for this reafon

we drop

very oft, in the following effay, the proof of certain truths, till

we come

and then the mind

fees

how

they flow naturally a.nd necelTarily from propofitions already


demonftrated.
fight be matter

Many fubHme
of fcorn and

doctrines that

would

at firft

raillery to incredulous
full light,

and un-

prepared minds, fhine forth in a


dation of ideas
is

when the true graneceir-

obferved.

In the refearch of eternal,


is

fary,and immutable truths, it


to hide fome of them,
till

therefore of great confequencc

others be demonftrated ; for with-

out
cate

this precaution,

we

either
all

weary or

fear

weak and

deli-

minds

that cannot

of

a fudden digeft,

nor fupport

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
It
is

29

a long ferles of reafonings.

therefore a ralh inconfidedo(5lors to talk

rate eondu(5t in bigots, zealots,

and pharifaical

to Atheifts, Deifts, Freethinkers,

and minute philofophers of

the

lefs

neceflary, acceflbry, incidental truths ;

of church au-

thority,

and of the

rites

of outward worfhip; before they be

convinced of the exiftence of God, and of the great principles

of natural and revealed


fary.

religion.

Here the gradation

is

necefChrl*-

The

Atheift mull

become Theift,and theTheift

ftian, before any thing be faid to

them of churches, fcriptures,

and facraments.

POSTULATE
pable contradicftions.

V.

We ought never to confound myfterlous truths with pal-

SCHOLIUM.
There
fible
is

a great difference betwixt

what

is
it.

Incomprehen-

by reafon, and what is

contradi(5lory to

The one fup-

pofes that

we do
faid

not fee the connection between two ideas,

the other fuppofes that


as

we fee clearly their oppofition.


is

Now

we

have

and explained, not feeing is never a reafon for


always a reafon for affirming.

denying, tho' feeing clearly

The incredulous Freethinkers pretend that the Chriftian myfteries are contradictory. This we abfolutely deny. The
word myftery
that
is

in fcripture fignifies very oft a hidden truth,

not abfolutely incomprehenfible to

human

underftan-

dingjbut only unintelligible to thofe

who are not enlightened


*

from on high. Thus our Saviour

lays to his difciplesj,

it

is

30
'
*

OF THE ABSOLUTE
know
the myfteries of the

Book

I.

given unto you to

kingdom of

heaven.' ThusSt.Paulcallsgodlinefsamyftery. Thefchoolthis definition,

men change
{peculations,

and advance

as myfteries certain

which

are not only incomprehenfible, but con-

tradictory to

human reafon, and altogether incompatible with


Yea they look upon
all efforts

the divine perfections.

to re-

concile reafon with religion as bold attempts to fubmit faith


to philofophy.

The

defign of this eflay

is

to (how, that the

Chriftian myfteries, tho' undifcoverable

by

reafon, yet are

never contradidory to

it.

POSTULATE
principles,

VI.

We ought not to attribute to men the abufes made of their


nor even the natural and neccftary confequences
that flow

from them, when they difavow

thefe abufes

and

confequences.

SCHOLIUM,
Such
nothing
is

the corruption of human nature, that there

Is

no-

thing fo wife,fo juft, and fo good, but


is

men may abufeit. Thus


Nothing
is

more

neceftary than
it

civil

government, and yet the

moft lawful fuperiors abufe

every day.

more

ufeful to diffufe juft fentiments of the Deity, to excite


to the love
fal

men

and adoration of the

common

father and univer-

friend

of mankind, than

ecclefiaftic polity,

and public
inftltuti-

worfhip: yet

men

have moft mifcrably abufed thefe

ons, whether they be

human

or divine.

They

have turned

priefthood into prieftcraft, and religious worfhip into idola-

Book
try.

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
fuppofe that
all

3,
maintain and

We ought never to confound principles with the abufes


thofe

made of them, nor


practife the

who

fame principles are guilty of the fame abufes.


is

We

fhould always diftingui/h betwixt what


is

tolerated

and what
but pity

commanded
;

think the moft favourably

we

can of every
;

body
and

not love nor tolerate error and corruption

tolerate the perfons

who err, in order to gain them. This


would
mitigate the heats

beneficent, univerfal charity pute,

of

difis

and preferve the mind in that calm equanimity which


;

neceflary to examine truth


zeal,

yea totally extinguifh that fiery

implacable wrath, and devout fury which tranlports bigots


;

of all feds
and

drives

them

at iirft to
;

calumny, then to hatred,


religion not the cure,

at laft to perfecution
all

which makes

but the fewel of

cruel paflions.

Moreover, fuch are the bounds of human underflanding-,


that

men do

not always fee

all

the different faces and fides of


verylincere and upright
its

aqueflion, and therefore they

maybe

in maintaining a principle, while they reje<n: table confequences.

natural, inevi-

We fhould not therefore afcribe perniis

cious defigns

and intentions where there

only

defe<51:

of

Thus we are far from branding Spinofa with deliberate Atheifin, tho' we believe that his principles lead to the blackefl Atheifin. Thus we are far from believing that the Predeftinarians are Spinofifts tho' we fhali
accuracy and attention.
;

fhow
of

that their fundamental principles lead to Spinofifm.

The ignorance
all

or negled of thefe poftulates

is

the fourcc

the errors, fophifms, and uncertainties of the Spino-

fin:s,Deifl:s,Pyrrhonifl:s,Socinians, Unitarians, Freethinkers,

and minute philofophers of

all

kinds: they either maintain

32

OF THE ABSOLUTE
is

Book
all

I.
is

that every thing

uncertain; or they fuppofe that

that

inconceivable

is

impoflible ; or they require demonftrations


;

where proofs fuffice or they demand


fimpler ideas

that complicated truths

fhould be demonftrated without a fucceflive comparifon of


;

or they rejed myfterious truths as contradi6toits

ry ; or in fine they confound the abufes of religion with


principles.

They
firft

pretend to excell in reafon, but they are


principles;
;

ignorant of its

of the extent and bounds of huof evidence, and of

man underftanding of the

different forts

the true order of demonftration.

We have infifted [o much


ples, becaufe
it is

upon

thefe elementary princito err in definiti-

of great confequence not

ons, divifions, axioms, and poflulates.

We dare fay that the


hke elementary

mofl part of errors proceed from not adverting accurately to

ibme of

thefe four heads.

Firft principles,

threads, are in their origine fo delicate, fo flender, fo imperceptible, that they efcape the

view of weak and unattentive

minds: but when interwoven, knit and joined together, they

form flrong chains and cables fufRcient to fix the foul, and hinder it from being hurried away by that torrent of uncertanty
which furrounds us in
Thefe primitive
fmall, fo minute,
this twilight

of human underflanding*
in themfelvesfo

original feeds

of truth appear

and

fo inconfiderable, that

men of

lively,

bright imaginations look

upon them

as

below

their notice;

but

when fown

in

luminous and

fruitful

minds, they become


vaft fields

-of a

wonderful fecundity, and produce


will appear

of

truth.
arife

This

from the following propofitions which

from a fimplc combination of the foregoing


sions, axiomS;

definitions, divi-

and poftulate?.

33

THE

PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES
OF

NATURAL AND REVEALED

RELIGION,
PROPOSITION
I.

T HERE DEMONSTRATION.
muft have been from
all

eternity

fome original

felf-exiftent being.

Nothing or the negation of all properties and realities cannot be a caufe (a). Reality in fome degree or other is the only reafon

of necefTary exiftence
all

(b).

Therefore there muft

have been from


ftent being.
(a)

eternity

fome

original, neceflary, felf-exi-

Ax.

I.

(b) Ax. 2.

34

OF THE ABSOLUTE
S C
I

Book

I.

O L

U M.
all

do not fay that the world and


diftinft
Is,

that
it.

It

contains

was
and

produced by a fuperior Being


not yet difcovered.
all

from

This we have

What
exift,

I fay

that either the world,

things that

now

muft have been from

everlafting, or
it

have been produced by fomething that was eternal, and fo


is ftill

true that there

muft have been from

all

eternity
it is

fome
mani-

felf-exiftcnt being.
feft that

For

fince fomething

now is,
that
is,

fomething always was, otherwife the things that

now
eter-

are muft have been produced

by nothing,

not produ-

ced at
nal

all,

fince nothing cannot be a caufe.

Now this
is, it

SOMETHING

muft be

felf-exiftent, that

muft conexift,

tain in itfelf a reafon

why

it

does

exift rather
;

than not

a foundation

upon which

its

exiftence relys
its

fome

internal

caufe of exiftence, that renders

non-exiftence impoflible,

and

its

exiftence neceffary.

The
tingent,

notion of an infinite fucceflion of changeable, con-

and dependent

effe<n:s,

produced one from another in


original, felf-exiftent, ne-

an endlefs progreflion, without any


ceflary,

independent caufe,

is

altogether abfurd.

This

is

fuppofing an infinite chain fufpended by nothing, and an infinite

weight that has no fupport (a).

It is

an

infinite feexift

ries

of beings which might not have been, determined to


;

without any reafon


at the

that
is

is,

determined and not determined

fame time, which

a contradicftion in terms, as Spinofa

himfelf has very well demonftrated.


(a) See Woolafton's Religion of Nature delineated; page 67.

Book
was an
power,

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

35

I do not here enter into the queftlon, whether the world


eternal, necelTary
;

Ariftotle maintained

emanation of the divine elTence, as or an eternal free efFeft of almighty

as the Platonifts affirmed.

We fhall

examine both
is,

thefe quefHons hereafter.

All

we now pretend

that there

muft have been in the


pendent, necefTary,
is

totality

of nature, fome

original, inde-

felf-exiftent being,

whofe non-exiftence
and whofe
ef-

impofTible,

whofe idea includes

exiftence,

fence could not but be. This Spinofa never called in quefti-

on.

He

afTerts

indeed that

all finite

beings are co-eternal


ftill

modes and

hypoftafes of the only fubftance: but he


is

main-

tains that this only fubftance


felf-exiftent.

neceflary, independent,

and

ground,

now examine what the internal and reafon of self-existence muft be.
Let us
II.

caufe,

PROPOSITION,
The
the reafon for
its

greater reality a being has, the greater

is

neceflary exiftence.

DEMONSTRATION.
A felf-exiftent fubftance
ther
is

that which contains in Itfelf a


its

ground or reafon which makes


non-exiftence impofllble (a).
is

exiftence neceflary,

and

its

Reality in fome degree or o-

the only reafon of neceflary exiftence (b). Therefore


is

the greater reality a being has, the greater


neceflary exiftence.

the reafon for

its

(a) Def. 9.

(b) Ax. a.

36

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book L

SCHOLIUM.
In the
fcale

of finites, we may conceive Innumerable beany one determinate


finite, fince

ings, fuperior to

progreflion

may be infinite. At whatfoever degree of being we ftop, we may ftill conceive innumerable other beings that have
here

more
rily

reality

and perfection than

this

determinate one, and

confequently that have a greater reafon for exifting neceffa-

than

it.

Neceflary exiftence therefore cannot belong to


unlefs
it

any one of them,


then

belong to

all

of them equally, and


exiftence,
is

we muft fay

that the idea

of fimple

and that of

neceflary exiftence are the fame. for

Now this

abfolutely falfe;

modes or forms may have a real exiftence, and yet may be changed, deftroyed, and re-produced. It may be anfwered,
that there
is

a great difference betwixt

substantial and
realities,

MODAL

reaHtles.

We grant

it

but both are equally

tho' they are not equal realities (c).


this reafoning,
is

Now

fince the force

of

depends upon their being

realities, its

evidence

inconteftible. Spinofa

was fo convinced of this truth, that he


of any degree

never maintained that

finite

how

great foever

could be felf-exiftent: he fays indeed, that


neceffarily,

all

fubftancc exifts

but then he affirms, that there can be only one


is

fubftance

which

infinite, eternal,

and

felf-exiftent.
I.

COROLLARY
Hence no
rior degree.
(c) Schol, I.

finite

of an

inferior degree contains In itfelf a

reafon of neceffary exiftence, preferable to a finite of a fupe-

of the

definitions.

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
COR.
II.

37

Hence in the fcale of finites we can flop at no being of any


determinate degree, that has an adequate reafon of neceffary
exiflence proper to itfelf alone,

and excKifive of all

others.

Hence
and

the idea of

COR. III. absolute infinite

contains an
itfelf

adequate reafon of neceffary exiflence, proper to


exclufive

alone,

of
is

all

others, fince

beyond absolute in-

finite

there

and can be no progreffion.

PROPOSITION
The eternal, neceffary,
abfolutely infinite.
felf-exiflent

III.

being

is

DEMONSTRATION.
A felf-exiflent being
INFINITE
is

that

which contains

in itfelf a rea-

fon of neceffary exiflence (a).

Nothing

befides

absolute
is

contains in itfelf a reafon of neceffary exiflence(b).


eternal, neceffary, felf-exiflent being

Therefore the

abfo-

lutely infinite, or infinite in all perfedions.

SCHOLIUM.
Thus we have difcovered
or infinity in
all

that the reafon, the foundation,


is

and the fource of God's felf-exiflence


perfections.

his abfolute infinity,

The

idea

of no

finite

includes

that of neceffary exiflence.

Its non-exiflence is

not impofli-

bk; we may fuppofe it annihilated without any contradidion:


(a) Def. 9. (b) Cor. 3. of prop. II.

38
whereas

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book
firft

I.

k is manifeftly repugnant to fay, that a being that connot include the greateft and
is

tains all perfe<ftions does

of

thefe perfe61:ions,

which

that

of neceifary

exiftence.

For
the
is.

this reafon the Legillator

of the Jews defines

God

the Being

that

is,

or the felf-exiftent being, to infinuate that

finite is

being that was made, and that

God

alone

is

the being that

All the definitions of tiiis divine philofopherare exa^l.

He did
The

not deduce them from a fuccellive comparifon of ideas; but


feems to have feen truth in
its

fource

by an intuitive view.
all,

Being that
all,

is,

or the feif-exiftent being expreffes


all
all

contains

and fuppofes and


firft

the other perfections of the divine naabfolute infinity.

ture,

of

Whatever
is

is

felf-exi-

ftentmuft be abfolutely infinite, and whatever


finite

abfolutely in-

mult be

felf-exiftent.

This

is

the fimpleft, fhorteft,

and moft natural way of demonftrating the exiftence of a God. It is not deducing this great truth from the bare idea and
definition

of a God, whofe exiftence

is

not yet demon-

ftrated;

but from the idea of a

felf-exiftent being,

whom

all

muft allow, even the moft incredulous.

We do not fay with the

Cartcfians that there muft be an abfolutely infinite being, becaufe


firft

its

idea includes that

of necefTary exiftence: but we prove


and then that
becaufe felf-exiftence

that there muft be a felf-exiftent being,

this

being muft be abfolutely

infinite

cannot belong to any thing

finite.

Neither do

we

fay with

Dr. Clarke and the Newtonians that immenfity and eternity


being ideas which can never be feparated from the mind,which
are necefTary
attributes

and indeftru^iblc, they muft be properties or

of fome fubftance,and therefore there muft be fonie


eternal fubftance. Spinofa will fay the fame,

immcnfe and

and

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
in the

may reafon
eternal, but

fame manner.

It

is

God

is

39 immenfe and
by
fuc-

he

is
is

immenfe by extenfion, and


not the true notion of God.

eternal

cefHon.

This

Some men feeing the unfufficiency


part

or falfhood of the moft

of themetaphyficalreafoningsboth of theCartefiansand
this

Newtonians, about the exiflence of a God, pretend that


great truthcanbe demonftratedonlyA

POSTERioRi:butwe
from the
perfecti-

dare fay that

all

thefe demonftrations drawn

on of

the

EFFECTS

are far inferior to thofe that are

drawn
in the

from the perfe^ion of the cause. Tho' wedifcover


goodnefs
yet Spinofa will attempt to invalidate

univerfe undoubted marks of eternal power, wifdom,


;

and

all

thefede-

monftrations by maintaining that the felf-exiftent caufe a6ts

without defign and choice by neceffity of nature; that


only fubftance being eternal,
finite force a(5ling
infinite,

this

and omnipotent, an
during an

in-

upon an

infinite fubftance

infi-

nite duration

muft neceffarily produce


at the

infinite forms,

and

fb
all

muft contain
kinds;
lifh;

fame time every thing pofFible of

what appears
qualities

to us regular
all

and irregular; wife and foo-

good and bad; and

that mixture

of contrary and con-

tradi<5lory
efFe<5ts

we

fee in the univerfe.

They

are not

of hazard, nor defign; but the neceffary produ5lions


eternal caufe,

of an

whofe perfection
all

confifts in

an unboun-

ded power, that produces

that

is,

and all that can be. Thus

bethinks

all

the demonftrations a
leaft

posteriori

fail

to the

ground, or are at

very

much weakened.
all

We abandon
recourfe with

therefore

the fubtle

modern reafoninss
felf-exiftent effence,

both of the metaphyseal and natural philofophers, and have

Mofes

to the idea

of the

40
fay that
all

OF THE ABSOLUTE
of demonftratlon.

Book

I.

as the only fource

We

dare venture to

thofe

who

endeavour to difparage the evidence


its

of

this antient

Mofaical demonftration, becaufe of

wonis

drous fimplicity, have no juft notions of the original conftitution


firfl

of the human mind.


greateft

Since the being of


it

God

the

and

of

all

truths,

was worthy of almighty wiA


demonftration ftiould

dom to make our faculties fuch that this


pon
of a
the leaft refle<5tion, and convince

appear to them the moft eafy and obvious; ftrike them u-

them of the exigence

God from the bare infpeflion of the idea of a felf-exiftent

being

whom all muft allow.

Thus by the combination of fome few definitions and axiwns we are at length arrived at the firft and mofl: efTential of
all

truths,

The

exiftence
all

derived originally
It
is

of abfolute infinite, from whom Is the knowledge we can acquire of finite.


but by the Creator; the
attributes

impofilble to

know the creature,


by the

properties of the former, but

of the

latter,

and even the exiftence of the one, but by that of the other.

For all

finites

being contingent, not the being that is, but the

beings that were made,

we cannot
;

demonftrate their exiftence


thefe per-

by our perceptions of them but only by comparing


ceptions with the perfections of
i

N F i N i t e.

We cannot deftars,

monftrate that the earth, the fun, the planets, the


all

and

the objects of fenfe without us, are really exiftent, purely


as fhall

and only by the fenfations we have of them,


monftratcd hereafter.
nite
is

be de-

We have difcovcred that abfolute infiis,

the only being that

and that

all

other beings

may

not be.

own.

We have demonftrated his exiftence, and we feel our We are ignorant of all the reft, and unlefs we derive

Book L
light

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
idea

41

from the

of the
is

felf-exiftent being,

of nothing; but that he


in this great idea

and that we

are.

we can be fure Yea unlefs we find

what he

is, as well as

that he

is, it

is needlefs to interrogate the obje<5ts

of fenfe.

We do not yet
wc

know
fee,

if they exift really, or if they are

what they appear. All


and

demonftrations a

posteriori

are infufficient. All that


fiiftions,

hear or feel from without are perhaps mere

phantoms; ormaybealledgedtobemodes of abfolute infinite,

who produced them by neceflity of nature, not byxhoice,defign

and wifdom,

as Spinofa faid.

Loft and funk in


folitary

this

im-

menfe ocean of

absolute infinite;

with

God
upon

alone, let us ihut our eyes, ftop our ears, impofe filence
fenfe

and imagination, fix all our powers upon


our
Ipiritual natures,

this one obje6l,

retire into

and examine by this great idea

of the self-existent absolute infinite, whatare his attributes and perfections. E're we begin this re-fearck
however, wemuft draw three very ufeful corollaries from this
propofition.

COROLLARY
mwft be
efFe6ls, produ<5lions,
is

I.

Hence if there be any finite fubftances really exiftent, they


or creatures of abfolute infinite;
fince nothing
felf-exiftent

but he alone.
IL
reality or perfeClion
infinite,

COR.
Hence
levate

to whatever degree
this

of

any being,

cannot be abfolute
it.

we eif we can

conceive another being fuperior to

COR.
Hence how

in.

great foever be the perfecHiions

we

attribute to

the felf-exiftent, eternal caufe, they cannot belong to abfolute

42
Infinite, if

OF THE ABSOLUTE
we can
conceive perfeftions fuperior to
degree. 't>"

Book L
them
in a-

ny

PROPOSITION
Abfolute
vation,

IV.

infinite excludes all negation, pri-

and

defeat.

DEMONSTRATION.
Abfolute
Finite
is

infinite is the

moft

perfe(5l

negation of finite (a).


reality,

what contains only fome degrees of


(b),

power,

and perfeftion
lity and

and

is

a negation
its

of

infinitely fuperior rea-

perfection (c), wherefore

contrary, or abfolute inis,

finite, is

the negation of all

finite,

that

of

all

negation, and

fo excludes all negation, privation

and

defe<fl.

SCHOLIUM.
its

Tho' the grammatical term infinite feem negative, yet true fenfe is affirmative when applied to God. The negaof all bounds
pofreflion
is

tion

the fullnefs of

all perfe<n:ion.

It is the

a^al

of being and

reality in the higheft degree,

without any fhadow of privation, defe(!^or limitation; without any poflibility of increafe,decreafe,or variation; and furely this objc<5t has

nothing negative in

it.

Hitherto Spinofahad agreed with us; but here he begins


to dilTer

from

us.

He grants that there muft be


infinite.

fome

eternal,

original, independent, felf-exiftent caufe;

and that

this felf-

exlilent caufe
<a) Def. 8.

muft be abfolutely
(b) Def. 7.

He abufes however

(c) Ax. 3.

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GODit

43

that term and underftands

in a quite different fen{e

from

what he

fhould.
infinite

Abfolute

may fignify a being

that contains

all

pof-

fible perfciftions
all fort

from the higheft to the loweft degree; yea

of

realities,

whether modal or

fubftantial,
aiflive

producing

or produced; material, or immaterial,


collectively but as attributes,

or paflive; not

modes or hypoftafes of the fame


being that contains in

eternal, infinite

and

indivifible fubflance.

Abfolute
itfelf,

infinite

may

alfo fignify a
all

not all perfections, but


yea not only
all infinite

perfections in an infinite deall

gree

perfections feparated, but

re-

united in an indivifible manner, and that can produce

by an

all-powerful fecundity, an innumerable variety of fubftances


really diftinCt

from

itfelf.
firll:

Spinofa underftands always abfolute infinite in the


fenfe,

and never

in the fecond.

He does

not affirm, as Poithat

ret accufes

him, that

God is no real being, and


collective

what we

mean by the term God, is only the metaphyfical abftraCt idea


of entity in general,or the
His fcheme
is

fum of all poflible finites.


of God,withthe effence
is

far

more

intricate.

In imitation of the antient

Pantheifts, he confounds the efTence

of the

creature,

and maintains that there

but one,

fole, e-

ternal, felf-exiftent, abfolutely infinite fubftance;

and that all

other beings, whether thefe


al,

we

call

corporeal or intellectu-

are coeternal, confubftantial forms, inherencies, hypofta-

fes,

and

perfonalities

of this only fubftance.


produccs
all,

He

allows that
all,

this

ABSOLUTE INFINITE
wills
all
all,

underftands

and

and that it

gives exiftence, intelligence and activi-

ty to

other beings, not by creation, which he endeavours to

F2

44

Book L explode, but by immanent aftion,and necefHty of nature. He


and
infinitely intelli-

OF THE ABSOLUTE

calls this felf-exiftent, infinitely a<5live,

gent fubfta nee


forms,

NATURE PRODUCING, and its confiibftantial inherencies and perfonalities nature produced.
and funthis

We have already overthrown the original props,


damental propofitions of
king the falfhood of Spinofa's definitions.

monftruous fyftem, by unmas-

We

fhall

now

fliew the total abfurdity and contradiction of this fcheme. It


is

impofTible that the abfolutely infinite, felf-exiftent being,


all

which excludes
tain in that
felf
is,

negation, privation and defefV, can con-

itfelf,

as efiential attributes, the totality


;

of all

finites,

the coUedive
neceflity

fum of all negations or produce


efFe(^s,

in

it-

by

of nature, confubftantial forms,

inhe-

rencies,

and

perfonalities that are full


qualities..

of contrary, contradicthis
infi-

tory,

and incompatible
of

This impure mixture,


confufion of
finite

monftruous
nite,

alliance, this abfurd

and

light

and darknefs, of

reality

and

privation,

of per-

fection

and imperfection cannot be the


Hydra, (a)
that
is

eternal, felf-exiftent,

abfolute infinite jfince we have the idea of another far fuperior


to this Spinofian

we

have the idea of an absoin all fenfes,

lute infinite
fections,

unbounded

and per-

without any fhadow of privation, defeCt, or limita-

tion; yea without


riation;

any

pofilbility

of increafe,

decreafe, or va-

of an
by

ABSOLUTE infinite,
free choice, not

that can

by

its all-

powerful energy produce from without, not by ncccflity of


nature, but

by immanent but by emanant


and yet
fron>

aCtion,an innumerable variety of fubftances, attributes, powers,

and modes

rcprcfcntative

of himfclf

diftinCt

(a) Cor. 2. and 3d of Prop. III.

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
not the fum of

45

himfelf; of an absolute infinite in one word that is SUMMUM INFINITUM, not SUMMA INFINITORUM; the

fupream
Beings;

infinite,
all

infinites

all

Being, not

all

perfections, not

all realities; all

perfedions in an

infinite degree,

and not all


is

forts

of perfeiflion in every degree.

Now

fince this idea

infinitely fuperior to that

of the Spi-

nofian

God,

it is

evident to demonftration that this muft be

the true abfolute infinite.

All Spinofa's errors on

this

head came originally from ths

dangerous definitions of the fchoolmen,

whom he had fludi-

ed carefully in his youth; and eipecially the fataHft divines^

They call God


*

the univerfal being, the univerfal reafon,thc

univerfal goodnefs, that contains in himfelf necelTarily all

the ideas and efTences of

finite.'

Tho' Father Harduin was


all

too rafh to accufe of

formal, deliberate atheifm,

the great

men who make ufe of thefe equivocal


in the right to look
tal fources

expreffions, yet

he was

upon the expreflions themfelves

as the fa-

of Spinofifm.

God is

neither the univerfal being,

nor the univerfal reafon, nor the univerfal goodnefs; for thefe
expreffions

may fignify

the

colle5live

fum of all particular befhallfhew, one, fole,


in;

ings, reafons

and bounties; he is,

as

we

lingular, individual

and indlvilible fubftance, that reunites


is

himfelf all perfe<flions, every one of which


Icind.

infinite in its

Neither does

this

fupream intelligence contain in himas the neceffary

felf all the ideas


je<5ts

and eflences of finite,

ob-

of his underflanding.
is

We fhall fully demonftrate hereof the fchoolmen, which


Neither muft
all

after that this

a wild chimera

fa-

vours and produces neceffarily Spinofifm.


fay that

we

God

contains in himfelf eminently

the pcrfedi-

46

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book L

ons of finite beings. For tho', as we fnall (hew, the perfeftions of finite be analogous to and reprefentative of the divine
perfections, yet the later

do not contain the former

in

any

fenfe whatfoever. This dark

and rafh exprefTionof the fchool-

men unknown

to

all

antiquity both facred and profane, fa-

vours the opinion of thofe,

who

fancy that caufes contain

their effefls as plants contain their feeds, or as the fun


tains
its

con-

rays,

and then we

mufl:

look upon creation as an evo-

lution, or

emanation of the uncreated effence, which modi-

fys itfelf differently, without producing


ftinft

any

real fubflance di-

from

itfelf;

which
is

is

pure Spinofifin.

We

fhall

fhew

hereafter that creation

neither a difcerption, nor an


a produ<n:ion

emana-

tion
that

from the divine effence ; but


had no exiftence before.

of fomething

Thefe three
*

expreflions therefore
;

of the

fchools,

That
are

God is

the univerfal being

that the ideas

of

all finites

the necefTary objefts of the divine underflanding, and eternally coexiflent in


it;

'

and

in fine that

God

contains emi-

nently the perfections and qualities of

all finites,'

gave

rife

to atheifjii ; as will fully appear in the courfe

of

this

work.

We beg

our readers to go on, and

all

thefe great truths fhall


all

be unfolded by degrees.
at once, this multiplicity

If we attempted to expofe them

would perplex the mind, dazzle the


all its

intellectual eye,

and render

objeCts confufed.
I.

COR.

Hence absolute infinite,


in
its

or that which contains

the fullncfs of all perfeftion, can neither increafe nor decreafe


effential aCts, attributes

and perfections; becaufe


properties

it

pof^

feffes in

every

moment all the powers,

and

realities

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
its

47
that

that are neceflary to compleat


lute fullnefs,

idea;

which

is

of abfo-

and perfection

in all kinds.
II.

COR.
Hence if we difcover
gations, privations,

in nature, beings that are full


defects,

of ne-

and

of

different, incompatible,

and

contradi<ftory qualities ; nature produced, or the univerfe


eflential attribute

of beings, cannot be an
the divine fubftance.

or modification of

COR.

III.

Hence we mufl deny of abfolute infinite not only all properties that fuppofe negation, privation

and

limitation: but

even

all

perfections that are not infinite in


is

all fenfes:

where-

fore if it can be proved, that there


fect

a higher or

more per-

do,

way of exifting every where, than by extenfion as bodies then we muft deny that God's omniprcfence is a local
and
indivifible:

difFufion, tho' infinite

and confequently that

the divine immenfity and infinite fpace are not the fame.

COR.
Hence,
All

IV.
all
is is

tho' abfolute infinite excludes

negation; yet
altogether nethat
it is

the idea which finite intelligences have of it


gative.
ter

we

conceive of abfolute infinite


it

grea-

than any idea we can form of it; that


it

farpaffes all finite

comprehenfion, and that

is

none of

thefe things,

that

we

can imagine.
the

tive, yet

Thus tho' the object of this idea be pofiidea we form of it is altogether negative, as Locke
But
it

very well demonflratcs.

were

falfe to

conclude from

thence, that the objecft of that idea includes any negation; as


it

would be abfurd

to fay that becaufe our idea


is

of God is im-

perfect, therefore his elTence

fuch.

48

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book L
V.
and

PROPOSITION.
Abfolute
plurality
Infinite excludes all duality

of fubftance.

DEMONSTRATION.
If there were two or more
fe<flIons,

abfolute infinites, their per-

powers, and forces united in one fum, would be grea-

ter

than thofe of onefingular abfolute infinite (a).

Now there

can be nothing greater than abfolute

infinite (b), therefore

there cannot be in nature a duality, nor a plurality of diftinft,


felf-exiftent,

independent and abfolutely

infinite fubftances,

SCHOLIUM.
That which
In
all fenfes,

exhaufts the whole plenitude of perfe<5lion


its

can admit no other of


all

kind; not becaufe

it

contains numerically

beings, powers,

and

perfe<5lions:

but

becaufe

it

contains in
all

itfelf in

an

indivifible

manner

a perfec-

tion equivalent to
finite

pofllble multiplicity. Subftances


all

of any

degree

may be

equal to each other, and yet be mul-

tipliable

without end; becaufe none of them fingly and fepa-

rately, exhaufts the

whole plenitude of reality


and

in

its

kind. Ab-

folute infinite

can admit of no duality nor plurality of fubrealities

ftance ; becaufe the powers, pcrfe<n:ions

of both

or of all united in one, would

make
is

a being

of a fuperior de-

gree to abfolute infinite which

a contradiction.

Befidcs, if by an impofilblc fuppofition there could be


(a) Ax. 6.
(b)

two

Ax,

4,

Book L
or more
necelTarily

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
know,
love

49

abfolutely infinite fubftances, each

one of them mufl

with
ther

all

of them

at

and be united with each other, and once; and fo they muft by this union eiand
indivifible fubilance; or elfe

become an

individual

their united powers,

knowledge and happinefs, muft augment

and

furpafs their fingle, feparate power,

knowledge and hapfelf-fuf-

pinefs.
ficient,

Wherefore every one of them would not be


and fo could not be abfolutely
infinite*

G O

R.

I.

Hence

infinite

power can never be exhaufted by the proitfelf ;

duftion of beings diftinftfrom

becaufe flnce

it

can never

produce from without, another abfolute


felf,

infinite equal to it-

there

may be in

the fcale of finites a progrefllon without

end.

COR.
duced, or

11.

Hence God can never communicate


to created beings, a principle

to

nature
;

pro(b

of felf-exiftence,

as that they could fubfift for ever independent

of him fince
is

he can never make them abfolutely


ly reafon

infinite,

which

the on-

of felf-exiftence or independence.

COR.

III.

Hence creation can neither be coeternal, nor confubftantial with God, nor neceffary to his perfe(5tion ; becaufe it cannot be abfolutely infinite as fhall be fhewn more fully hereafter.

COR.
Hence
the abfolutely infinite
folutely infinite obje<5t

IV.

mind can have no other ab-

of

his thought, but himfelf, or his

own idea,

image and reprefentation.

50
Hence
all

OF THE ABSOLUTE
COR.
V.
the rophlfms that Baylc

Book L
to prove

makes ufe of,

thatManicheifm,or the do6lrine of two co-eternal, felf-exiftent principles, one

good and another bad,

is

a plaufible opi-

nion; are weak, childifh, and unphilofophical.


ty reafonings

All his witthis fuppofiti-

on

this head, are

founded upon

on, that moral and phyHcal


tible;

evil will

be eternal and indeftruc-

and that what


is

is

indeftruflible

muft be

felf-exiftent.

This

abfolutely falfe, as

we fhall

prove hereafter both by

fcripture

and reafon.

PROPOSITION
Abfolute
all divifibility

VI.
and

infinite excludes all divifion

of fubftance whether

ideal or real.

DEMONSRATION.
If the divine fubftance was
divifible into parts, thefe parts

would be

abfolutely infinite, or abfolutely finite.

If abfolute;

ly infinite, then there


is

might be many abfolute infinites which

impoffible (a); if abfolutely finite, then the addition

of fi-

nite to finite

would make abfolute


and

infinite,

which

is

abfurd:
all di-

(b) therefore abfolute infinite excludes


vifibility

all divifion
is

and

both

real

ideal; fince

what

ideally divifible

may be really

divided.

SCHOLIUM.
Spinofa never denied the indivifibility of the divine effence.

He maintains indeed, with Des Cartes,


(a) Prop.

that matter

and fpace

V.

(b)

Ax.

6.

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
and
indeftruflible,

51
is

are the fame; and having endeavour'd to prove that Ipace


infinite, eternal, indivifible,

he concludes

that infinite Ipace and the divine immenfity are the fame;
that the fupreme abfolute infinite or only fubftance
is

and

exten-

ded every where by


really indivifible.

local diffufion,

yetfo as to be ideally and

Thus

tho'
is

he

attributes extenfion to

God,

yet he denies that

God

corporeal, figurable,

and

divifible.

He

does not even fay that


all

God

is

the foul of the world inti-

mately united to
that there
is

the mafs of infinite matter; for he afferts


real matter

no other

but infinite Ipace.

We Ihall

unriddle this intricate queftion very foon.

COR.
Hence
to
all

I.

all

God's

effential attributes,

powers, and perfec-

tions fubfift

and

zS: in,

by and with each other according

the extent of his infinite nature.

They

cannot contra-

dict

nor be feparated from one another.


as

deed

we

fhall

fhew

real diftin(n:ions in

There may be inGod, but there can

be no real

divifions.

COR.
Hence nature produced,
participation
all

II.
is

or the univerfe of beings

not a

of the divine fubflance, for what is indivifible in

fenfes admits

of no

feparation or divifion.
finite beings, it is

Wherefore
not by a
dif^

when God produces


cerption, divifion, or

or creates

communication of

his effence.

PROPOSITION
The divine
fion

VII. by fuccef-

effence does not exift

of thoughts.

Gz

52
Abfolute

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book
fulnefs

I.

DEMONSTRATION.
infinite is that

which contains the


fulnefs

of all

perfection: (a) that

which contains the

of

all

perfec-

tion can never increafe, decreafe or vary as to


attributes

its effential afts,

and thoughts,

(b) Therefore the divine eflence

does not

exifl:

by

fucceffion

of tlioughts*

SCHOLIUM.
God knows and
effential perfection

loves himfelf always equally;

and

in this

permanent, unchangeable knowledge and

love, confifts

the

of his

infinite underftanding,

and the un^


that

bounded happinefs of his

infinite will.

Locke pretends
is

we can
all his

have no idea of duration, but what

fucceflive:

but

(pecious reafonings
infinite time,

on

this

head tend to confound the


It
is is

idea that
five.

of

with that of God's eternity.

true

we have no

idea

of duration in

finite

but what

fuccef^

This however does not prove

that

we

can have no idea

of God's duration, without

fucceffion, variation

and change-

He knows and loves himfelf not by fucceffive a<n:s, but by one


continued, permanent, and immutable act; otherwrfe
fay that he
at another.

we muft

knows and

loves himfelf

more

at

one time than-

Boethius had far more noble notions,

when he
time

faid that eternal duration in

God is the full, a<5tual, permanent


infinite

poffeffion

of all

reality
is

and perfection: whereas

in the creature
its

the fucceffive augmentation or variation of

modes,

realities

or perfections without end.

All Locke's miftakes on this head come from his not adverting to this, that eternal duration in
(a)

God

does not regard

Def. 8.

(b) Cor. i. of Prop. VI.

Book L
is

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
a<5ls.

53

his abfolute efrence,but his elTential

Neceffary exigence
Neceffary
exif-

not the fame idea with that of eternity.

tence belongs to the eifence of God, as independent of any

other caufe: but eternity or unfucceffive duration belongs to


his effential a6ls as
creafe, or variation.

exempt from all

poflibility

of

increafe, de-

and loves himfelf always in the fame manner and degree; and this permanency conftitutes his eternity.

He knows

We fee that this muft be fo, but we cannot


ideas

form any adequate

of

this

fimultaneous duration in
conceive only by parcells,
attributes

God
by

becaufe being bounded

we

fucceflion,

and by progrellion. All the

of abfo-

lute infinite tho' demonftrable, yet

muft be incomprehenfiblc

to finite minds.

Dr. Clarke by confounding the ideas of fucceflive and unfucceffive duration


preifes thus; (a)
'
*

advanced a ftrange paradox which he ex-

How any thing can have exifted eternally,


paft, is ut-

that

is,

how

an eternal duration can be a6lually

terly unconceivable,

and yet

to

deny that an eternal

durati-

on

is

now

acTtually paft is

an exprefs

contradi(flion.'

He
and

fhould have faid quite the contrary, that to maintain an eternal duration
is

now
It is

a6lually paft

is

altogether repugnant

contradi(5lory.

not only unconceivable, but abfolutely


there
is

impofilble.

Wherever
fuccefilve

laft,

there muft be a

firft;
laft.

now
fible

in eternity there
is

can be no

firft,

and therefore no
is

Whatever

cannot be eternal, as whatever


infinite; becaufe
finite fucceffions

divifi-

cannot be a6lually

no
can

addition

of

nite dimenfions, nor


infinite.
(a) Dr.

of

make

abfolute
e-

When we fay that

creatures

may be immortal and

Clarke's Demonftration

of the being and attributes of God; page 9.

54
ternal; all

OF THE ABSOLUTE
we mean
is,

Book

I.

that

God may
to be.

ftill

continue their exis-

tence without end; and no ways that there can be

no laft mothat

ment wherein they may ceafe


ter
is

When we fay that matall


it

infinitely divifible

or multipliable,

we mean

is

infinite

power may diminifh or augment


that
it

without end, and

no ways

can be actually and really infinitely great, or


I repeat a
laft,
it

infinitely Uttle.
firft,

once more, wherever there


is

is

there

may be

and wherever there

laft,

there

muft have been a

firft.

In the pure and abfolute eflence of God, and in the exercife

of

his eftential,

immanent, and neceffary


All
is

a6ls, there

can

be neither paft nor future.


caufe

one prefent moment. Be-

God

always knows and loves himfelf equally, without

variation or

fhadow of change.

All his eftential afts are cohis effence.

eternal, confubftantial,

and fimultaneous with


priority

There is

in

them neither
;

nor pofteriority with regard

to duration

tho' there

may be

fuch diftinflions conceived in

him with

regard to caufality, as fhall be explained hereafter.


di(Hnguifti anterior

When we
be any

from

pofterior eternity, this

does not regard

God

but us.

We do not mean that there can


any
alteration or fuccef-

real priority or pofteriority,

fion in the divine eftence ; but only that there was a time when
finite

began, and

when God
eftence,

manifefted himfelf from with-

out: for he can never interrupt the eternal, permanent, uni-

form duration of his


and

nor of his

eftential,

immanent,

con-fubftantial a(^s.

Tho' in God,
gard to his free

there

is

no ftiadow of variation with regard


their

to his neceftary a^ls,


a(fls

and

immanent

efte(fts,

yet with re-

and emanant

cftedts,

there

may be fuc-

Book L
ceffion
;

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
is,

^^

that

they are not co-eternal with his efTence, and

cannot be the permanent objects of his underftanding; there was a time when he did not exert thefe acfts; and there may

be a time when he
blimeft truth in
all

will ceafe to exert

them.

This

is

the fu-

theology, and the

firft

bulwark againft Spi-

nofifm; as fhall be evidently demonftrated hereafter.

COR.

I.

We may conceive two


which

different forts

of duration: one by
all

a being exifts abfolutely and altogether the fame in


it

the periods of duration; another by which


rently, in different times,

exifts diffe-

by the

increafe, decreafe,
perfe(n:ions.

and

vari-

ation

of

its

modes,

qualities

and

The

idea

of

from the mutability and fucceffion that happen in the modes, qualities and perfections of finite.
time
arifes

G O R.

II.

time and the divine eternity are not the fame. Infinite time is the mutable duration of finite continuinfinite

Hence

ed without end.
lute infinite.

Eternity

is

the immutable duration of abfothe generical term; immutable

Thus

duration

is

and

fuccefTive duration are the

two kinds or
III.

ipecies.

COR.
Hence
five
it is

abfolutely falfe, that duration


all

is

an abfolute
Succcfall fi-

quality that belongs to

beings in the fame fenfe.


is

duration or mutability

the effentlal property of

nites: unfuccejffive duration belongs to

God

alone.

LEMMA
A fubftance that
be conceived
is

OF

PROP.

VIII.

extended by diffufion of parts

may

as ideally

and

really divifible.

S6

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book L

SCHOLIUM.
In
all

fubftance extended

by

difFufion

we may

conceive

lengths, breadths, heights

and depths; parts

diftlntfl

from

each other, parts towards the center, and parts towards the
circumference.

Now wherever

there are real parts diftlnd


is

and

diftant
Is

from each other, the one


part,

not the other

the

whole

not contained In each

nor does each part conexift,

tain the reft.

One part

therefore might
its

tho*

all

the reft

were annihilated, and confequently

parts are feparable.

They are Ideally divlfible, and therefore


reafon
it is,

muft be

really fo; o-

therwlfe their ideal divifibility would be impoflible.


that matter
is

For this

not one (imple/indivlfible fubftance,


really feparable, tho' ne-

but a compound of many fubftances

ver fo contiguous and homogeneous.

Some
tions,

will fay that

we may

conceive In fpace ideal diftinc-

but not real dlvifions; that

we may

diftlnguifh In

it

heights, lengths,

and breadths, and yet no feparable parts;


It

and therefore
becaufe, as
if
it

tho'

may be partially apprehended, yet it canI anfwer that this


is

not be mentally nor really divided.

true,

we

ftiall

fhew, Ipace

is

not a

real fubftance;

but
it

were a

real fubftance that exifted

by

difFufion,

then

would be both mentally and


Whatever

really divlfible.
I.
Is

COR.
Is

really divlfible

really
it

compounded

for

it

could not be divided into parts if


parts.

were not compofed of

COR.
Hence
if a fubftance

II.

be

divlfible into parts

without end,

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
of the fame nature with the whole,
fingle, individual fubftance,

^y
this

(ince the parts are

fubftance cannot be one,

but a

compound of innumerable, diftind, and

divifible fubftances.

PROPOSITION
The DIVINE ESSENCE
diifufion
Is

VIII.

not extended by

of parts.
extended by diffufion of parts,
divifible (a):
:

DEMONSTRATION.
A fub fiance that
efTence
is

may be

conceived as ideally and really

the divine efTence

admits of no divifion ideal or real (b) therefore the divine


is

not extended by diffufion of parts.

SCHOLIUM.
We
flrufe,

are

now

arrived at the mofl: dliHcuIt, the mofl ab-

and the mofl fubtle part of all theology and metaphy-

ficks.

The

miflakes

on

this

head have had bad

eflfedls,

and

tended to open the

fluices to Spinofifm,

There are three opinions concerning the


;

divine immenfity,
all

and there can be but three fome fay that God exifls in

places

by diiFufion

others, that his efTence

is

circumfcribed to one
his almigh-

definite place, while

he is prefent every where by


infinite,
all

ty power; others again afTert that the


five

all-comprehen-

mind is
of his
firfl

prefent without extenfion to


exerclfe

beings, not only

by the whole
tality

of his power, but according to the toIf It can be demonflrated that

indlvifible cflence.

the two
(a)

opinions are falfe,and Incompatible with the per(b)

By thepreceeding Lemma.

By

Prop.

V.

58
fe6lion

OF THE ABSOLUTE
of abfolute
infinite,
it is

Book

T.

evident that the third mull be

true (a); fince the divine eflence can exift

no otherwife but

ia

one of thefe three manners.

Some of Sir Isaac Newton's


haps feeing the confequences of
ly the
firft

difciples,

without per-

their do<5lrine, favour directin all places

opinion, that

God exifts

by

diiFufion,

when they
(ity are the
1.

maintain that infinite ipace and the divine immenfame.

They

argue thus.
all

As God's

exigence in

times conflitutes infinite duall

ration or eternity, fo his prefence in


finite fpace

places conftltutes in-

or immenfity.

ftratum of fpace,

The felf-exiftent eflence is the fuband the ground of its exiftence. God is not
is

in the world, but the world

in him.

His immenfity
all

is

the

common
ings:

place or receptacle

which contains

created belive,

for this reafon St. Paul fays, that " in

God we

" move and have our being."


2.

The idea
God

of fpace

is

eternal, infinite,

independent of

and antecedent
is

to the creation

of all matter: for fince matter

created,

might have produced from the beginning on-

ly

two globes of matter which would have touched each othcr only in a point; and therefore we might have had the
idea

of

a fpace void

of matter betwixt
is

all

the other points.


;

Further, fince matter

created,

it

whatever does not


fore

exift neceflarily,
all

may be annihilated for may ceafe to be. Wherefill

God

might annihilate
walls,

the matter betwixt four imits

moveable
place,

without fufFering any other matter to

and then we would have an idea of fpace where there is


In
fine, fince

no

matter.
(a)

matter

is

created

it

mufl be

finite.

By

Poftulate 3,

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
God
all

If we were therefore tranfported to the utmofl: created matter, we might ftretch out our hand, and thus have
the idea of a fpace where
like ours,

59 boundaries of

might create another world

yea not only one but numberlefs worlds, flnce his

power

is

unbounded.

In

thcfe three cafes


is

we would have
matter.

an idea of fpace where there

no

matter, antecedent to, in-

dependent

of,

and
is

infinitely greater
infinite, eternal,

than

all

Thus
and nemufl exin all

the idea of fpace


3.

and neceflary.

Space and time are abfolute

qualities requifite

cefTary to the exigence


ift

of all beings;

flnce all things

fomewhere, and in fome time, or every where and

times.

To exifl no where and in no time,

is

not to be.

Space

and time therefore are neceffary, indeflru^tible


thing can blot out of the mind, and this dious demonftration of the exiflence of a
is

ideas, that

no-

the mofl

compen-

God:

for flnce eter-

nity and immenfity are necelTary, indeftruflible ideas, they

mufl be properties of an immenfe, eternal being; and flnce the


properties cannot exift without their fubftance, there mull be

an immenfe,
4. Space
;

eternal fubftance to

whom

they belong.
It

muft either be fbmething or nothing.

cannot
lef^

be nothing flnce we conceive in fpace portions greater or


fer,

equal or unequal, nearer and remoter.

Now nothing has


it

no

properties nor parts. If fpace be fomething,

mufl: either

be a fubftance or a property of a fubftance; the fame with


matter, or an attribute of matter. It cannot be, as the Carteflans fay, the

fame with matter, becaufe fpace


indivifible,

is

penetrable,

immoveable and
moveable and
ter
;

whereas matter

is

impenetrable,

diviflble.

Moreover, fpace is what contains mat-

now

the thing containing muft be dilUnel from the

Hz

6o

OF THE ABSOLUTE
In
fine, if fpace

Book

I.

thing contained.

and matter were the fame,

we

could not fay that bodies quit one fpace to go into ano-

ther; for this

would be faying that they go out of themfelves.


fJ3ace

Neither can

be an attribute of matter, nor of any


is

created being, fince Ipace

eternal, neceflary

and

infinite.

Wherefore it muft be an
exiftent being or the

attribute

of the eternal,

infinite, felf-

fame with the divine immenfity.

Thefe
gllfh

are the principal arguments

of Locke, and the En-

Newtonian

philofophers, to prove that infinite fpace

and the divine immenfity are the fame. This matter has been handled of late by two great men, Mr. Leibnitz and Dr.
Clarke.
fcurity,

The

firft

by

his

profound depth

lofl

himfelf in ob-

without being

intelligible.

The

other by his great

fubtility fklpped over truth,

without going to the bottom.


firft

We fhall
which

endeavour to fhew

that the principles

upon
and

this do6lrine is

founded

ai*e falfe

and fophidical; and


are very harfh

then prove that the confequences of


dangerous.
I. It is
is

it

abfolutely falfe that God's exigence in

all

times

his eternity;
all

and therefore by the


is

rules

of analogy

his ex-

iftence in

fpaces

not his immenfity.

As

infinite

time

is

not eternity
riability

(a), fo infinite fpace is

not immenfity.

The va-

of'the creature gives us the idea of fucccfTion and

time (b), and the cxtcnfion of matter by its compofition gives

us the idea of fpace or extenfion.

If there were no variable

beings, if we could remain for ever in one permanent thought,

we would have no idea of fuccefllon


Vvere
(a) Cor. 2. of Prop. VII.

or time.

Jull fo, if there

no compound beings made up of


00
Cor.
i.

diftant or fcparable

of Trop. VJI.

Book
parts,

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
have no idea of ipace or extenfion.

6t

we could

Time inof parts.

dicates a fiicceflion

of modes;

Ipace, a compofition
Is

We

jfhall

fhew hereafter that the mind

capable of forming

abftrafl ideas

both of fubftances and properties.

Now

it is

certain that the abftra(5l idea

fubftances

may were annihilated. Thus we form


and
infinite time.

remain In the mind tho' the


the ideas of inthat
all finite

finite Ipace,

Having obferved

beings exift by fucceflion,

we form

to ourfelves the abftraft

idea of an infinite, flowing, variable duration without end;

becaufe

God might have

created antecedently to

all

determi-

nate time, and continue his produ6lion for ever. In the fame

manner having once got the


parts,

idea

of a being compofed of
extended fubftan-

we

conceive that

God may augment


infinite

ces for ever;

and fo

we form

the abftrad idea of imaginary,

infinite fpaces, as

of imaginary,

numbers and moti-

ons, which are mere wife real fubftances ;


ftance.

modes of the mind's forming, and nofar lefs properties of the infinite fub-

When

the apoftle fays therefore, that " in

God we
beings

"

live,

move, and have our being;" wemuft not underftand

this in a grofs, material fenfe, as if all bodies

and

all

fwimmed in
More, who
fluid that

the divine eifence, like fifhes in the fea.


difciples

If fome

Newtonians (or rather the


firft

of the pious Dr. Henry

defended

this

notion

among

the moderns)

think thus, they feem not to explode the idea of an ethereal


fills all;

but they deny the Cartefian, created, finite,


moveable, unintelligent, fubtilc

paflive, divifiblc, figurable,

matter, in order to transform the divine elTence into an uncreated, infinite, unfigurable,
er,
a^ftive, intelligent,

ethereal raat^
fhaii

which too much refemblcs Spinolirm;

as

we

fhew

6z
hereafter.

OF THE ABSOLUTE
God is prefent
exifl:

Book

I.

This then cannot be the meanhig of St. Paul, but


every where to
all

that

created beings, becaufe

they

and

fubfifl:

only by the continuation of his creating

energy.
not, he
fible,

Now

as his

power cannot
a^ls;

a6l

where

his eflence is
is

niufl: exifl:

where he

and

as his effence
all

indivi*

he muft be entirely prefent to


exifl:s

beings, without dif-

fufion of parts, as he

always without fuccellion of

thoughts.
2. All the reafonings

by which
true that

thefe

moderns endeavour
neceffary, are pure

to prove that fpace

is

eternal, infinite
It
is

and

dclufions of fancy.

God

might have created

only two globes of matter which touched one another in a


point; that he might annihilate
all

the real matter, there

is

betwixt four immoveable walls, without fuffering any other

matter to

fill its

place;

and

in fine, that

he might create
cafes

new

worlds beyond our

fyfl:em.

In thefe three

we would

have the idea of a void or fpace antecedent to and independent of all matter:
idea
all this
is

we grant. But in

all

thefe cafes the

we have of fpace
difl:in6l

not that of any

real fubftance, or pro-

perty,

from matter, but an


after the

abftraft idea
is

of extenfion

which remains
deftroyed,

extended fubfl:ance
e're the

fuppofed to be

and which we fuppofe

extended fubfl:ance

be

created.

We

confider this abflraft idea as a capacity, an

interval, a diflrance or a void,


al;

where there

is

nothing matericreatiexif-

and therefore nothing that hinders the pofition or

on of new
ting.

matter betwixt or beyond the bodies really

Now this abfl:ra6t idea of void, difl:ance, interval, or cano objcaive


reality

pacity, has

without us;

it is

mere ficflion

of

the mind, an

ens rationis, the work of our own

Book I.
thought.
It

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
is

63

when we have once the idea of an extended fubftance, we may form that of imaginary heights,
thus that
lengths, depths,

and

diftances without end, tho'

all

the real

matter in the univerfe were annihilated.

When

the Cartefi-

ans therefore deny the poHibllity of forming the abftrad idea

of a void or
finite,
it is

extenfion where there

is

no

matter, they are driIs

ven inevitably to maintain either that matter

abfolutely in-

and confequently

eternal

and uncreated; or to fay that

an attribute of the divine fubftance; and fo to materialize

the divine nature, in a more abfurd fenfe than the later authors.
It is a

mere Sophifm

In the Cartefians to fay that bo-

dies are united


falfe; bodies are

when

there

is

nothing betwixt them ;

this is

only then united,

when

there can be nothing

betwixt them.
3.
all

Space and time are not abfolute qualities that belong to

beings.

God

exifts

every where without (pace or exten-

fion; as he exifts always without time or fucceflion.


ifts

He

ex-

In himfelf as his

own place,
act

always the fame, without valove.


It Is

riation, In

one permanent

of knowledge and

true that the Ideas

of fpace and time are infeparable from our


out of our minds the Ideas of exten-

minds, becaufe being variable creatures. Intimately united to


matter,
fion

we

cannot

Itrike

and

fucceflion: but If we transfer thefe ideas to abfolute

infinite,

we become
like ourfclves.
Is

anthropomorphltes, and imagine that

God
is

is

We fancy with
Is

children that

all

that

not extended,

nothing; and that all duration which Is not

floating,

and

fuccefllve

no duration

at all.

Space and time


all

are not then abfolute qualities that belong equally to

be-

ings created and uncreated; material and fpiritual.

64.
4.

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book L

The dilemma's of thefe moderns are not conclufive. All


is

the objects of our perception are not fubftances, or proper*


tics

of fubftances. There

yet a third object of our percep-

tion,

and that

is,

abftra6t ideas.

Space

is

not a pure nothing,

but an abftrad idea of extenfion, as that of number, time,

and motion, which we may confider


ftant or nearer;

as greater or lefTer, di-

and which we may add or mukiply, divide

or combine without end; yea


if they

we may
tho'
it is

reafon

upon them,

as

were

real fubftances

certain that all

num(paces

bers without multipliable beings,


beings,
all

all

times without variable


all

motions without moveable beings, and

without extended beings; are mere abftraftions of our minds.

We fay that

bodies exift in fpace, in the fame fenfe that

we

fay that finite beings exift in time.

In both

cafes, the vulgar

impofed upon by imagination, confider (pace and time, or the


abftrafl ideas
ftin(ft

of extenfion and

fucceflion, as

fome things

di-

from the extended and

fuccefilve fubftances in

which
precifi-

thefe fubftances exift; and fo

by a metonymy without

on

fay that the fubftances exift in their properties, or ra-

ther in the abftrad ideas of their properties.

Can

Philofo-

phers

make

ufe

of the errors
and

in ordinary fpeech to prove phi-

lofophical principles? Striflly fpeaking

we fhould

not fay that

bodies

exift in fpace,

finite

beings in time; but that the

one

exift

with extenfion, and the others by fucccfilon, or with


it

Ipace and time. Moreover,


tefians to maintain that

was a great miftake in fome Car-

space and

matter

are the fame;

for then

it

would be nonfenfe

to fay that bodies

change one
that bodies
is

fpace to go into another.

This would be faying

^o out of thcmfelves

to

go into other bodies.

What

meant

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
bodies change fpace or place,
Is

65
that they

when we fay that


change the

relation

of diftance

to each other; for, as

we have

already remarked, fpace


are

fignifies

fometimes a void where there


interval or diftance beis

no bodies

at all,

and fometimes an

twixt bodies. In both thefe cafes, ipace


idea

only a relation or an

of the manner
is

that bodies exift

by extenfion.

Now exit is

tenfion

not a fubftance, but a property of a fubftance;

not matter, but an attribute of matter.


ter carries along

Each atom of mat-

with
:

it

the idea of local extenfion, and fup-

pofes
varies

it

necelTarily

but as fucceflion without any being that

is

a pure idea, fo extenfion without

any extended bemoderns found

ing

is

a pure idea.
all

Thus

the principles

upon which

thefe

the identity of infinite fpace and the divine immenfity, are


uncertain orfalfe: but the natural confequences of this doctrine are
1

of a dangerous tendency.
infinite fpace

If

were the fame with the divine immeninfinite fpace,

fity; if

God's omniprefence conflituted were an


attribute

and

if

infinite fpace

of God: then

the fupreme ef^

fence would exifl by difFufion andlocal extenfion, tho' indivifible, unfigurable,

and immoveable.

Now

if the divine ef^

fence exifled thus by difFufion, there would be


a greater fpace, than in a
hill,

more of
in a

it

in

lefTer,

in a

mountain than

mole-

in a giant than in a pigmy.

2.
all

This

is

not

all.

We have
exifls

already demonflrated, that

fubflance
all

which

by

difFufion

muft be

divifible

for in

fuch fubftances

we may

conceive parts diflant and


lefTcr,

diftincH:;

equal and unequal; greater and

and confe-

quently thefe fubftances are ideally and really


I

divifible, tho'

<$5

OF THE ABSOLUTE
may be
uncTivided ;

Book

I.

they

now what is
it

really divifible is there-

by

figurable

and moveable. If the divine efTence

exifted there-

fore in fpace

by

difFufion,

would be
all

divifible, figurable

and

moveable; and fo fubjeft to


bodies.

the accidents and qualities of

We

might fay

literally

and phyfically an inch, a


It

foot, a cubit,

and a yard of the divine fubftance.


of
all all

might be

really divided into portions


lar, (pherical,

forms, triangular, circuthefe portions

and

cubical.

Yea

might be
lefs

tranfported from one place to another with


locity.

more or

ve-

Thus we would

corporalize the divine nature.

3.

In

fine, if the divine elTence

were

locally extended, tho*


as impenetrable as
fills its

indivifible,

one would think

it

mufl be

matter: for a real fubftance that exiftsby difFufion


place;
ftance

own

and

fo

cannot admit in the fame place any other fubnature.


it

of the fame

It

is

the difFufion or extenflon of


its divifibili-

a fubftance that makes


ty or indivifibility.
Ipace,

impenetrable, and not

If the divine elTence conftitutes

infinite

and

fills

it,

then there can be no other

fpiritual fub-

ftance but itfelf. For this reafon Spinofa maintain'd, that there

was one only fubftance

in nature,

and that

all

other beings

are only confubftantial forms, ideas, hypoftafes, and perfonalities

of the divine efFence.

Dr. Clarke prefs'd by thefe abfurd confequences, of which

he had no doubt a facrcd horror, retra^s


and fays (a)
<
'

his

firft

cxprefTions,

That God

is

not in fpace, nor penetrated by it;

and that

to call the felf-exiftent fubftance, the fubftratum

of

fpace, or fpace a property

of the
:

fclf-exiftent fubftance, are


all

not perhaps proper expreffions but that

he means

is,

that

(a) See the anfwers to the 3d and 4th letters at the end of his Pemonftration of the

being and attributes of God

Book L
* *
'

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD,
is

6y
relation,

the idea of fpaee

the idea

of a certain quality or

which we

evidently fee to

be necefTarily exifting, and which

not being a fubftance prefuppofes necelTarily a fubftance

without which

it

could not
is

exift.'

We

abfolutely

deny

that the idea

of fpace

that

of a quality

neceffarily-exifting:

for if there never


ftance,

had been any

real matter,

or extended fub-

we might

have been eternally without the idea of ex-

tenfion ; and fo could never have form'd an abftra^l idea of


this property or

of fpace. For
that

this reafon

it is

that Dr. Berkedif-

ley maintains
*

'

we

acquire the ideas

of grandeur,

tance and extenfion,only by habitudeyexperience and touch;

and that we learn to fee

as

we learn
firft

to fpeak.

To fay

that

a neceflarily exifting quality prefuppofes a neceftarily exifting


fubftance,
is

returning to his

maxim;

for fince qualities

cannot

exift

without their fubftance, if fpace be a neceffarily


it

exiftent quality,
ftance,

muft be that of a neceffarily exiftent fub-

and

fo the

fame with the divine immenfity; otherwife

this phrafe fignifies nothing.

Thus the Do<n:or falls into

the

fame jargon he reproaches others with; rather than quite a-

bandon
into

a principle

whofe natural and neceffary confequences


the mathematical philofophers have fallen

alarm him.
all

Thus

the abfurditles of materlallfm and Spinofifrii, without


it.

defigning

The greateft geometers are very oft incapable of

metaphyfical reafonings, becaufe their minds being entirely


abforb'd in the contemplations of extenfion and figure, and
conftantly accuftom'd to the ideas of quantity, they

become
to

by degrees incapable of all pure


fpace, figure,

Ideas that have

no relation

and motion.

The

opinion of an immenfe void, of an infinite fpace, of


I 2

6B

OF THE ABSOLUTE
God exifts by

Book

I.

an uncreated extenfion, in which

diffurion, is

probably an old,antiquated notion of Democritus and the atomifts;

which was combated and confuted by Socrates, Aall

naxagoras, and

the philofophers,
diftincl

who believed

that the

thinking

eflfence

was

from the material

fubftance.

This fidlion was renew'd by Epicurus and Lucretius; and confuted anewbythePlatonifts.

Manes and
it,

his followers reviv'd

the fame chimera in the third and fourth centuries, and St.

Auguftin was long infatuated by


with horror, and confuted
it

but he rejeded

it

at laft

with force and fubtlety.

Cham-

peaux, mafter to Abelard, endeavoured to recall the fame error in the twelfth century; but his difciple attack'd

him and

proved him to be a

materialift.

Some
all

Scotifts,

fuch as Dero-

don, revived the fame opinion in the fifteenth century; but

they were vigoroufly oppofed by


nofa in the
laft

the fchools. In fine,Spi-

century eftay'd again to introduce this notito prove that there


is

on into the empire of philofophy,


one fubftance
properties
in nature,
this

bus

and that extenfion and thought are

of

only fubftance; but his dark fcheme was


is

abhorr'd by

all

the philofophers of Europe. It

ftrange that

fuch profound genii, as Dr.

Henry More,

Clarke, and

many
with

of the learned Englifh, ihould have agreed

in this point

the Epicureans, Manicheans, Materialifts, and Spiniofifts, in


oppofition to the moft able metaphyficians of all ages, countries,

and

religions.

Some
without

antient

and modern philofophers

fell

into another

extream, and pretended that the proper refidence of


this fyftem; that his eftencc
is

God

is

is

circumfcribed to the

higheft heavens, and that he

prefcnt to created beings, on-

Book
ly

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
all-extenfive virtue,

^^
and
Spi-

by

power of irradiation, an
;

ritual operation

and

this is the

fecond opinion about onmir


to

prefence.
five, local

Thefe philofophers,

fhun the dodrine of difFu-

extenfion, limit the divine nature, and render it re-

ally finite
lefs, as
I
.

by

efTence.

Nothing

is

more abfurd and groundreflexions.

will fully appear


is

from the following

It

abfolutely impoffible that infinite

power can be fe-

parated from the omnipotent elTcnce; that a property can exift

without its fubftance; and that an agent can operate where


not: wherefore if God a6ts every where, he muft be pre-

it is

fent every where: his eflence mufl exift,


erts itfelf.

where his power exof the

2.

We grant,
fignify, as

that the holy fcriptures fpcak


:

highefl:

heavens, as the proper refidence of God

but thefe palTages


is

muft

we

fhall

fhew

hereafter, that there

one

place in the divine immenfity

where the infinite


in a

nifefts itfelf to created beings,

mamore eminent manner


effence

than in another, and not that he than in another.

exifts

more

in

one place
fcripture.

Scripture muft be explain'd


that

by

Now thefe facred books alTure us,


" cannot contain him, and that he " of us, fince in him
3. It
is

God is prefent in hea-

ven, upon earth, and in hell; " that the heaven of heavens
is

not far from every one

we live, move and have our being."


fpirits

true indeed, that the facred oracles fay, that impiare " far

ous minds, and damned

from God; and

caft

" out of his prefence; that holy fouls are near to him, and " united with him; and that none but the pure in heart can " fee and approach him:" But thefe expreffions cannot be
underftood of a local prefence.

In fome

knk we

are pre-

70

OF THE ABSOLUTE
upon
us,

Book

I.

fent to obje(5ls only in fo far as they ac^


feft

and mani-

themfelves to us.
all

If

all

the avenues of fenfe were Ihut

up, and

communication with bodies were fufpended,


in the

we

might be furrounded with them, and be

fame place

with them, and yet have no perception of them.


is

Thus God

efTentially prefent to the devils


:

and the damned; and yet


faid to

they do not perceive him

they are

be feparated from

him, becaufe he does not adt upon them in a beatifying manner; thus
fible:

we

live,

move and
all

exift in

God,

tho'

he be

invi-

he

is

prefent to

beings, tho' they

do not

feel his pre-

fence.

They are

diftind but not diftant,

from him.

When
this
is

he

creates, he does

not produce beings without himfelf,in


their fub fiance in a ipace

fenfe that

he places

where he

not:

but in

this fenfe that

they are
his.

diftinfl

from him, or have a

being really different from

The two
ty,

opinions mention'd about the divine immenfiall places,

the one of God's diffufive prefence in

and the

other of his circumfcription to one place, are then incompatible

with the perfection of the divine nature.

Now when
be
true,
is

of three fuppofitions, whereof one

neceffarily mull:

two are proved abfurd and


demonftrated
all

impolTible, the third

invincibly

(a).

God

muft either be

eflentially prefent in
is

places, or in
is

one

definite place: there


is

no

midft.

The diof

lemma

exaft; the enumeration

perfect.

If he be eifen-

tially prefent in all places,

he muft be

fo either

by

diffufion
is

parts, or

without diffufion of parts.

Here again there

no

midd.
fent in
<a)

We have already demonftrated that he cannot be preall

places

by

diffufion

of parts; nor circumfcribed to

By

Poftulate 2.

Book
tirely,

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
;

71

one definite place therefore.he muft beprefent efTentlally, enand


indivifibly In all places

without difFufion.

The

ab-

folutely infinite, necejfTary, felf-exiftent being muft be


prefent, not
'
'

omni-

becaufe abfolute neceffity' as Dr. Clarke fays,

is

always and every where the fame/ which feems to be no

proof; but becaufe the indivifible, all-comprehenfive mind.


jnuft be at
totality
all

times entirely and equally prefent, both by the


eflence,

of his abfolute
to
all

and by the perfed

exercife

of

his attributes,

beings whether material or

fpiritual.
it

This

is

incomprehenfible, but not impollible.

We fancy

fuch only becaufe


diftin^:
it

we

imagine, that there

is

an

infinite Ipace

from God, which hefiUs by

local difFufion;

and then
he
is

would be abfurd and contradictory to


and
locally in a part,

fay, that

as

much inan atom asin the whole of matter. For what Is entirely

cannot be

at the

fame time entirely

and locally in the whole.


immenfity,
difFufion,
.

When we think therefore of God's


all

we muft abftra<5t from as when we think of his

ideas

of extenfion and

eternity,

we muft drop all

ideas

of fucceflion and time.


they have clearer ideas of God's eternity

Some imagine

than of his immenfity, of his unfucceflive duration than of


his unextenfive exiftence:

and that we may conceive

how he

knows and loves himfelf always by one permanent aft without


fucceflion
ly every

we can have no idea how he exifts entirewhere without extenfion. The realbn is, becaufe we
;

but that

have no adequate ideas of God's eifence, nor indeed of any other fubftance whatfoever.

So foon

as

we

begin to imagine
it.

what SPIRIT
Immers'd in

is,

we

immediately extend and corporalize

fenfe

and drunk with imagination, we cannot

ji

OF THE ABSOLUTE
reality

Book L

imagine that to be a
believe air to

which

is

not extended; as children

be an empty void or nothing, becaufe they do


it:

not

feel or fee

but

when we

rife

above fenfe and bridle

i-

magination,
diffufion

we

foon difcover that


as

God

muft

exift

without

of parts,

without fucceffion of thoughts; and that


relation

there can be

no phyfical

between the properties of


;

the eternal mind, power, wifdom, and will


ties

and the proper-

of matter,

divifibiUty, figurability,
ell

and mobility.

We

cannot fay a fpan of power, an


will.

of wifdom, and a yard of

It

IS

true indeed that

we

exprefs very oft the attributes

of fpiritby
ment, a

thefe

of body, an high mind, a profound judgbut then

foft heart;

we fpeak only in a
literal

metaphorical,

figurative

way, and not in a phyfical,

one.

The fchoolmen
eternity

have miferably obfcured the

doMne

of

and immenfity by

their dull, infipid comparifons.

They
as a
finite

conceive God's immenfity as a point, and his eternity


Pitiful jargon.

moment.

So foon

as

we

imagine the in-

mind under any form relative to finite, whether it be a point or a moment; an infinite extenfion, or infinite fuccefiion, we corporalize God, or humanize him. To fancy that he
is

contra<5lcd into a point, or

expanded thro'

infinite fpace, is

degrading his nature.

He exifts every where and always withThis


is all

out extenfion and without fucceffion.


fay; and if we have departed

we fhould
it

from

this fimplicity,

was

ra-

ther to confute error, than explain truth.

The fimplefl ideas


when we
all

and the

fimplefl cxprefilons are the beft,

fpeak of

the fimplefl of all beings; and the removing of


tions

imperfecaffir-

by negative

propofitions,
is

is

fafer

than attempts by

mative ones to explain what

incomprehcnfible.

"Book

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
COR.
I.

73

Hence

as there

is

a great difference between infinite time


is

and the divine


infinite fjjace

eternity; fo there

a total difference between


Infinite fpace
is

and the divine immenfity.

an

abflracl idea of the

manner according to which bodies


is

exift

by

extenfion.
exifts
is

Divine immenfity

the

manner by which God

without extenfion.

To fay therefore that infinite fpace


God
is

the fenfory, organ, or medimii in which and by which

fees ail things,is

an unintelligible and dangerous way of fpea-

king.

It

is

faying that the abftraft idea of a finite mind,

anabfolute attribute of the infinite mind.

COR.
Hence we muft
tenfion
neceffarily

II.

admit of two

forts

of fubflan-

ces ; one that exifts without extenfion, and another with ex:

one that

is

prefent to

all

beings entirely, indivifibly,


the whole.

and

effentially, to the part as to

Another

that

exifts

only by fucceflion and expanfion ; by parcels, additi-

ons, and multiplications.


quite contrary,

Thefe two manners of exifting are


attributes ;

and incompatible

and therefore
this reafon

muft belong to quite


fliall call

different fubftances.

For

abfblute infinite for the future,

we mind, intel-

lect,

or spirit.

COR.
Hence if it can be proved
then
it is

III.

that

God

has a creating power;


forts

plain that

he may produce two

of fubftances

quite different and diftin6t,

one that

exifts

without extenfion,

and the other with extenfion.


other material.

The one immaterial,


be
the other a

and the
un-

The one muft

like himfelf, a fimple,

compounded,

indivifible effence;

compound of

^jf

OF THE ABSOLUTE
difFerent fubftances,

Book L
and Cimi-

many
lar yet

which

tho' contiguous
;

may be

divided

and feparated yea the one may be anexiils.

nihilated, while the other

And this is the firft diftincIV.

tion betwixt fpirit

and body.

COR.
Hence the
idea

of an extended, material fubftance, that is


is is

abfolutely indlvifible, unfigurable and immoveable,


fect contradi(5lion.
dlvifible. It

a per-

Matter

may be
it is

undivided, but it

not in-

may be without any one


it is

particular, determinate

figure

we

can imagine, but

not unfigurable.
its

It

may be

unmoved, but

not unmoveable; for by


exifts

nature of an

extended fubftance that


mull: neceifarily

by

diffufion

of parts, thefe parts

be fufceptible of figure, divifion and motion by a fuperior force capable to form, divide and move them. COR. V.

Hence the
be, but not

firft

myftery of natural religion


:

is

that

of the
it

divine immenfity, or unextenfive exiftence

we fee
it is

that

muft

how it
It

is; this
is

attribute

is

incomprehenfible but
demonftrable.

not impofTible.

unconceivable, but

Now when we
ceive
it.

have dcmonflrated that a thing muft be,

we

ought not to deny it purely and only,becaufe

we cannot con-

PROPOSITION
The
abfolutely infinite
finitely, eternally

IX.
in-

mind muft be

and

eflentially

adlve and pro-

du^ive of an abfolutely

infinite effc<5t.

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

DEMONSTRATION,
Abfolute
finite activity ,

7^
:

infinite contains all pofTible perfe<5Vion$ (a)

in-

or the production of an infinite

efFeCl, is

a fu-

pream

perfe(n;ion (b): therefore the abfolutely infinite


infinitely, eternally

mind

mufl be

and

efTentially a<5live,

and confefince an

quently produ<5tive of an abfolutely infinite


abfolutely infinite caufe, a<5ling according to
its

efFefl;
all

the extent of
infinite ef"

nature, muft neceffarily produce

an abfolutely

fed.

SCHOLIUM.
Men
or
generally imagine that

God is infinitely aClive,


this faculty

only

becaufe he can produce innumerable beings from without,


difl:in(n:

from himfelf; but unlefs


a<5l:,

be for ever power.

reduced into
It
is

it is

not
it

infinite a<5tivity,

but

infinite

a real inaftion, tho'

fuppofes an infinite capacity of ac^


as ly

ting.

Nowfuch ina(5live powers


God, are

dormant during

whole

eternity in
tion

abfolutely incompatible with the perfecinfinitely, eternally,

of the divine nature which mufl be


efTentially active.

and

The

Deifls, the Sabellians, the Unitarians,

and the Soci^


both in the be

nians, yea the great Sir Ifaac

Newton, with
then

his learned dif-

ciple Dr. Clarke, maintain that all aftion


firfl

is free,

and fecond

caufes.

If this were

fo,

God would

a<5live

only by creation, he would not be aftive by efrence,he


neceffarily but freely active.
is

would not be
was during
(a)

fore either fay that creation


a

eternal,

They muft thereor maintain that God


at all.

whole
(b)

eternity,
7,

without any action

If

Df. 8.

Ax.

K2

7(5

OF THE ABSOLUTE
we
fhall

Book

I.

they fay that creation was coeternalwith the Godhead, then,


as

fhew

prefently,

it

muft be confubftantial; thus

they will become Spinofifts,and be obliged to alTert^that na-

ture PRODUCED is a coeternal, confubftantial emanation of NATURE PRODUCING. A confequence which mu ft appear very harfh to every fober mind.

Thefe authors

will urge, that to ^S:

Is

to produce freely

fomething that was not, and that therefore the idea of caufe
fuppofes always priority of time to
falfe.
its

effed.Thls
Is

is

abfolutely

Power,

caufe, afbivity,
itfelf or

and force

what can produce


or neceffarily.

fomething in

without

itfelf freely
is

To

defireor tend towards beatifying objects

no doubt an
is

aflion

of the mind ; now we


ceflarily,

defire

and love what

beatifying ne-

and not

freely.

Therefore

we

have the idea of an

a<5tion that is neceffary

and

confubftantial with our efTence.

Moreover,

it is

abfolutely falfe that the idea


effeS:

of caufe

infers

always priority of time to the


if the effect

produced. On the contrary,


its

be neceffary, its coexiftence with

caufe

is

necef^

fary ; for caufe


fubftantial

and

efFecH:

being relative terms, a necelTary, conits

efFc(5l

muftexift at the fame time with


a<5ls

caufe.

We

may

diftinguifh In fuch

a priority

of nature or of caufali-

ty to their cfFed; but not a priority

of time or duration.

Since abfolutely infinite muft be infinitely, eternally, and


effentially active,

and

llnce

he cannot be eternally

a<5tive

froin

without, or upon any thing external; he muft be eternally active

from within and


;

fince his effencc

is

Indivifible,

and can-

not ad by parcels, he muft be


tive,

neceffarily,

and Immanently ac-

according to the whole extent of his infinite nature.

Now

an abfolutely infinite agent thatadts according

to ail the extent

Book L
of its

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

jy
It*

abfolutely infinite nature, muft necelTarlly produce in

felf an abfolutely Infinite efFe6l; other wife the effed: would

not

be proportionate to the caufe; and fo the caufe would not 2.^


according to
all

the extent of

its

abfolutely infinite nature,

which

is

contrary to the flippofition. Moreover, the produftlabfolutely infinite effect


is

on of an

a far greater peFfe(n:ion


efFecls

than the creation of any number of finite


ever; and therefore this
tial,

how great fodivine nature.

immanent fecundity muft bean effenof the


and

coeternal, confubflantial perfe^lion

COR.
Hence
an
antecedent to
all

I.

abfolute infinite in his pure

folitary eflence,

creation muft have produced within himfelf,

eternal, neceffary, abfolutely infinite efFed.

COR.
Hencean
pofes
abfolutely infinite

II.

mind or intelligent fubjedfupan abfolutely infinite obje^ or idea known, otherwife it

would be only an infinite capacity of knowledge, and not an infinite underftanding that

knows and poffeffes its objed.


S
I

P R O P O
The
than
its

N.

X.

abfolutely infinite

efFe<5t

and object of

the abfolutely infinite

mind can be no other

own idea,

image, or^eprefentation.

DEMONSTRATION.
An abfolutely infinite and
an abfolutely
infinite effed

infinitely a6live

mind fuppofes

produced, and an abfolutely infi-

nite obje(5l or idea

known

(a).

God

cannot produce any ab-

folutely Infinite efFe6l

from without, and confequently can


infinite object

haye no other abfolutely


himfelf or his
(a) Cor. I.

of

his

thought but

own
and
2.

idea, image, or reprefentation (b): thereof Prop. IX.


(b) Prop.

V. and Cor.

3.

78
fore God's

OF THE ABSOLUTE
own
idea, image, or reprefciitation
infinite cficcl,

Book

I.

of himfelf muft

be the abfolutely
infinite

and obje6t of the abfolutely

mind.

SCHOLIUM.
-

The

Deifts, Unitarians,

and Socinians deny

this eternal

generation of the

Wo r d, becaufe they do not fully enter inthink,


it

to their ownfpiritual natures, to examine what paffes in themfelves.

When we
is diftin(5]:

is

clear that the objecl


;

of our

from our thinking faculty otherwife we would think equally at all times, and have always the fame
thought
idea; fince

we

have always the fame powers.

Our

ideas are

changeable and imperfe(5l modes of the mind; whereas God's


idea of himfelf is a permanent, neceffary

and

eifential

image,

and not
duced

a free, accidental

mode. All our fimple

ideas are pro-

in us

by other

obje6ls that a6l

upon

us,

while

we

are
di-

altogether pafFive.

Whereas

this confubftantial idea

of the

vine mind,
itfclf.

is

not produced by any other obje6l

diftin^l

from

It

is

conceived from within, not received from with-

out;

it is

produced, not perceived.

We may therefore in com(which, as wefhall

paring abfolute infinite with

finite fpirits,

ftiew, are his living images ) diftinguifh in

him

the thinking

fubjeft or the

MIND conceiving; from


Or the
fay that intelligence

the objefl of this

THINKING ESSENCE
Some moderns will that to know is not to
not an
a(51:ion;

IDEA CONCEIVED.
is

not a6tion, and


is

produce.
is

anfwer that perception


acH:

but conception

the highcft

of the under-

ftandlng.

To receive ideas, fcnfatlons, or modifications from


upon
us, is purely pafUve.

obje(^s that a6t

But to form or

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
mind new
upon
us.

79

create in the

ideas,

is

a real produ6lion.

Wc
and

do

not form our fimple ideas ;


jecfls

we receive them from external obis

that

a<5l

God

impaflible
objecHis.

and

eternal,

Co

cannot be aded upon by other


ceive,

He

does not per-

but he conceives his eirential,confubfl:antial idea, image,


;

or reprefentation

he does not receive


in himfelf.

this idea

from

others,
ideas

but he produces

it

We

form our complex

by

a fucceflive

combining of our fimple perceptions.

God

forms
this
is

his confubftantial idea

by one

unfucceflive

acH:.

Now

the higheft and moft exalted of all activities and perfec-

tions.

Spinofa never denied the eternal generation of an eternal,

immanent, neceffary, confubftantial efFed in the divine mind; and he calls this effecl nature produced. But he confounds the ideas of finite with the confubftantial idea of God;

and the creature with the


fchoolmen, that
rily
all

creator.

Having learned from the

the ideas of finite exift eternally, neceftain the divine Intelled


3

and immutably

that

all

that

is

in

God is God, and partakes of the divine attributes, he concluded that


all

thefe eternal, immutable, neceftary ideas, or ef-

fences of finites are living, active beings, and hypoftafcs that


fubfift

and inhere

in the divine nature,

from

everlafting to e-

verlafting;

and confequently that the fuppofition of created

intellip-ences diftinft
cal.

from thofe
not

ideas

is

ufeiefs

and chimeri-

Thus according

to him, the ideas and the objeds are the


diftinft fubftances

fame, and

finite fpirits are

from

God

but coeternal, confubftantial, neceftary ideas or images, forms


or expreftions, hypoftafcs or perfonalities, productions or enianations of the eternal mind.

Thus

the fchoolmen have

8o
blafphemics.

OF THE ABSOLUTE
all

Book t
and horrible
fo-

given occafion to

Spinofa's wild chimeras,

Thcfe blafphemous chimeras can never be

lidly confuted, unlefs

we

overturn the

falfe

reafonings of the

fchoolmen, and (hew that the ideas of finite do not coexift cternally, ncceflarily,

and immutably

in the divine

mind; that

they do not enter neceffarily into the generation of the

Loa(5ts

G OS or confubftantial idea; and in

fine, that

they are free

of the

divine underftanding.

We muft however go on by de-

grees, left

we

perplex fuch abftra6t, fublime truths with too

much multiphcity. We have already remarked, that to produceONE ABSOLUTE INFINITE EFFECT or IDEA,isa
far greater perfecftion than to produce a collection
efFefts

of

finite

or ideas

how great fo ever;


finite ideas
;

and

this
is

one idea fuiHces to


not the fum or

prove, that God's confubftantial idea


le<5lion

not the fum or colis

of

all

as his fubftance

collection

of all

finite fubftances.
all

We beg our readers once

more

to

go on, and this

fublime (peculation fhall be fully

unfolded and demonftrated hereafter.

COR.
Hence

I.

abfolute infinite, in his pure, and foUtary efTence,


finite ideas, is infinitely

antecedent to the produ(ftion of any


intelligent, felf-knowing,

and

felf-confcious; as well as infieternal,

nitely active

and productive of an

immanent and ab-

folutely infinite effect, object, or idea.

COR.
Hence
%'inc

II.

this generation

of the Logos, or of God's confub*


compleat the perfection of the
di-

ftantial idea, is fufRcient to

underftanding

for an infinite

mind can

defire

nothing

Book L
more
nite objed.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD,
and
fatiate it,

8r
Infi-

to 11, enlighten,

than an Infinitely

COR.
Hence
all

iir.

other ideas, thoughts, and conceptions that do

not regard immediately the pure and abfolute elTence of God,

and that do not enter

neceflarily into the generation

of the

Logos,

or the production of this confubftantial image, arc

not necefTary to the perfedion of the divine underftanding.

cor.
Hence Intelligence or reafon
higheft degree ; becaufe
deas, or a
it

IV.
Is acHilon,

yea an aftlon of the

fuppofes the produ(n:ion of

new

I-

new combination of Ideas

already perceived.

God

conceived in himfelf the archetypal ideas, and


to ourfelve's abftrad ideas, as Ihall be

we

can form

fhewn

hereafter.

PROPOSITION
an
infinite, eternal,

XI.

The eternal, permanent, confubftantlal Idea God has of himfelf, produces neceffarlly in him
immutable
love.

DEMONSTRATION.
Infinite perfe(5lion
rily infinite love (a);

known and

enjoy'd produces neceilafince ab-

God knows himfelf infinitely, God

folute infinite
eternal,

mufl be infinitely Intelligent (b): therefore the


has of himfelf,

permanent, confubftantial idea


infinite,

produces necefTarily in him an


table love.

eternal,

and immu-

(a)

Ax.

8.

(b) Cor. i. of Prop.

X.

8i

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book

I.

SCHOLIUM.
It
is

clear as funfhine, that fince the obje<^

and motive of
is,

love

is

perfe<flion

known, the

greater the perfection

the

greater the love muft be, or at leaft fhould be ;


infinite perfe<^ion

and therefore
I

known muft produce


is,

infinite love.

do

not fay that the greater a perfection


for
it is,

the greater the love

may be great in itfelf, and yet not known and what is unknown cannot be loved. Nor do I fay that perfection known is the only motive of love, fince We may attach pleafure felt may alfo be a motive of love.
fince a perfection
;

oufelves to objeCts, either becaufe

of the agreeable fenfations


real perfections

they produce in us; or becaufe of the


cover in them.

It is therefore fure that perfection

we dif known

and enjoy'd produces

love;

whether that be by the fenfation

of pleafure

that accompanies the view

of perfection, or by the

natural empire that the

knowledge of it has over the mind.


communicative

This we

(hall
it is

examine afterwards.
certain that antecedent to all

Thus
and

goodnefs toward any thing external,


juft to himfelf, as

God

is

good in himfelf
and
eflen-

he

is

infinitely, eternally,

tially

aaiveand

intelligent; becaufe as

he produces within
is

himfelf an abfolutcly infinite efFeCt and Idea, fo he


ly, eternally,

infinite-

and

efientially

good and juft.

Infinitely good,

becaufe from the knowledge and enjoyment of his confubftantial idea flows

an

infinite fenfation

ofjoy, an unbounded

love,an unfpeakable pleafure,and an eternal felf-complacency,

which

conftltute his uninterrupted happincfs. Infinitely juft,


it is

becaufe

this

permanent love that

conftitutcs his elTential

Book L
juftice; for

ATTRIBUTES OF GODby
this love

Bi
is

he renders to himfelf all that

due

to his fupream perfeftion.


create innumerable myriads
fential

He
of

does not therefore want to

finite objects to exert his ef-

beneficence and equity ; fince he produces within him-

felf from all eternity


Ijjeak, all his

one

infinite objeft that exhaufts, fo to

capacity of loving, beatifying, and doing juflice.

The Deifls, Unitarians, and Socinians, who deny the doctrine of the Trinity, cannot explain how God is eflentially
good and jufl, antecedently
ation of finite; for
to,

and independently of the creand

God

cannot be emanently good and juft,

where there
then he be

is

no

obje<5l

of

his beneficence

equity.

If

elFentially, eternally

and

necelTarily

good and jufl,

he muft be

fo

immanently; he muft be fo in himfelf; he muft

therefore find an infinite obje<5l within himfelf, to


difplays all his efTential love, beneficence

whom he

and equity.

COR.
Hence God does not
but he
is

I.

love himfelf becaufe


loves himfelf.

he

is

happy,

happy becaufe he
infHn<fl,

He

loves himfelf

not by a blind

not in order to be happy; but becaufe

he

is

infinitely perfe*^::

and

this love

makes

his elFential hap-

pinefs,

goodnefs andjuflice.

COR.
necefTarily

II.

Hence God would have been


good and
juft, tho'

eternally, effentially

and

he had never created any be-

ings

diftin<n:

from himfelf to

beatify

and recompenfe them.

COR.
Hence God's
tions,
to compleat the felicity

III.

confubftantial love

of himfelf

is

fufKcIent

of his

infinite will.

Here

all its

mo-

tendencies and defires fix, concenter and reunite.

L2

84
Wherefore
farily
all

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book L

other afts and produftions, that do not necef-

flow from and enter into this confubftantial love, are

not

effential to the perfection

of the divine
IV.

will.

COR.
Hence
diftinft if

God

at

any time

creates or produces

any beings

from

himfelf,

he cannot love them but proportionab-

ly as they refemble him.


live

For fince pcrfedion


and

is

the only

mo-

and rule of his

love,

(ince the perfe<5lion

of

all

crca*

ted effences, depends

upon the refemblance they have


plain that

to their

uncreated original,
in fo far as
it

it is

God

can love nothing, but


in

reprefents

him or refembles him

fome degree

or other.

COR.
Hence God
made.

V.

loves himfelf neceffarily


is

and

all

that he has

His elFence

love.

LEMMA
To

OF

PROP.
felicity,

XIL
there mufi:

compleat the idea of perfed

be an object loving as well

as

an objed loved.

SCHOLIUM.
Such
tive.
is

the nature of love, that

it

muft be communica-

Infinite love therefore

muft be

infinitely

and

neceffariit

ly communicative. It muft have an obje(5t


erts itfelf,

upon which

ex-

and

to

which it
it

difplays itfelf ; into

which it flows,
the

and

that flows back to

again.

There

is

a far greater felicity


It
is

in loving and in being loved than in loving fmiply.

mutual harmony and correfpondence of two


or perfons, that

dilHn<n:

beings

makes the completion of love and

felicity*

BookI.

attributes OF GOD.
COROLARY,
infinitely

8s
and eternal-

Hence God could not have been


ly loved, if there

had not been from all

eternity,

fome being

diftind from himfelf,and equal to himfelf, that loves


finitely; fince, as

him in-

we

have fhewn(a), creation could not be

coeternal, confubftantial,

and necelTary

to the divine nature,

PROPOSITION
The
felf, is

XII.
love,

eternal, infinite,

and immutable

which proceeds from the idea


tion of the divine

God has of himliving, a<5tive,

not a fimple attribute, mode, or perfec-

mind

but a

confubftantial, intelligent being or agent.

DEMONSTRATION.
be an objefl loving, as well as an objeft loved(b); God could not have been infinitely and eternally loved, if there had not been from all eternity, fome being diftina from himfelf, and equal
to himfelf that loved
nal, infinite,

To

compleat the idea of

perfe<51: felicity,

there mufl

him

infinitely (c)

therefore the eter-

and immutable love which proceeds from the idea God has of himfelf, is not a fimple attribute, mode, or perfection of the divine mind; but a living, active, confubftantial, intelligent

being or agent.

SCHOLIUM.
As
Cc)
it is

neceffary to compleat the idea of perfect


V.
(b)

know-

(a) Cor. 3. of Prop.

By

the preceeding

Lemma

of Prop. XII.

By CoroU. of the fame Lemma.

B6
o
it is

OF THE ABSOLUTE
be a
fubje<5l

Book L
felicity, that

ledge, that there

knowing, and an objea known,

necelTary to compleat the idea

of perfeiH:

there be a fubjeft loving, and an objed loved.


erts his infinite aftivity,

As God
and

ex-

by producing
infinite

necelTarily,

eter-

nally within himfelf, haufts


all

one

idea or image, fo he exall his capacity

his

communicative goodnefs, and


neceflarily

of love, by producing
felf,

and eternally within himaccording to


all

a fubjeft that loves

him

infinitely,

the

extent of his boundlefs perfeftion.


It

may be

objedled here, that tho'

we

fliould fuppofe

no

third being or hypoftafis in the divine nature, yet the gene-

ration

of the Logos alone, would furnifh an

infinite, eter-

nal, confubftantial agent, to

be the objeft of the divine know-

ledge,
fole

and the fubjeft of the divine love; fo that God by the exiftence of the Son, would be eternally, necelTarily, and
he
loves.

Infinitely loved as

I anfwer, that if fuper natural


is

revelation

had not taught us, that there

a triplicity in the

divine nature, we

would

naturally have ftopt at a duality, and

could have gone no further.

For this reafon

it is,

that

fome

ancient hereticks denied the perlbnality of the

Holy Ghoft.
reveal'd,
it is

We do not pretend
reafon, but to

to prove the do<5lrine

of the Trinity by

ihew fimply,

that if

it

be truly

not contradi(ftory to reafon.


It
is

by

this eternal generation

of the Logos,
by

that the

fource and fountain of the Deity communicates

all his

per-

fedions to his confubftantial image; and


ting proceffion of the

it is

this everlaf-

Holy Ghoft from


and
affedions.

both, that

God,

fo

to fpcak, returns into himfelf again,


living

by concentering

in this

image

all his

love

Without

thefe

two

Book L
immanent
Mind,

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
zS:s,

Sy

and emanations

in the

Godhead, the Eternal


would neither be

in his folitary

and abfokite
nor

efTence,

infinitely produ(5live,

infinitely loved.

The
nifiii,

ignorance of thefe great principles

make fome per-

fons, that

have a facred horror againft Deifm and Unitaria-

fancy, that creation mufi: be eternal, othervi^ife God could


infinite
atfti-

not have had an objed: whereupon to difplay his


vity

and beneficence. This idea


i.

is

manifeftlyfalfe for the three

following reafons;

If with out creation God had not an ob-

je^

to difplay his effential beneficence

and fecundity, then

creation

was not only eternal but

neceffary, fince

God

could

not have been infinitely active and loved withoutit. Itmuftnot

be a free produ(5lion of his arbitrary will, but a neceffary emanation of his effence; and therefore confubflrantial ; fince no-

thing can be eternal and neceffary but what


finite;

is

abfolutely in-

and nothing can be abfolutely


2.

infinite

but the divine

fubflance.
jeft

If God witliout creation had no adequate ob-

of his

atftivity

and love, then he could never have any ;be-

caufe he can never create an abfolutc infinite without himfelf;

and fo the obj eds of his fecundity and beneficence would


infinitely inferior to his creating energy.

always be

Thus he

could never find from without, an ohjcS: equal to his effential,

neceffary activity

and beneficence.
3.

He could neither love


to

infinitely

nor be loved fo.

As it is more perfect
more beneficent

produce

one

infinitely infinite effe^,


it is

than any number of finites


to beatify

how
one
vafl

great foever; fo

infinitely

infinitely infinite object, than

any number of finites how

foever.

The

effential,

immanent,

eternal, neceffary activity


is

and beneficence of the fupream mind

thcrcfgre infinitely

88

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book

I.

more difplay'd by the generation of the Logos, and proceffion of the Holy Ghoft, equal to the Father in all things, felf-origination only excepted, than by the creation and beatification

of numberlefs worlds, which are

ftill

finite.

It is evident therefore
tions, that

from the four prec ceding propofl-

we may

reprefent the divine efTence, under thefe

INFINITELY active MiNDthatconceives; or as an INFINITE idea that is the obje<5l of this conception; or as an infinite love that proceeds from chis idea: the Eternal Mind produces neceffarily in itfelf, the
three notions,as an

idea of

itfelf.
is

This idea

is

not like our

free, floating, falfe

ideas; but

a neceflary, permanent, true idea.


poffeffed

From

this

idea

known,

and enjoy'd, flow or proceed not

in-

conftant, bounded, accidental defires like ours ; but an elfential,

immutable,

infinite love.

There

are three, there can

be

but three; and

all

that

we can

conceive of the Infinite


infinite

maybe
LOVE.

reduced to thefe three;

Mind life, light, and

This

is

not

all

revelation fuperadds to thefe natural ideas


difcover.
It
is this,

what reafon could never


diftiniftions in

that thefe three

the Godhead, mind conceiving, idea conceived,

and

love proceeding

from both,

are not three fimple attridiftin<5l

butes, or modalities, or powers, but three

principles

of adion.

The confubftantial image and the


were

coefTential love,

are not only eternal a6ls, but diftinft agents, that fubfift
0.S:

and

in the eternal cfFence, as if they

really three different,

hidcpendent minds ;tho' they are not fo.They are hypoftafes,


inhercncies, and emanations of the abfolutely infinite mind,

whofc metaphyfical nature we cannot define. They

are real

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
and
living principles

S9

agents, beings,

of aa:Ion, diftlna from


the one and loved

their fource; fo that

God

is

known by

by

the other,asif they were really diftind fubftances. This is the myftery. Idea and love, or which is the fame, wifdom and
goodnefs, truth and jnftlce, which in
finite

beings are fimple

modalitys, powers, or virtues, are in the abfolutely infinite

mind, felf-confcious agents, intelligent beings, or


nalities.

real perfo-

We

do not

know enough of
of the

the intimate nature

of things, and deny that


nefs
fible
is

efpecially

eternal uncreated effence, to


if this is poffible, all

this is poflible.

And

our bufiis

to

examine if this be

reveal'd.

Now

that this

pof-

feems evident from the following reflexions that have


felf-evident truths.

been already demonftrated, or that are


1.

God

being

infinitely, eternally,

and

eifentially adive,

he muft produce
infinite efFed,
ftantial

eternally

and

necelfarily within himfelf

an

objed, idea or image of himfelf This confubidea muft be a living principle of acftion, a permanent,

ever-fubfiftent, fubftantial idea;

and not

a tranfient, variable

modality

otherwife God's effential aftivity would not produce an effed: equal to its infinite caufe; and fo the caufe
;

would not
ture,

a<5t

according to

all

the extent of

its

infinite

na-

and

fo

would not be

eifential;

which

is

contrary to the

fuppofitlon.
2.

God's happinefs could not be

infinitely infinite, if

he

were not loved by an abfolutely


tion

infinite

objed.

The perfec-

idea, a living, felf-confcious agent or principle that proceeds from the

in a mutual, reciprocal union betwixt the object loved and the fubjeft loving, and therefore there muft be in God, befides his confubftantlal

of happinefs confifh

5J0

OF THE ABSOLUTE
that

Book

I.

union of the mind conceiving with the idea conceived.

We
and

have proved
ina<n:ivc,

God, without being

eternally barren

muft produce in himfelf, a

living, confubftantial !

mage:

juft fo

we

prove, that if God will be infinitely happy,

and loved, he muft produce within himfelf an obje6t that loves

him

infinitely.
;

He

cannot be

infinitely

known

but by the

Logos he cannot be
3.

infinitely loved

but by the Holy Ghoft.


a6ls

The

efFeds of God's

immanent

being coeternal,

confubftantial,

and

coefTcntial,

muft partake of all the divine

perfection s;becaufe in
(imilitude.

God

there can be

no inequality, or dif-

Moreover the
and

divine eflence being fimple,

uncom-

pounded and
all

indivifible, the infinite caufe


all

muft communicate

his perfections,

his fubftance to his coeftential pro-

ductions, effects and emanations.


his fubftance

He

cannot communicate

by parcels.

The immanent effecls of his immaand equal to himfelf in


all

nent

aCls

muft be

like himfelf,

things, felf-origination only excepted.


effects are,

His ejuanant, created


they are

and muft be

infinitely inferior to himfelf;

not portions of his fubftance, but fimple productions of his

power; more or

lefs

perfeCt, proportionably as they imitate

or rcfcmble his perfections: but the confubftantial image, and

the cocifential love, muft be compleat and total participations

of all

his cftence.

This
do not

is

incomprehcnfible, but this

is

not
de-

impofilble.

We

fee

how this

is,

but

we muft not
it.

ny

it

purely and only becaufe

we cannot
eflfcCts

conceive

4,

God's immanent

aCls

muft have

a reality infinitely fu-

perior to the aCls

of

finite.

The

of fecond caufes are


eifcCts

only bounded, tranfient modes.


the
firft

The immanent
Our

of

caufc arc eternal, infinite agents.

ideas

and

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

^i
God's

loves are only variable perceptions and pafHons; but

confubftantial idea and love are permanent, active realities, in-

dued with all the divine perfedions.


nanta<n:s
efFeifls

Moreover, God's ema-

muftbe infinitely inferior to his immanent ones.


firil:

The

of the

are real fubftances diftincft

from God, but all


God's immareali-

finite in their kind, tho'

of different degrees according as they


different perfeftions.

adumbrate more or lefs his

nent effe(5ts muft be abfolutely infinite agents, beings, or


ties,

tho' not different fubftances ; becaufe, as

we have fhown,
are not three ditriplicity

there can be one only abfolutely infinite mind, that excludes


all

duality

and plurality of fubftance.

They

ftin<5t

coeternal minds, becaufe this

would infer a

of

fubftance; fince three diftinft intelligent fubflances

would have
might

three

difl:in<n:

felf-confcioufneffes ;
their effences

and

fo their actions

be feparated, and

be independent of each other.

They are not three fimple attributes or modalities, becaufe they


are dlftlnd intelligent principles,

and felf-confcious agents.


realities,

They muft
of an

therefore be three dlfHn^t beings,

fome-

things, or perfons ; becaufe the idea ofperfonallty includes that


intelligent felf-confcious agent.

the Trinity have

The three perfons of the fame felf-confcioufnefs. They all exift:,


never feparated from that of the Son or

and

aft, in,

by, and with each other ; fo that the aftion of the


dlftinct, is

Father, tho'

HolyGhoft: and
CESSIOM.

this is

what the Schools

call

circum-in-

The Nicene

fathers

made

ufe

of the word Hypoftafis,


to IndiIs

and the Latin church tranflated this word by Perfon,


cate that the triplicity

which

is

In the divine nature


lefs

not a
far

fimple diftinftion of modes,

much

of

attributes,

and

M2

92
lefs

OF THE ABSOLUTE
yetof fubftances.
firft

Book
is

I.

But

a fourth diftin^lion, that


lefs

more

than the

and fecond, and

than the third, and which

therefore fuppofed Intelligence, A6l:ivity, and Self-confcioufnefs; yet not fo as to conftitute three feparate minds.

The
what
Dei-

words

hypoftafis

and perfonaUty were invented therefore, rais

ther to indicate what this triplicity


it

not, than to exprefs

really

is.

It

is

neither of fubftances, nor of attributes, nor


diftin^lion in the

of modes. Thereisitfeems, a fourth


ty

unknown

to finite,

which we cannot comprehend

till

we

fee

God as he is. The Deifts, Sabellians,


affert,

Unitarians, Arians, and Socini-

ans

that difference

of perfons fuppofes neceffarily diffeis

rence of fubflance.

This

true in finites; but this


it

may

not

be

fo in abfolute infinite.

Yea

muft be otherwife, fince


effecfls

we

have demonftrated, that the two


a6ls

of God's immanent

mull be

like himfelf, infinite, eternal, confubflantial, in-

telligent,

and felf-confcious agents.


difl:in(5lion
it

Spinofa had fome idea of the


in the Eternal

of perfonality

Mind,

tho'

he applied

wrong.
diftinft

He

main-

tain'd, that finite fpirits are

not fubftances

from God,

but coeternal, confubftantial, immanent ideas, hypoftafes, and


inherencies of the felf-exiftent effence.

Thus he fuppofed

in

NATURE PRODUCING
fonalities,

an

infinite
;

words, and hypoftafes


effefts,

number of bounded perconfounded God's immawith nature: but


ftill

nent and emanant

and

God

he

had a notion of real

perfonalities in the divine effence, or

of

immanent

efFe6ls that are intelligent, fclf-confcious, diftind,

and feparate agents.

The facred

oracles

make

ufc of feveral different metapho-

Book L

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
i.

93

ricalexprefTions to fignify thefe three perfonal diftln^lions In

the Godhead,

The infinitely active mind


text

is

what the
of the

original

Hebrew

of the Old, and the Greek


producing an

text as

New

Teftament
;

call

THE eternal father,


of boundlefs

felf-originated

Infinite force, as

infinite efFe (51;


aflivi-

EiTential
ty;

life, as

being the

fulleft exercife

Flaming center or Fiery


2.

fource, as emitting rays

of coe-

ternal light.

They name the infinite idea God conceives in himfelf, his only begotten son and living IMAGE; confubfbntial word or Mouth of God becaufe
;

it is

the full expreflion of his perfeftions ;eternaltruth

or

wisdom,

becaufe

it is

the inexhauflible treafure of his

knowledge;

uncreated light,
3.

becaufe

it

irradiates his

underftanding.

ing from both,

They call the unbounded love proceedspirit or breath of God's mouth, beSon
is
;

caufe it proceeds from the Father by the

Infinite Juflice,

becaufe this love renders to

God what

his due; abfolute

Goodnefs, becaufe
vine happinefs;

this felf-complacency conftitutes the di-

Holy Ghost, becaufe this love is pure, un-

mix'd, and fo conlHtutes God's unfpotted fanftity.

All thefe metaphorical expreflions are refpedively fynoni-

mous
in the
tial

to

one or the other of thefe three perfonal


i.

diftin6lions

Godhead,

Eternal Father, Infinite Force, EfTenall

Life,

Flaming Center, or Fiery Source, are


to exprefs the paternal property.
2.

fynoni-

mous terms

Only begotten Son, Confubflantial Image, Eternal Word, CoefTential Wifdom, Uncreated Light, are alfo all fynonimous to exprefs
the properties of the fecond principle.
3.

Breath of God's

Mouth, Coeternal Love,

Infinite Juftice, abfolute

Goodnefs,

<;4

OF THE ABSOLUTE
of the
thh'd principle.

Book
we can

I.

Holy Ghoft
ceive

or Spirit, are alfo fynonimous to exprefs the per-

fonal chara6lers

All that

con-

of the abfolutely

infinite cfTence

maybe reduced to fome


fomethings, beings, or

one of thefe three diftinfllons,


pcrfonalities.

realities,

There are three, and

there can be

no more.
oracles, to ex-

The

primitive fathers, in imitation

of the facred

make ufe of many beautiful comparifons and metaphors


prefs the conceptions they have

of

this myilery.

They

con-

ceive

God the Father as

the fource, fountain, and root of the

Deity: the Son, as the raySjrivers, and branches that flow from

him and the Holy Ghoft


;

as

an ethereal

fluid, fubtilc fpiritor

air,

immenfe ocean, and everlafHng

fruit, that
firfl:

proceeds from

both, and flows back again into the

principle.

As

the

fame fubftance that flows from the fun, the fountain, and the
root, conftitutes the rays, rivers,
its

and branches; and forms by

reflux an uninterrupted circulation

from the center

to the

circumference, and from the circumference to the center; fb


the Father communicates to the Son and

Holy Ghofl

all

his

fubftance without divifion, diminution or partition, yea with-

out confounding the incommunicable properties of paternity, filiation,

and proceflion.

We muft however allow, that all thefe beautiful metaphors


both of the
fcriptures

and the

fathers,

whether they be taken

from material or immaterial


diffimilar
;

agents, are lame, defective


finite

and

as all

comparifons borrow'd from

muft be,

when

applied to infinite.

They
;

exprefs only a part


"1

of this

boundlefs reality and incomprehcnfiblc myftcry.

he ideas
;

of fource,

ray,

and reflexion of fountain, river, and ocean of


fruit;

root, branch,

and

of mouth, word, and breath ; of fire,

Book
light,

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
air; as alfo

95
vvif-

and

of mind,

idea,

and love; of power,

dom, andgoodnefs; of
of intelligence,
truth,

aflivity,

knowledge, and happinefs


filiation,

and juftice; of paternity,

and
a(fl

proceflion; are intelligible in finite agents that exifl

and

by

diffufion

and

divifion,

by

fuccefTion

and variation; but

thefe diftinftions

become

abfolutely inconceivable in an eter-

nal, infinite effence that exifls

and

afts

without diffufion,
all

divi-

fion, or limitation; that


ceflive in all times;

is

immenfe
is

in

places,

and unfuc-

where there

neither beginning, middle,

nor end: Reafon proves that


lation afTures us that
it is.
it is

this

myflery

is

poflible;

Reve-

true;

heaven alone can fhew us

how

The fchoolmen God is


felf,

never fliew wherein the difficulty of conIt docs

ceiving this myftery confifls.


eternally, infinitely
all

not

ly in this, (i) that

and

effentially active

within himin this,


its

antecedent to

creation

from without; (2) nor


all

that

an

infinite

age^t ading according to

the extent of

infinite nature,

muft necefTarily produce an

infinite cfFeft;

(3) nor in

this, that

an abfolutely

infinite

mind fuppofes an
(4) nor in this,
confifls

abfolutely infinite obje<5l or idea


that the fovereign happinefs

known;

of the divine nature

not

only in loving

itfelf infinitely,

but in being loved Infinitely by


itfelf;

an abfolutely infinite object diftind from

(5) nor in

this,

that thefe three diflindions are neither three feparate fubflances,

nor three independent minds, nor three fimple

attri-

butes; (6) nor in fine in this, that the immanent, neceffary,

and eternal efFe<5ts of God's


will, are

aftivity,

of his underflanding and


and co-

and can be only two,


All thefe
fix

his confubftantialidca,

effential love.

proportions arc dcmonftrable,

^6

OF THE ABSOLUTE
how thefe three
diftinftions, in

BookL
one eternal,
real,

and have been demonfkated.


henfible myftery,
indivifible,

Here alone lyes the incompre-

and uncompounded fubltance, can be three


and perfons.
comprehenfible; but

diftind, intelligent, felf-confcious agents

We
it is

do not fay that


impoflible. All

this

is

we deny

that

we pretend to demonftrate
it

is,

that this mylte-

ry

is

not contradictory, not that

mufl: be, nor

what

is

the

manner of it.
hend how
tho'

We

demonftrate that the divine immenfity

mull be without
it is.

diffufion

of

parts, tho'

we do
Both

not compre-

We demonftrate
it

that the Trinity

may

be,

we do

not conceive

adequately.

are myfteries,

the one of natural, the other of revealed religion; but

we

cannot fhew the

dUOMODO of either,

otherwife they would

be no more myiteries.
becaufe

We ought not however to deny them


all is

we cannot

conceive them; for tho' feeing clearly be

always a reafon of affirming; yet not feeing at


reafon of denying.

never a

The
call
it,

fchoolmen have

mofl: mifcrably obfcured

and per-

plex'dthis myltery,

by their

definitions

of perfonality.

Hiey

contrary to the exprefs dodlrine of the Nicene fathers,

fometimes, a relation; fometimes, a

manner of fubfiftence;
diftinft, intelligent,

fometimes, a fubftantial form; and very often, an unintelligible

fomewhat, that does not exprefs a

fclf-confcious agent.

When

the Deifts and Socinians prefs'd

them by the
finitions,

contradictions that foUow'd


recoil,

from thefe abfurd detheir barbarous,

they would not

nor change

Arabick, and Ariftotelian jargon, that leads by turns to Sabcllianifm or Trithcifin;

and

fo cry'd out that itwasnecdlefs to

form any

ideas about this myftcry; that reafon could neither

Book L
prove
its

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
exiftence norpolTibility;

97

and that all efforts to recon-

cile reafon

with faith are audacious attempts to fubmit faith

to reafon.

Thefe

obfcurities, abfurdities,

and

contradicftions

of the fchoolmen have engaged of late the Unitarians, Freethinkers, and minute philofophers to maintain, that the doctrine

of the Trinity

is

modern
;

fidion, quite

unknown not

only to the Pagan philofophers

but alfo to the ancient Jews.

This

is

abfolutely falfe, as will fully appear in the fecond Part


fhall

of this Work,where we

endeavour to fhew, that yelliges

of this fublime truth are


nations, times,

to be

found among the Sages of all

and

religions.

This

affertion will

no doubt

appear bold to
antiquity:

men unacquainted with facred and profane but we hope to give fuch clear proofs of it, as will
fincere, difinterefted

cure

all folid,

minds of their prejudices.

GENERAL COROLLARIES.
C O
R.
I.

Hence we may
diftin6lions,

conceive in the divine naiture three real


fince all that

and we can conceive no more;

we

can comprehend of abfolute

infinite, is either

mind con-

ceiving, IDEA GONCEIv'd, or LOVE PROCEEDING FROM BOTH. God felf-cxiftcnt; God of God; and God the Holy Ghofl:. Thefe three diftindions in the Deity are neither three difHn<5t independent minds, as the Tritheifts al-

Jedged

nor. three attributes

of the fame fubftance reprefenone fupream,


refined Ari-

ted as perfons, as the Sabellians affirmed: nor

and two fubordinate


ans maintain
:

intelle^lual agents, as

fome

but three coeternal, confubflantial, coordinate


all thiligs,

perfons coequal in

felf-origination only excepted.

j^8

OF THE ABSOLUTE
COR.
Hence
in talking
II.

Book L

of the three perfons of the bleffed Tri-

nity

we may
lefs

fpeak of them as if they were three diftindl be-

ings, agents,

and powers, providing we mean neither more

nor

by

thefe expreffions, than three coequal, coeternal,

confubflantialperfonalities,
different, that the a6lion

whofe operations arefo


is

perfeiflly

of the one,
and

not that of the other;

tho' they all exift, fubfift

aft in, by,

and with each other,

in one indivifible fubflance.

COR.
Hence what modern divines,
is

III.

conftitutes the formal herefy

of fome great

not their calling the three perfons of the

Godhead

three diftinft beings, intelleftual powers,

and

felf-

confcions agents: but their maintaining that the Son and


ly Ghofi: are fubordinate

Ho-

and

free, tho' eternal

produdlons

of the divine mind, and that honour, adoration and love are due to thefe two only in a relative fenfe. This is a refined fort

of Arianifm which reduces the fecond and third perfons of the Trinity to the order of creatures: for all that is free might
not have been, andfo
is

neither neceffary nor confubltantial

with the divine effence, and therefore not


ture.

God

but a crea-

PROPOSITION
The generation
ccfTion

XIII.

of the Logos, and the pro-

of the Holy Ghoft, or the knowledge and

love

God has of his pure and abfolute cflence are


happincfs.

alone fufficient to compleat his infinite perfecti-

on and

Book

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
D E
IM

99

O N

T R A T

O N.

The
of

knowledge of abfolute

infinite is fufficient to

comof

pleat the perfedion

of the divine under[i:anding(a); the love


is

abfolute infinite
:

fufRcient to compleat the happinefs

the divine will (b)

therefore the knowledge and love of the

pure and abfolute effence of


his infinite perfection

God

are fufHcient to compleat

and happinefs.

S C
The
reafon

O L I U M,
fucceflion, andever-increafing
finite, is
it

why variation,

progreflion are neceffary to enlighten, and beatify

not becaufe

it

loves change as change; but becaufe


{ingle
a<fl:,

cannot

grafp infinite

by one

and becaufe

it

foon exhaufts

every thing bounded.


defired

There

is ftill

fomething further to be

and enjoyed; to be difcovered and known; to be ad-

mired and loved.


without fucceflion.
furate to
its

Whereas God knows and


His
infinite

loves himfelf
is

underflanding
offers

commenthe fame

infinite

obje^; which
all

him

flill

boundlefs

felicity,

and

the three are equal to each other.


infinite

Now
could

it

were a contradiction to fuppofe, that an


than an
infinite object,

mind
and

know more

and enjoy more

than an

infinite happinefs.

In

this eternal intercourfe,

communication among the perfons of the facred Trinity, God employs a whole eternity without beginning and without end.

This

is

the central abyfs of the pure and abfolute effence of


ftill

God;

his

eternity

and

his eternal folitude;

wherein he

hears nothing but his confubftantial word, he fees nothing

but his coefTential image, and loves nothing but his only be(a) Cor. 2. of Prop. X.

(b) Cor. 3. of Prop. XI.

N2

loo

OF THE ABSOLUTE
commerce of the
in
is.'

gotten Son. This eternal


is

Book L coeternal three


we
can form no
*

the fecrct fund of the Deity, of which


till

idea
*

we be

loft

and immerfed
as

our center,

fee light in

his light,

and behold him

he

Then we fliall fee how


confubftantial
fpirit,

the paternal

mind conceives within himfelf the


the loving

image, and

how from both proceeds

by two

permanent, immanent, coeternal a^ls, wherein no idea of multiplicity, variation

or fuccelTion can enter. All the archetypal

ideas

of

finite;
all

of nature material or immaterial; of created


combinations are free ads of the

beings, and

their poffible

divine underftanding, as the produ<flion and beatification of


finltes are free acts

of his power and goodnefs. This we


book.

fhall

fully dcmonftrate in the following

All thofe who are ignorant of the do(5lrine of the Trinity,

of the generation of the Logos, of the proceflion of the Eternal Spirit,

and of the

everlafting

commerce among
eternity,

the fa-

cred
.

THREE,

look upon God's

ftill

and

folitudc, as

ftate

of inaction and indolence.

For

this rcafon Ariftotle

fancy'd that the world was eternal in order to find a theater

and

object

of the

divine adivity

the Arians, the Unitarians


that

The Deifts, and Socinians, who did not know


and beneficence.
to and

God found

eternally within himfelf, an infinitely infinite

objed of love,andan infinitely loving obje6t, equivalent


infinitely fuperior to all poffible multiplicity,
totle.

thought

as Arif-

The Arabian philofophers, and all the difciplcs of Mahomet, who borrowed all their metaphyficks from afalfe co;

py of Ariftotle, were alfo Unitarians and fo had no juft ideas of God in himfelf, nor of his pure and abfolute cfTcnee, without any relation to created nature.

JHence Avicenna and

A~

'

Book L

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
Mind to
their pofTible combinations; to

lor

verhoes fancy'd that it was a fufHcient fcene of acflivity, beneficence and love, for the Eternal
ideas

revolve for ever the

of finite and

all

produce

material and immaterial fubflances without

number, and to
prcdeftinari-

govern an infinity of worlds and fpheres.

The

an fchoolmen about the thirteenth century, having adopted


the Ariftotelian philofophy fpoil'd by the Arabians, dropt infenfibly into the

fame dangerous

idea,

and revived
all its

this

wild

opinion, that the contemplation of finite and

forms or

modes

enter'd neceffarily into the generation

of the Logos.

Spinofa,

by

natural confequence

of this do^rinc, concluded


all its

that the production

of

finite

and

modalities was the

immanent

proceilion

of the Holy Ghoft.

The predeflinariin

an mythologifls believed that all the coUeftive ideas of finite


coexifled eternally with,

and were contained neceflarily


has of himfelf.

the confubftantial idea

God

The
all

Spinofifts

reafon very confequentially from this falfe principle of the


fatalift

doctors,

when

they conclude, that

the colledivc
neceflarily

ellences of finite coexift: eternally with

and flow

from the

infinite elTence.

Thus

the monflruous fchemes of

predeftination, fatality

and

nexion with each other,

which have a fl rid conwere hatch'd and brought forth by


Spinofifiii,

degrees, as fhall be fully unfolded in the next

book; where

we fhall fhow, that the independent felf-fufKciency of the Godhead e're created nature began, and the ineffable completion

of the divine perfection and


eternal

felicity in

the

commerce

of the
lition,

three,
is

excludes

all

neceffary thought, vo-

and produ(5tion of

finite, all eternal

conception, and

creation of

what

bounded; and that

this great principle is

102

OF THE ABSOLUTE

Book

I.

the foundation and corner-ftone of all true theology natural

or fupernatural, and the fureft bulwark againfl Fatalifm, Spinofifm and Predeftinarianifm; as well as againft Dcifm, Arianilln,

and Unitarianifm, which are the

fix great

and dange-

rous errors
nioft part

we

intend to combate in the following elfay.


too,

The
have

of men, yea of philofophers and divines


filent

no notion of God's

and

ftill

eternity, antecedent to all

ideas and produt^ion

The proofs they give of the exifienceof a God, regard only that of a God creator, and beof finite.
of finite; and not that of a
felf-fufficient,

atify er

independent
rela-

caufe,

whofe pure and abfolute

effence has

no necefiary

tion to finite ideas, or finite fubftances;


fubfifled eternally

and that might have

without thinking of the one or creating

the other.

COR.
Hence we have
infinite fpirit.

I.

the effential

difl:in(5lion

betwixt

finite

and

Created intelligences can never find within


fill

themfclves, wherewithal to

their boundlefs capacities


thirft

of

knowledge, and quench their unfatiable

of

felicity.

They muft,

fo to fpeak,

go out of themfelves, and

rife

above

thcmfelves to unite themfelves to abfolute infinite, therein to


find the full completion

of knowledge and happinefs.

COR.

II.

Hence we have the true difference betwixt neceffary and free action in God; necefiiiry a^lion, as the generation of the Logos, and the procefiionof the HolyGhoft, is what flows
efientially

and

eternally

from

his nature,

and without which


Free action in
is

he could not be

infinitely pcrfe6l or

happy.

him

as the thought, volition,

and production of finite,

what

Book
fe(5lion

I.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
COR.
III.

loj;

he may do, or not

do, without uiterefting the elTential per-

and happinefs of his nature.

Hence
It is

the

efFe<5ls

of God's free ads cannot be

eternal; for

impoflible that an agent can be free to


all eternity.

do or not

to do,

what he did from

To be free to a6l or not to a6l,


acls

fuppofes a time wherein the efFed was not yet produced. I do

not as yet fay, that God's free

cannot be eternal;
is,

this

we fhall prove hereafter.


his free

All I advance

that the

efFe<5ls

of

ads cannot be coeternal with

his effence.

COR.
Hence the
therwife
creation

IV.
intereft

of finite cannot

nor augment

the efTential happinefs and perfedion of the divine nature; o-

God would
that

not be

felf-fufficient.

Theprodudion
is ftill

of numberlefs worlds can add nothing


caufe
all

to his plenitude ; beinfinitely

he can produce without himfelf,


pofTelTes within.

inferior to

what he

COR.
The
Is

V.

knowledge of the pure and abfolute eflence of

God

alone fufHcient to compleat the perfection of the divine unall

derftanding, and
are

other ideas, thoughts and conceptions

no ways

neceffary to this perfection.

c o R.

VI.

Hence
ficient to

the procefllon of the

Holy Ghoft or
for himfelf,

the infinite,
is

eternal, confubfbntial love

God has

alone fuf-

compleat the perfection of the divine

will,

and

all

finite beings, fubftances, efFeCls,

and worlds are no ways ne-

ceffary to his felicity.

END OF THE FIRST BOOK.

105

THE

PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES
OF

NATURAL AND REVEALED

RELIGION,
B

O O K

II.

OF GOD's RELATIVE ATTRIBUTES,

DEFINITIONS.
i.TiY
an

INFINITE POWER,
is

I nian a Caufe that can

J-^ produce whatever


contradi6lion.
2.

poflible, or that includes

not a

By NECESSARY A CTION, I undcrftand what


from the nature of a thing
in
all

flows efall

fentially

times and in

places,

jo6
3.

OF THE RELATIVE
volition be free or neceflary.
I

Book IL
volunta-

By SPONTANEOUS ACTION, I mean what is


By FREE ACTION,

ry,

whether that
4.

mean what may be donc or not


is

be done, and to which the agent

not determined by any exIt


is

ternal conftraint, nor internal neceflity.

purely contin-

gent and and polTible.

By PROVIDENCE, I mean that infinitepower, wifdom and goodnefs, by which God employs, knows, and wills all
5.

the

means neceflary

to accomplilh his defigns.

AXIOMS.
1.
*
*

When a mode is produced,


which was not
before,*

there

Is

a reality made ex-

iftent

and

fo a paiTage

from nothing
thispaf-

to fomething.
2.

What is inconceivable in the idea of creation

is

fage

from nothing to fomething. 3. * It is unbecoming the wifdom of an

infinitely perfect

being to change his will

when

the fame reafon of willing

always
4.
'

fubfifts.'

God
The

never forefees things but as they are, otherwlfe


falfe/

his

knowledge would be
'

5.
'

fupream happinefs of all

intelligent natures

con-

fifts

in the knowledge and love of abfolute infinite.'

SCHOLIUM.
Spinofa defines a free being,
*
'

that

which

afts

by the

folc

ncceffity

of

its

nature, and

is

determined by

itfelf

alone/

Book

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
a6tion.
is

107

This is fpontaneous and not free


havefaid,
finiple volition

Spontaneity, as wc

without any foreign conftraint;

but this
ral,

may

alfo

be neceffary.

Thus we

love

good in gene-

or rather defire pure happinefs and love perfeftion fpon-

taneoufly,

and yet

neceffarily.

We will
is

it

with pleafure, but


attribute
will. It

we cannot do
of our
is

otherwife.

This

an indeftruaible
will or

elTcnce.

Freedom is what we may

not

not only what

we

will

without any foreign conftraint, but

without any inherent necefTity of nature. good, real or apparent, but we might rejea
ther equal or fuperior to
it.

We
it

chufe

it

as

and chufe ano-

NecefTity

is

what cannot be otherfrom the nature of a


invincibly,
fo that

wife than

it is,

what flows

inevitably

thing

what determines
its

abfolutely

and

nothincr can hinder

production but the deftruftion of the

agent.

Spinofa confounds thefe three ideas of Spontaneity,

Freedom, and NecefTity, without giving any reafon why he does fo and thus falls back into his general and ufual fallacy
;

which

is

to fuppofe in his definitions


if

what he is going to prove.


that
it is

He may,

he can prove

it,

deny Liberty, and fhew


a folly

chimera: but to lay

down

this as a principle in a definition


is

without any fhadow of demonftration,


a philofopher.

unworthy of

Hitherto
e're

we

have confiderM

God in

his eternal folitude,

fhall now conhe manifefted himfelf from without. fider him with rcs:ard to finite, and examine thefe three per-

We

feftions in

him by which he produces, knows, and

beatifies

the creatures.

The

Spinofifts

deny

his creating

power.

The

fchoolmen convert his foreknowledge into fatality. The Predcftinarians blafpheme his communicative goodnefs. We fhall

O2

io8

OF THE RELATIVE
down
from
thefe three monftrous errors.

Book IL
may

endeavour to lay
preferve

fuch principles in this Book, as

PROPOSITION
modes.

XIV.

The creation of new fubftances is no more


inconceivable, than the production of new.

DEMONSTRATION.
In the production of new forms, there
creation,
is

a pafTage froni

nothing to fomething (a) ; what is inconceivable in the idea of


is

only

this pafTage

from nothing
fubftances

to fomething (b)

therefore the creation of

new

is

no more incon-

ceivable than the production

of new modes.

SCHOLIUM.
Tho' we fliould fuppofe with Spinofa
and
that
all

that God and nature

are the fame; that the felf-exiftcnt being is the only fubftance;

things are confubftantial modifications

of his

e-

ternal elTence; yet


caufality,

we

can never explain the manner of this

with regard to the continual changes, modes, and

forms, that

we fee in

nature every day.


to

When God a^s thus


his fubftance,

immanently upon himfelf

modify

accord-

ing to Spinofa, he produces fomething that was not before.

Now this

paftagc

from nothing

to

fomething

is

equally in-

conceivable, whether theeifeCts of the divine a6ls be fubftances diftinCl-

from God, or new modes of

his

own

fubftance.

The
(a)

fame objection Spinofa makes againft emanant aClion,


Ax.
I.

of this Book.

(b) Ax. 2. of this Book.

Book
on him

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
diftln<5l

109

or the creation of fubftances


againft

from God, returns upof modes

immanent

a6lion, or the produ^lion

in the divine fubftance.

We have no adequate ideas of power.


muft be fuch a thing
a6ls,

We fee
but

evidently that there

in nature;

we cannot

conceive

how it
and

nor what connects the

producing caufe with the produc'd effeS:.


nothing to fomething,
is

This

pafTage

from
'till

will

be incomprehenfible,

we

fee

God

as

he

is,

and difcern

how

all

things flow

from

him, necefTariiy or freely. Tho' the creation of new fubftances however,be as conceivable as the produftion ofncwmodes;

yet the idea of creating

power is not the fame with that of mois

difying power; lincethe ideaof fubftance


that

not the fame with

of mode.

COR.
;

I.

Hence we ought to allow that it is poffible to produce new fubftances as well as new modes becaufe the paiTagc from nothing to fomething being equally inconceivable in both, if

we
of

allow the one, tho'


it,

we do

not comprehend the

manner
only be-

we ought not to deny the other, purely and caufe we do not underftand the manner of it.

COR.

II.

Hence our not comprehending how fecond


not a fufficient reafon for denying their
a<5live

caufes

a(fl, is

power,

as

the

not comprehending

how the firft caufe creates is no reafon for


all

denying his creating energy. Wherefore


an philofophy on
this

the Malebranchias fhall

head feems

falfe

and dangerous,

be explained hereafter.

no

OF THE RELATIVE

Book

11.

PROPOSITION XV.
Infinite

power can produce new

fubftan-

ces as well as

new

forms.

DEMONSTRATION.
It
is

poflible to
infinite

produce

new

fubftances as well as
that
is

new
pof-

forms (a);
fible (b)
:

power can produce every thing

therefore infinite

power can produce new

fubflan-

ces as well as

new

forms.

SCHOLIUM.
It
Is

certainly

more

perfect to be able to create than not;


mufl:

and therefore
feftion; unlefs

absolute infinite
it

have

this peris

be proved that the idea of creation

con-

tradi6tory

and impollible.

Now fince we
Is

have fhown that


produc;

the produ(5tion of new fubflances


tion

as poflible as the

of new modes, we mud afcribe

this

power to God otherIs

wife

we might

conceive a perfe^llon which

not included in

the idea of abfolute infinite;


tion.

which

is

a manifeft contradic-

Here we

mufl:

fhun equally two

fatal

and

capital errors.
di-

Some fancy

that finite beings are

mere modalities of the


is

vine nature: others Imagine that creation

a participation

of

the uncreated efTcnce.

The

former confound the fubflancc

of the Creator with that of the creature.


lize the

The latter materia-

Deity; and both deny creation.

Spinofa
(a) Cot.
I.

who

adopted the former opinion endeavours to


(b) Def. i. of this Book.

of Prop. XIV.

BookII.
demonftrate

attributes of god.
'

Ill
)

that

one fubftance cannot produce another

and

m order to prove this great principle,


He reafons

which

is

the foun-

dation of all his fyftem, he lofes himfelf in a wild


fl:ra61:,fubtile,fophiftical ideas.
*

maze of ab-

thus,

'

There canattributes,

not be in nature two


attributes.

diftinft fubftances, that

have the fame

If two fubftances have not the fame

they can have nothing in


in

common, and if they have nothing

common,

the one cannotbe the caufeof the other.'


equivocal,

The

laft proportion is

and the two former are abfolute-

lyfalfe.

This
thus,
'
'

fophift pretends to demonftrate the

firft

propofition
their attridif-

Subftances can be diftinguifhed only

by

butes or modes. If their attributes be the fame, they are


tinguiilied

'

only by their modes, and fo they

differ

modally

'

and not fubftantially.'


is

Both

thefe proportions areabfurd.

It

abfolutely falfe that beings can be diftinguifhed only

by

their attributes

and modes.

There may be

a third diftinftiexiftence.

on; and that

Is

by

their feparate

and independent

Generical ideas are diftinguifhed by their different attributes,


as fpirits,

and bodies.

Species are diftinguifhed


differs

by

their difdifferent

ferent modes.

Thus wood
by

from gold by the

configuration of its parts, tho' both be equally matter.


viduals are diftingulflied

Indi-

their feparate exiftence ; for tho'


attributes,

two pieces of mettal have the fame


of each
Beings therefore

and may have

the fame modes, yet they fubfift feparately and independently

other.

may

be dilHnguifhcd by

their attributes,

modes, and feparate exiftence.

Wherefore
tho' the

tho' beings have the

fame attributes, and the fime modes, yet


becaufe the one

they are

diftinct fubftances,

may cxift

112

OF THE RELATIVE
They may be the fame

Book

11.

others were annihilated.

kind or [pe-

des of

fubftances, but not the fame individual fubftance.

Be-

fore Spinofa can eftablifh his principle, he muft prove that the

threefold diftinftion of genus, Ipecies, and individual,


;

is

nei-

ther founded in nature nor in reafon neither real nor poilible


that
all

beings of the fame kind are the fame individual fub-

ftance,

and that

to be the

fame numerical fubftance, and the

fame generical fubftance are fynonimous terms.


proves no where.
his dark fyftem
is

This he

Thus

the proof of the

firlt

propofition

of

abfolutely falfe.
'

His fecond propofition is


'

that

two fubftances which have

not the fame attributes can have nothing in common.'


prove
it

He
in
it-

tries to
'

thus.

A fubftance
exift in

is

that

which exifts

felf,

and can be conceived by

itfelf.

Two
idea

fubftances that

'

have different attributes


ceived

themfelves, and

may be con-

'

by themfelves, and therefore the

of the one does

'

not involve the idea of the other, and fo they can have nothing in common.' Here
definitions.
is

'

a combination
is

of abfolutely

falfe

maxims and
in
itfelf,

A fubftance

not that which


itfelf.

exifts
is

and which may be conceived by

Neither

mode always fomething

that inheres in a fubftance,

and that
he con-

cannot be conceived without it.

By thefe definitions

founds the idea of fubftance, with that of felf-exiftencc, and


the idea of
thing that

modes with

that

of effects.

A fubftance

is
;

fome-

is

the foundation of attributes and

modes

and a

models

change made in a fubftance. Further, tho' two fub-

ftances have different attributes, yet the idea

of the one may

involve the idea of the other and fuppofe


ftances,

it.

Thus finite fub-

and the infmitc fubftance have

different attributes,

BookIL

attributes of god.
exift

113

yet as the former cannot

by themfelves,
that

their exigence

involves and fuppofes neceflarily that of the


Spinofa's third proportion,
*
*

lafl.

when

beings have nois

thing in

common

the one cannot produce the other,'

alto-

gether equivocal.
*

If he means by

'

having nothing in comto,

mon'

that beings

which have no relation

no refemblance
if

of,

and no dependance one upon the other, cannot be confl-

dered as caufes and effefts; this


that

we

grant.

But

he means,
attributes,

when

beings have not the fame

common

powers, and perfections, the one cannot be the caufe of the


other; this
it.

we

abfolutely deny,

and he never

offers to

prove

Thus

all

his principles are the very matters

of queftion,
to geo-

undemonftrated and undemonftrable.

He pretends

metrical reafbning, andmetaphyfical precifion; but he

knows

neither one nor the other.

Hiere is
firft

a great diflperence betwixt

the true art of afcending to


their juft confequences,

principles,

and defcendincr to
and
of that

by a

flrong, nervous, palpable


fubtile refinements

exaft chain of clear ideas;


baftard fophiitry,

and the

which pains and


becomes

fatigues the

mind, which
truth,

fubtilizes to excefs, and

which defh'oys at lafl all


invifible.

by fpinmaf^

ning

it

fo fine, that

it

Sound,

folid,

culine reafoning retains always a confiilence that fupports

and and

nourifhes, while

it

enlightens the mind and inflames the heart.

Some of

Spinofa's difciples, afham'd of his fophifms

falfe reafonings,

have recourfe to another argument to prove


it

his great principle:


'

runs thus.

When God

creates there

flow s either fomcthing or nothing from his effence to produce


the created
effeft.

If nothing,
is

how

can nothing be a caufc?

'

If fomething, then creation

an emanation of the divine

114
'

OF THE RELATIVE
which being
indivifible, its aftion Is
itfelf,
is

Book
from

II.

fubftance;

immanent,
itfelf. all

<

produces nothing without

nor

diftinft

Thus

the felf-exiftent being

the only fubllance, and

o-

ther beings exift by, flow from, and inhere in this only fub-

ftanceas confubftantial forms, hypoflafes, and perfonalities/


I anfwer in the
firft

place, that

all

thefe reafonings are founto

ded upon

this principle, that

we ought

deny what we can;

not conceive.
ing

Now

this is abfolutely falfe

for tho' not feeit is

may be fometimes

a reafon

of doubting, yet

never a

reafon of denying.

When God
in his

produces fubftances, there


his almighexif-

happens no change
ty will
is

immutable eflence; but

accompanied with an efficacy which gives a real

tence to fomething that had none before.

We have no

ade-

quate ideas of the nature of this caufality ; nor of the manner

how it operates; nor of the connexion betwixt the caufe and the effect: yea we can have none till we fee God as he is, the intimate effences of things, and how they flow from him: but as we do not deny the producftion of modes, tho' we cannot conceive how they are produced, fo neither ought we to deny
the production of fubftances, tho'

we cannot comprehend

how they are created.


I anfwer in the fecond place, that tho'

we fliould
and the

fuppofe
objeifts

with Spinofa and the


are the
;

Spinofifts, that the ideas


is

fame that there

no

third fubftance betwixt God

and

Ipirits, called

matter; that the extenfion, figure, divifion, and


like colours, tailcs, fmells

motion we imagine without us; are

and founds; nothing but

fenfations produced in us
;

by the

di-

vine fubffance that a6ts immediately

upon us yet it would be

repugnant and abfurd to maintain that our fouls are fubltan-

Book
tial

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
It
is
is,

115

forms of the divine mind.

abfolutely impoflible that


as

the fame infinite effence, which


all

we

have demonftrated,
all

knowledge and
and

all

happinefs;

all

wifdom and
and
all

love; all

intelligence

all

juftice; all truth

goodnefs, can

produce in itfelfby neceffity of nature,


felf-confcious, intelligent

living, a6tive, eternal,

forms and perfonalities that are


folly
is

full

of ignorance and mifery;


tice
;

and hatred; error and


impofTible that
all

injuf-

falfhood and malice. It

the contra-

dictory reafonings, painful fenfations,

and

irregular pafHons

we

difcover in others
infinite,

and

feel in ourfelves,
is

can be the modes


a6t,

of abfolute
idea,

who

one permanent

one

infinite

one immutable love; without fuccefHon of thoughts and without any fhadow of privation, negation or de-

without variation of forms; without any contradictory qualities,

fect.

When we fee therefore in nature finite, variable beings,


conclude that they are
efFefts

we muft

of the divine power,

and not forms or modes of the divine

cfTence.

As we muft

deteft

with horror the Spinofian blafphemy,


is

which maintains,

that nature produced

only an expanfion

or modification of the divine fubft a nee; fo


je<5l

we muft

alfb re-

the error of thofe

who

affert that creation is a participa-

tion or difcerption

of the eternal eifence, which

God

erects

into a fubftance

diftincft

from

his

own. This opinion

attacks

and deftroys the immateriality of the divine nature; for it fuppofes that the infinite caufe contains and produces
its efFe(5ts

by

evolution, as plants

and animals contain and bring to light

their feminal

moulds.

Thus we

corporalize the uncreated

effence.

they fay

The fchoolmen feem to favour this opinion, when that God contains the clTences of finite beings eml-

ii6

OF THE RELATIVE

Book

11.

nently and virtually.


if

This dark phrafe may be interpreted as he produced them by emanation, edu6tion, extrapofition,
;

or placing without what he once contained within and therefore

we have
is

rejected

from the beginning,

this rafh,

dange-

rous, Arabian phrafe of the fchools as equivocal.


It

true that

fome pious philofophers,


is

to exalt our notiorr

of fpirit, and fhew that it

quite different from,

and fuperior

to matter, pretend that the intelligent images

of the Deity and


the

were not produced from nothing


that

as the material pictures,

when Mofes

faid,

that "

God

breathed into

man

" breath of life," he meant that the foul was an emanation of


the divine fubftance.
ty

This do(5trine deftroys the


and muft be
is

indivifibili-

of the divine
all

effence,

rejected.

The

effential

property of

created beings

that

of non-exiftent: they
yet they

were made
once were
action.

exiftent,

and

tho'

God has communicated to them


and
perfecftlons
;

greater or lelfer realities, powers,


all

equally nothing, before his all-powerful free


neither inhcrencles, difcerptions,

They are

emana-

tions or participations ;

much
modal

lefs attributes

or modalities

of

the indivifible elTence: but mere eife^ls of his power, that had
neither real, ideal, nor
exiftence before his arbitrary
fhall

thought and free produdion; as


following propofition.

be demonftrated in the

COR.
Hence,
fince nature

I.

produced can neither be an emanati-

on, nor a participation, a difcerption or an expanfion, an attribute or a modification


it

of the divine effence;


attributes,

it is

plain that
dif-

muft be compofed of fubftances,

and modes

tinct

from the producing

caufe.

BookIL

attributes OF GOD.
COR.
II.

117

Hence father Malebranche Ipeaks very uncaiitloufly when


he
calls the creatures participations

of the

divine fiibftance.

This
far

indire(n:ly favours Spinofifm,

contrary to his pious in-

tentions. Yea the zealous anti-fpinofifl: Poiret himfelf goes too

when he mantains

that fpiritual fubftance

is

an emanati-

on, or participation of the divine nature in a phyfical fenfe.

COR.
Hence
religion, as incomprehenfible as

III.
is

the divine creating energy

a myftery

of natural of the

omniprefence ; for fince cre-

ation can neither be an emanation, nor a difcerption


divine elfence,
it

mufl:

be fome third thing of whofe metaphy-

fical nature, and

phyfical produ(5tion we have

no diftln^l, clear,

adequate idea.

muft be

We fee on the one hand, that nature produced diflin^l from the producing caufe We fee on the
:

Other, that abfolute infinite mufl: have a creating

power: but

we have not
fed:,

at prefent a third idea to

connect thefe two, to


the created ef-

fhew the influence of the

creating

ad upon

and explain the manner of the divine operation by which creatures pafs from nothing to fomething.
c o R.
IV.
fubfifl:

Hence

nature produced, or created beings cannot

for ever, but In

two ways,

either

by

a continuation
;

of the

fame creating energy, which gave them exiftence or by God's

communicating

to them, a ftability

of exiftence which makes


for fince they are not e-

them

fubfift for ever

by themfelves:

manations nor modifications of the divine effence, but fubftances dlftlnft

from God,

their eternal duration

and confer^

vation muft either be dependent upon, or independent of the

ii8
firft

OF THE RELATIVE
creating energy.
firft

Book
ftability

II.

They muft fubfift by


by
a

the continued in-

fluence of the
exiftence.

caufe, or

communicated

of

PROPOSITION
God was entirely free
Free action in

XVI.

to create or not to create.

DEMONSTRATION.
God
is

what he may do or not do without


and
perfe<n:ion

interefting the eflential happinefs

of

his na-

ture (a); the creation


efiential happinefs

of finite cannot

intereft

nor augment the

and perfection of the divine nature (b):


intirely free to create or

therefore

God was

not to create.

SCHOLIUM.
It
is

may be

obje6led, that God in the excrcifeof hisa6livity,


beft; that
it is

always determined by the better and the

better

to create than not to create;

and therefore God was


I

necefilta-

ted to create and even to create the beft.


place, that

anfwer in the firft

God

has always a reafon for a6ling, and a reafon


tho' fuilicient to determine
;

worthy of himfelf; but this reafon

him

to create, yet

is

not neceflitating

becaufe creation
I

is

not

neccfTary to his perfcdion and happinefs.

anfwer in the

next place, that

God is

necelFarily

determined in his imma-

nent
beft

a6ls,
is

or in acting within himfelf, by the beft; but the


his

only the generation of


:

Word,

and the

procefli-

onof the Holy Ghost for in the fcale offinitcs there can be no MAXIMUM, nor optimum: no abfolute great, nor
(a) Cor. 2. of Prop. XIII.

(b) Cor. 4. of Prop. XIII.

Book

11.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
God can never create
all pofTibles,

n^
infinite

abfolute good; fince

an abfolute

equal to himfelf.
prefers always

I grant indeed, that

when God

creates,

he

among

the plan that

is

moft pro-

per to diiplay his power, wifdom, andgoodnefs: but then this


neceflity
is

only moral, not phyfical; that

is,

God's

free a6ls

are always

conformed

to his attributes, but


ac^ls

no ways

necelTa-

ry to his

perfedion. All God's emanant

are free, becaufe


infinite.

their effefls are

not and cannot be abfolutely

They

are good,

and therefore worthy of

his production;

but they

are not infinitely good,

and

fo not neceffary to his perfe(5li-

on and

felicity.

On

the contrary, his

immanent zRs
befl:,

are ne-

celTary, becaufe their effeifts are abfolutely the

abfolute-

ly infinite,

and coequal to him in


that
its

all

things, felf-origination

only excepted.

The Leibnitian fcheme,


beft,

God is obliged

to create the

and that the univerfe in

totality is the beft,

and moft

perfe^

God

could create, has been adopted for a decent cloak

by fome

fatalifls

and predeftinarians.

The

fatal neceflity

of

the poets and fome old philofophers, to

which God himfelf is


philofopher

fubje^ed, differs
calls

much from what the German


is

the neceflity of the Sage, and

as

dangerous as that of
to

Spinofa.

The
zSis

lafl:,

by

reducing the

Godhead
moral

an

infinite

power, that

by neceflity of naaire without


fl:rips

defign, choice,

or final caufes,
idea
is

God

of

all

his

attributes.
all

This

ihocking, and immediately offends

wife,

and up-

right minds: as does alfo that notion

of

fatality

which fup-

pofes
trary

God himfelf fubjeded to it, without choice, or even conto his will. The new Leibnitian fcheme oFfatality has
thefe inconveniencics

none of

and

abfurdities; but

it

makes

120

OF THE RELATIVE
creatures, as fhall be

Book
more

II.

God aS: as neceflarily as the


unfolded hereafter.

fully

COR.
Hence we fee
fity

I.

the falfhood of one of the maxims of theSpI-

nofian fcheme; which fuppofes that

God

is

obliged

by necefpollible

of nature

to

produce

all

beings poffible with

all

modalities, becaufe an infinite activity during an infinite du-

ration muft necelfarily produce infinite effects,


to
all

and fo extend
but

poflible events

and

eflences.

The principle is true,

the conclufion
to
all

is falfe.

An infinite agent,

afting according

the extent of

its infinite

nature, muft necefTarily pro-

duce during an
fe<fl:s

infinite duration, infinite efFe(5ls,

but thefe ef-

are

immanent not emanant.

God's

infinite activity is

compleat by the generation of the

Logos, and

the procefli-

on of

the

Holy Ghost.
and no ways

All other adts and

effects are free,

arbitrary,

intereft the efifential happinefs

and per-

fection

of the divine nature.

COR.
Hence God's
ting,
efTential,

ir.
activity,

immanent

and

his crea-

emanant power
is

are not the fame.

The

generation of
is

the

Word

necefiary; the creation

of the world
:

free.

In

the one, the


is

effe<5t is

equal to the caufe in the other, the efFe^

infinitely inferior to the caufe.

Nothing can be added to


continued without

the one, additions to the other

may be
III.

end.

COR.
Hence God can
nally,

create nothing but

what he loves,

for be-

ing independent and omnipotent, and perfectly happy origi-

we can

fuppofc no original fenfe of mifery, nor any o-

Book
tite

11.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD,

121

riginal natural idea

of it, nor confequently any natural appe-

toward what was not an object of any innate perceptive power or fenfe. His notion of mifery muft arife from feeing
die
ftate

of finite beings, or be

his voluntary invention

of a

prefervativeor medicine for them, to avert or cure fuch evils as

they muft neceflarily be made


in his creatures
are,

liable to.

Accordingly

we fee

of the higheft orders; the more perfefl they


indigent through their firmnefs and ftrength
are fufceptible
'tis

and the

lefs

of foul, the more they


goodwill to others.
nefs, fear

of love,

friendfhip,

and

But

dread of danorer, fenfe

of weakthrough

about our

intereft, fenfe

of having

fufFered

our weaknefs, which are the only fources of hatred, cruelty,


or ill will.

COR.
Hence God can
pleafed
aftion being free, he

IV..

create nothing but

what he loves,
it,

for this

would not have exerted


it is,

if

it

had

dif-

him and
;

for the fame reafon

that

God

defires
it is

necelFarily the happinefs

of

all

that

he

creates, becaufe

impofTible to love a being, and not defire its well-being.

COR.
fy
all

V. or defire to beati-

Hence God's communicative goodnefs


intelligent beings

was the

fource, reafon

and motive of

God's creating them.

COR.
a being that hates
trary to his,
it

VI.
the
firft

Hence God cannot produce in


itfelf,

inftant
it

of creation
a will con-

otherwife he would give

and
its

fo contradift himfclf ; yea

he would render

miferableby

very exiftence, which would be the higheft

cruelty.

Wherefore true felf-love or the love of our being and

122
well-being,
is

OF THE RELATIVE
an

Book IL
proper-

eflential, infeparablc, indeftruftible

ty of all created intelligences.

COR.
creation,

VII.

Since God's communicative goodnefs was the fource of

and

fnice this
;

communicative goodnefs

fubfifls al-

ways the fame

hence
freely

it

follows, that the fame reafon


fubfifts

God

had for creating

from the beginning,

always to

make him continue freely the exiftence of beings


ated.

already cre-

COR.
Hence
free,

VIII.
in eternal duration

there

is

no period

wherein

it

can be faid that God could not create ; for fmce

this aftion is

he might have exerted

it

at all times.

We are fure that

he once began, but we cannot decide when he began.

PROPOSITION
God
Creation
is

XVII.

could not create from

all

eternity.

DEMONSTRATION.
an effea of God's free
aft (a); the

efFeasof

God's free
create

afls
all

cannot be eternal (b): therefore God could not


eternity.

from

SCHOLIUM,
Dr. Clarke infmuates in his Demonftration of the being

and
*

attributes

of God

(c)

'

that the old Platonick notion a-

bout the eternity of the world

may be

true

that the will

of

<

God and his power of a6ling, being as eternal as his effencc,


(a)

By

Prop.

XVI.

(b) Cor. 3. of Prop. XIII.

(c) See p.

28 and 33.

Book
* '

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
power themfelves;
in the

123

the effeds of that will and


to the will and
li^ht

power might be fuppofed coeval


fame manner
as

would

eternally proceed

from the

fun, if the fun

were

fuppofed eternal.'
I anfwer, in the
firfl:

place, that this inaccurate

comparifon

leads dire(5tly toSpinofifm, for fince according to the

Newits

tonian philofophy, the rays of the fun are emanations of


elfence; this fuppofes that creation
as coeternal with the
aft, a

was confubftantial

as well

Godhead, an immanent not an emanant


of the divine nature, and not a
free

necelTary effluence

effeft

We are very far from fufpefting the Doctor of fuch an impious defign. We believe rather that he adof his power.
vanced
this

paradox in philofophy to juftify his Unitarian

and Arian notions, which fuppofe that God created freely from all eternity two infinite, fubordinate powers, which the
Doctor
called the

Son and the Holy Ghofl.

We have alreawas eternal,


abfois

dy confuted

this opinion.

I anfwer in the fecond place, that if creation

then there would be an eternal fucceflion


lutely impofTible

paft,

which is

and contradictory.
firft
;

For wherever

there
is

laft,

there muft have been a

and wherever there

firft,

there

may be

laft.

As we

can never mount up in an


fo neither

eternal duration to the

firft

moment,

can

we

de-

fcend in an eternal duration to the


five, divifible, fufceptible

laft.

Whatever is fuccefcannot be abfolute-

of more or

lefs,

ly infinite. Eternity

and

infinity fuppofe neceffarily a

perma-

nent plenitude where there can be no additions, fucceflions,


diminutions or variations.

An eternal duration paft is then a

contradiftion in terms, as an infinite divifion exhaufted.

t24
I
all

OF THE RELATIVE
anfwcrln the third place, that
if

Book

II.

God

had created from

eternity,

then God's creating power would be abfolutely

exhaufted; becaufc an eternal exercifc of infinite

power muft
multiplying

produce an abfolutely

infinite effect: infinite

for this

is

an

infinite duration

by an

energy, which muft pro-

duce an abfolute

infinite, to

which nothing can be added.

Hence arofc
was

the Spinofian error, that

abfolutely infinite as well as

nature produced nature producing;


and coeternal;
is

that both are equally infinite, confubftantial

and that God cannot produce any being but what


exiflent.

already

I anfwer in the fourth place, that if creation

were coeter-

nal with

God, then it mufl be confubllantial

for

what is eter^
it

nal could not be free ; fince, as


is
it

we have
free to

already remarked,

impoffible that an agent can be free to do or not to do, what


did

from

all eternity.

To be
it

ad

or not to

ad

fup-

pofes a time wherein the efFed


ation therefore

was not yet produced:

if cre-

was

eternal

could not be free, and if it was


if neceffary
it

not

free,

it

mufl;

be neceifary,

mufl be imma-

nent, for nothing foreign to the divine nature can be neceffa-

ry to

it

and what is immanent, muft be confubftantial. Thus


Spinofifm.
It

we return again to
ternal
;

may
his

be

faid, that as

the ads

or decrees of God's will concerning


fo the
;

finite are free

and yet efree tho*

ads and effeds of

power may be

eternal

and that the freedom of thefe ads does not depend


but upon their not being necefcaufc.

upon
that

their not being eternal,

fary to the perfcdion


it is

of the producing

We

anfwer,
re-

abfolutely falfe that


;

any of God's

free

ads with

gard to

finite are eternal

for, as

we fhall fhew very foon, God

Book
was
ces.

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
think of finite ideas as to create
that if

125

as free to

finite fubflan-

We grant,
were

God's ads about

finite

were

eternal,

there would be no evidence


zS:s

to prove that the

efFe<n:s

of thefe

not fo too: but as we have already faid,

freedom and

eternity are incompatible.

I anfwer in the fifth place, that to create

is

to produce

fomething that was not before


fomething that was not before
grant that there
is

now the
moment

eternal exiftence

of
I

is

a contradiflion in terms.

no

definite

in eternal duration,
create,

wherein

God

might not have begun to


could not be eternal.

but fince he

began

this aft

All confubftantial and

immanent
free

effects, tho' pofterior in

nature, muft coexifl with

their caufe, fince they flow necelTarily

from

its

eifence: but

and emanant

effefts

mufl be pofterior to their caufc both


neceffarily the

in nature

and time, becaufe creation fuppofes

giving exiftence to fomething that had


it

no

exiftence before. If

be

faid, that creation is

not a production of fomething that

was not before, but of fomething that might never have been; of fomething that is purely contingent and dependent; of
fomething that
is

neither neceffary, nor felf-exiftent.


is

We re-

ply, that this realbning


pRINc1p 1
1 ;

or,

what the fchools call petitio fuppofuig what is in queftion. We deny that
be contingent, and
free;

what
that

is

eternal can

we have fhewn

it

muft be neceffary, immanent, and confubftantial with

the Deity.

Some
telligent,

will fay, that

it is

impofTible to conceive

how infinite

power could remain


and
already

eternally ina(5tive, infinite

wifdom unin-

infinite

goodnefs uncommunicative.

We have

Ihewn

that

God did not remain thus ina(5tive, unintcL--

126
ligcnt,

OF THE RELATIVE
and uncommunicative during
his
ftill

Book

II.

eternity, before

the worlds began, e're he had thought of any finite ideas, or


created any finite fubftanccs.

He produced, he

contemplated,

he

beatify'd for ever

and ever two

infinite objects,

by the

generation of the Logos and the proccffion of the Holy Ghoft.


It
is

thus that he was eternally, abfolutely, and neceffarily

aftive, wife,

and good, antecedent to and independent of


of
finite.

all

conception or creation

We muft therefore conceive an eternal


the only effects of God's

duration wherein
generati-

immanent action were the


and the

on of the Logos, and the proceflion of the Holy Ghoft. This


is

the

ftill

eternity, the adorable folitude,

central a-

byfs of the pure divinity, into


ideas, effences or fubftances
;

which enter no afts about finite

ceflion ; and, as

we fliall

no multiplicity, variation or fucvery foon fhew, no infallible prefci-

ences or predeterminating decrees about finites and their actions.

Tho'

creation cannot be eternal,

we muft

not however

think that

God never exerted his


moment

creating

power till about five


of beings,

or fix thoufand years ago; that then he fallied out of his eternal folitude for a
to create a fmall parcel
it

and that he recentred into


without
hinifclf.

never more to exert his energy


declared,

This God has no where


it.

and it

is

audacious in us to affirm

It

is

pofilble that

God's creating

energy never ceafcd from the


that
it

moment in which it began, and


and
fruitful

may be
is

eternally produiflive

from without.
wherein he

As

there

no

definite period in eternal duration


create, fo there
is

might not have begun to

no determinate monot continue to ere-

ment in

eternal duration wlierein he

may

Book
ate
;

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
COR.

127

and we Ihall Ihew hereafter that revelation

fays nothuig

to the contrary.
I.

Hence
fo high,

in the creation

of

finite, tho'

we remount

never

we muft

always flop at fome beginning, antecedent

to

which there was nothing but the pure andabfolute eiTence


all finite

of God, exchifive of of all


als

ideas, effences

and fubftances,
creature.

and efFeds

relative to nature

and

COR.
ternal

II.

Hence the Ariftotelian, or Platonick opinions about an cworld


real or intelligible

may lead

the incautious into

Atheifm or Spinofifm.

PROPOSITION
The duration of all
It is

XVIII.

created fuftances will be eternal.

DEMONSTRATION.
unbecoming the wifdom of an
infinitely perfe^l

being

to change his will,


fubfifts (a)
;

when

the fame reafbn of willing always

the fame reafon God had for creating freely from

the beginning, fubfifts always to

make him continue

freely

the exiftence of beings already created (b): therefore the duration

of all beings will be

eternal.

SCHOLIUM.
us

The Wife Man fully perfuaded of this great truth, aflures that all the works of God will be eternal,' the material as
*

well as the immaterial world.


(a) Ax. 3. of this Book.

It

is

true indeed that the irre-

(b) Cor. 6. of Prop.

XVI.

128
oTilar

OF THE RELATIVE
but their efTences will
laft

Book
does not

II.

and impcrfc<5l forms of fpirit and matter cannot be


for ever.

e-

tcrnal,

God

ad

by

ftarts

and
is

fits;

by

capricioufnefs
all

and fancy, without

rea-

fon.

He

immutable in

his defigns,

and never changes

them

unlefs the reafon

of willing changes.

The proofs of imfoul, are

mortality

drawn from the immaterial nature of the


it

notfufficient; for tho'

cannot die as organical bodies do,


felf-exiftent,
it

by

a dilTolution

of parts; yet not being


is it

may

ceafe to be.

Neither

a demonftration
foul, that there
;

of the immortal
muft be a future

and
ftate

eternal exiftence

of the

of rewards and punifhments for tho' we ihall fhew that the eternal felicity of intelligences, was God's only end in creating them, yet it can never be demonftrated by reafon
nor
fcripture, as

we

fhall

(hew, that laps'd


eternally

fpirits

may not be

annihilated, if they can


convertible.

become

and abfolutely un-

The immutabiHty of the divine will is the beft proof of the foul's immortality. The eternal exiftence of all the works of God flows neceffarily from the conftancy of the
divine nature in
lafts.
all

his

a(fts,

while the fame reafon of acting

COR.
Hence
religion,

I.
is

the immortality of the foul

maxim of natural
of this great

independent of all revelation ;

and fupernatural inalTure us

fpiration

was not abfolutely neceffary to

truth.

COR.
Hence
all forts

II.

of created fubftances material or immaterial will be immortal and indeftruaible their forms may change,
;

but their efTences will never be deftroyed.

BooKiL

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
XIX.
is

125)

PROPOSITION
The
eternal confervation

of beings

a con-

tinuation

of the

firfi:

creathig energy.

DEMONSTRATION,
The
eternal confervation

of beings muft

either proceed

from a continuation of the fame creating energy, or from a to them by the firft crea{lability ofexiftence communicated
ting aa(a);
ciple

God cannot communicate to finite beings aprin(b): therefore the efirft

of independence or felf exiftence


is

ternal confervation of beings

a continuation of the

ere-

ating energy.

SCHOLIUM.
There
are three opinions about the confervation of beings.

The

firft

maintains,that the divine,omnipotent action commu-

creatures, nicates fuch a perfeft ftability ofexiftence to the

thatby virtue of this


felves.

firft

a they can fubfift eternally of themaf-

The

fecond opinion runs to the other extreme, by

ferting, that the creating efficacy is fo

imperfea, that itftands

in need
fubfift,

of continual new repeated afts, to make its efFeds and preferve them from falling into nothing. The

third opinion keeps the midft betwixt the


affirming, that confervation
creatines ener^^y.
is

two extremes by
efFe(5t

a continued

of the fame
opinions,

If we can confute the two


it is

firft

the

laft is

demonftrated; fince

impofilble to imagine

any

other but thefe three (c).


(a) Cor. 4. of Prop.

XV.

(b) Cor. 2. of Prop. V.

(c) ByPoftul.2.

,30
If

OF THE RELATIVE
God could give
eternal,

Book

II.

the creatures a ftability ofexiftence, perhis

manent,

and independent of

immediate

a<n:ion,

he could never annihilate them.


tion poffible only in

We can conceive annihilaNon-exiftence or nothing


this

two ways, either by giving non- cxiftence,


were

or by ceafing to give exiftence.

cannot be given or effefled by a pofitive ad, for


;

gi-

ving nothing giving and not giving at the fame time; which
is

impofTible and contradiftory.

Therefore

God

can annihi-

late or take

away

being, only

by ceafing

his creating aft,

and

fo preferves being only

by continuing
exifts

his productive energy.

Moreover, a fubftance that


feparatefrom
it

only by another, being

its

creating caufe, mufl: fall into nothing, unlefs

contains in itfelf a reafon of neceflary exiftence.

Now

God cannot communicate neceflary

exiftence or independen-

cy to the creatures, without placing in them an infinite perfeftion, which is the only reafon of neceffary or felf-exiftence,

and

fo

is

un communicable

to the creature.

It

may be

faid that creatures


firft

once produc'd,
their effential

fubfift eter-

nally after the

creating aft,

by

and neceffa-

ry inherence in the divine fubftance, as their fupport and bafis.

I anfwer that if this

were

fo,

the creatures would not be

fubftances diftinft
perfonalitys

from God; but emanations, hypoftafes,or


effence,

of his

which

is

pure Spinofifm.

Some will
ftability

objeft that if God could not


his creatures; the

communicate
energy of the
caufes,
afts.

this
firft

of exiftence to

caufe

would be

far inferior to that

of fecond

whofe
I an-

cffefts laft for ever, unlefs deftroy'd

by contrary

fwer, that the cffefts of finite caufes are only modalitys,

more

or

lefs

changed, that have a fubjcft in which they inhere:

Book IL
not
fubfifl

ATTRIBUTES OP GOD.
by themfelveSj.unlefs he communicates
to

131

but the creatures being real fubflanceSjdIftlrKn: from God, can-

them an

independent exifl:ence,or fupport them by a continuation of


the fame creating energy.
the latter muft be true.

Now the

former being impoflible,

The fecond
all a<5i:ivity

opinion, which places confervation in a con-

tinual repetition

of creating ads

at

every

moment,

deftroys

in fecond caufes,

renders the freedom of intel-

ligent beings impoflible,

and makes

God

the author of

fin.

What

is

created at every

moment, cannot give it felf the leafl

modality; fince

God

does not create beings in general but

particular beings.

If he create them at every moment, he


reft

muft create them either in

or in motion, knowing or not


confenting or dilTentlng.
itfelf in

knowing, willing or not

willing,

What exifts

only in the

firft

moment cannot modify


the being has

the fecond, nor receive a real power to act in the third; for

before the reproducing

a6l,

no

exiftence,

nor

confequently any powers to a6lin thepoftcrior moment.

God
mo-

muft always create


ral determinations.

it

with

all its

phyfical modalitys, and

It
2.8:\vc

may
and

be

faid that
;

God

creates the foul every gives in the


firft

moment

free

that

what he

moment, he
in the firft
to-

unfolds in the fecond, adds to itinthe third, andfo prefcrves


it

continually in fuch a manner,that

what he gave it
but as

and what he adds to it


gether and unite to
fults entirely

in the fubfcquent

moment, concur
and

make

new adion:
is

this action re-

from the

addition, repetition,

multiplicati-

on of the fame

creating force, the foul


Is

only aded upon, and

not active; there

no

real,

Inherent, internal motion infpi-

132
ritual agents;

OF THE RELATIVE
but only a
paffive reception or

Book IL
pure mobility,
fo there

to be pufh'd wherever the firftcaufe drives


is

them; and

no

difference betwixt thefpiritual

and corporeal agent; but

that the

one perceives

its

motion and the other not.

Thus

fome Thomifls and

Cartcfians,

by confounding a continued

with a continual creation, or the continuation of the fameaft with continual, repeated ads, have thrown themfelves headlong into
fatality.

From all
pendency

this

it is

plain, that the

firft

opinion gives an inde-

to the creatures; the fecond robs them ofalladivity.

The one makes them deities; the other renders them machines;
the one by attributing too

much to created

beings,

makes them-

independent; the other by attributing too little to them,makes

God the author of finThe


ties,
it

third opinion prevents

all difficul-

renders the creatures dependent and yetadive.

It

makes tliem receive fromGod their effence and powers,without


deftroying their adivity or
fifts

freedomThe creating energy fub;

always,

it

never pafles
fucceflive

it is

one continued, fimultaneous

ad without any

moments. Thus the creatures tho*


if they

they be not nccelTary emanations of the divine efrence,yet are

freeprodudions of his power,which would ceafetobe,

were feparated one moment from their creating fource. They are real fubftancesdiftind from God, butnotdiftant from him, united to him, but notconfubftantial with him. In him they
live,

move, and have


his.

their being;

but their being

is

not the

fame with

COR.

I.
is

Since theconfervationof creatures

a continuation of the

fame creating energy witliout fucccflion, interruption, or va-

BookIL
riation:
perties,

attributes of god.
all

133

hence

the natural powers, acftivkies, faculties, proto them in thefirfl:

and qualities given

moment of their
that fub-

exiftence,
fift

may be

confidered as permanent
adls,

efFe(n:s,

without reprodu<5lion or repeated


G o R.
II.

Hence

in the following efTay,


faculties

we may

talk

of the natural
in full

powers and

of the creatures as given to them

property from thefirft


ver fhall

momentof their creation.Thus we nehis mediate


a<5ts,

confound God's immediate with

northeaftion ofthe
caufes;

first cause, withtheadionof fecond


of the
creature.
III.

nor the univerfal concourfe of the creator with the

free determinations

COR.
will
juft.

Hence all the cavills ofthe predeftinarlan fed againfl: freedrawn from continual
creation, are groundlefs and

un-

God does

not preferve the creatures by repeated


firfl:

a(5ls-

He gives
tinft

to fpirits in the

moment of their

creation a real

aO:ivity diftind

from

his

own,

as well as a real fubftance dif-

from

his

own. This

Ihall

be fully demonftrated in the

following book.

PROPOSITION
material,

XX.

God may create new fubftancesjmaterial and Imand communicate to them without end,

new

forms,

new capacities, and new perfedions.

demonstration.
If God could add nothing to his creation, itmuft be either
bccaufe
it is

already fo pcrfed that nothing can be

communica-

134
ted to
It,

OF ^^^ RELATIVE
or becaufe his creating power
is

Book

II.

already exhaufted.

One

or t'other of thefe two fuppofitions muft be true.

former cannot be true, becaufe in

The the fcaleoffinites there may


nor can the
its

be aprogrefTion without end


infinite

(a);

latter,

becaufe

power can never be exhaufted by


material and immaterial, and

produ<5lions

from

without (b): therefore God


ftances,

may create without endnewfubcommunicate


to

them

new

forms,

new capacities, and new pcrfe^lions.

SCHOLIUM.
The
*

Mofaick phrafe that

after the fix

days work,

God

ceas'd

from

his labours,

'

does not contradict the truth here

demonftrated.

Ceffation here muft be underftood of the for;

mation of the world after the chaos of the reparation of the


iphere of fallen angels, and of the reftoration of nature degra-

ded by their revolt; and not of the creation of pure and


mitive nature ; which, as

pri-

we fhall

fliew,

was antecedent to the

chaos. Since God's communicative goodnefs,fubfifts always


the fame to

prompt him for ever


this creating

to exert freely his creating

power; fince

the produ<5lion
his

power can never be exhaufted by of an abfolutc infinite equal to himfclf fmce


;

immenfity can never be replenifhed with material


his confubftantial
;

pictures,

nor

Logos

equall'd

by the creation of

in-

telligent images
du<5tive

fince,in

fine,God

maybe

for ever freely pro-

from without, as he is

eternally productive

from with-

in; fince I fay thefe four truths have been already demonftrated:
it is

not only pofTiblebut highly probable, yeaalmoft

certain, that
(a)Ax.

new worlds are produced every


(b) Cor. i. of Prop. 5.

day, in the celef-

5 of Book I.

Book
tial

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
a high

135

fpaces,

and that thefe fuperlor regions are peopled with


and noble idea of the
is

new intelligences. Thus we have


univerfe

Worthy of the

creator.

Our

earth

but a point in

of compared with the new worlds we do not the fix'd ftars; thefe fee,and thefe with theimmenfe fpaces that are ftill replenifhing
with material and immaterial beings.
ravifhing thought, as

comparifonof the folar fyftem, that in comparifon of thofe

Once more I repeat the


forever and ever, within

God generates

himfelf, neceflarily, one,fole,coeternal, abfolutely infinite, and

confubftantial image; fo

he freely produces from without in-

numerable finite reprefentations of Hmfelf, diftind from himfelf,

and

multipliable without end.

c o R.

I.
its

Since infinite power can never be exhaufted by


nal aftion ; and (ince he may create eternally
material and immaterial ;
exiftent,

exter-

new

fubftances

there

is

and can be no

real infinite

but the fiipreme abfolute infinite; and therefore the


fills all

Leibnitian infinity of created matter, that

the extent

ofboundlefsimmenfityis a wild chimera that favours Spinofifm.

COR.
Hence
all

II.

the pretended infinites in created nature, are


is,finite

only potential as the Schools fay ; that

beings

may be

multiply'd and modify'd in numberlefs ways, but they do not


actually
exifi:

nor contain thefe modes.

There

is

and can be
produ-

no
ced

real arithmetical or geometrical infinite in nature


;

no

infinitely great

nor

infinitely little, actually exiftent.

For

this reafon the greateft

Geometer of thelafl: age, Sirlfaac


an
infinitely fmall quantity.

Newton, never

called a fluxion

13^

OF THE RELATIVE
COR.

Book IL

as foreigners do;

but an ideal divifion ofquantlty that may

be continued without end.


III.

Hence

the notion ofMalebranche,that the world already

produced is the mod: perfect


ly groundlefs.

God could have created,is entire-

The worlds already produced,and all the worlds producible to eternity ,will never become a maximum, nor an o P T I M u M the beft and the greateft to which nothing can
,

be added; becaufe

in the fcale

of finites the progreflion


of his emanant

is

boundlefs; becaufe God's power of creating can never beexhaufted,

and becaufe the

efFefts

a6ls mufi: al-

ways be
finite,

infinitely inferior to his

producing power, always

and multipliable without end.

COR.

IV.

Hence the divine activity by operating In and upon matter, may produce in the leaft atom, new forms, new motions, new divifions, and thereby numberlefs beauties without end. For the fame reafon God may aft eternally upon thefinalleft and
loweft intelligences, fo as to enliven, enlighten and beatify

them forever and

ever

by

a continual progreffive

communi-

cation of life, light, and love; of aaivity,wifdom, and goodnefs.

COR.
Hence as God may
ties

V.

exalt,

augment, and enlarge the facul-

of intelligent natures

to

any finite degree ofpcrfeftion how

great focvcr,fo he

may by

fufpending the fame activity reduce

them to any finite degree of infcnfibility how low foever.Thus intelligences made for the enjoyment of him who is infinite, may become fo ftupid that they have no other ideas, nor fen-

Book
fations,

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
terreftrlal objects,

137

but what regard

and the corporebe more


ful-

al vehicles In

which they are imprifoned j


c o R. VI.

as fhall

ly unfolded hereafter.

Hence God's
figns cannot

primitive, ultimate, pofitive

and abfolute deis

be eternally fruftrated; for fincehe

infinitely

wife he can propofe


fible:

no end but what

is

reafonable and pofit.

and

fince

he

is

infinitely powerful

he can execute

Fi-

nite impotency, folly

and malice cannot furmount for ever infinite power, wifdom andgoodnefs: and therefore to whatever degree of mifery and corruption his creatures may fall,
he may
if he pleafes reftore, exalt

and recover them from it.

PROPOSITION
Creation
nal Beings.
is

XXL

a reprefentation

of God by exter-

DEMONSTRATION.
can create nothing but what he loves (a); God can love nothing but what refembles him in fome degree (b): therefore creation
is

God

a reprefentation of

God by external Beings.

SCHOLIUM.
When we
lute eiTence,

afcend to the

firfi:

caufe,

and confider his abfofally

we

will find that the

only reafon he had to

outof himfelf, was


diftina

to impart perfeaion

and happinefsby
is,

re-

prefentlng himfelf in external beings; that

by fubfhnces

from

his

own.
XVI.

He

can love nothing and fo wills no(b) Cor. 4. of Prop. XI.

(a) Cor. 4. of Prop.

138

OF THE RELATIVE
him
in

Book IL
as

thln^ but wliatrefembles

feme degree,

nothing

elfe

can be pcrfefl or happy. In contemplating his eternal perfections, whofe fimple and indivifible unity is not only equivalent but alfo infinitely fuperior to
all

pofTible multiplicity,

He faw

them

fo beautiful

and

fo excellent;

he was fo deligh-

ted in beholding his confubftantial image, that by the free im-

pulfion of the

Holy Ghoft,

his eifential goodnefs, coeternal

love and lover, he

was determined

to

produce a numberlefs

multitude of living images and lively pictures, not by dividing


his fubftance,

and

ere<5ling

the different parcels of it into fereal beings diflinel

parate fubflances;
himfelf,

but by creating

from

and reprefentative of his

all-beautiful eifence.

Thus

the free communicative goodnefs of God, flowed from the


love ofhisconfubilantial image,
ginally

and

fo all the creatures ori-

God

were reprefentative of the divine perfefllons; otherwife could not have loved them; nor confequently willed

their exiflence.

This will be clearer than any mathematical


if we
refle(51:

demonltration

upon the nature of infinite power,


cannot ad feparately and indeefFecls

and

infinite goodnefs.

They

pendently;

God
it

cannot produce without loving the

of his power; he cannot love them unlefs they refemble him;

and from hence

follows demonflratively, that in the original

creation all Beings were reprefentative of the divine perfection.


I fay the original creation, becaufe the prefent flate

of

nature, in this fmall point of the univerfe

we now
things,

inhabit, is

quite different

from the

primitive flate

of

when they
demon-

came pure out of the hands of God,


ftratcd hereafter.

asfhall be fully

Book IL

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD,
CO
*

135,

R.

I.

Hence, none but the fon or the confubdantial image of the father, for whom, and by whom all things were made,*
can

know the properties and beauties of nature,


and the
original;

the perfecH: refinite

femblances and innumerable relations betwixt


nite; the pl(5lures

and

Infi-

none but he can manlfefl


It
Is

and reveal them

to finite intelligences.

only by his light


creator

and an intercourfe with him, that we can know the

and the
ficer

creatures, the caufe


his numberlefs

and

its

efFeds, the fovereign arti-

and

works.

COR.
Hence in
manners;
a flate

II.

of pure and

exalted nature

God

could

nianifefl his divine perfe(^ions to intellciftual beings, in

two

either

by admitting them to the immediate vlfion

of his abfolute eifence, or by difplaying to them his power, vifdom and goodnefs In his created reprefentations. They

may contemplate the


merce with the pure
other.

original or the pi(5tures ; enter into


divinity, or into mutual fociety with

comeach

COR.

III.

Hence, to know the Intimate effencc of things, we mufl know the preclfe degrees of perfedlon God intended to reprefent

by them and therefore it is that we cannot know


;

thefe

intimate effences,

till

'

we

fee

God as he is,'

and all things In


behold the o-

him,

till

we

be admitted to the beatifick

vifion,

riglnal reprefented,

and the copys reprefentlng.

COR.
Hence, It was a
that
veryjull:

IV.

and folld principle of Mr. Locke,

we

have no clearer ideas of the Intimate efTcnce of mat-

I40
ter,

than of fpirlt.

OF THE RELATIVE Book 11. We know that there an extended fubis

ftance,

whofe

efTential properties are figurability, divifibility,

and mobility: we know


telligent fubftance,

that there muft be in nature an inefTential attributes are a

whofc
and

power of
the one
:

perceiving, rcafoning

willing.

We know that

is

capable of different figure s,divifians,


that the other
Inclinations.
is

and motions we

know
and

fufceptible

of

different ideas, reflexions,

We
as

have

as clear ideas

of perception, reafon

and volition,
motions for
;

of figurability,

divifibility,

and mobility; of

thoughts, judgments, and defires,as of figures, divifions, and

we

can compare them, dilHnguifh them, judge

of their refemblances and differences, and affirm of the one what, we deny of the others. As we do not know how the
foul perceives, reafons,
ideas

and wills, becaufe we have no adequate


obje<5ls aft

of the manner
itfelf ;

how

upon

it,

nor

how

it

afts

know how bodies are figured, dibecaufe we have no adequate ideas of the vided, and moved manner how the moving force afts upon them, nor how they a6t upon each other. We do not know the abfolute, intimate
upon
fo

we do
;

not

cffcnce

of that fomething which


and

is

figurable,
is

divifible

and

moveable;

nor of that fometliing which


will.

capable of perthat thefe

ception, reafon

We

know however,
;

two

fomethings muft be different fubftances

as fhall

be fhewn

hereafter, becaufe they have incompatible


attributes
;

and contradiftory

tation as

and therefore Locke might without fomuch hefihe fhcws, pronounced that cxtcnfion and intelli-

gence could not be properties of the fame fubltancc.

COR.
Hence Malebranche was

V.

egregioufly miftaken,

when he

Book IL
elTence

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
clear, adequate ideas
at all

141

mantained that we have

of the intimate

of matter, but none


that

of

fplrit.

He confounds the

idea

of matter with

of extenfion, the fubjecfl with the pro-

perty, and the fubflance with the primary attribute. that the adequate effence

He fays
extenfi-

of matter

confifls in extenfion, be-

caufe

all

the attributes and

modes of matter fuppofe


faid, that

on

but for the fame reafon he might have

the ade-

quate elTence of Ipirit confifts in a power ofperception or intelligence, becaufe all the attributes or

modes of
plain that

fpirit

fup-

pofe intelligence or perception.


fay a

Now

it is

when we
of

power of

intellection,

we mean only an

attribute

fomething that underftands; and therefore by the rules of analogy,

when we
is

fay extenfion,
It

we mean only an attribute of


is

fomething that is extended.


tenfion
a

true indeed that actual ex;

permanent property of matter whereas


thought
is

a6lual in-

telleClion or

not fuch, as Locke has very well de-

monftrated; but then

we do
;

not compare aftual extenfion


a power

with a<5l:ual

intelle<ftion

butonly with

of intelligence.
to matter.

The one is as
as

elfential to fpirit, as the

other

is

We

can never lofe the power ofunderftanding and perceiving; tho',

we fhall ftiew,
of

adlual thought

may be
is

fufpended in us for

feveral ages.

Now
fpirit,

as the intellciflual faculty is the

primary

attribute

fo extenfion

the primary attribute

of

matter.

As the power of feeling,

reafoning and willing are


figurability, divi-

only fecondary attributes of the former; fo


fibility

and mobility are only fecondary

attributes or confe*
is ftlll

quences of the latter: but then our ignorance

the fame

of the precife, intimateand adequate nature of that fome what

which

is

extended, and of that fomewhat which

is

intelli'Knt,

142

OF THE RELATIVE
COR.
vr.
there
is

Book

11.

Hence
of

a great difference betwixt our knowledge


J

and our knowledge of attributcs.The one fuppofes an adequate idea of a being, according to all the extent of To fee the inits nature the other only a partial idea of it.
effences,
;

timate effence of things is to fee

God fees them; it is to fee all that belongs to them: to know the attributes is to know only a part of what belongs to them. The former we fliall behold only in the other life; we now fee the latter onthem
as

lyfo far as

is

neceffary to diftinguifh beings

from each other.


fee the rivulets

We do not fee the fource or effence,


or attributes
ftance
is
;

but we

and

tlierefore

can as really
at the

diftinguifli

one fub-

from another as if we were

fountain head.l'his

the foundation of all true philofophy:

butes, modes, relatives, and qualities;


offences, fubftances,

we know only attribut we do not know

and abfolute natures.

The

perfection

of reafon and wifdom in our prefent flate confifts as much in knowing the bounds of human underftanding, as in knowin"" its extent:

and indeed the true knowledge of the one is infeparable from the other. To pretend to fee what we do not fee, is as imperfeft as not to difcover what we may fee.

To go beyond
is

the limits

is

an excefs

to ftop fhort

of them

a defeat.

We

have thus explained Infinite power with regard to the


;

produaion of things finite

let

us

now confider

infinite wif-

dom, with

relation to the

knowledge of finites.

Book

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
XXII.
and

143:

PROPOSITION
It

was equally

a matter

of

free choice

will in
.

God

to think

of finite

ideas, as to create

finite fubftances.

DEMONSTRATION.
Free a^lion
in

God is what he may do

or not do, without


Iiis

interefting the elTential happinefs

and perfection of

na-

ture (a) ; the

knowledge of the pure and abfolute efTence of

God,

is

alone fufficient tocompleat the perfc<5tion of the di;

vine underftanding
tions are no

and other

ideas, thoughts,

and concepit

way

necelTary to this perfection (b): therefore


free choice

was equally matter of

and

will in

God to

think

of finite

ideas, as to create finite fubftances.

SCHOLIUM.
When we impofe filence upon fenfe and
raife

Imagination, and

up our minds

to the contemplation

of the pure and ab-

folute effence

of God, without any

relation to created nature,

we

difcern that his underftanding

may be infinitely perfect in


finds in this fole idea

the generation of his confubftantial image, tho' he had never

thought of any other clTence.

He

an

infinite objecl, that fatisfies his boundlefs Intellect.

This great
felf-fufiicl-

principle

is

a necefiary

ccnfequence of the divine

ency.

If any other idea were necefTary to the completion of

God's boundlefs knowledge, the contemplation of his luminous elFence could not
(a)

fufficc

him.

He would be obliged, fb

Cor

2.

of Prop. XIII.

(b) Cor. 5. of Prop. XIII.

144
to fpeak, to

OF THE RELATIVE
go out of himfelf to find
in the ideas

Book

II.

of other be-

ings, the full perfection

of his underitanding. Nothing thereto the fovereign indepenthat by ne-

fore

is

more unfuitable or injurious


felf-fufficiency
is

dency and
cefTity

of God, than to fuppofe

of

nature, he

obliged to think of any thing but his

own pure and abfolute


to him;

effence.

He waspleafed however, moft


by things
external
in his divine underftan-

freely to confider himfelf as reprefentable

and thus he formed freely

ding, the archetypal ideas


diflin<5t

of finites, which
idea God has

are as cflentially

from the confubftantial


diftin6l

of himfclf,as the

fubihnces of finite are

from the fubftance of God.

The
knows
felf,

fchoolmen will

fay,

that

God knows himfelf necef-

farily as reprefentable

from without; and confequently he


manners of thus reprefenting himof finites.
lanfwer,
it is

neceiTarily all the

and

fo has necefTarily all the ideas

that

God

ncceffarily
;

knows

his abfolute effence as far as

knowable
is

but I deny

thatit follows

from thence, that

God

neceiTarily obliged for the perfeftion

of his divine under-

ftanding,to confider himfelf as reprefentable


nal.

by things

exter-

For

this reprefentation

being

relative to the creatures,

does not belong to the abfolute eflence of God; otherwife the


fole idea

of his

own

effence could not fuffice him,


I reafon always
finite,

and

Co

he wouldnot be

felf-fufHcient.

of God's
will

knowledge with regard to things


with regard to them;
as the

as

of God's

one

is

free, fo is the other:

as

the effects of the one, or the fubftances, were not eternal,


(o neither

were the

effe(5ts

of the other, or the

ideas; as all

theeffences of things finite addnothing tohisinfinite eifence,


fo all the ideas

of

finites

add nothing to his confubftantial

i-

BookIL
dea.

attributes of god.
in the procefTion
infinite love, fo

14^

As he found
eternal

of the Holy Ghoft, the


in the

completion of his

he found

generation

of his

Logos, the

totality of infinite

knowledge.

As

he produced freely in his divine immenfity finite fo he formed freely in his divine underftanding

fubflances,
their ideas.

As

all

the collciHied finite fubflances are not God's indivifible

fubflance, fo the

whole colledion of finite

ideas

is

notGod's^

confubflantial idea.

As

the former were not neceffary to the

happinefs of his will,fo the latter were not neceffary to the


perfeftion

of his underftanding. As he might have been

eter-

nally without the one, fo he might have been eternally with-

out the other.


ftances,

fo

As he may cancell and annihilate all finite fubhe may forget and blot out of his underftanding
to re-enter again into his eternal folitude.

all finite ideas,

The fchoolmen will urge,


variation,

that if God could drop his ar-

chetypal ideas of finites,then there might be in him, mutation,

and fucceflion, which

is

impoffible. I anfwer, that


efFefts there is
'tis

in

God's neceffary a<5ls, and immanent

and can

be no variation, nor fhadow of change: but


free
acfts

not fb in his

and emanant

effefls.

Here the fchoolmen have enimo. Whatever


It
is

gaged themfelves in a maze notonlyof unexplicable difHculties,

butof abfolute

contradictions,
is

is

coe-

ternal with the divine effence,


fible that

confubftantial.

impof-

what was known and

will'd

from

all eternity,

could

have been mutable, or changed;

and what could not have

been changed

is

neceffary and not free.

Thus

all finite

ideas

become

coetcrnal, confubftantial, neceffary

modes of the di-

vine mind.
tial,

2do. If all

finite ideas

be coeternal, confubftan-

neceffary

modes of the

divine mind, they muft be

Godj

i^6
fince,

OF THE RELATIVE
according to the fchoolmen,
all

Book
in

II.

that

is

God

is

God

and therefore thcfe ideas muft partake of the divine adivity,


intelligence, reality

and perfection.

Wherefore the

creation

of fubftances
ous ideas,
pofTible
;

diftinft

from

thcfe intelligent, aflive, felf-confci-

is

ufelefs.
all finite

Thus

creation becomes abfurd

and im-

and

ideas or finite beings are coeternal, con-

fubltantial pcrfonalities, hypoftafes

and inherencies of the

di-

vine efTence.

3tio. If all the ideas

of finite be immanent, per-

manent, necefiary, eternal modes and objects of the divine

mind, then

all

the ideas of finite muft be

God.

The idea of
as the

a triangle, a horfe
fubftantial idea or

and a man are God,


Logos.

as

much

confinite

Now if the ideas


how
a(5ls,

of things

be God, the beings


for
it is

anfvv^ering to thefe ideas

muft be fo too;

impoflible to conceive

the efFe6ls of God's im-

manent, permanent, coeternal


eternal

are not alfb neceifary, coas the colidea, fo

and confubftantial. Thus we muft fay that

lc(Jlionor

fum of

finite ideas is

God's confubftantial
is

the

fum of
is

all finite

fubftances
this

God's

infinite

fubftance.

^rhls

pure Spinofifm, and


till

odious fyftem can never be

overturned,

the fchoolmen learn to diftinguifti betwixt


a6ls;

God's immanent and emanant


properties of the

and not to confound the


It
is

one with thefe of the other.

abfolute-

ly falfe that the production


is

and coexiftence of all


noectypal

finite ideas

a perfe(5tion,

and an immanent ad of the


finite,

divine mind.

No

archetypal ideas of things


ces enter into the
ftill

as

finite fubftan-

eternity

of God's abfolute

eflence.

We

may and muft conceive an eternal duration antecedent to all time, wherein God neither thought of nor created any thing
finite.

This

fuccefiion in

God, or

his free paflage

from

his

Book
ftill

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

147
finite, is

eternity to the conception and creation of things

the highefl perfe<5tion, and anecefTary effect of his unboun-

ded

felf-fufficiency.

Succejflion in the creatures


is

always fup-

pofes Ibme defeft, and

a neceifary adjunct

of their bouninfinite

ded

capacities.

Becaufe they cannot exhaufi:


neceflarily conceive

by one

fingie view,

theymuft

ceffion,

and progreilion.
all finite ideas,

by parcels, by fucWhereas God by one fimple aft


all

exhaufts

and

their pofTible combinations;


a<n:

but he
It
is

is

free to exert this arbitrary

of his underftanding.
it

not necefTary to the perfection of his intelled;

adds
*

nothing to the happinefs of his will.


*

When it
from

is

faid that
'

he

loved and predeftinated the


that

ele(5l

all eternity,

this

means

he

will'd,

lov'd,

and decreed

their happinefs be-

fore time,

and from the beginning, when he fally'd out of his

eternal folitude.

For

this reafon

it is,

that in fcripture

from

the beginning, and from eternity, are very oft fynonimous.

Thefchoolmen
deas of things

will perhaps fay that if the archetypal

i-

finite exiftin

the divine underfi:anding,they muft

be necefTary; fince God's underftanding and his effence are


the fame
;

and becaufe

all

that
is

is

in

God is God. This maxafts,

im as we have already

faid

true

of God's neceffary
a(fls

and

immanent
feds.

cfftdis

but not of his emanant


the fame

and

free efall

We might reafon in

manner thus;

fub-

ftances exift in the divine immenfity;

God's effence and im-

menfity are the fame, therefore allfubflancesareinherencies,


hypoflafes, or perfonalitics
fa reafoned.

of the divine effence; thus Spinoof impiety, we


acfts.

To

fliun therefore this abyfs

muft always diftinguifh in God, his necefTary and free

The efFc(fls of the one

are

God;

the efTeds of the other are

f48
nature.

OF THE RELATIVE
The
efFe^s

of the former are the

Book II. eternal Word and

Holy Ghoft.

The

effe6lsof the latter are material and im-

material fubftances.

The one are The

immanent, confubftantial,

and infinitely infinite, coequal


origination only excepted.

to their caufe in all things, felf-

others are emanant,

diftincH:

from God, bounded and

multipliable without end.

a^s of God's eternal power, and of his eternal love


diftinguilhed Into necefTary

As the may be

and free, foby the

rules

of analodiftingui-

gy, the a6ts of his eternal underflanding

may be

fhcd into necefifary and

free.

Thefchoolmen
all

will cry out that

God knows

neceffarily
:

that

is

poffible, otherwife

he would be ignorant

but the

archetypal ideas of things finite are poflible; therefore

God

knows them
of things

neceffarily.

anfwerthat the archetypal ideas


finite fubftances are

finite are

nothing, as the real

nothing antecedent to the divine free thought and


is

will.

There

no

objective reality in finite ideas

till

freely as reprefentable

from without.

God confider himfelf The divine effence is


all

indeed the model of archetypal ideas; but as the original docs,

not contain numerically and neceffarily

the piflures that


ef-

can be drawn of it, fo we muft not imagine that the divine

fence contains numerically and by neceffity of nature all the ar-

chetypal finite ideas

otherwife
is

thing fclf-exiftent that

we muft fay that there is fonienot God or that the collc<5lIve fum
;

of finite ideas

is

the Logos.

Nowfince both
of things

thcfc tenets are

blafphcmous,we muft return to our firft principle, and acknowledge


tliat

the archetypal ideas

finite exift freely

in

the divine underltanding, as the cctypal finite fubftances exift


freely in the divine immenfity.

This fublime idea iniinua-

Book

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
Greek
fathers,

149

and renewed in the laftage by the pious Poiret, efcaped the fchoohnen; becaufe
about the twelfth century theyattach'd themfelves to theold Ariltotelian or rather Arabickphilofophy, which contains all
the feeds of fatality.

ted in feveral places of the

In
were
truths

fine,

the fchoolmen will

Infift

thus.

If ail

finite ideas

free,

then there could be no neceflary and immutable


I

whether geometrical, moral, or metaphyfical.

deny
about

abfolutcly the confequencc.


finite ideas as

We fhould reafon always


The exigence or

of finite fubftances.

creation

of things

finite is free;

yet creatures onceproduc'd they ftand

under neceiTary,

eternal,

and immutable

relations to each o-

ther and to their original caufe. Juft fo the ideas


free;

of finite are

God might have thought of them


eftabliflied

or not: but thefe ideas

being once

and formed freely in the divine under-

ftanding, there muft refult

from them
is

neceflary, eternal,

and

immutable truths.

For

truth

only the relation of confor-

mity or difagreement, equality or inequality amon?ft our Ideas. Thus God might have been eternally without forminothe ideas of divifible, moveable, and fignrableextenfion.
thefe ideas being once form'd,
all

But
of

geometrical truths flow

from them; becaufe

thefe truths enunciate the relations

conformity or difagreement, equality or inequality which neceffarily flow from, or are included in the idea of material
extenfion.

In the fame manner God might have been eternally without forming the ideas of finite intelligences. But thefe ideas being once form'd in the divine undcrftandlno-, all
moral truths follow neceflarily from them.

For fince the ideaof fpirit fuppofesneceiTarily knowledge and will; it is plain

I50

OF THE RELATIVE
and happinefs of all created

Book
;

11.

that the perfection

intelligences
this

mull depend upon knowing and loving

God

and from

principle flow all the divine, moral and focial duties. Thus in fine

God

might have been eternally without thinking of created


it

fubftancesof anykind;but thefe ideas once form'd,


ncceflarily that all created fubftances in a pure
ftate

follows

and primitive
origifubli-

were more orlefs reprcfentative of their uncreated

nal,

and from

this great principle

flow necelTarily the

meft metaphyfical truths.


It
is

by
and

thefe great principles alone that


felf-fufficiency.

we

can give

jufi:

ideas
fence,

of the divine
ftill

God in

his abfblute ef-

eternity

wants no other ideas nor objects to

complcat his

infinite

underftanding and beatify his unboun-

ded will, but the knowledge of his confubflantial image; and


the love of his

Holy Gholt.

All other ideas and loves,

all

o-

ther beings and fubftances are pure efFeds of his free afls.

They are not immanent,


nefs.

neceftary, coeternal

a<5ls,

but ema-

nant, arbitrary, tranfient afls of his power,

wifdomand good-

COR.
Hence
exiftence

I.

the dependency of finite beings as to their ideas and


divine free thought

upon the

and will, derogates

in

nothing from the certainty, immutability, and neceflity of eternal truths; becaufe fuch
is

the fecundity of the divine pro-

duftions whether real or ideal, that they contain neceffary,


infinite relations

and properties.

COR.
Hence
it

II.

were abfurd

to fay that becaufe the ideas

of finite

arc free, therefore

God might have altered the immutable na-

Book
tiire

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
and infallibly future what
poffible,
its
is

151

of truth, made a triangular circle, or a cubical fphere, feen


abfolutely contindif-

as certainly

gent and only

produced an intelligent creature

pens'd from loving

creator, deftin'd thegreatefl: part

of the

human
living

race to be eternally criminal

and miferable, form'd a


nor force,

image of himfelf that has no

a<n:ivlty, povi^er,

and thus by the fame individual afbfix'd and renvers'd, created


and annihilated, eftablifh'd and deftroy'dthe nature of things.

COR.
Hence
all

III.

the divine ads about finite beings, whether

of

his power, underftanding or love,

may

be confidered as free

modes of the

abfolutely infinite being;


a(n:s.

and not

as effentlaJ,

permanent and immutable


different from us, and even

Modes

are very oft imperfec-

tions in the creatures; becaufe they are produced


againft our wills
;

by agents
and

but the archety-

pal ideas that

Godproduces

freely in his underflanding,

the generous decrees he forms in his almighty will, are pure


efFe(n:s

of

his

own voluntary action.


by

All our fimple ideas are


ideas

pafTive perceptions or fenfations;

God's archetypal

of

things finite are conceived

himfelf, not perceiv'd or receiin:ipulfions

ved from others.


je<n:s

All our loves, are


us.

made by obis

that zS:

upon

God's love of finite beings

a free a6l

he produces

in himfelf.

As the effects of thcfe free ads

are e-

manant and diftind from the divine fubf]:ance,fo the ads themfelves are

emanant and difHnd from the divine Logos.


ads nor
their effeds

Neief^

ther the
fence.

belong to God's abfolute

G O R. IV,
Since
all

the emanant ads of God's eternal power, under-

152

OF THE RELATIVE
no ways
interefi:,

Book IL
nor are nefollows that
it

(landing and love are free and


cefTary to the perfedlon

of

his cflence,

hence

God

is

eflentially

and abfolutely free as to the volition ofany

finite,

determinate, particular good.

He

might never have

thought of nor created, and therefore might never have beatify'd

any

finite intelligence.

He could

not create them to be

unhappy; but he was free never


them.

to think

of nor produce

COR.
Hence thefchoolmen
of God's immanent
ties

V.

are egregiouflymiftaken when they


is

maintain that the production of the intelligible world


afts.

one

Thus they confound


idea,

the proper-

of God's confubftantial
and
fo pave the

with thofe of his archetypal

ideas;

way to

Spinofifm, for
a<5ls,

when we coneafy to con-

found God's immanent and emanant


found
his

it is

immanent and emanant

efFe<5ts.

PROPOSITION
God
fible.

XXIII.

never forefees the free determinations

ofintelle<5luai agents;

but as contingent andpof-

DEMONSTRATION.
God
is,

never forefees things but as they are (a); free

aifli-

ons or determinations are thefe which maybe or not be; that


contingent and polFible (b): therefore

God never forefees

the free determinations of intellectual agents but as contin-

gent and poffible.


<a) Ax. 4. of tills Book. (b) Dcf. 4. of this Book.

Book

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

153

SCHOLIUM.
The
fclence

fclioolmen diftinguifh In

God

three forts

of knowcall

ledge orfcience:

the fcience of pofTibles, which they

of

fimple Intelligence; the fcience

of what

God

de-

crees abfoiutely to accomplifh,


fion: the fcience

which they

call a fcience

of vi-

of what depends upon the willof intellecHiual

agents,

which they call a middle fcience betwixt the other two.


the
firft

God fees
extent,

in his

own

power, becaufe he knows

all its

which

is

the only fource

of poffibility.

He

fees

the

fecond In his

what he

own will, becaufe he knows how to accomplifh decrees. He fees the laft in the nature of Intelligent
knows what will be
the necelTary confeperfift in

beings, becaufe he

quences of their free determinations fo long as they

them.

All the fchoolmen however affirm that

God forefees

every thing that happens, even the moral determinations of


free agents as certainly, abfoiutely,

and infallibly future; and

fo favour fatality; but they explain this infalJible prefcience in

two very

different

manners.
in the

The
thefe

difciples

of Molina

Roman communion,

and

of Arminius In the Proteftant church, maintain that


fees all future contingencies in his all-comprehenfive
all

God

underihnding, which reprefents to him


prefent.
'
*

things future as

The

creatures, fay they,

do notexiftin themfelvcs

till

they be produced; but they coexift with

God from

all

e-

'

ternity in this fenfe, that


litics,

he

fees their

exigence and moda-

anions, pafTions and free determinations as really

prefent.

Hiey are

future only with relation to each other,

but actually prefent with relation to God,

who by

ncccffi-

'

154
ty

^F ^^^ RELATIVE
of nature fees
all

Book IL
;

things without fucceflion


fees
is
;

not becaufe
as if
it

he decrees them, but becaufe he


ready were. His foreknowledge
turition,
is

what will be

al-

not the caufe of their fubecaufe with

but he fees all as prefent

him there
he
a

no

fucceffive

moments. They compare

this prefcience to

the fight of a

man, whofe eye may be

fo improv'd, that

may

fee at a great diftance

what other men can only

fee at

man elevated to a great height would fee unmov'd what other men fee only by changing place. Thus
fmall one.

As

this

God

infinitely exalted

above

all

that

is finite,

fees

by a

fu-

pereminent knowledge

as prefent, all that

we

call future,

and that

is

fuch with regard to us, but not with regard to


as the fight

God.

Now

of an action prefent

is

not the

caufe of that aflion, fo this foreknowledge does not influ-

ence nor produce future contingencies.


I anfwer in the
fent, the future
firlt

place, that if

God

faw future

as pre-

would

neceflarily
at the

happen; becaufe the prefame time.

fent cannot be

and not be

For

fince di-

vine prefcience cannot be deceived,


libly, certainly,
ly,

what God

fees as infal-

and abfolutely future,

mufl: infallibly, certain-

and abfolutely happen.

This

infallible prefcience

fuppo-

fes that all

things future will certainly exift in fuch a time, in

fuch an order, and in fuch circumftances, and not otherwife.

Thus an inevitable fatality


ever be the caufe of it.
It

is is

eftablifhed over all nature,

what-

true indeed that this

foreknow-

ledge

is

not the efficient caufe of future contingencies; but

to forcfee thus their certain cxiltence, renders their futuriti-

on

as unavoidable, as if they

were

really predetermined.

The

comparifon advanc'd betwixt God's foreknowledge and the

Book
yea, a
tent,

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
is

155

view of a man, whofe fight

improv'd,

is

altogether unjuft,

mere Sophifm. In the

latter cafe there is a

reaHty exif-

which may betheobje^tof the long-fighted man's perception: but in the free determinations of rational agents,
there
is

no reaHty

pre-exiftent that can be the objecft

of the

divineprefcience.
will,

For (ince

God does not fee them


is

in his

own

he cannot

fee their certain, determinate,

and immutable
fuppofed by the

futurition in the will

of free agents, which

Molinifts and Arminians to be uncertain, undetermined, and

mutable.

Wherefore

this prefcience

independent of
firft

all

preis

determination, premotion, and efficiency in the


impofTible, repugnant
tive

caufe,

and contradidory.

It

is

a mere palliais

fcheme, that does not fave liberty, and that


is

altogether

unphilofophical. It

theevafion of afeeble fuperficial mind,

that does not examine things to the bottom,

and that con-

tents itfelf to flave off the impious confequences

drawn from

predetermination, while itfliipwracks anddeftroys freedom.

The Molinifts
to

then are as much

fatalifts as

the Thomlfts and


all

Janfenifts ; but with this difference, that thefe latter impute

God's immediate efficiency and abfolute decrees

where-

as the former eftablifh a latent fatality in the nature

of things

independent of God; and fo border upon Epicurifm, whofe


pretended freedom was nothing but a voluntary or fponta-

neous
but

neceffity.

We chufe without any foreign conftraint,


all

we

chufe neceffarily, becaufe

isforefeen infallibly,

and

muft happen, whatever be the caufe of this futurition.


I anfwer in the fecond place that
it is

abfolutely falfe, as
fi-

we

have already demonftrated, that the coexiftcnce of all

nite ideas in the eternal

mind

is

a ncceffary perfection

of the

1^6
divine nature.

OF THE RELATIVE
fpirit,

Book

II.

If this were fo, then the knowledge of all the

imperfect forms of matter and

of all the

follies, pafll-

ons, and vices, of all the errors, corruptions and blafphcmies

of depraved

intelligences

would be asnecelTary objcd:sof the


knowledge of
is

divine contemplation, as the


ftantial

his

own

confub-

image.

This notion

impious, horrible, and diameall

trically oppofite to

the fublime doflrine of


in

the divinely

infpir'd writers,

who fay

many

different places, that


;'

God

can forget
*

fins

and blot out

iniquities

to infinuate that thcfe

ideas cannot be the eternal obje(5tsof the divine contemplati-

on. Forgetting in

finite

beings

is

not always an impcrfcelion,

but fometimes a great perfection.

To forget

ideas

and judg-

ments that derogate from,

ortliat are ufelcfs to the excellency

of our nature, and the accomplifhment of our reafonable de(igns, is a fublime perfcftioa.

Now there jiiuft be fomething


this perfection,

in the

fupreme archetype that refcmbles


is

in

the creatures, and this


'

what the

facred writers call in God,


'

forgetting fins, and blotting out iniquities,


ufelefs to the

as

unworthy
of thi-s fub-

of his remembrance, and


great defigns.

accomplifhnientof his

The

fchoolmcn

entirely ignorant

lime truth, maintain that the infinite perfection of the divine

underftanding extends equally and neceifarily to the

knowis

ledge of all objects and ideas, as the rays of the fun enlighten
equally the dunghill and the palace; but this comparifon
altogether improper.

The

rays

of the fun are neceiTary

e-

manations
the fun.
ver
all

of, or

impulfesmade by the body and fubftanceof


difllife its

It

cannot but

heat, light,

and influence o-

that

lies

within the fphere of its

activity.

Now we have

akcady dcmonflratcd that

God

is

cntiixly free to think or

Book

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
finite;

157

not to think of things

and therefore that he may with-

out derogating from the perfection of his abfolute elTence,


fufpend or continue the freea^ls of his underftandincr, as well
as the freeac^s

of his power.

All grant that he


flrike

may without

changing hisefTence annihilate or


jiienfity, all finite fubftances.

out of his divine im-

In the fame manner he

may
di-

without changing his eflence annihilate or blot out of his

vine underftanding the ideas of all the follies and blafphemics,


errors
all

and

vices

of finite beings.

As he will one day deftroy


ipirit,

the imperfect forms of matter and

fo

he

will

one day

forget thefe imperfed ideas for ever.

As

the boundlefs per-

fection of his infinite power does not depend

upon

his creatin<r

eternally
lefs

and

necelTarily all finite fubftancesj fo the

bound-

perfection of his infinite underftanding does not depend


his

upon
is

knowing eternally and necefTarily

all finite ideas.

He

perfectly free as to the exercife


a(5ts.

of one and t'other of thefc

two emanant
eternal

Wherefore the neceffary knowledge and coexiftence of all finite ideas, in the fupreme mind, Is

and incompatible with the felf-fufEciency, and boundkfs freedom of the fupreme intelled. Thus we have
falfe,abfurd,

endcavour'd to undermine the principal prop of the


trine

falfc

doc-

about

infallible

and fatal prefciencc.


Calvinifts, Stoicks, Pharifees,

The Thomifts, Janfenifts,


and
predeftinarians

of

all

kinds maintain that infallible predecrees.


tiic
*"

fciencc depends
*

upon predeterminating
and

If God,

fay they, fee

all

the free determinations of


infallibly future,

creatures, as

'

abfolutely, certainly,

he muft fee them.

either in the will

of the

free creatures as a caufe, or

his

own

will as a caufe.

He

cannot fee them in the will of the

558
*
'

OF THE RELATIVE
it is

Book

II.

creature, fincc

fuppofed undetermined and unconftrai-

ned.

He

mufl: therefore fee


all

them

in his

own will,

becaufe

he has decreed from


ture

eternity to produce them in thecrea-

by a phyfical premotion and influence; or

to permit

the contrary by refufing this pliyfical premotion with which


the creatures aft and chufe certainly and infallibly what
is

'

good, and without which they can neither a6t,


termine themfelves to fupernatural good.
phyfical premotion, efficacious grace,
tion to fome, as a pure effed
fufes
it

will,

nor de-

He

grants this

and

celeftial

deleda-

'

of gratuitous mercy.
mercy, and

He
*'

re-

to others for reafons incomprehenfible to us.

He
he

*'

has mercy upon


wills

whom he will have


we mult

whom

he hardens." Here

adore in filence, and cry

out,

O ALTiTUDo!
and among

God, continue fome of thefefchoolof fimple intelligence


all

men, faw, by
turities;

his fcience

pofTiblefu-

thefe numberlefs poffibilities,

he chofe,

wiird,and decreed only one fucceffion of events, as the mod


proper to manifeft his pcrfe6tions.
celTarily a previfion

This plan contains ne-

andpre-eftablifhmentof all future conforefeen as infallibly future, becaufe all

tingencies.
is

All

is

'

pre-ordained by an immutable decree.

This predeftinarian fcheme feems


the

to be

an emanation of
in the fifth cen-

Manichean herefy

refin'd

and improv'd

tury,

and of the Arabian philofophy brought into Spain by


the twelfth century.
;

the
St.

Moors about

It

was maintain'd by
St.

Augufl:in,and Godefcalaus

nay many think, by

Tho-

mas, WiclefT, and Hufs; by Janfenius and Calvin, and by

many learned,pious and great men of all nations and communions, who did not fee all its fatal confcqucnces. They were

Book IL

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
give to them.

159'

impofed upon by feme dark palTages and exprefTions of St.


Paul,which welhall fhew hereafter to have had quite another

meaning than the predeftinarians


fchoolmen have invented

Tho' the
and cob-

many

fubtle diflinftions

webbs to
jargon,
to

cover, difguife

and

palliate the natural and necefTary

confequences of
it is

this fyftem, yet

when

flript

of its Arabick

impoilible for any fincere and penetrating


it

mind

deny that

tends to eftablifh an invincible fatality ; as will

fully appear
I

from the three following confiderations.


fees all the determinations

mo. If God

of intelle6lual

a-

gents in his

own
is

will as a caufe,

then they are no longer free,

becaufe what

abfolutely, certainly
is

and

infallibly future
it

by

the divine decree


luntary but
it

inevitable

and

mufi:

happen:

may be vois

cannot be

free, fince

freedom

neceffarily fup-

pofes what may be done or not be done.

There

fuch an

immutable fucceflion of events and actions pre-eitablifhed and


fore-ordained, that the creature cannotfhun them.
trary

The con-

may be pofTible in

the nature of things


is

but with regard

to the divine decree nothing

contingent;

ail is inevitable;

nothing could happen but what happens; yea


der and manner that
it

in the

fame or-

happens.

It

is

no matter whether the


is

creatures aft with or without conftraint, fince their aftion


inevitable.

All that happens

is

equally fore-ordained, infalis

libly forefeen,

undoubtedly future: the contrary


is

impoflible,

and the

latent fatality

invincible.

Intelleftual agents fan-

cy they aft freely becaufe they aft voluntarily or Ipontaneoufly; but

they are only

fpiritual

machines determined by

irreis,

fiftible fprings.

The

difference betwixt

them and bodies


feel

that the

one

feel,

and the others do not

what pafTes in

i6o
thcni.

OF THE RELATIVE
Thus
all

Book

11.

future events hang together

by a continued,

uninterrupted chaui of caufes and effccts,\vhere one link can-

not be difplaced without dcftroying the whole plan of providence. This


is

very near to the do6trine of Spinofa, tho' in


is

other words; this


ternal order
:

what he
fhall

calls

the immutable laws of eprefently, Spinofa


atheift,

for as

we

ihew

thought

himfelf neither a materialift, nor an


alift

but a perfect ide-

and predeftinarian.
I

2do.

grant indeed that

God

forefeesas infallibly future,


as

what he

abfolutcly wills

and fore-ordains. But


fin

he cannot

will abfolutcly

nor fore-ordain the

and damnation of the


moral
en-

creatures,

he never forefees them as abfolutcly and infalUbly


to this harfh, dark fyftem,
evil

future.

According

ters neceffarily into the plan


rors,

of eternal providence.
devils

The erand dam-

pafTions, vices,

and blafphemies of the

ned arc not only forefeen, but fore-ordained as abfolutcly future in order to accomplifh the divine decree.
vvill'd deliberately

Thus God
of fin; for
it,

and

freely the future exigence


it,

tho'

he could have hindered

yet he not only permitted


it,

but even he chofe and decreed to permit

as the
as

moft proper
fays,

method of difplayinghisperfec1:ions. Thus,


fin
is

Vannini
is

as

conformable to the divine will

as virtue. All

equal-

ly an effect

of God's immediate
forefees
it

a6lion,

or of his deliberate

choice.

He

as infallibly future, becaufe

he fore-or-

dains

it

as necclTary to

compleathis pre-eftabliflied plan.

Can

any upright and

religious

mindfee

this doctrine
fiiall

unravelledand

not be llruck with horrour?

We

fiiew hereafter, that


all

God

never forcfawfin asinfaUibly future; that he did

he

could to liindcr it, without annihilating free agents;

thatjftridl-

Book IL
ly fpeaking,

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
he never permitted
it
;

i6t
all fenfes,

and that
will.

it is

in

a perfect contradidlion to his divine

The
fcience

firft

fcheme then of the fchoolmen concerning pre-

is

impoflible.

The fecond

about predetermination

is

impious, and both bring in fatality.


courfe to a third opinion
trine

We
St.

mufl: then have re-

which feems

to have

been the docis

of all the Greek fathers before


principles,
finite, in

Auguftin. It

foun-

ded on the following


with regard to things
potent.
farily

imo.

God

is

omnifcient

the fame fenfe that he is omni-

He is

not omnipotent becaufe he actually and necefall;

produces

but becaufe he can


Jufl:

when he
all;

pleafes pro-

duce

all that is pofTible.

fo

he

is

omnifcient with regard

to finite, not becaufe

he

neceifarily

knows
is

but becaufe

he can when he
already

pleafes

know

all

that

pofHble.

We have

fhewn

that

he was effentially

free to think or not to

think of the adions of finite beings.


is

The knowledge of them

notneceffary to the perfeflion of his boundlefs underf tan-

ding.

He fees them
of the

not by necefHty of nature, but from his

free love

creatures.

He

is

neither obliged to think

of

our elTence, nor of our anions or modalities; but he does fo out of his pure, generous and communicative goodnefs. It is
true that

God by his omniprefence fees


things ly
is

neceifarily all that is;

becaufe

all

open and bare before him.

But

this

can

be

faid

only of what

already exiftent, neceffary or Ineviis

table;

and not of what

contingent, pofllble and free. Beis

caufe as

we

have already remarked, there

no

reality exif^

tent in matters purely polTible that can be the obje6l


divine perception.
fr<;e<:reature,

of the

When God

therefore forms the Idea

of a

he forms that of an intelligence whofe determi-

262

OF THE RELATIVE
may be
or

Book IL
may not be;

nations he leaves unconftrain'd; they

and confequently their happening is only contingent and poffible.

Now to fee in
eternal decrees,

the nature of the creatures, or in his

own
It
is

what

is

only contingent and poflible,


is

as infallibly future to create

and

inevitable,

a perfe(n: contradi(n:ion.
eftabliilx
it is

and annihilate, to form and deftroy, to


his obje(5l

and overturn

by the fame individual ad:


by denying

pro-

ducing a triangular circle. Wherefore as

we do not derogate
that

from the

divine omnipotence,

he can pro-

duce the one, fo neither do


ence by denying that he can

we impeach
fee the other.
is

the divine omnifci^

In both

cafes,

the

ideas are incompatible, their union

impofTible,

and

fo

they
It

cannot be the objeds of the divine power or knowledge.

was therefore a llrange delirium in thefchoolmen

to attribute

toGod afcienceof what was


fo deftroys
all

impoflible to be

known, which
and
and
fan6tity

deftroys liberty, cftablifhes an univerfal fatality in nature,

God's moral

attributes

of juftice,

goodnefs ; and all this under pretext of exalting his knowledge.-

This

impofTible, contradi(5tory idea

of prefcience rcfembles

the monftruous error ofSpinola.


Sophift,

This dark philofbpher or

under pretence of exalting God's abfolute plenitude,


power, made him contain neceffarily and produce
all finite

and

infinite

immanently

fubftances and their modes, juft fo the

fchoolmen, under pretence of exalting God's all-comprehcnfive intelligence

and

infinite

knowledge, make him contain


all

neceffarily,

and produce immanently

ideas

of

finite

fubif all

ftances

and modes: for as we have already remarked,

the colle(n:ion of finite ideas enter neceffarily into and

comthe

pofethe divine omnifciencc;

it

follows evidently that

all

Book

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

i6^

colle(n:ion

of finite fubftances mufl: enter into and compofe the divine fubftance. We ought always to reafon about the afls of God's power and will, as about the acls of his underftanding. If the
firft

laft

be

eternal, neceffary

and immanent, the two


afl conjointly

muft be fo alfo^becaufe God's eternal, necelTary andim-

manent power, underftanding and will


feparably
in,

andin-

by and with each

other.

The

fchoolmen

will fay that the ideas,or the objects eternal, neceffary and

of

God's knowledgeare

immanent, where-

as the fubftances that are the effects


rary, free, tranfient productions

of

his

power

are tempo-

of

his will,altogether diftinfl

from God

and therefore that no comparifon ought to be

made betwixt God's omnipotence and omnifcience.


abfolutely deny.

This I

They

fuppofe a principle which they can

never prove.

We have already

demonftrated the contrary.

The archetypal
tions

finite ideas are free produ(ftions

of God's un-

derftanding, as the e6typal finite fubftances are free produc-

of his power. Once more

I repeat the fublime principle.

We muft reafon of all God's


pended for ever the
a(fts

a(5ts

concerning finite beings ac-

cording to the rules of analogy.

As God might
power and

have

fuf-

of

his free

free love,

without being impotent or unjuft; fo he might havefufpen-

ded for ever the ads of


ignorant.

his free

knowledge without being


free,

His generous, communicative,

and

difinte-

refted goodncfs alone

engaged him to exert

all

the three.

None of thefc a(5ts


of his
nature,

interell necelTarily the eifential perfection


all

and

their effects

when compared
finites

to hisab-

folute effence are nothings.

The

free production, the free

knowledge, and the free love of all pofTible

can

make

i64
wifdom, and

OF THE RELATIVE
effential aftivity,

Book
deiftical

II.

no augmentation of God's
fcholaftick errors

confubftantlal

coeflentlal love.

All the Spinofian,

or

on this head come from the fame


ftill

fource, a

profound ignorance of God's


aious doctrine

eternity,

and of the lumi-

of the Trinity.

Thefe pretended philofophers


relative attributes
j

confound God's abfolute eflence with his


his

immanent

afts

with his emanant fecundity; his

effential

aftivity, confubftantlal

image, and coetcrnal love, with the

free exercife of his creating power, arbitrary knowledge,

and

acceflbry beneficence. Perplexed and and diffipated by a confufed

crowd of

ideas,

they fancy that the perfection of the diconfifts in

vine

intelle(51:,

Hke that of their own,

going out of

himfelfto

know

other objects, and that the completion of

the divine power, underftandingand love,


ly,

demand

neceffari-

and

confift in the producing,

knowing, and beatifying


all

numberlefsobje5ts without himfelf;


fences, fubftances

whofe

ideas

and

ef-

and modes, are but an


infinitely great;

infinitely little,

when

compared with the


fore immenfity,

an atom that difappears beneceffa-

and an abfolute nothing that has no


infinite.

ry relation to abfolute
dring fouls
ail their
is

The

only cure of thefe wan-

true recoUe^lionj

and a thorough converfion of


all

powers
all

to the boundlefs objc<5l that furpaffes

con-

ception and
in fpirit

expreffion,

and that can be adored therefore


and

and

in truth

only by the filence of the mind, as well


tafte, feel,

asby that of the mouth. Till they


Ipiritual

praftifc this

adoration of the fupreme infinite, they muft form


a

and forge
fort

God

like to thcmfelves,

and

fo

remain for ever a

of miftaken

idolaters as well as incredulous.

2do. Tho'

God

never deftroys the liberty of intcllcftual

Book

11.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
;

i6s

agents by any fatal prefcience or prcdcfHnation

yet he

knows

howtoaccomplifh
in earth,

infallibly whatever

he pleafes in heaven and


agents.

by

free as well as

by necelfary

He has an abheart,

folute, fovereign,

incommunicable empire over the

and

will fooner or later reduce all fpirits

by

their free choice to

the great end for


tral

which he created them. As an infinite cenpower he never ceafes to draw them;but becaufe he will
of
his

never force their Hberty, he proportions, regulates, and fubmits, fo to fpeak, the exercife

almighty power to their


refift his

free natures.
attraction,

They

very oft flop, retard, and

divine

and by

the ftraight lines


univerfal center.

from which by he would condud them to their His long-fufFering patience is never difguf-

their natural, inherent adivity, deviate

tedj he never abandons

them

abfolutely;

he purfues them

through

all

the wild mazes

of their

deviation;

and tho' they


a(5livity,

dcfcribe, fo to fpeak,
berlefs curves

by

their centrifugal free

numone
all

of different kinds, yet he knows


to their almighty fourcc.

how to

reduce

them

all

one day

He fees by

fimple, unfuccefTive aft, all their poffible deviations,

and

the combinations of free and neceffary, of moral and phy/i-

imjnutablyany one fucceffion of events, that can deftroy their free choice. All his a<^ion in and upon them depends entirefixes

cal caufes:

but he neither forefees, foreordains, nor

ly

upon

their co-operation.
all

He

forefees not all that will hap-

pen, but

that can happen;

and provides for


and exclude

all polTible

contingencies.
fallibly,

This
fort

is

far

more perfed than

to forefee inall

only one

of

events,

the others,,

by an omnipotent irrcfiftible power, or by refufing them the graces necelfary toad othcrwife than they do: for it is far a

i66

OF THE RELATIVE
of events, and
all forts of means poflible,

Book

II.

greater perfecfllon to be able to execute his final defigns


all forts

by

than by one

fcries

of means prefixed and predetermined.


an
effort

This would be
It

jiiore

of power than of wifdom.


in

would not be
intel-

infinite

wifdom

God,to govern fpiritualautomata,or

ligent fpontaneous
ly

machines, that follow abfolutely, certain-

and

infallibly all his

motions

and that by

a paflive recepfree co-ope-

tion

of

his influences

and impreffions, and not a

ration with him.

True wifdom

in us confifts in engaging

without conftraint free agents to enter into our views, and


projefls,
tho' they could contradict, oppofe,

and overturn
is

them every moment. This prudence in finite minds, image of fupreme wifdom in the abfolute infinite.
In the inexhauftible treafures

a feeble

He finds

of his almighty power, wufdom

and goodnefs innumerable refburces and expedients to anfwer all pofTible events, and obtain his ends without dcftroying liberty, whatever be the free determinations

of the creatures.

The

deviations

may be

innumerable, and the means he has


are infinite.

to reclaim his

wandring creatures

This

is

the

admirable
ture,

oeconomy of divine providence explained in fcripwhich never reprefents God as a6ting upon fpiritual airrefiftible wills
;

gents by omnipotent,

but as changing his


his operation

conduc% managing their


to
all

liberty,

and adjufHng

the different motions and variations of their free choice.


forcfawall plans pofTible, and
all

God

the means to execute

the plan he chofe ultimately; but he faw thcfe means only as


pofTible,
fet

not as future.
fo that

He did not, fay I, chufc


none of them can be

this determinate

of means,

defeated, but

he

forcfaw that he could find in his infinite power, wifdom, and

Book
means.
e'er

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
freely to
feries

i6y

goodnefs,

how to accomplifh his end by all thefe different He fawthe infinite curves the creature could defcribe,
it

he brought
it

Its

end; and decreed that without


attentive to

fixing
all

to

any one

of means he would be
its

equally,

and whatever were

determinations, he could

at laft

accomplifh infallibly his ultimate defign.


extenfive idea
to

This is a

far

more

of providence, than that which

flakes

one determinate chain of means, and thereby the creature to an Invincible fatality. It is therefore ab^
folutely falfe, to maintain that all the particular aflions, paf^

down God

fions

and crimes; that


all

all

the Inlplratlons, virtues and gra-

ces; that

the wandrings, returns and determinations

of

each individual are fo forefeen, and foreordained that one link cannot be broke without diffolving the whole chain of
providence.

from being neceffary to the accomplifhment of God's great defigns, would entirely deftroy them, by converting free agents into fpiritual maa fatal chain far
It

Such

chines.

may be objecled
and

that if

God

forcfees that

he can

abfolutely, certainly

infallibly

reduce all lapfed beings to


is

the great end of their creation, then this event


certainly

abfolutely,

and

infallibly future,
laid

and

fo

no longer free, accorlafl

ding to the principles

down.

I anfwer that this


is

event

of the

total

re-efbblifhment of all beings

forefeen,

notbe-

caufe God has foreordained and pre-eflablifhcd a fixed. Immutable order, feries

andfuccefTion of means to obtain


It Is

it;

but

becaufein the nature of things,


finite finite

abfolutely ImpofTible that

Impotence, folly and malice can for ever furmount inpower, wifdom and goodnefs. Whatever be the obfti-

nacy, corruption, anddepravity of the creature,

God

knows^

1^8

OF THE RELATIVE
fooner or
later.

Book
is

II.

how to reclaim it
be but one

The end

one, and im-

mutable, but the means are


ftralghtline,

many and variable; as there can tho' there maybe numberlefs curves
TheUberty of the
creature con-

drawn betwixt two


fiits

points.

in the free choice


it

of one or other of thefc curves, by


with the means for

which

deviates, or in a free co-operation

ieS.\fymg thefe curves ; and not in a power to fruftrate for ever the end: which to maintain would be impious, as well as abfurd, as fhall

be fully demonftrated hereafter. Once more we


to

beg our readers to goon, and

examine the whole plan of

providence, e'er they judge of its feparate parts and branches.


3tio.

Tho' God does not


and

forefee,

nor foreordain

as abfo-

lutely, certainly,

infallibly future, all the determinations

of

free agents

yet he may forefee and foretell when heplea-

fes, all

the natural and ncceflary confequences of their free

determinations.

Thefc he

fees

not inhispredeterminating deintelligent

crees; but in the nature

of intelledual agents. All

beings chufe and a6t not only infallibly, but even neceflarily

according to what appears to them the

beft,

fo long as they

remain in that perfuafion. Their freedom


fing at
real

confifts

not in chu-

random without any motive or reafon of preference, or apparent, true or falfe, good or bad; far lefs does it

confiiHn a power to prefer what they think actually the


to

word

what they think abfolutely the

befl:.

We ihall

fully de-

monftrate thefe principlcsin the courfe of the following work.

If it be allowed to fuppofe them


is

till

we

prove them, then

it

plain that

when we

follow the

evil principle rather

than

the good,

falfe felf-love rather

than the true love of

God;

ihe blind fenfation of plcafurc, rather than the clear perccp-

Book

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

16^

when we refifl the divine grace and operation in us, when we perfifl: obftinately in our corruption; It is, I fay, certainly, abfolutely, and infallibly furc that we will altion of truth,

ways

prefer terreftrial to celeltial

good

prefent pleafure t6
this cafe

future happinefs, and vice to virtue.


forefee certainly,

In

God may

and foretell infallibly all the natural and neof thefe determinations in which were-

cefTary confequences

main obftinately
and
in

tho' freely.
all

Thus he may

arrange in devils

wicked

men

the natural and neceftary efFe^ls of

their free deUberate choice ;

damm up

their corruption

and

malice on one fide, open

its

fluices

upon another; and withfin,

out being the fource and caufe of their


infallibly all the free eruptions

overrule and direft

of evil

in

them, to the accom-

plifhment of his great defigns.


fource and fountain of
evil in

He

does not produce the

them, by any predeterminating

decrees, partial pretentions or arbitrary refufal


graces.

of neceffary

But he direds the


draw good from

manifeftations, the tide, the tor-

rent and the rivulets which flow


fo as to

from

this

empoifoned fource,

evil, light

from darknefs, and order

from

diforder.

This

is

the highefl effort not only of infinite


juftice

power, but of eternal wifdom,


fuperior to

and goodnefs; yea far creation itfelf when he found nothing to oppofe

or

refill:

his divine operation.

This

is

God's previfion
evil,

of,

and

provifion for the cure and extirpation of moral


fan6tity

while his

remains unftain'd, and the freedom of the creature

untouched.
*

In

this fenfe

God

is

faid in fcripture

to blind
let

the minds and harden the hearts of the wicked; to

loofe

'

the devils, and fend them to deceive mankind.

'

I'hcfe ac-

tions in

God

cannot regard the

firft

fprings

and abfolutely

170

OF THE RELATIVE
of
intellectual agents;

Book IL

free determinations

but the natural

neceflary confequences, and manifeftations of the evil principle in

them, to which they voluntarily adhere.

On the conno

trary afoul entirely given

up

to the divine will, pofTeiTed with

the divine

Ipirit,

and

faithful to the divine operation, will


it

doubt follow eternal order, fo long as


principle ;

remains in the good

and

it

will a6l
it

not only infallibly but neceifarily acbefi:.

cording to what

thinks the

In

this cafe

God may
ope-

make ufe of it
rate in
it

as his prophet, inftrument, or ambaffador;


as

and by it

he

pleafes; forefee certainly,

and foretell

infallibly

what will be the

natural and neceflary confequences

of its

free determinations.

Thus he forefees in angels and holy


their free choice,

fouls all the natural

and neceflary efle<5ts of

fo that his divine

\ie, light,

and love manifeft themfelves in

them, and by

them without deftroying liberty.

He
all

does not

produce in good

men

their free

moral determinations, but by


antecedent to
merit in

his preventing graces

and
real,

lights,

them, he gives them a

immediate, unchained power of

confenting to his divine operations.


ful,

If they continue faith-

he augments daily thefe firft graces, gives them new ones


leads

and

them from

light to light,
ftill

from grace

to grace,

from

virtue to virtue; yet


ly,

fo as they follow his


if they pleafed;

motions free-

and could
fo,

rcfifl:

them

yea very oft they


'

do
*

and thus retard

his operation.

ter

having tafted of the

Some of them even afheavenly gift, being made partakers


relifhed the

of the Holy Ghoft, having

good word of

God

and the powers of the world to come, fall away voluntarily, crucify in themfelves thefon of God afrefli, put him to open fhame,
'

<

(a) cxtinguifla the life


5.6.

of God in the

foul, dar-

(a) Heb. VI. 4.

Book

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

171

ken the illuminations of the eternal Word, and reject obftlnately all the infpirations of the divine fpirit. Thus of eled
chofen fouls they become reprobates and caftaways, by their

own

free deliberate choice

and

Infidelity

but

when devout
his

fouls continue faithful,

he confummates in them

work, and

transforms them into his divine image, purifies,


regenerates

fanclifies

them
and

to fuch a degree that they furrender to


all

him
and

their liberty
life, light

their

powers, fo that he becomes their

and love,

their force, their reafon

and their

will,

in fine the free but paflive inftruments of his holy defigns.

His divine

attractions, illuminations

and

infpirations
is

produce

efiicacioufly andabfolutelyall the good that

in them.

They

have no other merit but that of acquiefcing freely in his operations.


gives

They

co-operate freely, but

it is

he alone that

them the fupernatural power of a^ing,

feeing

and will-

ing

they correfpond freely to his aftion, but they

do not prolight,

duce in themfelves efficacioufly either the love, or the


or the force that enables them to confent,
a6l, fee,

and

will.

Now

this free

but paflive reception of the divine grace

is

the

higheft exercife of freedom,


ry, as fhall

and

leaves

no

place for vain glo-

be more fully explained hereafter,


liberty.

when we treat
of and
In
provifi-

of grace and

This is God's

previfion

on

for moral good, whereby the almighty

power of the

crea-

tor never deftroys the

freedom of the creature.

this fenfe

muft be underftood
ficacious grace,
fouls, to
fes.

all

the terms of fcripture concerning ef-

and the fovereign empire

God

has over holy

make them think, will, and execute whatever hepleafree co-operation


is ftill

Their

fiippofcd.

It is

thus that

fovereign

wifdom arranges or

diflurbs, flops or haftcns, fore-

172

OF THE RELATIVE

Book IL
of
liberty.

fees or foretells all the internal efFe^ls or external eruptions

our free determinations, without annihilating

The
their

fchoolmcn never

dlftlngulfli

betwixt the primitive iprlngs of

thefe free determinations

which

God never forces and


;

neceffary confequcnces,
rules as

which he

adjufts, dircifls,

and over-

he
It

pleafes.
is

4to.

true that fpiritual agents being always free to

change
ons,

their determinations,
foretells
all

and the

principles

of

their afli*

what God
is,

may fometimes
predi(5lIons

not happen.

The

reafon

becaufe

God's

with regard to the co-

operation of free agents are conditional, whether that condition be expreifed or not.
ditionals
ture,
is

This

fcience

and prediction of con-

infinuated and inculcated in

many

places

of fcrlp-

where

fortunes
tures

God foretells and threatens punifliments and mifthat never happen. He very oft advertifes his creamake them change
the principle of their

of the natural and neceffary confequcnces of their cor-

ruption in order to
conducl:.

He fees
from

the precipices into which


falling Into

we

hurry; and

to hinder us

them, he is reprefented In holy

fcripture as admonlfhing, threatning, exhorting, requefting,

and weeping over

his creatures;

yea exhaufting

as

It

were

all

the efforts of his power, v,^ifdom, and goodnefs, without fuccefs;


*
*

what could

I have

done more

to
It.'

my

vineyard, fays

the

Holy Ghofl, and I have not done

All thefe folllcltati-

ons, admonitions and vehement expoflulations would be ufelefs If

we were not

free,
;

and

if

God

acfted

upon us by omni-

potent,

irrefif tlblc wills

yea they would be illufory. If he fore-

faw from
libly,

all eternity,

that free agents would certainly, infal-

and abfolutely do what he exhorts them not to do.

Book

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
in the fixteenth century, but as
it

173

This appears tobethe truedocHirineofprercience,


Molina broached
unfold or perhaps comprehend
fince havefo difguifed
in all

which

he did not
his difciples

its

extent

and fpoiledit by unphilofophical, conit

tradi(n:ory refinements, that

folves

none of the objeflions

made by
goodnefs.

freethinkers; eftablifhes fatality, as


;

much

as the

predeftinarian fictions

and impeaches the divine veracity and

The

fyftem of prefcience that

we have unfolded
without dark-

when rightly underftoodanfwers


ning the matter by the

allobje(5lions,

fubtleties, palliatives,

and fubterfuges

of the fchoolmen.
found
all

It is

by

this

fcheme alone that we can con-

the blafphemies of the Socinians and Epicureans,

as alfo thofe of the Fatalifts and predeftinarians.


firfl

The two
laft

maintain that

God

can forefee and


fo

foretell

none of the

actions

of free agents; and

deny

prefcience.

The two

afTcrt that

gents in

God fees all the determinations of intelle<5l:ual ahis own abfolute will, and fo dcflroy liberty. The
two extremes
confifts in maintaininf^

true midft betwixt thefe

that

God can and

does forefee; foreordain and execute what:

ever hepleafes in heaven or in earth


fees

but that he neither fore-

nor foreordains

as infallibly future

what he

leaves to
is

the free choice of intellectual agents; becaufe this

repuo--

nant and contradi(5lory.

Far be

it

from us

to maintain the

wildSocinian or Epicurean error, that

God

leaves the

world

tothegovernmentoffecondcaufes, gives
to free agents,
pleafes

at firft natural powers

and

lets

every one of them exert them as he

without overruling them, prefiding over them, and conducing thematlafl infallibly to his great ends. Farther

yet be it from us to

make the whole

univerfea mafs of mate*

174
rial

OF THE RELATIVE
what is
fixed

Book

II.

and immaterial machines, that follow abfolutely,

inevi-

tably and certainly

by

infallible prefciences

and

predeterminating decrees.
latter defpoil

The

former deny providence; the

God of all his moral attributes, fanftity, jultice and goodncfs. The one makes God a carelefs, indolent be^
ing; the other

makes him

a cruel, tyrannical monger.


I.

COR.
Hence
forefces
all

prefcience

Is

that attribute in

God, by which he
his

the

means neceflary to accomplifh infallibly in

creatures the eternal defigns

of his wifdom and love, without


is

forcing their liberty ; and confcquently it


cefTary, coexiftent

not an eternal, neall

knowledge or view of

future contin-

gencies in the divine mind; farlefs an infallible abfolute previfion

of every thing that

is

to

come
II.

to pafs in

God's prede-

terminating decrees.

COR.
Hence we
fee

how to

reconcile in

God all
by a

the three fcien-

ces taught in the fchools.

He

fees

what he

leaves abfolutely

free in fpiritual agents only aspofFible,


intelligence.

fcience offimple

He

fees

what he has
of vifion
;

abfolutely decreed to acfees in fine all the necef^


fci-

complifh,

by

a fcience

he

fary confequences

of our free determinations by a middle

ence or fcience of conditionals.

COR.
Hence the
Is

III.

Leibnitian fcheme of pre-ellablifhed


fatality.

harmony

but a difguifed

According to that German philo-

fophcr

God by

his prefcience forefces all the pofTible plans

and combinations of things that could ever happen; and he


chofe by an abfolute decree one of thcfe plans, as the befland

Book IL
tive, abfoiute,

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

175

moft proper to manifeft his perfections.

He decreed by apofi-

uncontroulable will that one fixed, determinate,

immutable chain of pofTibles fhould happen rather than any other; becaufe he knew that this feleft feries of events was
the propereft to difplay his glorious attributes.

Thus

all evil,

moral and phyfical, temporal and eternal enter'd into


pre-eftablifhed plan; was forefeen, prepared

this

and foreordained
tho' in the

to bring about the

harmony of the whole. Thus

nature of things a quite other fuccellion of events might have

happened, yet according to the divine choice and pre-eftablifhed harmony, nothing could happen but what happens, and
in the fame order

and manner that

it

happens. This as we have

proved

is

everflve

of all

free agency.

COR.
Hence
ty,

IV.

the Molinift, Arminian and mitigated fcheme a-

bout prefcience leads to fatality, andis deftru6livc of Hberas well as that

of the Thomifts,

Janfenifls,

and

predefti-

narians.
re(5l

The one is
;

but a palliative remedy; the other is a di-

and therefore that mutual hatred, rancour, and perfecution betwixt thefe two fedts, is altogether the efFe<5tof
impiety
ignorance, paffion or political views.

They

are equally mif-

ought to be afliamed of fuchfcandalous exceffes as are on both fides.


all

taken andpityable:

true philofophers

COR.
Hence God never bounds
and
effential

V.

or deftroys the natural aflivlty


intelligences,

freedom of finite

by any

infallible

prefcience, or predeterminating decrees.

Thus we have exa-

mined God's foreknowledge of things finite, letusnow confider his

communicative goodnefs to

finite.

176

OF THE RELATIVE

Book IL
XXIV.

PROPOSITION
God's defign
fections.

in creating finite intelligences

could only be to make them eternally happy ia


the knowledge and love of his boundlefs per-

DEMONSTRATION.
God
defircs necefTarily the

fupreme happinefs of all

finite

intelligences (a); the

fupreme happinefs of all

finite intelliinfi-

gences confifts in the knowledge and love of the abfolute


nite (b): therefore

God's defign in creating


eternally

finite intelligen-

ces

muft be

to

make them

happy

in the

knowledge

and love of his boundlefs perfedions.

SCHOLIUM.
All reafonable agents z6t for an end.
either doing

This end mufl be


God's defign
he could have

good

to themfelves, or to others.

in creating could not be to do


it

good to himfelf; and therefore


Self-fuiRcient

muft be to do good to others.

no

interefted view in creating. Infinitely perfeft in the gene-

ration

of his eternal image;

infinitely

happy

in the procefll-

on of the Holy Ghoft, his communicative goodncfs could have no other end, but the felicity of finite intelligences. Nothing therefore is more abfurd than to fay with Spinofa,

that

reafon

God a^ls without defign. This is faying that infinite acts without reafon. As the defign of that fophift was
and goodncfs,
XVI.
(b) Ax. 5 . of this Book.

to rob the divine nature ofhiswifdom,jufticc


(a) Cor. 3 . 4. and 5 . of Prop

Book n.
and reduce
power; he

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
all

177

God's attributes to that of a blind, boundlefs

gives a falfe fcnfe to the

word End.
this fenfe

To a(ft for an
we
grant that

end, fays he, denotes Indigence.

In

God does not ad for an end; for he wants


tures,

nothing of his creais

and

defires

nothing of them but what

conducive, ne-

cefTary,

and

effential to their

own happinefs. ThisSpinofian


foolifh doctrine
a<n:ed
it,

idea

of

final caufes

came from the

of the

fchoolmen,

who

maintain'd that

God

for his glory in

creating; as ifhe

had views of augmenting

by the homage

of the

creatures.

God's glory

confifts in his free, generous,

difinterefted,

communicative goodnefs.

He does not want our


virtues,

adoration

his perfeftion is

not increas'd by our

nor

diminifh'd

by our crimes.

He interefts himfelf in
In
this fenfe

one and the

other,only becaufe the one advances and the other retards the

fupreme

perfe(5tion

of our natures.

we may

fay

with Lucretius, of the divine nature


*

Ipfa fuis pollens opibus, nihil indlga noftrl,

'

Nee bene

pro-meritis capitur, nee tangitur ira.

Spinofa denys final caufes for another reafon, becaufe, fays


he,
this
all

flows from
fo,

God by

necefllty

of nature: butfuppofing

were

yet neceffary aftion does not hinder reafonable


loves himfelf neceffarily, yet he
is

aiflion.

Tho' God
to this love

deterinfi-

mined

by the knowledge he has of

his

own

nite perfection.

He does not love

himfelf by a blind

Inflinift,

but by a rational and wife, tho' necefTary motive.


himfelf neceiTarily, becaufe his reafon for loving
is

He

loves

infinite,
it,

yea abfolutely

infinite;

and

as

nothing can be added to


it.

he

cannot but be determined by


freely, becaufe the reafon

He

loves all other beings

of loving

is finite,

and

fo

he

is

not

178

OF THE RELATIVE
of finite, or

Book

II.

determined to it by neceflity of nature.


a6ls freely in the produftion

"Whether then

God
of

in the generation
is ftill

the Logos and proccflion of the

Holy Ghoft, he
a reafon.

deter-

mined,
infinite

freely, or nccelTarily,

by

For

to fuppofe an

underflanding that wills and a6ts without reafon, is to


intelli-

fuppofe the moft perfecfl intelligence afting without

gence; which

is

a contradi(n:ion.

Spinofa maintains in the third place that to aifl for an end,


fuppofes the employing of interveening means; and that this
is

impotency.

anfwer that

this is true

when

the effcO:

is

im^

mediately dependent upon the divine power and efHcacy; but

not

when the efFeft fuppofes the co-operation offecond caufes.


is

Spinofa fuppofes from the beginning that the free producti-

on of finite

impoffible that creation


;

is

a chimera;

and that

the production of a free creature

is

a contradiOion.

He proves

not and can never prove either of thefe three fuppofitions^

We

have dcmonftratcd already the falfhood of the two forihall very

mer, and

foon demonftrate that of the

lafl.

Now

if

the idea of a free agent, of an intelligence that can be happy

by love and by
upon
it

free love, be pofTible; then


wills
;

God
is,

cannot aCt

by omnipotent

and fo muftmake ufe of interit;

mediate fccondary means to beatify

that

of itsownfree

correfpondcnce and co-operation.


Spinofa adds in the fourth place that
it is

contrary to the

nature of an infinitely perfeCl being to defire any thing but

what

it

actually pofTefTes.

We grant that this


effential,

is

true with re-

gard to God's neccffary,


lutely falfc

immanent

aCts;

but abfo-

with regard to his

free, acceffory,

and emanant

ones.

God

produces and loves nothing neceffarily but his e-

Book
ternal

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GODHe wills the exigence and


by a
free act,

179
de-

image and Holy Ghoft.

fires the perfeflion of his finite images

which

no ways
fire is

ititerefts his eflential

happinefs and pcrfe6lion.


it

Deaper-

a defeS: only in fo far as

denotes want; but

it is

feftion

when

it

proceeds from a principle of communicative

goodnefs, fuperabundant plenitude,


cence.

and generous

benefi-

Spinofa concludes that the fource ofall our errors on this


head, comes from our not following the geometrical method,

which
caufes.

inveftigates the elTence

of things, and not their

final

If the mathematical method Inveftigates the effence


it

of things,

muft contain the doflrine of final caufes; fince

the effence of all intelle^lual agents, fuppofes a(5llng for an

end.
perties

Mathcmatlcks

inveftigate only the relations


treat

and pro-

of magnitudes and numbers, and

onlyof necefta-

ry and immutable truths. But philofophy examines not only


the neceffary immutable effence or relations of things, but
their free contingent exiftence;
trine

and fo muft embrace the doc-

of final

caufes.

As

Spinofa denied that there was any


final caufes;
falfe.

thing contingent, he was obliged to deny

but All

happily his principles and confequences are equally


is

fuppofed, and nothing demonftrated in his fyftem.

COR.
Hence
caufes

I.

the Cartefians

by banifhing the

do(5lrine

of

final

from philofophy,

directly favour

one of the worft parts

of Spinofifm: toattemptthe explaining the phenomena of nature,


a6ls

without the Intervention ofafupreme Intelligence that


is

with defign

the high-road to atheifm.

It Is

only by

the doflrine of final caufes reftored, that

men

can become

i8o

OF THE RELATIVE
and divines,
as will appear

Book

II.

true philofophers

from the whole

courfe of this elfay.

COR.

II.

Hence we have a full dcmonftration of liberty. If God has no other end in producing finite intelligences, but to make them happy if their felicity confifts in the contemplation
;

and love of

his boundlefs perfections

if

they do not at pre-

fent enjoy this happinefs; then this privation muft flow

from

fome
refift

quality in

them by which they can correfpond with or

the defigns of God ; and this is freedom.

COR.
Hence according
thofe

III.

to thefimple light

of natural reafon,

all

who

teach that

God can never

during any period of e-

tcrnity,

reduce his mofl: rebellious creatures to the love of or-

der, fuppofe that

God may
fole

be eternally fruftrated in the ac;

complllhment of his

end in creating they favour the wild^


eternal, invincible, indeftru<5lible
at once

Manichean notion of an
principle

of evil; and deny

God's

infinite
finite

power, wifimpotence,
all

dom
folly

andgoodnefs; fmce they fuppofe that

and malice can for ever

refill

and furmount

the di-

vine efforts to reclaim them.

COR.
ligences without
fations,

IV.
in finite intel-

Hence God could not produce immediately


any reafon, a perpetual
feries

of ideas, fen-

and perceptions, that turn them ofFfrom their almighty original, and from the great defigns he had in creating them. This would be contradiOing himfelf, and fo a<5ting without

wifdom and goodnefs.

Book IL

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
XXV.

i8i

PROPOSITION
ploys continually
all

Eternal providence defires, wills, and emthe means neceflary to lead

intelligent creatures to their ultimate

and

fu-

preme happinefs.

DEMONSTRATION.
Eternal providence is that almighty wifdom, goodnefs and

power, by which God knows, wills and employs all the means
neceiFary to accomplifh his defigns in creating (a); God's defign in creating was to

make

all intelligent

natures happy in the

knowledge and love of his


knows,

infinite perfe(n;ions,

which

is

their

ultimate and fupreme felicity (b): therefore eternal providence


wills,

and employs, continually

all

the means necef-

fary to lead his intelligent creatures to their ultimate

and

fu-

preme happinefs.

S C

U M,
of final
caufes,

Thofe who do not know the


intelligent images,

doj5lrine

nor

the defigns of God in creating, nor the love he has for his

nor the intimate manner by which he

is

prefent to them, are very much puzzled


ftration

how

to give a to

demon-

of providence

butone whorifes up

firft principles,

and fhews that

God

is

prefent every where, that he created

finite intelligences
all their fituations,

only to make them happy, that he knows

and that he

defires their felicity,

can no
if a fa-

more doubt of
(a) Def. 5. of this

eternal providence than


Book.
(b) Prop.

he can doubt

XXIV.

i82
ther that
derly,
lives

OF THE RELATIVE
continually with his children, loves
all their inclinations,

Book
them
and
a full

II.

teii-

knows

and has

power

to

make
them

their fortunes,

can

negle<5l their education,

leave

miferable.

The wild Epicurean notion adopted by fome Delfts, as if God abandon'd the world to the government of fecond caufes, free

agents,

and natural powers, flows from

their

notun-

derftanding the great principles already demonftrated ; God's

end

in creating, his

manner of preferving, his omniprefent ac-

tivity

through the whole creation; they fuppofe that


his

God

can be feparated from


fift

work;

that the creatures can fub-

and be happy, enjoy being and well-being when detach'd


their fource;

from

they deny God's

infinite activity,

wifdom
have no

and goodnefs,
felf as

as if

he was fo entirely occupied within him-

not to intereft himfelf in his creation.

They

notion of the nature of God eternally active, that preferves

and

beatifies his creatures

by

his continual

omnipotent effica-

cy, influence

and communicative goodnefs.

The
far

confequcnces of the predeftinarian doctrine are yet

more impious and blafphemous.The Epicureans and fome Socinians feem to deny God's relative attributes, and make

him an indolent carelefs God; but the predeftinarians make him a cruel, malicious, Manichean evil principle, and deftroy
all his

moral perfections; fince they maintain that he abanfar greateft part

dons the

of mortals to eternal mifery by free

choice, and arbitrary preterition, without allowing

them the
of their

graces neceflary to conduct


creation.

them

to the ultimate end


all

being that loves effentially

his creatures,

and
a

that dcfires neceiTarily the happinefs


(a) Cor. 3. and 4.

of what he loves

(a),

of Prop. XVI,

Book
happy

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
had no other
idefign in creating

i8^

-being that

but to inake them

for ever and ever in the knowledge and love


;

of

his

boundlefs perfections (a)


ploys continually
ligent creatures
all

a being

thatknows,

wills,
all

and em-

the

means neceflary

to lead

his intel-

without exception to their ultimate and fupremehappinefs(b)can never become indifferent about them,
ceafe to interreft himfelf in them, and
lafting mifery.

abandon them

to ever-

He

can never be difgufted with their imperin their fufferinas;


all

feftions;
all his

he can never take any pleafure

punifhments therefore muft be remedies; and

his

feverities falutary cures.

if the creature

be

He muft always be ready to pardon convertible. He can never ceafe to pity and
his remedies

fuccour, but

when

become

ufelefs,

and the pa-

tient incurable, which

we

fhall

fhow

to beimpoflible.

Thefe
from

are the natural

and necelTary confequences that

refult

the very nature and definition of infinite goodnefs; and if


there be any expreflions in fcripture that feem to intimate

the contrary, they

may and muft

be interpreted in another
de*-^

fenfe than the predeftinarians give to tliem; as fhall be

monftrated hereafter.

COR.
Hence
*
'

I.

in all times, in all places,

and

in all fituations, al-

mighty providence enlightens every man that comes into the


world,
'

and

refufes to

none of

his creatures fallen or


to,

un-

fallen the helps necelTary to

conduft them

or confirm

them
fu-

in the

knowledge and enjoyment of

their ultimate

and

preme happinefs.
the divine
(a) Prop.

Nothing therefore derogates more from


to maintain

wifdom and goodnefs than


(b) Prop.

with fome

XXIV.

XXV.

i84

OF THE RELATIVE

Book IL
fa-

fuperficial philofophers, that there is

any one nation or

vage in the world, that has not at fome time or other in his
life
vil,

an idea of God, and of a

firfl:

caufe,

of moral good and

e-

of virtue and

vice, fufficient to excite

him

to the fearch

and
of

knowledge of his almighty original, or


being enlightened and
beatified

at leaft to the dcfire

by

that univerfal
all

wifdom and
their ideas

goodncfs that
Suchfavages

difFufes its

rays over

created intelligences*

may indeed be incapable of exprelling

and fentiments, of reafoning upon them


confequences: but

in a philofophical

manner, and drawing from them metaphyfical principles and


all

of them, even the moft barbarous, the


fuperftitious,

moft idolatrous, and the moft


or
lefs

have

felt

more

the rays, influences, and illuminations of that uni'

verfal light,
*

that enlightens every

man

that

comes into the

world.'

COR.
Hence
*

ir.
*

to maintain with the Fatalift doctors

that out
;
'

of
of

the pale of the vifible church, there are


all

no graces

that

old

the

Pagan world; and

at prefentall thofe, that are de-

prived of the light of the gofpel were then, and are


in a ftate

now

left

of abfolute darknefs, and abandoned to eternal


is

damnation,
all

a wild, abfurd, Pharifaical error, that deftroys


attributes,

God's moral

and thereby

leads to the higheft

incredulity

and contempt of

all reveal' d religion.

COR.
Hence
tho' there

III.

were no

revelation, yet

we might beafalways ready to

fured from the natural ideas we have of infinite goodnefs, that

God's mercies endure forever, and that he

is

pardon ifthc criminal dctefts and quits its crimes. It is therefore

Book
a poor,

II.

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

185

weak

reafoning in Tome to prove the neceflity of re-

vealed religion, by this frivolous argument, that without a


fupernatural revelation, we could notbealTured after fin, that

God is

appeafable.

This poor

infignificant notion degrades

and humanizes the deity, as if he could be really incenfed, angry, or altered by our vices; honour'd, beatify'd or perfected by our virtues.
as the

He intereih

himfelf in one or t'other only

former retard, and the latter contribute to thefupreme

felicity

and perfection of our nature.


head
is

All that fcripture fays

on

this

purely metaphorical, and fignifies only, as


infinite oppofition there is

we

(hall

fhow, the

betwixt the divine

purity and the everfion of eternal order.


cileable averfion to fin,

God has

an irrecon-

but he never hates the finner.

GENERAL
Thus
nifcience,
I

SC HO LIU M,
power, divine om-

have endeavoured toilluftrate the three attributes


relative to finite; creating

of the Godhead

and communicative goodnefs; which with the three

abfolute attributes of the

Godhead, generating

a<5livity,

con-

fubftantial \\ifdom,and coeffential love, expiain'd in thefirfi:

book comprehend
infinite
ties,

all

we know of

the eternal, felf-exiftent,

mind.

We muft
his

never confound the relative proper-

with the abfolute attributes of the deity; nor God's im-

manent with

emanant

a6ls

nor

his generating aftivity,

with his creating power; nor

his confubftantial

Word, with

the intelligible world; nor the procefiion of the

Holy Ghofi,

with his communicative beneficence.


cefiary,

The

former are ne-

immutable, eternal, immanent, andunfuccefilvea51:s.


free, variable,

The latter are

temporary, emanant, and arbi-

Aa

t26
trarya^ls.

OF THE RELATIVE
The former are confubftantial
modes of the
divine efTence,

BookIL
which he might
afls

perfonalities: the

latter are free

have for ever fuipended; becaufe the exercife of thefe

was not

necefTary to the perfeflion

of his nature.

For

this

reafon an ancient writer (a)


;

calls creating

power an effluence
Prom the
di-

of the divine virtue emanant wifdom,a


goodnefs.

reflexion

vine light; and communicative bounty, a piftureof the divine

Now

it is

certain that the effluence, the reflexion

and the pi6lure of

a thing, are diftind:

from the thing

itfelf.

Wherefore the
litys,

arbitrary, tranfient, free,

emanant

a<5ls,

qua-

and modes of the divine mind, may be diflinguifhed from his efTcntial, immutable, necefTary, immanent acts, hypoftafes and perfonalities. This the fchooolmen never advert
to,

and

this

has occafioned innumerable miftakes in theolo;

gy and philofophy
lowing book.
(a)

as fhall

be more fully unfolded in the fol-

Wifdom, Chap. VII. V. 25. and 26.

END OF THE SECOND BOOK.

18/

THE

PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES
OF

NATURAL AND REVEALED

RELIGION,
BOOK
III.

OF THE PROPERTIES AND DIFFERENCES

OF FINITE BEINGS.

DEFINITIONS.
1.TX7E
^*
fliallufe the

term

simple pictures, forfuch


as

reprefentations

of a being,

have and can have no

knowledge of themfclves, nor of any other beings, and that


reprefent their original only by their accidental forms,

and

not by their

efTential attributes.
Ji\i

^.Living

AGES

ihall in like

manner be ufed

for fuch

Aa

i88

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


of a being,
as are capable

III.

reprefentatlons
felves,
eft,

of knowing themit

and

their original,

and fuch asreprefent

in the near-

moft dired, and perfe6t manner.

AXIOMS.
I
.

A n original may be reprefented either by a living image,


pi<5ture.

or by a fimple
2.

"What

is

elTcntially intelligent

cannot be reprefented in
abfolutcly

a direct, immediate, and perfe<5t


unintelligent
3.

manner by what is

and

infenfible.

The

living

image of a being, that

is

eflential love,

can-

not be abfolutely incapable of love.


4.
fe(5t,

What

is

elTentially free

cannot be reprefented inaperis

immediate, direct manner by what

abfolutely necefll-

tated, forc'd,

and

enflav'd.

5. Infinite aftivity

cannot be reprefented by abfolute in-

action, and pafFivity.


6.

Matter in reft

is

as

much

matter as matter in motion.


its

7.

No

being can

cxift

without

eflential qualities,

and

properties.

S C

O L I U M.
intothemfelves, and then lookareflccftl-

Thofe who enter deeply


on what
are the beings

broad into the univerfe to examine by fcnfatlon and

of which nature

is

compofed, will
is

foon difcover from within, a fclf-confcious being that


pable of receiving different ideas,

ca-

forming different judg-

ments, and loving different

obje(5ts;

and from without an ex-

Book

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
Is
it

189

tended being that

capable of different figures, divlfions and

motions; while

has no appearances of perception, reafon


dares fay to himfelf that the mettal,
flatue; that thecanvafs, oils

and

volition.

No man

the marble, or the

wood of a

and

colours of a pi^ure ; that the paper, ink and pencil of a graver; feel,

know and love


originals

the hand of the

workman

that gives

them
lity s

their beautiful

forms and proportions ; or the fine qua-

of the

which they

reprefent.

From hence all


diftin(fl:

men of found and folid fenfe will


felf-confcious being,

naturally conclude that the

and the extended one, muft be


exift, tho'

fubftances; and that the former might

the latter

were altogether annihilated.

Two
different

forts

of men however, whofe


unfatisfied

chara<5lers are quite

nay contrary,
di<flates

with what natural and com-

mon fenfe
hood by
tions.

to the far greateft part

of mankind, have
falf-

endeavoured to render thefe conclufions fufpeded of


their fubtle refinements, or

by

their grofs imagina-

The one pretend that all is fpirit, and the other that The former accuftomed to too much abflraftiall is matter.
on, doubt of the exiftenceof bodies; the latter immerfed in
their fenfes fancy that all
is

corporeal.
all

Thus

the empire
fe6ts,

of

philofophy was ever divided in


dealifts

ages into

two

the I-

and the

Materialifts ; tho' they took different


;

names in
in dif-

different countries

and ages and expreffed themfelves

ferent terms; yet their ideas and principles were

much

the

fame.

The
matter,

Idealifts

pretend that

all

created fubftances being rereal

prefentative

of the divine perfections, there can be no


effentially unaftive, unintelligent,

which being

and

190
incapable of

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


all defire,

III.

cannot reprefent him that


;

is

infinite

activity, intelligence

and love that

all

the ideas, perceptions,

and

fenfations

we

have of extenfion, figure and motion, are

excited in us immediately
flances can never adl

by

God himfelf

that material fubintelligent

by a phyfical influence upon


third fubftance befide

beings; and from thefe three principles they conclude that


there
is

and can be no
matter.

God and
that

finite

Ipirits, call'd

The
perties

Matcrialifts

on the contrary maintain

motion

is elTential

to matter; that intelligence

and extenfion are proalfo alledge that

of the fame fubftance; fome of them


is

freedom
lity;

a chimerical, impofilble

and contradiftory quaall

and from thefe three principles conclude that

fub-

ftances are necelTarily extended or material.

Tho'
is

thefe

tvi^o

fentiments appear contradi dory, yet they

both equally tend toSpinofifm.For if once we fuppofe that there and can be but one fortof fubltances,
is
it is

eafy

from thence

to pafs to the belief that there


ture,

but one only fubftance in naIt is

which

is

the effence of the Spinofian fcheme.

of

great confequence therefore to confute both thefe fyftems,

and to prove,
create

firft,

againft the defenders

of each, that

God can

two

forts

of fubftances material and immaterial, whofe


not only
diiferent,

effential properties, are

but contradictory

and incompatible. We
Matcrialifts that

fhall
is

(how
not

In the next place againft the

motion

effential to matter;

and that

intelligence

and extenfion cannot be properties of the fame

fubftance.

We

fliull

endeavour to prove in the

laft

place a-

gainft the Idealifts, that

God cannot

be the immediate author

of all theidcaS; fenfutions and perceptions wc have of matter;

Book

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
give to his material pidlures,

ipi

and that he may


images a
cally

and Immaterial
a(51:

real, phyfical a(5livityby

which they can

recipro-

upon each

other.

PROPOSITION
God can
by
living

XXVL

reprefent himfelf externally either

images or by fimple pictures.

DEMONSTRATION.
Creation
is

arcprefentation of God in things external (a);

an

original

may

be reprefented both by living images and by

{implepi(n:ures (b): therefore God can thus reprefent himfelf

both by

living images,

and by fimple pidures.

SCHOLIUM.
Infinite pov^^er,

wifdom and goodnefs may be reprefented

either in a
tial

dire<n:,

immediate, perfect manner by the elfen-

attributes

of beings capable of thought, reafon and love


indire61:,

or in a more

remote, and

lefs

perfect manner,

by
the

the acceflbry forms communicated to beings that are abfoiutely incapable

of thinking, reafoningand

w^illing.

Thus

powers, fentiments, and virtues of one mind


fented
other.

may be

repre-

by fimilar

perfeftions, qualities,

and

difpofitions in an-

Thusalfo
figures

intellectual properties

may be
For

reprefented
this reafon

by the

and colours given

to matter.

the facred oracles reprefent

fpirits as

the living images of the


as his

moft high; and the material univerfe


ture.

fhadow or

pic-

Thus Mofes

fays
I.

that

God created man

according to

(a) Prop.

XXI. (b) Ax.

ofthis book.

192
'

OF THE PROPERTIES
own
llkenefs,

Book
The

III.

his

and

after his

own image

(a).

royal

prophet teaches that the material heavens declare God's


glory (b).

'

The

apoftle

of the Gentiles adds, that the

invi->

fible perfections

of God, even his eternal power and godhead

are clearly feen

and underltood by the things that were


apoftle affirms that the things

made

(c).

The fame
as the

which
invi-

are feen

were made according to the model of things

fible (d),'

Greek

original

and Latin verfion


is

may be

rendered ; for the Englifh tranflation

not

intelligible.

This then

is

the fcripture

doMneof the creation, thatin*


invifible
:

telligent natures are living


rial

images of the deity; and the mate-

world only a fhadow or piiflure of what is

where-

fore thisfublime and eafy notion that


felf

God canreprefent himand fimple


pi<5lures is e-

from without by

living images,

qually conformable to reafon and revelation. 1 do not intend

to conclude from this principle alone, that the fimple pictures

and the living images are quite different fubftances.ThisI fhall endeavour to demonftrate afterwards by another principle.
All I pretend to prove here is, thatfuppofing the
fubftance were extended, yet there muft be
intelligent?

two

quite dif-

ferent fpecies's of extended fubftances; fince the onereprefents

God

only as a fimple picture, and the other as a living

image.

C O R.

I.

'

Hence we have
is

a moft noble idea of nature produced. It


living images,
i

compofed of innumerable

and of beautiful
2. v.

(a) Gen. chap. i. v. 26. and chap. 5. v.


ch. 17. V. 3.
I.

Wifdoni ch.

23. Ecclefiaflic.

Cor. ch.

r. v.

7.

CololT. ch. 3. v. 10.

(b) Pfal. 19. v. i^


.

(c)

Rom.

ch. 1. V. 20,

(d) Hebr. ch. 11. v. 3*

Book

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
The

193
is

pidures of the divine perfecftions.

material unlverfe

an Immenfe theatre with glorious paintings or decorations, by which God difplays for ever and ever his power, wifdom

and goodnefs.

Spirits are living, lively

Images or aa:ors upon

this great theatre, that are capable

of knowing, loving and


In the following e/Tay

enjoying the original.


the fimple pidures

Wherefore

by

we

denote the material world; and by the

living images, the Intelledual univerfeof fpirlts.

COR.
Hence

II.

this great principle is a fruitful fource


all

from whence

we may derive

the efTentlal properties and ipecifick diffe-

rences of fpirit and matter.

The

moft part of errors in phi-

lofophy come from mens endeavouring to judge of the differences and relations of things, either by

fome imagined i-

deas of their intimate effences, or by the fenfations they pro-

duce in

us.
Is

We have no adequate
of demonftratlon,
Is

Ideas

of the former, and

the latter

not always a proof even of their exiftence.

The

true fource

the perfe<5lIons of the caufe,

compared with the perceptions of the effcd; and the defigns God had in creating along with the fenfations produced in

Wefhall therefore deduce from the combination oftheie two, all the principal properties of fpirit; and then inveftigate
us.

thofe

of matter.

PROPOSITION
The
ift

XXVII.

living

images of the divinity do not ex-

In Ipace

by

diffufion

of parts.

]Bb

194

OF THE PROPERTIES Book III.

DEMONSTRATION.
The divine elTence is not extended by difFufion of parts (a);
living

images reprefent the original in the neareft, mofl di-

refl, pcrfeO:

and

lively

manner

(b): therefore the Hving ima-

ges of the divinity do not exift in fpace

by

difFufion

of parts.

SCHOLIUM.
We have fully demonftrated in the
(pace
is firfl

book

that infinite

not a property of the divine nature; that the fupreme

infinite is prefent to all beings

without extenfion or difFufion

and

that

we mull
it.

allow this omniprefence tho'


is

we cannot

comprehend

It

therefore abfolutely falfe that there can


is

be no unextended fubftances, and that fpace


the exiftence of
infinite
all

neceffary to
abfolute
it is

beings.

Now fince the fupreme,


may and muft
exift

does not

exift in fpace,

nor by difFufion of parts,

plain that his living images

without exindi-

tenfion ; and therefore are of a fimple,


vifible nature.

uncompounded,

This

principle

of reafoning founded upon the


is

refemblance of the living image to its almighty original

quite

unknown to vulgar metaphyficians, and fcholaflick divines. It is as we have already remarked, impoffible to deduce the
properties
attributes

of finite

in a natural, eafy

manner, but from the

of

infinite.

Till

we

fee the intimate effence

of

things in
ther
rules
life,

God

himfelf,

and behold him face to face

in ano-

the fureft way to inveftigate their properties


this capital,

is

by the

of analogy, deduced from


that creation
is

fundamental, lu-

minous truth,
external,

a reprefentation of God in things

more or

lefs fimilar

to the fupreme archetype.

The

(a) Prop. VIII.

(b) Def. 2. of this Book.

BooKllI.

OF FINITE BEINGS.

195

ancient Greeks of the Platonic and Pythagorlcfchools, the ancient Egyptians, Perfians, Indians, and Chinefe were full

of this
work.

principle; as will be

fhewn

in the fecond part

of this

COR.
Hence unextenfion,
are necelTary,
ideas, fimilitudes

I.

fimplicity,

and indlvifibility of elTence


All

eflfential,

infeparable attributes of fpirlt.

and

conceptions of the living

image thatde-

ftroy

any of

thefe three properties are falfe

and abfurd.

COR.
Hence
properties of the fame fubftance
is

II.

to fuppofe that extenfion

and

intelligence can

be

a falfe hypothefis, that has

no foundation in true principles we fhall fhow afterwards that thefe two attributes are contradidory and incompatible.
;

PROPOSITION
The
living
fentially a(5live or capable

XXVIII.

images of the divinity muft be ef-

of aftion.

DEMONSTRATION.
Creation is areprefentationof God from without (a);
is

God
li-

eflentially aftive (b): infinite activity

cannot be reprefen-

ted

by abfolute inaction and

paflivity (c).

Therefore the

ving images of the deity muft be eflentially, neceflarilyj and

iramanently

active.

SCHOLIUM.
We have already fhown
(a) Prop.

that
i

God muft
of the fame,

be
(c)

eflentially,

ne-

XX.

(b) Prop. IX. and Cor.

Ax. 5.

Bb2

ic)6
ceflarily

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


and immanently
that

III.

aftive antecedent to all produ(5lIon

of other beings without him,


eternal infinite
efFe(5t

he produced in himfelf an

and objed:.

Now

according to the im-

mutable laws of analogy betwixt the

living image,

and the

almighty original, if God defigned to be reprefented without


himfelf, in the moft lively, dire<5l

and immediate manner,

it

follows necefTarily, that this living image muft alfo be effentially, necefTarily
its

and immanently

active.
it

do not yet fpeak of

emanant

aftivity,
;

by which
can

can a6l upon other beings


eC-

difl:in(5t

from itfelf

I fpeak
it

only of its immanent, inherent,

fentiai a6livity

by which

ad upon

itfelf.

We

fliall

exa-

mine very foon wherein

this

immanent

a6tivity confifts,

and

what are its


archetype,

effefls.

All I pretend to {how


dire(5t

now is, that by viritfelf.

tue of the foul's immediate,


it

refemblance to the great

muft beelTentially aflive within

COR.
Hence it is
entirely paflive,
till

I.
is

abfolutely falfe thatfpirit as body,

of itfelf
it,

God ad upon

it,

move

it,

and animate

(inceithas in itfelf an effcntial fund ofadivity, diflind from

God's immediate adion.

COR.
Hence we mufl
elTential adivity

II.

never confound the natural, inherent, cocreature, with the fupernatural,

of the

com-

municated, acceffory adion of

God upon
adivity

it.

We fhall now

examine wherein

this

immanent

of fpirit confifls.

Book

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS,
XXIX.

197

PROPOSITION
The
telligent

living

images of the divinity muft be In-

and reafonable.

DEMONSTRATION.
God
what
is

eflentially intelligent

and the fovereignreafon

(a);

is efTentially intelligent

and reafonable cannot be

re-

prefented in a lively, dire^l, immediate, and perfe(n: manner,

by what is
reafonable.

abfolutely unintelligent and infenfible(b): there-

fore the living images of the divinity muft be intelligent and

SCHOLIUM.
God knows himfelf and
differences,
all

his

works, their refemblances,


fpiritual

and propertys: therefore


all his

beings muft

be capable of knowing him and


cannot create as
ideas

produftions.

They

God

does the objects themfelves, nor form


obje<5i:s aft

of them, unlefs the fame

upon them ; but

when

they have received thofe ideas, they

may compare them,

combine them, judge of them, and difcover their mutual relations, differences and properties. This is what we call conception, or reafon ;

and

this

conception

is

aftion, yea aftion

in the higheft degree.


aftivity, infcparable

It

is

an immanent, inherent. Innate

from, and confubftantial with the mind.

From this comparing, combining, and refledllng upon our own ideas, arife all our general and abftraft notions, whether of God or the creatures, of the divine attributes or of the
(a)

By Prop. X.

(b) Ax. 2.

198
properties

OF THE PROPERTIES
of things
finite.

Book IIL
of
this innate,

The

foul

by

virtue

immanent,

coelTential activity,

may

confider obje<n:sas fimilar

or diffimilar, as equal or unequal,as concordant or difcordant,

and thus

refle<5l

upon

their

common

properties,

without any

difl:in<5tions, fpecialities,

or limitations, that bound

them

to

this or that particular obje6t or individual.

As God by con-

templating his

own

attributes,

forms in his divine under-

ftanding the archetypal ideas of all beings he can produce;


fb the

mind by

refle6ting

upon

its

own modes forms to


difference
is,

itfelf

general, abftrad ideas

of all kinds, and of all the different be-

ings

it

has already perceived.

The

that

God

conceives, creates and produces thefe archetypal ideas in his

all-comprehenfive

mind whereas we only combine or other;

wife modify the ideas already received from the obje<5ls.Thus

the a(ftion of the living image

is

fome way

fimilar or analo-

gous to that of the original

caufe, tho* not identical

and the

fame with

it.

Do6tor Berkeley denys the


abftracH: ideas;

poffibility

of forming any fuch

buthisreafonings feem altogether falfe,and un-

worthy of
*

his fubtile genius.


at the

He

defines an abftra^l idea,

that

which
that

is

fame time

all

and none of the

particularities

*
*

we know; an idea wherein fome

parts of feveral, diffe'

rent and inconfiftent ideas are put together.

This

definiti-

on is unintelligible and unworthy of his natural acutenefs. An


abftra^l idea is

not the idea of any thing really

exiftent,

but a
is

general idea, in which

many particular
it

things agree.

It

preterition of, or non-attention to the particularities


cialities

and

fpe-

that determine

to

one individual; and the confideit

ration

of it only

in fo far as

belongs to

many

individuals.

Book
Thus

IIL

OF FINITE BEINGS.
is

xp^

the abftracl Idea of a triangle

the idea of that figure

confidered only as having three fides and angles, without reflecting

upon

it

of curve or
matter.

ftreight lines,

The

compofed of this or that colour, of this or that learned Doflor confounds ideas with things,
abftra<5t

as equilateral, fcalenar orifofcelar,

and denies that there can be any

general ideas, be-

caufe there cannot be abftradl general entitys.

He was led inand

to this error to fupport his favourite fcheme,that the ideas

the objeds are the fame

now

becaufe there are in nature

na

univerfal, general fubftances or objefts,

he concluded that

there

were and could be no general,

univerfal, abftraa: ideas.

He can never
and therefore

prove his principle, as wefliall hereafter ihow;


his confequences mufl: be uncertain or falfe.
real in nature

There

is

nothing

anfwerable in point of uniIdeas excited

verfality to

our abftraft Ideas.


all

The
its

by the ob-

je^s are complicated with


differences, but the

individuating circumftances or
natural adlivity can confider

mind by

or

fix its

attention to thefe properties and relations in


It

which

many

particular obje(fts agree, while

attends not to their

differences.

Father Malebranche does not deny the exiftence and reality of abftraa: Ideas, but he infifts that we do not form

them by our own fee them in God.


tains that the Idea

adivlty, refle<n:ion

and combination, but

Thus

according to him

we

have

all

i-

deas of Infinitude both uncreated and created.

He

main-

of the abfolute

infinite

cannot be a

mode
fi-

or efFea of the mind, becaufe the mind


nite

is finite,

and that

cannot imagine, conceive or comprehend infinite. Is not

this a

merefophifm?

all

the idea

we have of abfolute Infinite,

200
is

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


of Tome
real, felf-exiftent objeft, greater
all

III.

that

than any

we

can conceive, that furpalTes

that

we can comprehend, and


all

whofe

perfeftions have
its

no bounds. This idea Is pofitive with


it

regard to

objed, fince
its

excludes

negation ; but

it is

ne-

gative with regard to

fubjefb, fince
it

it is

incomprehenfible.

We

can never contain or grafp


It
is

in

its totality,

nor exhauft

it

during an eternity.

thus again that the living images re-

femble their fovereign archetype.


ally In hlmfelf his

As he
him

generates continu-

own

Idea

of himfelf,
:

fo

they may produce


is

in themfelves an imperfe<5l idea of


rence.
nal,

but here

the diffe-

God'sideaof himfelf is a living, permanent, coeterconfubftantlal image, which partakes of all hisboundlefs
It is as

pcrfeftions.

we

have fhown, a living, felf-confcious,


the idea

intelligent perfbn.

Whereas

we form of God

is

on-

ly a tranfient, fpeculative, lifelefs image, partaking

of all our

imperfe^Ions.

It

is

only, fo to fpeak, an infinitely fmall perIt


is

ception and fhadow of abfolute infinite.


idea form'd

not a fimple
ef-

by the immediate

intuitive

view of the divine


a fucceflive

fence; but a complex idea produced


tion

by

combina-

of the

attributes deducible
It is a

from the

idea of a felf-exifi^eprefenta-

tent being.
tive

mode of the mind, but a mode


from
us.

of fomething

diftlncl
finite

We

fee

from

a compari-

fon of the idea of

with the idea of felf-exiftence, that

there muft be an abfolute infinite.

We fee that he
of his

is,

but not

what he

is

adequately.

We fee fome

attributes,

but

not his intimate effence, otherwife


tific
'

we would

enjoy the bea'

vifion.

For

tlils

rcafon the apoftle fays that

we fee God
but only by

darkly as in a glafs or mirror.'

We do not fee his effence by

a dired:, immediate, intuitive view as angels do;

Book

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
elTence,

201

refle<5lion

upon our own

and that of other creatures,

asreprefcntativeof him, and as living images or lively pi<5lures

of

his

perfec^ons.When Malebranche therefore fays that v^^e


image or idea of infinite in the divine effence, and not

fee the

in ourov^^n,

he

inverts the natural order

of ideas and

exprefli-

ons.

We

do not fee the images of bodies in the bodies themglaffes diftindl

felves;

but in

from them. Thus wc do not fee

the idea of infinite in the divine effence; but in our ow^n ef^
fence as reprefcntative of

God.
tri-

Malebranche adds, that we have the ideas of infinite


angles, circles, ovals,

and geometrical curves of innumerable

kinds; that
tivity;

it is

impoffible to

form

thefe ideas

by our own

ac-

and confequently that we fee them in the divine mind

hy

fimple Intuition, as being intimately united to the eternal

Logos that contains all ideas. This author impofes flrangely upon his own fine underftanding by a luxuriant imagination
and
a pious enthufiafiii.
It
is

abfolutely falle, that

we

have a-

ny
in

pofitlve ideas

of created infinity. The Idea of infinite when


is

applied to

any thing produced

only negative, and negative


its

all fenfes,

both with regard to

objeft and fubjcft.

It

Is

only a conceiving that

God may

produce fbmething greater


his

and

greater without end,

add always to

work, and aug-

ment Its
circle,

perfections for ever.

The idea of an infinite triangle,


tripled,

polygene, or curve is only this notion, that fuch geo-

metrical figures

may be doubled,
is

and multiplied withlittle,

out end: but there


in

and can be no abfokite great nor


created. All the

what on

Is finite

and

Malcbranchlan fubtlefophifllcal

ties

this

head are therefore not only

but dan-

Cc

noz

OF THE PROPERTIES
make

Book

III.

gerous;becaure they

the proofs of abfolute infinitude

depend upon chimera's.

COR.
Hence nothing
and
fenfations
is

I.

moreabfurd than

to maintain, that the

prefcnt abftrad ideas we

form from the particular perceptions


of the divine underfhnding.

which

fingular objeds produce in us, are the

original archetypal ideas

We
;

muft carefully diftinguifh the confubftantial idea


himfclf,

God has of
finite

from the archetypal ideas he has of things

and

the

abftra(5l ideas

we form from

the objects themfelves.

The
firfi:,

fchoolmen confound thetwofirft;Malebranche the three

and Spinofa

all

the four.

COR.
Since the

II.
its

mind by comparing

ideas

may

difcover their

mutual relations of fimilitude and agreement, or of difagree-

ment; and
ideas,
ral

fince truth
it

is

nothing but thefe relations of our

hence

follows that the


ideas,

mind by comparing

its

gene-

and particular

may

difcover general
is

and particular
the knowledge
re-

truths.

And

fince the

knowledge of truth,

of relations; wherever there are neceffaryand immutable


lations betwixt finite

and

infinite,

betwixt the attributes of

the one, and the attributes of the other,

we may

have as fure

demonfi:rations in moral and theological knowledge, as in

geometrical and phyfical, and while

we

talk only

of relati-

ons,

we may demonftrate

metaphyficks as well as mathema-

ticks.

COR.
Hence wcfec

III.

the true fources of all our errors; they

do

Book
not

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.

203

our fimple ideas and perceptions, but in our complex ideas and conceptions; not in ourpaflive fenfations,
confifl: in

we make of their relations. We precipitate our judgment ere we fee clearly, and thereby conbut in the
acflive

comparifon

connexion or difagreement, equality or inequality,or a relation ofcaufeand efFe6l, when there is none.
clude that there
is

This would not happen


all pofTible relations

if we could

comprehend and behold


fee

by one fimple view, and

them

as

God

fees

them by

intuition.

finite

natures to

But being obliged becaufe of our combine, compare and judge by fucceflive
and
fo miftake in

afts,

we may

oft lofe the fecret chain,

our

reafonins[s.

COR.
Hence
tion upon'
it is

IV.

abfolutely falfe that reafonis only a fucceflive

perception of ideas, rep refented to the mind by the divine acit;

and that the undcrftanding


:

is

equally paflive,

with regard to its fimple, and complex ideas

for thus we

would

be

infallible.

The fource of error is


real active

altogether unintellio-ible,
joinino-,

if the

mind has no
and

power of comparing,

feparating,

affociating its ideas; as the fource


if the foul

of fin would

be incomprehenfible,

had no freedom of exami-

ning, chufing, and preferring one objed to another.

COR.
Hence
fleftion
all

V.
arife

our opinions or judgments


its

from the

rei-

of the mind upon

own

modifications, or fimple

deas.

examine hereafter whence thefe fimple ideas come; whether from God alone as the only agent, or from
fpiritual, as

We fhall

the creatures both material and

fecond caufes.

Ccz

204

OF THE PROPERTIES Book

III,

PROPOSITION
The living
pable of love.

XXX.

images of the deity mufl: be ca-

DEMONSTRATION.
God
loves himfelf iiecefTarily,
is

and

all

that

he has made

his eflcnce

love (a): the living, lively image

of a being that

isefTential love,

cannot be abfolutely incapable of love (b):


images of the deity muft be capable of

tlierefore the living love.

SCHOLIUM.
As God
all

loves himfelf neceffarily becaufe

he

Is

good; the

perfcd, the infinite good; fo his intelligent images muft


is

love neceffarily w^hatever

good, or whatever appears to be


as good, or

fuch

that

is,

mufl: love

good

good

in general. I

do

not fay that finite intelligences love neceffarily as

God loves;

or that they love

all

that

he loves; but they mull love fomc-

thing neceffarily, either

God, the

creatures,

or themfclves.

They may forget God by faUing into a degenerate fl:ate; and then as a punlihment they may lofe all gratifying fenfations
of,

and communications with tlie creatures but


;

as they can-

not be feparated from themfclves, they mufl: love themfclves


neceffarily,
if

they be truly felf-confclous.


is

This confubthey

Ibntial love of felf

infeparable

from

their natures;

rnay lofc

all

other loves, but they cannot lofe this; and fince

they love neceffarily their being, they muft love their well<a) Cor. 5 . of Prop. XI. (b) Ax. 3 . of this book.

Book

III.
it is

OF FINITE BEINGS.
happinefs, if it be fufceptible

205

being, for
defiring
ftate
its

impoflible ro love a being without loving or

of any. There is no

of perfection or imperfeftion, of
;

elevation, or degradafinite in-

tion

of purity or corruption in which or by which of felicity unlefs we fuppofe them reduced


;

telligences canextinguifli this natural, neceilary,


tlal

and coeffento a ftatc

love

of total
all

infenfibility
:

both of their

own

exiftence

and that of

other beings

all

beings therefore capable of

knowing are
of lo-

capable of willing, defiring and loving what they know, feel,

and perceive
ving
is

to be good.

Love or

rather the capacity


it

a necefTary property

of their natures;

flows

from

their effence

and

definition, as living images

and imitations of

him
*
*

that

is all

love.

The Malebranchian
general
is

and fcholaftick notion that


effeft

'

will in
a<n:i-

an immediate continual
is

of the divine
falfe idea

on

in us,'

therefore a

mere chimera. This


the foul
is

came

from the yet


that
it is

faller notion, that


it

not felf-movino-;

entirely pafTive, unlefs

be moved by God; and that

external impulfes are as necefTary to begin

motion

in fplrits as

in bodies.
it is

Conception or intelligence muft precede love; but not necefTary that there be any other immediate impulfe

different

from this conception.


is

Now this conception


is

is

rea-

fon,

and reafon

comparing, comparing

action;
all

and

may

be the effed of our


tural light.

own aftiviry,

independent of

fuperna-

All beings capable of knowing, comparing, and

judging, are capable of willing, defiring, and tending to


appears to them good or beatifying.
inherent, efTential
a<5livity

what

The

foul

by

its

innate,

tends naturally to whatever is, or

appears good, pleafant or conducive to its well-being.

The

2o<5

OF THE PROPERTIES Book III,


make
it

fimple perception of relative good, fufHces to


this natural,

exert

felf-moving
it

a<n:ivity.

As God by
eflentially
it

his creating

matter rendered

necefTarily

and

moveable by the

fame

a6l; fo

by

creating fpirit

he rendered

by the fame

z6t

necefTarily and effentially

aiflive,

or capable of volition.

The
i-

idea

of mobility

is

neceffarily included in that

of the material
intelligent

pi(fture,

and the idea of volition,

in that

of the

mage.

As Malebranche confounded

the natural activity

of

the underftanding, with the fupernatural contemplation of


the Logos, fo he confounded the natural
a<5livity

of the

will,

with the fupernatural aflion of the Holy Ghofl.

This neceflary tendency of the


good,
is

foul to whatever appears


is

another proof that the living image


a6live.

eifentially,

and

immanently

Reafon

isaiftion,

and love

is

action; there-

fore the living, intelligent loving images of the deity muft be


eifentially a<5live.

God's

effential a<5livity confifts in the

gene-

ration of his confubftantial idea

and

in the love

of his Holy

Ghoft.

Wherefore

all his living

images, muftbe capable of

a double immanent activity ; one by which they can difcover,

compare, combine, feparate, and thereby conceive the

relati-

ons and differences of their


tend
to, will, defire

ideas: another

by which they can


infinite has

and love the objects reprefented to them


for

by

thefe ideas.

The foul made


it

him who
and an
it

is

an

unbounded
felicity.
its

capacity of knowledge,

infatiable thirftof
defires to

1 he more

knows, the more


it

know:

capacity dilates proportionably as

receives:
infinite,

made for the


it

contemplation and love of the abfolute


find
It

can never

any

rcpofc,

till it

return to him, and lofe

itfelf in

him.

may

miftakeits object, and attach itfelf for a time to iinites,

BooKllI.
but
it

OF FINITE BEINGS.
all

207
boundlefs

will

Toon exhauft

theirperfe6lion,become weary, and


fatiate

difgufted with them.


defire

Nothing can
its

or

fill its

of knowledge, and
the fource of all

ever-increafing third:

of felicity,
reftlefs

but the uncreated, eternal,


a<5tivity is

felf-exiftent being.

This

its

pains and pleafures ; of all itsmi-

fery and happinefs ;

of allitspadions andnatural virtues.This


love is alfo that inward,

immenfe capacity of knowledge and


and intimate fund,
center,
fill.

and

fan(5luary

of the

foul,

which

none but God can


nts,

Tho*

there

were no other

finite (pi-

and no material objects

exiftent; yet this eflential, inde-

ftrudible defire of knowledge


ternal fpring

and happinefs, would be an


foul.

e-

and fountain of a6livity in the


itfelf

As

it

can

never find in

nor the creatures an

infinite
it

objed com-

menfurate to
itfelf, rife

this

boundlefs double capacity,

muft go out of

above

itfelf,

and lofe itfelf in the immenfe ocean of and


as
it

good, to be
it

fatisfied;

can never exhauft

this obje(5t,

muft be eternally

ad:ive, defirous,

and

infatiable.

Tho' we havefaid
fpiritual beings, yet

in the

twopreceeding propofitions,that

the powers of reafoning and wilHng are effential properties of

we do

notfuppofe that

finite intelligences

are always in an aftual exercife of thefe

two powers. They are


by the fufpenfion
a flateof

capable of action and love, but not always active and loving.

We have already fhown that


of the
divine
acftivity in

created fpirits

and upon them, may fall into

total inadion,

and

infenfibility.

Eternal adlion, uninterrup-

ted intelligence, and immutable love are the incommunicable


attributes
is

and perfe<n:ions of the infinite mind. Wherefore

it

poffible that laps'd intelligences

may lofe
of
all

all

perception of

their

own

exiflence, as well as that

other beings, and

2o8
remain in a

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


ftate

III.

of perfe(5l

inaflivity

and

fpiritual lethargy^

void of all intelligence, and felf-confcioufnefs, for

many

ages;

This

great principle will be of wonderful ufe hereafter, to

juftify

thecondufl of eternal providence.


jflate

Neither can
fleep,

it

be

faid-thatin this

of

fpiritual lethargy,

and death,
as

there

is

no

difference betwixt the foul


is

and matter. For

we

have fliown, the one

a fimple,

unextended fubftance, cais

pable of thought and volition, whereas the other

a com--

pound of innumerable, extended,


abfolutely incapable of

divifible fubftances, that are

all intelligent

felf-moving powers, as

we

fhall

{how very

foon.

It

is

therefore falfe to maintain with the Cartefians that

the foul thinks always: they never did, nor can give any folid

reafonfor this alTertion.


that a6ls

To think is to

perceive fome ob^


arifes

je<fi:

upon

us,

or to conceive fome truth that


It
is

from
or to
je(fl:s

the comparifon of diefe perceptions.


refle<5l.

either to feel

Now it can never be demonftrated that fome oband


neceifarily

act always,

upon

us; or that

we reflect

necelTarily

upon
in a

ourfelves.

Experience Ihows the contrary^


fleep.

when we are
and
feel

fwoon, or in a deep

To think, know
ftate,

always are priviledges of a pure and unfallen


living

when the him that


ding to

images

fhall

have a perfect refemblance to

never {lumbers.

Locke confutes

the Cartefian

opinion only by experimental arguments, without afcenfirfl

principles,

and thereby giving the true reafon

why

the foul does not always think.


is

This

as

we

fhall

{how
flate.

hereafter

one of the

greatefl proofs

of our degenerate

The
tcs,

Englifh and French philofophers, Locke and Defcar-

fccm to have never reflected upon

this

fublimc prinr

.Book
ciple,

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
fo their dlfciples

209
in the dark.

and

combate each other


I.

COR.
Since
finite intelligences

can never ceafe to love themfelves;

fincc the love of their being,

and well-being,
it

is

a natural

and

necefTary property of their elTence ; fince

mixes with, aniall

mates, and governs, and


a<5livities

is

the ftrongeft principle of

their

and operations ;

it

follows that while they

a(5l

folely
i:

by their own force and natural inherent power, they muf have
their ftrongeft love to themfelves,

and

their

own

happinefs;

and love good

chiefly as relative to them, as confonant to their

nature,as conducive to their well-being.Thcir natural, efTentl-

and fupreme inclination and paffion, motion and tendency is felf-love: wherefore the defire of God, purely and only
al,

as beatifying, as relative good, as fource


is

of

infinite pleafure,

a neceflary confequence

happinefs,
defire

common to God as infinite pleafure,


fovereign juftice.

of the natural love we have for the devils and the damn'd, who would
if they

were not

oblif^ed to

love

him as

COR.
Hence
inevitably,

II.

the foul defires, and loves certainly, Infallibly and

what

It

judges to be the
it

befi, fo

long as

it

contias

nues in that perfuafion: for fince


good,
lefier
it

loves necelTarily

good

muft necefTarily love the greater good preferably to a good, and fo what appears the better preferably to what
It

appears to
vil;

the worfe: wherefore it can never love


Its

evil as e-

becaufeit cannot hate

own

effence, will, chufe

and de-

fire its abfolute

mifery as fuch. It

may

indeed by miftake, by
pafilon, love real eevil as evil.

prejudice,
vil as

by

falfe

judgment and blind

an apparent good, but it cannot love

Dd

210

OF THE PROPERTIES BookIIL


COR.
III.
fall
It

Hence
fource

follows that if ever lapfed Intelligences

Into

a ftate wherein they fee and feel evidently that moral

evil is
it

of

eternal mifery, they cannot continue to will

de-

liberately,

remain for ever inconvertible, and be immutably


evil,

fix'din a

permanent choice of moral and phyfical

of fin

and

mifery.
all

This

principle will be of great ufe hereafter to

unfold
pains,

the myfteries of providence concerning infernal

and the duration of evil.

PROPOSITION
The
mufi:
intelligent living

XXXL

images of the deity,

be

effentially free as to the choice

of all

particular good.

DEMONSTRATION.
God Is eflentially
all finite,

and abfolutely

free as to the volition

of

determinate, particular

good (a); what is


immediate,

effentially

free cannot be reprefented

in a perfect:,

dire5l

man-

ner by what

is

abfolutely neceflitated, forced,

and enflaved
deity mufi:

(b): therefore the intelligent living images

of the

be effentially
good.

free as to the choice or volition

of all particular

SCHOLIUM.
Freedom may be demonftrated two ways, a priori, as the
fchools fay, or a
(a) Cor, 4
.

posteriori. The former proofs depend


(b) Ax. 4. of this book.

ofProp. XXII.

BooKllI.

OF FINITE BEINGS.

211

upon the nature of the foul, and the latter upon the effects of freedom, which we fee in the univerfe.
I

mo. The primitive, original fource of liberty /is


a(5livityof the

that innate

power or
fufpend

mind by which it can compare objects,


it is

its

tendency to,or acquiefcence inthem,till itexamine

their nature,

and hence

called

liberum arbitrimade for


ftill

UM, or

free judgment, as well as free-will. Spirits

the enjoyment and contemplation of infinite,


off their thoughts

may

turn

from any one

particular good,
finite

and think

of another
tend to
nite
it

far fuperior to

any determinate

one, and Co
fi-

by

their boundlefs defire


attra(n:

of happinefs. Every

good may
it

contains in

and draw them, becaufe being good, it reafon of love; but not being all good, it canfix

not determine them neceffarily,

them immutably, or move


a greater
is

them

invincibly

fmce they may ftill conceive


love.

good

more worthy of their


tial

Freedom

therefore

an effen-

property of
It flows

all

beings that can compare, examine, and


activity

judge.
telligent
finite

from the natural

of the mind

as in-

which can always think of a good


It
is

one.

fuperior to any an infeparable adjunft and concomitant of

reafon and intelligence.


*

Hence

the fchools fay'

Liberum

ar-

bitrium

eft

omni intelleflui comes.'


is

A fecond fource of liberty

the double Ipringof the will.


fprings, motives,or reafelt.

Wefhall ihow hereafer thatthefe two

fons of willing are perfeaion feen, or pleafure


thefe motives are fufficient to determine us ;

Both

and therefore we

may

follow the one or the other, and confequently neither


neceftarily.

of them conftrains us

We

may be determined
fenfation

by the

clear perception

of truth, or by the blind

of

Dd

212;
pleafure;

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


by the
love

III;

of order, or by the love of happinefs, by

When we feparate the love of; order from the love of pleafure we are vicious. When we unite thefe two loves we are virtuous. When we facrlfice the
the love of God, or felf-love.
love of pleafure to the love of order

we
In

are heroically

good

and
and

perfe6l.

When we

love order only

from the motive of


in all ftates,

happinefs,

wc

are as yet imperfc6l.

all times,

in all fituations, thefe

two motives or fprings may move,;


will

actuate
till

and determine the

of all

fpirits fallen

or unfallcn,

they be confirmed infix'd immutable habits of pure love;

as fhall be fully

unfolded hereafter.

Hence

it is

that in hea-

ven

itfelf angelical

minds before

their fall

were free to love

God from a view of hisabfolute perfe<ftion, or from a defire of their own perfonal felicity; by a pure difinterefted love of
preference, or from an interefled motive of happinefs.

This

mobility of the will by one or t'other of thefe two fprings,

was, as

we

fhall

fhow, the firftfource of defecflion in'the

fal-

len angels.

Thus freedom is founded upon

the nature of the

underftanding that can think always of a good fuperior to a-

ny

finite

one, and upon the nature of the will, that

may be

determined by a double motive.


monftrations a
.

We

come now

to the de-

posteriori. They

are alfo

of two kinds.

Firft,

without freedom the origin of moral and phyfical


impofilblc.

evil

would be unintelligible and even


fhall

Moral good,
to the laws

as

we

fhow,

is

the conformity of the

mind

of

eternal order. Eternal order, as

we fhall alfo fhow,


evil

confifls in

loving

God

for himfelf,

and

all

other beings proportionably

as they refcmble him. verfe or countera(^ this

Moral

on the contrary
it is

is

to re-

law of eternal order ;

to love o-

Book

III:

OF FINITE BEINGS.
God loves
;

213

therwife than

to feparatc the love


this
is

of pleafure from

the love of juftlce.

Now

impofTible, unlefs finite befreely the love


juftice.

ings be endued with a

power of preferring
of order and

of

felf and pleafure to the love

We

mufi:

therefore either deny that there is any real diftinftion betwixt


vice

and

virtue, or

maintain that

all

created intelligences are


evil is

free.

Moreover, without freedom, phyfical


It
is

no

lefs

unfor

explicable.

abfolutely impoffible that beings

made

eternal happinefs can be for

one inftant miferable but by their


mufl:

own

fault;

and therefore they

be endow'd with fome


defigns of

faculty

by which they can fufpend the

God. Since
happy
he
fince

the immenfe ocean of goodnefs

made

us only to be
;

by

his beatifying influences

and communications
it is

loves all that

he made; and fince


its

impofTible to love a beplain that if

ing without defiring

well-being,
it

it is

we

are

unhappy for one

inftant

muft be by our

own

fault; that

there muft be fomething in us that hinders God's beatifying


illapfes

and emanations, and that

this

can be no other than

the abufe of liberty, and the voluntary turning away of our


faculties

from the overflowing fource of life,


be not
free,

light,

and

love.

If

finite fpirits

then

God muft

be the caufe of all

the fins they commit, and of

all

the fufFcrings they endure.


ftrange, irregular

There is no other folution of the


out
this folution

phenome-

na of moral and phyfical evil that overflow the earth.

With-

we muft open

the fluices to

all

impiety and

atheifm; and deny that

God made

us to be eternally perfect
his boundlcfs per-

and happy
fedions.

in the

knowledge and love of

2 do.

By the negation of freedom not only

all

religion,

but

214
all

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


is

Iir.
fpi-

human foclety
then

unhinged.

If there be no liberty ki

ritual agents,

all their

inclinations, paflions

and vices are

unblameable.They

are virtuous without being

commendable,

and vicious w^ithout being cenfurable.We cannot fhun anyone


crime or any one a6lion
laws are
ten,

we commit.

All

human and

divine

ufelefs. It is needlefs to write, inftru^, exhort, threa-

and endeavour to change any

profligate inclination in

ourfclves or in others.

All our efforts are vain and fuperflu-

ous.

We muft

follow the unchangeable laws of nature, ac-

cording to the Spinofifts, or the irrevocable decrees of heaven, according to the Predeftinarians, that determine us invincibly, or

abandon us

inevitably to robbery, inceft,


child, ftab a tender

and

parricide

to ftrangle

an innocent

mo-

ther;

ftarve

our family; ruin our country; hate mankind;


againft almighty power.

and blafpheme

Nero, Caligula, and


as ne-

Domitian were no ways culpable. Their crimes were


ceflfary efFc<51:s

of invariable laws, or predcterminating de-

crees, as the virtues


faints.

of the
and

greatefl:

philofophers, heroes

and

Yea all the inward remorfes of confcience, horrors of


defpair,
all

mind, raging

the outward

efFe<n:s

of obdurati-

on and impenitence are as


eftablifhed

neceflary as the crimes themfelves.

All events are equally forefeen, foreordained, and pre-e-

by the
is

predeftinarian

God, or produced by the

Spinofian. It

vain to fay that tho'

men

beneceffary agents,

yet neither are rewards ufelefs, nor punifliments unjuft, becaufe both are caufes that produce necefTarily their
ejffefls

in

the good or in the bad. This

is

merefubterfuge.

The rewards

propofed, and the punifhments threatned can have no efFeft

but upon thofc who arepredeftinatcd to hear the one and fear

Book

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
former are ufeful only to a
little

21^
number, and

the other.

The

the latter are unjuft to thegreateftpartofmankmd, who could

not

a(5l

othervvife than fate

had determined them.

Whether then we confider the nature of intelligent beings upon which freedom is founded; or the fatal confequences

of denying

liberty, all confpires to

prove that

finite fpirits

are

endowed with

this property. It is the nobleft faculty

God

could grant them. By it they will be for ever happy, but hap-

py by love and by

free love,

which

is

the fupreme

felicity.

Thus

they will for ever contribute to their

own perfe<5lion and

happinefs.

This

is

the nearefl: and highefl: imitation of the

divine independency.

They

will

remain for ever unconftrailove.

ncd

in their choice, preference

and

Nothing can

ever
is

force or do violence to their moral determinations.

This

the eternal, immutable and univerfallaw eibblifhed throuo^h


the whole regions of immenfity.

God

will always

acfl

upon

intelligent natures in proportion to their freecorrefpondence.

Such is the nature of his intelligent imagesjthat he cannot make

them happy without

their
all

own

concurrence; and upon this

great principle depends

the beautiful
fallen

oeconomy of provito be happy; as

dence with regard to fpirits

and unfallen. As he loves ef.

fentially allhiscreatures,ashe

made them only

he can never

ceafe to furnifh

them all the means

necelTary to
ir-

come to

this

end; he never acftsupon them by omnipotent,

refiftible wills,

otherwife they could never be wicked or mifeall,and beatify

rable for

one moment.He would convert them

them allbyonein{l:antaneousa<5l;and
all

therefore if they be not


a real

good and happy, they mufl have in themfelves


and

power
he had

to refifthis divine operations,

fo retard the dcCigii

OF THE PROPERTIES Book III. in creating them. We fhallnow examine the obje6lIons made
2i6
againfl: liberty.
I

mo.

Rational agents a6t

ft ill

by fome realbn that

deter-

mines them. This reafon appears to them at the time always


the beft, otherwife they would be capable of preferring what

appears to them a
greater evil to a

lefTer

good

to a greater,

what appears a
evil as evil,

lefs,

and confequently of willing

which

is

impofTible.

Now the foul wills, defires,and loves neto


it

cefTarily

what appears

the beft, and therefore freedom

is

a contradiction.
I grant that
all

rational beings are determined

by fome
at that

reafon, and that they always chufe neceffarily

what

time appears to them the beft ; but I maintain that before they
are determined thus, they have always a

power to examine

if

what appears

to

them the

beft

be

really fo or not, a true or

only an apparent good; and


fource of hberty. All

we have faid, is the iirft particular good may draw or move them
this, as
it

becaufe
ly,

it is

good; but
not
all

does not determine them neceffari-

bccaufe

it is

good.

They

have,

by

virtue

of their

natural aflivity or fupernatural aid, a


laft

power
will,

to fufpend the

decifion of the underftanding

and

till

they have ex-

amined.
2do. It

may be

urged that

when men doubt

or fufpend
fuffa-

thus their judgment, they have always a reafon for this


pcnfion, which
feft,

makes

it

appear to them the beft and the


neceffary.

and confequently

it is

I anfwcr that

we

doubt,

we have always a bccaufe we are fallible

reafon of fufpenfion

when
fear

but

we

have alfo always a

reafon of notfufpending, becaufe

we

love pleafure.

The

BookIIL
of error may
fnre incite us

of finite beings.
retain us

217
defire

on one hand, and the

ofplea-

on

the other.
;

We may yield

to either,

and

Co

have

ftill

a reafon for adling

but not a necefTary reafon, fincc


falfe precipitated

either may determine us.

If by a
beft,

judgment

we

think unlawful pleafure

then

we

fin.

If by a juft

diffidence
pleafure,

of ourfelves, we examine, and then renounce this


are virtuous.

we

All thofe

who are criminal

think

at the inftantof commifllon, all things confidered, fin a leffer


evil,

than the pain they would


;

fuffer,
is,

and the dangers they


and hence it Is

would incurr by not finning


tate judgment that fin
is

that

they think by a precipi-

better than fufFering;


at firft

that

all

moral evil was derived


this

from

error.

But before
to examine.

they followed

judgment, and
paflion, they

let

themfelves be blinded
real

and hurry'd on by
3tio.

had a

power

Some

will fay that lapfed beings are not capable at all

times of comparing, examining, and judging; becaufe their

underftanding

may

be fo darken'd, their will fo precipitated,


fo filled

and the capacity of the mind

with the prefent

object:,

that they cannot flop their bent to pleafure, nor fee obje<5ts In their true light.
fully

This we grant; we

fiiall

afterwards explain

how the original corruption of our nature has very much


it

diminiihed freedom, but

has not entirely deflroyed it.

We

are born enflaved to fin,

and captivated by
of life,

falfe felf-love;

but what

is

wanting to nature may be fupply'd by a conftant


light,

application to the divine fource


fuperlor, fupernatural force
Is

and love. This

refufed to none, as

we have alUnl-

ready fiiown, and as


verfal grace
*

we

ftiall

demonftrate hereafter.

enlightens every

Its diffufive rays,

hke thofe

man that comes into the world.* of the fun, may be feen by all

Ee

2i8
thofe that

OF THE PROPERTIES BookIIL


do not fhut
their eyes, or hide themfelves in a caall

vern, immers'd in fenfe, or are fo habituated to


fions

the impref-

of vice and and

paflion, that they never turn their intellec-

tual views

defires to this divine light,

nor implore its fuc-

cours.

Thus

they contract inveterate habits of evil, and then

by

cow^ardice they call impoflible

what

is

very

difficult,

and

deny

that they can vanquifh their paffions, becaufe they will


at the pains to

not be

combat them.
it

But

if

they had true


if

courage of mind or would demand

from on high,

they

would fhunthe occafions of indulging


nifh

their appetites, dimi-

by degrees their commerce with


themfelves to a
life

terreftrial obje(n:s,accuf-

tom

of reflection, and walk


fee that

in the divine to

prefence, they
firft

would foon
is

what appears
difficult,

them

at

impoflible,

only

at firft

very

then

lefs fo,

and and

by

degrees eafy.

Thus human life

is

a continual warfare,

thofe

who

will not

combat can never vanquifh.


is

4to. Others will fay that freedom


divine prefcience.

impoffible becaufe

of

1 his attribute of the deity fuppofes

that all

things future will certainly exift in the fame time, order, and

circumftances, in which they are forefeen, and nootherwife.

For

if things future
is,

were contingent, indetermined and un-

certain, that

might or might not be, their infallible futurity

could not be the obje<n:of the divine prefcience; it being a contradidion to

know that
we

as certain

which

is

only poffible and

not certain.
I anfwer, that
trine

have already confuted

this falfe

doc-

of prefcience by fhowing, yea demonftrating, that

God

never forefees the free determinations of intelligent beings

but

as fimply

contingent and poffible.

We muft therefore

BookIII.
either

of finite beings.
true doctrine

219
this falfe opi-

abandon the

of liberty, or

nion about prefcience; for to pretend to reconcile thefe two


is a contradiflion in terms.

5to.The
nofifts

fifth

objection againft liberty

Is

that of the Spi-

and Naturalifls, who confound the elTcnce of the creator with that of the creature, and the adlionof the one with that of the other. Spinofa maintains that the foul is merely
paflive with regard not
its

only to

all its fenfations,

but

as to all

ideas; that we are hurried

and choice, by the idea


fation

on invincibly to every aflion, will of intelle<5tual pleafure, or by the fen-

of corporeal delight; that this double deledlation enchains us alternately, hinders us from perceiving the neceflity of our choice, and moves us fo agreeably that
ourfelves free, while

we
;

believe

we

are invincibly determined

that

we

chufe always neceflarily even particular good in every inftance, becaufe the mind entirely paffive, can think of no other good, but that
choice,

which
all

prefents itfelf in the

moment of

and

In fine that

our anions are only fpontaneous

or voluntary and not

free.
is

I anfwer that this fyftem

founded upon a combination

of falfe

principles

=pofes (i), that

which we have already overturned. ItfupGod wills as neceffarily the exiftence of all
their effence (2);

things, as

he knows

that all things flow

from him by
fes

way of emanation, and fo

are

modes or hypodanot only forefees

of the divine fubftance (3); that

God

as inevitable, but foreordains every thing future (4) ; that there


(i)Prop.
of Prop.
rollaries.

XVI and XXII. (2) Cor. 2. of Prop. IV compared XV. (3) Prop. XXVIII and XXXI. (4) Prop. XXIII

with Cor.

r.

and

its

Co-

Ee

220
IS

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


real
all

III.

no

agent in nature, as no real fubftance, but God alone;


things happen neceJfTarily

and therefore that

by an unin-

terrupted chain of caufes and effefts


ther fucceflively

which produce each o-

and

neceflarily.

In oppofition to thefe fb-

phifmswe have already demonftrated (i),that the knowledge


as well as the exiftence

of things

finite, is entirely free,

prewill

carious,

and dependent upon the arbitrary thought and


infinite (2); that nature
dillincft

of the abfolute
fcd

produced

is

compo-

of fubftances

the intelligent

from the producing caufe (3); that images of the deity are effentially aftive and
and
efTential

free (4)5 that this natural aclivity


finite intelligences is neither limited

freedom of

nor deftroy'd by any in-

fallible prefcience,

or predeterminating decrees, nor by any


refulting

fatal fuccefTion

of events
and

from the nature of fecond


of the pious Fa-

caufes.

6to.
talifts

The

fixth

lafl obje<5tion Is

that
fay if

and

rigid Predeftinarians.

They

men were really

endow'dwith fuch a magnificent power as freedom, then they


might be authors of their
tion

own

happinefs, determine the acthat they are the only fources

God in them, and vaunt of their own felicity.


of

I anfwer that freedom confifls In a power to confent to

or diffent from, to receive or rejeft the adion of objects, and

not in a power to produce their luminous and beatifying influences.

Liberty in
call

this fenfe is

only what the modern phiefficient caufe; as

lofophers

an occafional and not an


and XXII.
-

the

(0 Prop. XVI
of Prop. XV.
rollaries.

(2) Cor. 2. of Prop.

IV compared

with Cor. i
its]

(3) Prop.

XXVIII and XXXI.

(4) Prop. XXIIJ and

Cq-

Book
du(n:ive

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.

221

opening of the eye is only an occafion of feeing, and not pro-

of light.
its

not operate

The creature can only co-operate with, and own felicity. Now can a beggar be vain behand
to receive the alms given

caufe he ftretches out his


all

him?

thefe fophifmsare only fubterfuges by which the Predefti-

narians vainly endeavour to juftify their notions of abfolute


decrees and efficacious graces, as wefhallfhow hereafter.

COR.
Hence freedom is not an
fonable natures. Reafon

I.

arbitrary Gift

of God as Bayle

faysjbut a neceffary/infeparable adjund:of our intelligent,reais

comparing, examining, judging:

now from
good good

this

power flows the power of willing, chufingand


which
is
;

preferring one objeft to another,

freedom.
but
all

We love

in general, or happinefs necelTarily

particular

freely ; becaufe

we may

ilill

think of another good far

fuperlor to

any determinate one, and fo find a reafon ofpre-

ferring the greater to the lefFer.

COR.
Hence freedom does not
ourfelves without

II.

confift in a
at all.

power

to determine

any reafon

To chufe thus would be

capricious fancy, and not a true perfection.


liberately

We

never
this

a<5l

deis

without fome motive or reafon; and

motive

always real or apparent good.

COR.
Hence freedom
fufpend our choice
befl:

III.

far lefs confifts in a

power

to prefer

what

appears the worft to what appears the befb but in a power to


till

we have examined

if what
beft,

appears the
or

be really fo or not.

The view

of the

what ap-

pears to us fuch, always determines us necefTariiy in the ac-

222
.

OF THE PROPERTIES
:

Book

III.

tual

moment of choice but antecedently


ftill

to this

moment, wc

have

a real,

intrinfic,

inherent, immediate, unchained


to us beft be really fo

power of examining,
ned.

if

what appears

or not, and of fufpending our choice

till

we have

thus exami-

COR.
Hence freedom
is

IV.

a purely admiflive faculty

and no ways

productive of the obje6ls that a6l

upon

us.

We are very oft


;

entirely pajflive as to the impreflion

of thefe objects

but

al-

ways
to

free to refled

upon and compare

thofe imprefTions.

We

are not always free to feel; but we are always free to confent

what we

feel.

We are not always

free to reje6l

wholly the

involuntary fenfations, ftrong imaginations, and violent imprefTions obje(fls excite in us; but

we

are always free to ad-

here to them, to correfpond with them, and to difavow them,

or to indulge them, to expofe ourfelves to their aftion, to live


within the fphcre of their
defire,
a<n:ivity,

to fortify in ourfelves the

union and love of them, or to Ihun the occafions that

expofe us to their influences.

COR.
Hence,
ral liberty,
it

V.

tho' original

fm has very much impair'd our natuof corruption diminifh


not and can never be totally delife.

and

tho' inveterate habits


it is

more and more, yet

ftroyed during this mortal

Tho' of ourfelves we cannot


do any fupervirtue;

vanquifli our paflions, refift violent temptations,

natural good, orpraftife

any divine

yet

we

have

al-

ways

prcfent and at

hand

a fuperiour, foreign, adventitious,


refift all

fupernatural force,
fcnfe, paflion

by which we can

the efforts

of

and fclf-love,by degrees vanquifli them, and be-

Book
come
ting,

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
we
are faithful to

223

God's unlverfal prevenpurely gratuitous favours which are refufed to none,


is

truly juft. If

what

at firft difficult will

become
'

lefs fo,

then eafy, and in

fine natural to the

new man

that

God
VI.

creates in us,' if we co-

operate with his fan<n:ifying operations.

COR.
Hence
tho' the devout

and

rigid Predeftinarians

admit
it
;

li-

berty in appearance, yet in

cWed they

really deftroy

fmce
as

they maintain that

God fees all our


God

moral determinations
;

infallibly future in his abfolute decrees

that pleafure

is

the

only fpring of the will; that

gives a celeftial delea:atiit

on
fect
al

to a little

number, and refufes

to all others

by an

ef-

of his arbitrary

will; that the alternate returns

of celefti-

or

terreftrial delectation

prevent us Inevitably, and deterthis phyfical

mine us

infallibly; that

without

premotion

we

have power to do good, in no other fenfe than a


leap Into a furnace,

man

has to

throw himfelf down

a precipice, or pull
all

out his eyes without any motive.

This do^rlne deftroys

freedom; for it
fes

is

abfolutely Impoffible, that a man in his fenfire,

can throw himfelf deliberately Into the

leap

down

precipice, or pull out his eyes without

any reafon. Freedom,

does not confift In a mechanical power to a6l without reafon but in a power, either natural or fupernaas
faid,
;

we have

of examining, and then chufing what we think the moft reafonable and the befl.
tural, firft

224

OF THE PROPERTIES Book

IIL

PROPOSITION
The fimple pi<5lures of the
terial univerfe is

XXXII.
ma-

deity, or the

not one, fingle, individual, indibut a compound of innumedivifible fubftances.

vifible fubftance;

rable, diftin^t,

and

DEMONSTRATION.
Matter exifts by extenfion ordiffufion of parts (a); every
fubftance that exiftsby diffufion of parts,
is

not only ideally,

but really

divifible (b):

whatever

is

divifible is

compounded
divifible fub-

of parts;

that
:

is,

of innumerable,

diftind,

and

ftances (c)

therefore the fimple pictures of the deity, or the


is

material univerfe,

not one,

fingle, individual fubftance,


diftinft,

but

compound of innumerable,

and

divifible fubftan-

ces.

SCHOLIUM.
Since

we

have already demonftrated that matter


it is

is

not the

fame with fpace; that


in fine that
it

a fubftance and not a property ;


;

and
e-

exifts

by extenfion or diffufion of parts

it is

vident from the idea and nature of an extended fubftance,


that
it is

figurablc, divifible,

and moveable; and therefore

it is

not one,

fingle, indivifible fubftance,

but a compound of in-

numerable

different fubftances tho' perhaps contiguous,


It
is

and

homogeneous.

capable of infinite forms, divifions and

motions, no one of which taken feparately, as the points and


(a) Cor.
3

of Prop. VIII.

(b)

Lemma

of Prop. VIII.

(c) Cor. 2. of the

Lmma of

Prop. VIII.

Book
lines

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
fo each individual fpecies

225

of a

pi<flure,

reprefent the original; but the totality ta-

ken together;
tures

of the material

pic-

do not reprefent the great archetype, but the

totality

taken together

may manifeft

his infinite

power, wifdom and

goodnefs,by their Imprefled forces, artful compofitlons, and


beautiful forms, asfhall be explained hereafter.

This then

is

one of the moft and the


^ngle,

eflential differences

betwixt the living Images,


is

(implepiiflures.

Every individual of the former

one

uncompounded monade or
divine perfections

fubftance, reprefentative
intelligence
is

of the
and
(6:

by

its effential acfllvlty,

love.
it is

Whereas every atom of the fimple


totality,

pictures

not

only the

fymmetry and compofltion of the

whole, that adumbrate the divine power, wifdom, and goodnefs.

This property of matter demonflrates evidently that the


fimple pi(5lures are not, and cannot be intelligent; for fince

matter

is

not one fimple fubflance ; but a compound of Innudiflin6l, tho'


it

merable fubftances, really


telligent

contiguous;

if the in-

image in us were corporeal,


little

would be compofed of

innumerable

Intelligences, that could

no more commudifferent per-

nicate with each other, than the fouls


fbns.

of fundry

Thus what one part knows would be unknown to another: we could not compare nor unite our ideas, fo as to make propofitions, nor thefe propofitions, fo as to form arguments, nor thefe arguments, fo as to compofe one continu-

ed

difcourfe.

All the operations of comparing, uniting, and


in-

compounding our ideas,fuppofe therefore one, individual,


Moreover,

diviflble,felf-confcious effencejthat is,an immaterial fubflance.

we

hear, fee, tafle, touch

and fmell by

five diffe-

Ff

226
.

OF THE PROPERTIES Book III.


all

rent organs; and thefe fenfatlons are as different, as the or-

gans themfelves; yet they are

united in the fame fubjeft,

which compares them, judges of them and difHnguifhes betwixt them.

Now this could not be, if the foul was material


all

for in that cafe


parts

thcfe fenfations
is,

would
little

reflde in different

of matter, that

in different

fubftances, diftinc^
it

from, and

unknown

to each other;

and fo

would be imun-

pofTible to compare, unite


lefs

and judge of

thefe perceptions,

we

fuppofe

them communicated by

thefe organs to

one

fimple, individual, and indivifiblc fubftance. (a)

By the
loving.
is

fame principle

it is

clear, that the

fimple pictures,

or material fubflances are incapable of willing, defiring, and

Whatever

is

unintelligent cannot will; fince willing


to an object becaufe

the tendency
it;

of the foul

of the good

perceived in

wherever there is no perception, there can be

no volition. For the fame


:

reafon, the fimple pi<5lures arc incapable


volition, there

of

freedom fince wherever there is no


free volition.
Spirits are

can be no

moved

freely

by fome reafon that

perfuades them; bodies are pufh'd neceffarily by an, impelling force unperceived, unfelt

and unknown
depends

aflion of the

moving caufe

in fpirits

The upon their own


to them.

confent, becaufe of their innate activity,

by which they
foreign

can turn themfelves

to,

or from the obje<n:s that zCt upon

them.

The

aftion of the

moving

caufe in bodies

is

to them, and independent of them; becaufe being entirely


paflive, unintelligent,
(a)

and incapable of
by Dr. Clarke

volition,

and

free-

See this argument fully purfued

againfl

Dodwell upon the

immateriality of the foul.

BookIII.
dom, they
lent caufe.

of finite beings.
receive invincibly the impreflion

227
of the impel-

In one word, the

intelligent images are felf-mo-

ving, whereas the fimple pictures are only moveable.

COR.
Hence
the fimple pidure
is

I.

incapable of intelligence,felf^

confcioufnefs,

and reafon.

It

can neither
;

know

itfelf

nor

its

original, its effence or modalities

its

properties, or relations.

G o R.

II.

Hence

the fimple pictures are incapable of volition, for


all

whatever is unintelligent cannot will; for

willing, defiring

or loving fuppofes the perception of fome good real or apparent.

COR.
Hence
free;
it

III.

follows alfo that the fimple pictures cannot be

fince, as

we have fhown, freedom

refults

from the naobje(5l:s,

ture

of the underftanding that can compare

different

and from the nature of the will, that can be moved by a double motive, perfeftion feen, or pleafure felt. Now where there
is

neither intelligence nor will, there can be

no freedom.

PROPOSITION
The fimple
tive.

XXXIII.

piftures

of the

deity, or material
elfentially ac-

fubftances, are not

and cannot be

DEMONSTRATION.
Matter in
reft is as

much

matter as matter in motion (a)


elfential properties (b): there-

ho being can exift without its


(a) Ax. 6. of this book,
.

(b) Ax. 7 of the fame,

Ff

228

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


a<51:ive.

IIL

fore the fimple pictures of the deity, or material fubftances,


are not efTentially

SCHOLIUM.
As
fo
a fimple pi<5lure, ftatue or reprefentation, has
it,

nofpon-

taneous motion in

and cannot move unlefs


;

it

be moved;

motion

is

not eflential to matter and

it

cannot move unlefs

its infinite
it.

caufe

communicate

force,

aftivity

and motion to
fince,

The
we

idea

of matter does not include that of force,


matter in
reft is as

as

have

faid,

much

matter as matter in

motion.

No materialift has ever yet dared to affirm, that the


for then
abfolutely impoffible to conceive or to fuppofe

idea of matter includes neceffarily that of motion;


it

would be

matter in

reft,

which

is

abfurd.

Moreover

if

motion were

ef-

fential to matter,

then fome particular dire^ion or determi-

nation of motion would be effential to matter; fince itisim-

pofRbleto conceive motion without fome particular direfllon:

but no particular

dire(n:ion is effential to

matter; for if there

were but one atom in nature, it would notof itfelf move naturally

and

neceffarily to the right rather than to the left,

down-

wards rather than upwards, or any one way more than another; and a tendency to

move every way

at once, could pro-

duce nothing but an eternal reft.Matter then of itfelf is purely


paflive;
it
it

would remain for ever in an eternal

inaftion, unlefs

were moved by fome foreign agent.

This was what gave

the

Greek

philofophers, and efpecially the fchool of Pytha-

goras and Anaxagoras the firftidea of a fubftance diftin^l from

matter; that

was

felf-moving, aftive

by

effence,

and the pri-

mitive fource of

all

motion, which they called

ajp^>J ouCtoyJ-

Book
pyjTYi,

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
Is

229
betwixt the

This then

another

eflential difference

living images

and thefimple

pi^ftures:

the former, as

we

fhall

ihow, may
bility
:

fall

into a fpiritual lethargy, inaftlon and infenfi-

but Co foon as they awaken from this deep fleep, they

can turn to their proper obje<^s,feel their operations, and tend to them freely. Bodies tho' difengaged from allfurroundinoobftacles,

would remain in an

eternal reft, unlefs pufhed

by an

external force.SpIrits
their true objects,

on the contrary, fo foon as they perceive move to them naturally; the obftacles that
fatiate their natural defire

hinder'd their perception being removed, they tend of themfelves to

whatever can

of felicity;

yea they can


fes

make

a choice

among the feveral

obje(5lsor cauattributes^
divi-

of this

felicity.

We know

no other inherent
pufh'd

powers, or capacities in matter but thofe of figurability,


fibility,

and mobility; of moving where


leaft refiftance,

it is

of going
when.

where there is the


it is

andof ftanding

ftill

flopped.

C O R.

I.

Hence we have
ties

new demonftration

that matter
all

is

inca^

pable of thought, volition and freedom; for

thefe proper-

fuppofe adion, activity, and a felf-moving power, and Co


is

cannot belong to a fubftance that

entirely pafllve.

COR.
Hence
that
all

II;.

the inherent, elfential, natural tendencies, In-

clinations,fympathies,attra6tions,repulfions,

and a<n:ive powers

fome

attribute to matter,and that

cannot be explained by

mechanical caufcs, are purely chimerical.


prefTed qualities, they cannot

They muft be imbe effential properties. The

contrary opinion tends vifibly to fpiritualize extended fub-

230
ftances,

OF THE PROPERTIES
and to
inveft

Book

III.
li-

them with

all

the properties of the

ving images.

COR.
Hence
In a ftate

III.

of pure and exalted nature, the material

pictures could not refift the divine action, nor hinder the ex-

ecution of God's almighty defigns in creating them.


entirely pafTive

Being
deviate,

android of freedom, they could not


thelaw^s, motions, directions

of themfclves, from
given

and forms

them by the author of nature. Wherefore if any change


to

happen

them,

it

mufl:

be in confequence of fome imprefled

force altogether foreign to them.

From
this

the feven preceeding propofitions demonftrated in

book,
are

we may draw

the following general corollaries,


in philofophy

which
gy-

of wonderful ufe both

and theolo-

I.

GENERAL COROLLARY.
the
five {pecific

Hence we have
terial,

differences betwixt
exifl:

ma-

and immaterial fubftances. (i) Bodies

in (pace

by

diffufion

of parts ; whereas fpirits

in imitation

of God exifl
fingle,
dif-

without diffufion or extenfion. (2) Bodies are not one


indivifible fubftance,
tinfl,

but a

compound of innumerable,
;

and

divifible fubftanccs

even tho' contiguous or cohe-

rent; whereas fpirits arc fingle,


fible fubftanccs.

uncompounded, and
pi<n:ures that

indivi-

(3) Bodies are fimple

have no

knowledge of their modifications, nor of their almighty caufe;


fpirits are living

images, capable of

knowing themfelves and


are entirely pafintelligent na-

their all-wife original.


five,

(4) Bodies
elTential

by nature

but

a<n;ivity is

an

property of

all

Book
tures.

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
fine,

231

(5) In
;

bodies are pufh'd necefTarlly


fpirits

by an Imfpirit

pelling caufe

whereas

can

refill:

or confent freely to

the a<5tion of objects thatfollicite them. Wherefore

may

be defin'd
*

'

an unextended, uncompounded,

indivifiblc, in-

telligent, a<ftive

fubftance that can determine itfelf freely;*


*

body on the contrary is an extended, compounded,


'
*

divifible,

unintelligent, paflive fubftance, that follows necelfarily the

impulfe of the moving caufe.'


11.

GENERAL COROLLARY.
fpirit

Hence body and


ftances

cannot be only two diftin^

indivi-

duals of the fame fpecies

of

fubftance.
;

They muft
and

be fub-

of quite different kinds fince their

effential properties

are diametrically oppofite, incompatible

contradicHiory

fuch asextenfion and non-extenfion;


fibility; infenfibility

divifibility

and indivine-

and perception ;paflivity and

acflivity;

cefTity

and freedom.
foul

To demonftrate the
it is

effential

diii:in(5li-

on betwixt
properties

and body,

not fufticient to prove that the


are different; or that they
it is

of

thefe

two beings

do

not fuppofe or include each other:

fophifm to fay that

matter cannot think becaufe the idea of extenfion does not


infer that

of intelligence.

We might prove in the fame manIt

ner that matter cannot move, becaufe the idea of extenfion

does not include that of motion.


that intelligence

muft be further fliown

and extenfion
;

are incompatible, oppofite or

contrary properties
different fubftances,

and therefore that they muft belong to

and to fubftances of quite different kinds.

232
Ill

OF THE PROPERTIES Book

III.

GENERAL COROLLARY.
who Imagine
that the fouls
voli-

Hence
of hearts
tion,
is

the opinion of all thofe,

are material,

and yet capable of fenfatlon and


:

altogether unphilofophical, nay dangerous

for if cer-

tain portions

of matter ranged

in certain forms,

and moved

witli certain velocities

were capable of thought, fenfation and

reafoning in an inferior degree, tlien other portions of matter

with fuperior forms, forces, and

velocities,

might be ca-

pable of thoughts, fenfations and reflexions in a fuperior degree.

Thus our fouls might be


This
is

material.

Yea by new modifi-

cations

of matter and motion, innumerable orders of fplrits


not all: by complicating and perforces,

might be formed.
fefting the forms,

augmenting the

and

velocities

of

matter,

God

hlmfclf might be material; and his effenceane-

thereal fluid.

Thus therafh doMne of material fouls in beafls

tends at laft to impiety.

GENERAL SCHOLIUM.
Thus by joining their corollaries, we
trine

the feven preceeding propofitions, and

have a

full

confutation of

all

the doc-

of the and

materialifts.

They

pretend that tho' perception,

reafon,

volition be not effentlal to matter; yet they

may

be the

effects

of certain portions of matter


in a particular

figured, divided,
is

mov'd and organiz'd


abfurd. All that
is

manner. Nothing

more

produced in matter by

figure, divifionand

motion

is

only a change of form, bulk, or place.


is

Now in-

telligence

not change of form; nor reafoning change of

Book IIL

OF FINITE BEINGS.

233

magnitude, nor volition change of place.

The change of form,

bulk and place in organized or unorganiz'd bodies does not


alter the intimate eiTence
^

of

things,

and therefore can never

fuperadd to them a new, quite diflimilar quality, or reality

they had not before.


telligence
it is
is

We have already demonftrated

that in-

a perfeftion,

and non-intelligence a defed. Now


infenfible before organization,

not only unconceivable, but abfolutely impofUble, that


is

what

unintelligent
intelligent

and

can

become

and felf-confcious by organization; fince

organization does not alter the nature and eiTence of things.

A mafs of numberlcfs,
fore

fubtile, invifible

and unintelligent po-

lygones, fpheres, cylinders, elliptoids, pyramids, or any other


infinitely fmall folids, fuch as all fluids mufl: be,

cannot there-

become

intelligent, felf-confcious,

and rational by flow-

ing into the channels or tubes of organiz'd bodies.

The

materialifts will

perhaps fay that metaphyfical reafofa(n:s,

nings can never deflroy phyfical


ence; that

and conftant experidifpofitions

we

feel every

day how much the

of

the body influence thofe of the

mind

that the liveHnefs

of

our thoughts and perceptions depends upon the quicker or


flower motions of the animal
led or In a deep
fpirits;

that perfons half-ftrang-

fwoon, declare upon their recovery that they


felf-confcioufnefs.

had no thought, perception, nor


all

From

this

they concKide, that upon the extinction of animal

hfe, they will have nc^fenfation, perception, or Intelligence,

fince thefe

depend

entirely

upon organiz'd matter.


place, that this fliows that the

imo.
foul

anfwer in the

firfl:

and body are united, but not that they


as well fay, that the art, fcicnce,

are one.

We
of a

might

and

intelligence

Gg

234
mufician
lies

OF THE PROPERTIES
entirely In theftrlngs or pipes
is

Book

III.

of hisinftrumentsJ

becanfc his knowledge


as they are

more or

lefs

confpicuous according
is

more or

lefs

tun'd.

The

comparifon

perfectly

jiift,and therefore the


iicial

contrary fophifm can only dazzle fuperto diiHnguifli

minds that have no accuracy and acutenefs

betwixt union and unity; that miflake appearances for realities,

and take

effects for caufcs.

2 do.

We have already fhown that the foul by a fufpenfion


a<51:ivity

of the divine
fcnfibillty

in

and upon

it,

may

fall

into a total in-

and inadion; and that

laps'd intelligences

may

for

a time be void of all thought, fenfation, and refleiftion: but


this fufpenfion

of their powers, does not prove the annihila-

tion

of

their elTence.

The

fuperior faculties

of degraded,

difeafed, fallen fpirits

may be

fo darkened, fhut

up and ob-

Itru^led, that

they can have no communication, but with ma-

terial objects;

and therefore when the corporeal organs are


as in a

ftopt or derang'd,

fwoon and

after half-ftrangling,
;

they can have no fenfations, nor reflections

but

this does

not argue, that if the union betwixt foul and body had been
entirely dilTolved, they

would not have awakened

into ano-

ther

ftate,

wherein they would have been miferableor happy;


themfelves, and felt the juft, natural, and

known God and

neceffary confequences of their virtues or vices.

This

life is

a kind of dream, fleep or lethargy, wherein the moft exalted

minds are darkned, weakned and fick, or


red to the true exercife of their

at lead:

not refto*

intelle<ftual fun<5tions.

We
and and

ought not therefore


perfections

to judge

of the

properties, powers,
re-cftablilhed,

of the foul in a recovered,

Book

III.
ftate,

OF FINITE BEINGS.
that befall
it

235
in a flate

healthful
ficknefs,

by the fyrnptoms depravation, and malady.

of

Mr. Locke
cide whether

therefore pronounced too haftlly (a) that

we

do not know enough of the intimate efTence of things

to de-

God

cannot communicate thought to certain


I

portions of matter.
intimate efTence

anfwer that tho'

of things,

we do not know the yet we know fufficiently their at-

tributes to decide

about and determine their differences.


is

Wc

know that matter


divifion

an extended fubflrance capable of figure,


it

and motion, and confequently that


;

is

not one,

fingle, individual fubflance

but a compound of innumerable

fubftanccs, that are as really diftin^l, even tho' contiguous, as


if they

were feparated

at the greatefl: diflance.

Now
of

it is

ab-

folutely impoflible that a numberlefs multitude

different,

independent, unintelligent atoms can


al,

make up one

individuindividivi-

indivifible

and felf-confcious efTence; or that one

fible felf-confcioufnefs,
fible
it
is

can be made up of innumerable,

and independent felf-confcious particles: and therefore


as abfurd to fuppofe that

omnipotence

itfelf can

unite

thefe oppofite qualities in the fame fubftance, as to fuppofe

that he can

make

a triangular circle, or a fpherical cube.Thefe

ideas are contradictory

and incompatible.

We are however
real defign

very far from

fulpe<5ting that

Locke had any

of e-

ftablifhing materialifm: but his philofophy being very oft

founded upon popular obfervations, and


without afcending to
to be applied by bad
alifm,
firfl

fenfible experience,

principles, his

confequences are apt

men by

turns to

all forts

of fyftems,

ide-

and materialifm, Spinofifm and deifm, religion and


Locke upon human underflanding, chap.
3.

in-

(a) See

Book IV.

Gg

23^

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


fometimes he feems to pull

III.

.credulity; fo that

down

with one

hand, what he builds up with another.

Thus the
either deny,

Materialifts,

and

all

their difguifedpartifanSjmun:
Idealifts, that

with Spinofa and the

matter

is

real, finite, divifible, flgurable, moveable fubftance; deftroy

thereby

its

elTence,

and reduce it

to the idea

of

infinite fpace; elTenti-

or grant that thought, reafon, and volition cannot be


al attributes

of matter, nor
it

efFe<5ls

of

its

modifications, nor

qualities

fuperadded to

by almighty power.
fyf^

Thus we hope we
tern

have overturned the unreafonable

of the

materialifts,

by fhowing
both by

that

God can

reprefent

his perfections externally


pictures,

living images

and by fimple

which

are quite different fubftances.

The nume-

rous, beautiful truths that flow

from

this

fublime principle

could never have been fo

eafily

difcoveredor demonftrated as

by the gradation of
litions,fcholiums

ideas contained in the foregoing propo-

and corollaries. All the other proofs are lame

and

imperfe<51:,

becaufe they are not deduced from, nor re-u-

nited in the fame great principle.


fute the doftrine

We proceed now
who
maintain that

to con-

of the

idealifls,

God

is

the immediate author of all the fenfations, and perceptions

we

have of material objects; that extenfion, figure and motion,


like colours, taftes

and founds, are mere fenfations of the


real external exiftence;

mind, that have no


there
is

and

in fine that

no

third fubflance called matter, betwixt

God

and

fi-

nite fpirits.

Book

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
OF

237

LEMMA
The Ideas,
us

PROPOSITION

XXXIV.

fenfatlons,

and perceptions we have

of corporeal and
vine perfeflions.

fenfible obje<5ts very often turn

away from the contemplation and love of the di-

SCHOLIUM.
This
Is

evident

by unlverfal experience. The defire


fenfible pleafures
is

to fliun

fenfible pains,
all

and to enjoy

the fource of

the errors and crimes in the world.

None

can doubt of

this

but fuch as deny that there are any fuch things as truth
virtue.

and

Now
all

as the IdeaHlts

whom we are
irreligion,

going to com-

bat, are far

from maintaining fuch maxims, and have afacred


immorality and they cannot re-

horror agalnft

jed: this great principle.

PROPOSITION
God
matter.
is

XXXIV.
all

not the immediate author of

the

ideas, fenfatlons,

and perceptions we have of

DEMONSTRATION.
God
could not without any reafon produce immediately
in finite intelligences a perpetual feries

of

ideas, fenfatlons,

and perceptions that frequently turn them off from the contemplation and love of the divine perfections (a); the ideas,
fenfatlons,

and perceptions we have of material objeds


XXIV.

fre-

(a) Cor.4. of Prop

238

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


away from

III.

q.uently turn us

the contemplation and love of the

divine perfc(^ions (a): therefore

God

is

not the immediate

author of all the ideas, fenfations, and perceptions

we

have

of matter.

SCHOLIUM.
The idealifts will fay that
againft

the fame objection


a(5lion
;

may be made

God's continuing the

of material objects up-

on, and their union with

fpirits

fince this ferves very oft to


is

corrupt and degrade them.

I anfwer that there

a great dif-

ference betwixt the two fyftems.


that

We fhall fhow very


where we
one

foon,

we

are at prefent in a degenerate ftate,

are for

wife reafonsfubjedted to pain and pleafure by ourphyfical u-

nion with material nature.

We

fuffer the

as a punifh-

ment,
exile;

we may

ufe the other as an innocent mitigation

of our

audit depends upon us to make a good ufe of both;


at leaft to dimlnifh, all

yea to fufpend,or

commerce with fuch


that

corporeal objects, as can turn us off from the contemplation

and

love

of truth and

virtue.

But to fuppofe

God

is

the

immediate author of all the impure imaginations, voluptuous


fenfations,

and tormenting perceptions that expofe the mind and depravation,


to

to corruption

moral and phyfical

evil, is

true Manicheifm.

This perpetual production of ideas, per-

ceptions and fenfations


rity,] uftlce
fical

would be unworthy of the

divine pu-

and goodnefs, unlefs there were


fouls,

real bodies, a

phy-

union betwixt them and

and fuch a conftitution

in nature ef]:abllfhed,that both a6l mutually

upon each

other.

Moreover,
(a)

if there

were no external bodies, andif wehad

By preceeding Lemma.

BookIII.
no
real bodies

of finite beings.
of our own, to what purpofe
as if

239^
this continual

fucceffion

of ideas,

we

had?

why

does the invincible

delufion

laft?

why thefe pains

that feem to be occafioned

by

the action of noxious bodies upon us?

why thofepleafures that

depend upon an apparent application of our organs to external objects? why that order and connexion betwixt our ideas

and

fenfations,

which

fuppofesftill

an organiz'd body,and oblanguage of men


is

je6ts acting

upon

it? all

the

common

nondoes

fenfe

and

folly .A

fword does not pierce the bowels;


all thefe

fire

not confume our members;


nary:

appearances are imagi-

we have nobodies
againft.

to preferve: there are

no bodies
and
figure,

to
ar-

guard

Why then did God make this


of
fize
all

ufelefs

bitrary conne(5lion betwixt the ideas

and

and

the fenfations of pain and pleafure?

nature becomes a phan-

tom, a mere delufion, a


ideas.

falfe

appearance; there is nothing but


is

This fyflem therefore


and wifdom,

equally oppofite to God's e-

ternal truth
nefs.

as alfo to his fan6tity

and good-

The

learned Doftor Berkeley (a) from a fincere and a pimaterialifls,


is

ous zeal againfl the abfurd fyftem of the

the

only modern author

we know

that has ventured to

deny not

only the

real exiftence

of bodies, but even the


thus,
'

poffibility

of

their creation.
'

He reafons
called

There

are in matter

two
for-

forts

of qualities,

primary and fecondary.

The

* *
*

mer

are extenfion, figure, divifion,


tailes, fmells,

motion andfolidity.

The
All

other are colours,

founds and touches.

philofophers grant that the latter are only fenfations of the

mind, which have no

reality

without us.

It

is

eafy to prove

(a) See his dialogues betwixt Hylas and Philonous.

240
*"

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


There
is

III.

that the former are fo too.

nothing In nature ab-

fokitcly great or fmall, flow or fwift, plain or angular, really fcparated or perfe6lly united,

hard or

foft:

but all are one

or t'other relatively to our organs; for if we had other fenfes differently


tafte

conformed,

we would

fee

them,

feel

them,

them, fmell them, hear them quite differently from

what we do now.
pears to us
foft,
little,

Other animals

fee that great

which apwhat we

fwift

what feems

flow, hard

what we call

agreeable

what we think

difagreeable, fweet

look upon as

bitter,

and love what

to us

is

noxious.

Now

'

fince fize, figure, motion, divifion,


tinually

and

folidity

change con-

'

upon every

alteration in the diflance,

medium, and
appears to us.

organs of fenfation; there can be no determinate material


obje<ft

from without, that

is

exaftly fuch as

it

'

Wherefore there is nothing real in the obje(fts, like the primary qualities of matter, more than the fecondary; and
both are equally fcnfations of the mind.'
All the force of the Doctor's reafonings
lies

'

here.

There

is

nothing without us

like the precife figures, fizes,


;

and moti-

ons which we perceive within therefore there


al

is

no materi-

fubftance exiflcnt.

The

conclufion does not appear jufl.

Tho'

there were nothing in material obje(5ts perfedly the

fame with theparticularfigures,fizes,and motions we perceive


with the naked eye, yet
is it

does not thence follow that there


fpirit,

and can be no fubflance diflind from

that produces

in us thefe fenfations,

and that

is

in itfelf extended, iigurable

and moveable.
;

Tho'

there be in nature

no

abfolute magni-

tude tho' the fame bodies appear fmall or great,fwift or flow,


plain or angular, united or porous according to the different

Book

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
we
no
real fubftance

141

organs by which
that there
is

perceive them; yet this does not prove,

without

us, betwixt

whofe ex-

tremities, there

is

a real diilance, which

may

receive different

forms, be tranfported from place to place, and be divided into feveral equal parts.
difications

Moreover,

all

fenfations, ideas

and mo-

of the foul being

real, thefe

changes mufi: have a

real caufe,

which muft be material or Ipiritual, created or unDo(5tor does not pretend that
it is

created.

The
fhown

finite fpirits

that excite In us all thefe perceptions, but

God

alone:

we have

already

that the infinite

mind cannot be the immediand modifications; and

ate caufe

of thefe

ideas, fenfations

therefore there muft be a third fubftance betwixt

God and
diile-

human

fouls, that really a6ls

upon us

to

produce in us

rent fenfations, according to our different organs, ftates and


Situations.

No

doubt unfallen angels and

beatified fpirits fee

matter otherwife than we.

No doubt material nature re-eftaby the organs of our


glori-

blifhed will produce in our fouls

ous bodies quite other


thofe

ideas, fenfations

and perceptions than

we now have

but ftill there will be real matter, the caufe

and the objed of


and

their perceptions.

The

difference there-

fore of the fenfations produced according to the variation


-the organs
diftances,
is

of

no proof of the non-exiftence of

the obje(5t producing.

The

Doftor's miftakes proceed from his confounding the

ideas with the objefts, and the perceptions produced with the

caufe producing.
jeSis

Simple ideas as

we
it.

fhailfhow, are not obitfelf;

which the mind


it

perceives without
different

but modes prothere-

duced in

by objeds

from

The variations

fore of the modes, ideas, perceptions and fenfations, accor-

Hh

242

OF THE PROPERTIES
the non-exiftence of the object that

Book IIL
a<5ls

ding to the difference of the niedium,organs and diftanceSjis

no proof of

upon

us.

The fubtile Doctor proceeds in


futes moft ingcnioufly the

hisfccond dialogue to en-

quire into the true caufe of our ideas and fenfations.

He con-

Malcbranchian romance of occafi-

onalcaufes,and fhows clearly that the hypotheHs of fceingbodiesin God,raakes their creation ufelefs, as
llrate alfo very foon.

we

fhall

demon-

He goes on in the fame dialogue to fhow,


an occafion,
*

that as matter cannot be

fo

it

cannot be a fimple

inftrument of the divine operation:


*

for^ fays he,

an

inftru-

ment being an help made


formed by the mere
perfeft
fpirit,
acft

ufe

of

to

do

vi^hat

cannot be perall-

of the

will, to

fuppofe that an

upon whofe will all things have an immediate


is

and abfolute dependence, makes ufe of an inftnmient,

perfedly abfurd, and inconfiflent with the divine omnipotence.'

'

This argument proves too much, or


the immediate author not only of

it

proves nothing. It

deftroys the activity of fecond caufes, and fuppofcs that


is

God

all

the phyfical aftions,

but of all the moral determinations of created beings.


liberty
fins,
is

Thus
being?

deftroyed, and

God made the

fole caufc

of all the

and blafphemies of finite

fpirlts. It is true that all

have an immediate and abfolute dependence upon the divine


will
;

but

it is

abfolutely falfe that

all

aflicns have fuch an

immediate and abfolute dependence on the divine aftion.


Bodies arc not mere initruments, but
real agents
;

for,

as
Ha-

we
his

fhall

fhow very foon, God can communicate


as well as a real fubllancc diilind:

to his

ving images and fimple

pi(5turcs a real activity diflin^

from
owo.

own,

from

his

Book

IIL
exalts

OF FINITE BEINGS.
more

243

Nothing
produce

the ideas we have of the divine nature,

than to fnppofe that


all

God

has not only an infinite power to

that

is

poiTible,

and

all

that

is

compatible with his


a real activity

pcrfe6tions, but alfo that


to other beings.
farily to

he can communicate

The negation of this principle tends necefprove, that God is the only agent in nature and this
;

opinion leads naturally to Spinofim, becaufe


believe that

it

induces us to
Ihall

God

is

alfo the

only fubftance in nature; as

be fully unfolded In the next propofition.

The ingenious and


his third

learn'd

Doctor endeavours to prove

in

and

lafl:

dialogue, that

God

is

the immediate caufe,


;

and even theobjeft of all our


third fubftance betwixt

fenfations

and that there is no

God

and

finite fpirits,

which

as

wc
and
our

fuppofe

avfls
*

upon us when we
eternal,

perceive extcnfion, figure

motion.
*

The

omniprefent mind, fays he, which


things, exhibits

knows and comprehends all

them

to

view In fuch a manner, and according to fuch laws,

as

he

himfelf has ordained, and are by us called the laws of nature.

All things exilHn the divine mind from eternity.When

things are faid to begin or end their exiftencc,

we do

not

*
*

mean this with regard

God, but the creatures. All objecHis are eternally known by God, or which is the fame thing, have
to

an eternal exillcnce in

his

mind: but when things before im-

perceptible to created fpirits are by a decree of God made perceptible,

then they are faid to begin a

real exiftencc

with re-

'

fpe6t to created minds.

By creation therefore, nothing clfe can

bcunderftood, but that the fcveral parts of the world already


exiftent

from all eternity In the divine mInd,become gradually

perceptible to finite fpirits endued with proper faculties.

Hh

244
This
is

OF THE PROPERTIES Book

III.

the moft refined Spinofifm that ever was; forhere

the Doctor adopts three of thegreateft fundamental principles

of

that impious fcheme, (i)

The

identity

of ideas and

their

objefts; (2)

The coeternity

of thefe ideas

in the divine

mind,

and confequently
ufelcfTncfs

their confubftantiality

with

God

(3)

The

of creation.

We

have already demonftrated, (i)

that the archetypal ideas of things finite are quite different

from the
that

objects themfelves; (2) that ideas have an eternal

it

is

abfolutely falfe,

all finite

and neceffary exigence in


is

the divine mind; (3) that creation


folutely neceffary to explain the

not only poflible, but ab-

phenomena of nature proall

duced.

If this were not

fo,

a Spinofift might fay, fince

things have an eternal exigence in the divine mind, this muft

be true of fpirits

as well as

of bodies. Here all the arguments


the creation of material fub-

the Do6lor makes ufe of


ftances,

againfi:

may be employed

againft the creation

of finite fpirits;

for if the knowledge

God has

of

all

objects be the fame thing

as their eternal coexiftence with the divine

mind, then this

may

be faid of fpirits as well as of bodies; for

God knows

both equally.
l]3iritual,

Thus

nature produced whether material or


as an

muitbe looked upon

emanation of the divine


itfelf;

fubfi:ance,which by immanentaclion produces all in


ideas

the
call

of fpirits

as well as the ideas

of bodies.

What we

created intelligences muft therefore be eternal, confubftantial


ideas, forms, perfonaUties

and inherencies of the divine mind;

as

what we

call

bodies are only different fenfations and per-

ceptions of the feveral parts of the intelligible world already


cxiltent in the divine
tirely dcltroy'd;

mind

thus

all

ideas

of creation are enis

and what we mean thereby

only that the

Book
being
lities,

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.

245
orperfona-

coeternal, confubftantlal

forms or ideas of the divine mind

living, felf-confcious, intelligent hypoftafes

are afFe5led with different fenfations, perceptions,

and

modifications produced by the


foliite infinite

immanent

a(5lion

of the ab-

upon

itfelf; this is

the flower and quinteffence

of Spinofifiii.

No doubt

the great and

good Doftor did not

perceive thofe fatal confequences of his Scheme.

The

Do6lor afks more than once in the courfeofhis


anfwer that

dia-

logues,whatis this third fubltancebetwixtGod and


called matter.I
it is,

finite Ipirits

as has

been already demon-

ftrated,a picture or reprefentation,or


fe<n:ions

fhadow of the divine percommunicated,


can act immediately
fenfationSjideas,

endowed with

a true, real, phyfical,

and not

effential efficacy;

by which

it

upon
deity,

fpiritSjto

produce in them different

and

inclinations.

on the contrary are living images of the endow'd with an effential, inherent, immanent a6tivity,
Spirits

by which they can aduponthemfelves ;and then with a communicated, emanant a6livity, by which they can a(^ upon
bodies, to produce in

them real figures,

divifions,

and motions.

All

this fliall

be fully demonftrated in the following propofi-

tion.

The Leibnitian
this doftrine

do(5trine

of monades refemblesvery much

of Doctor Berkeley.

The German

philofopher

does not fay that


perceptions
;

God

is

the fole author of all our corporeal

but that extenfion, figure and motion are pure

appearances and fenfations in us, that have no real objeft out

of the mind; that the immediate


poreal perceptions
indivifible,
is

efficient caufe

of thefe cor-

monades; that thefe monades are fimple,

unextended, unintelligent elTcnccs, endued howe-

24^

OF THE PROPERTIES Book III.


power of a6tion;
forts

ver with a real, inherent, effential, phyfical


that

God created from


intelligent,

the beginning

two

of monades,

one

and another unintelligent; but both without

figurabiiity, dlvifibillty or mobility,

and confequently homo-

geneous

that thefe

two

forts

of monades, which compofe

the whole of the univerfe, aft reciprocally upon each other

by

certain general laws pre-eftablifhed;

whence

arife all

the

phenomena, harmony, and order of the univerfe; that thefe monades being equally fimple, uncompounded, unextended,
and therefore homogeneous,
their

mutual aftion and

reafti-

on upon each other

is

far

more

intelligible

than that of two


;

diftincl fubftanceSjOne

extended and another unextended that

God

created nothing but fimple elfences, or monades; and in

fine that wdiat w^e call

compound

beings extended, divifible,

figurable,

and moveable

are only perceptions in the foul, as

founds, fmcUs, and colours; and notobjcfts really exiftent

without

us.

He

docs not therefore pretend, as fome of his difciples

falfcly alledge, that

extended fubftances or bodies


is

refult

from

the union of unextended monades; this


ceiveable, but abfolutcly impoffible.

not only unconafferts


is,

All he

that
a-

extenfion, figure, and motion are


rife

mere

fenfations

which

from the a6tion of thefe monades upon the


is

foul.

Here

there

nothing contradi(5lory,inconceiveable, or myfterious.


differs
is

His fyftem
in the

from that of Berkeley

in this alone, that

one there

no

third fubflance betwixt

God

and

fpirit

that acts

upon the foul,whereas here there is


and
aftive, tho'

a third fubftance

really created, exiflent,


fible

unextended, indiviis

and uncompounded. Thus the exigence of matter

Book III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
and
all

247

really dcftroyed,

reduced to the idea of intelligent and

unintelligent monades.

This,
lefs

German invention feems

far

more hypothetical and


which makes

fimple than the Berkeleian fcheme,

God

the fole univerfal agent. In explaining the phenomena of nature,


it is

in vain to imagine entities that are not necefTary.


all,

If God's immediate a61ion can explain

why haverecourfe
and whofe
folid

to fccond caufes that are purely imaginary,

exif-

tence can never be demonftrated a


seal principles ; nor a
periences.

priori by

metaphy-

posteriori by fenfiblephyfical exthis do6lrine tends to

Moreoverj

confound the
is

nature of ipirit and matter, by fuppofing that what


ligent

unintel-

may

be cffcntially adive.

In

fine the tranfition


is

from

this Leibnitian fiction to

Spinofifm

(lippery

and

fteep: for
it is

if there be really

no extended

fubftances in nature,

eafy

to pafs
fal

from

that hypothefis to the idea

of one only univerandfometlmes

fubftance, that acls fometimes as extended,

as intelligent;

and that produces by turns the fenfations of and motion and the ideas of pure
intellecti-

cxtenfion, figure,

on, reafon and

will.

All thefe modern fiflions are only a repetition in different

terms of the antiquated Zenonian errors; they are groundlefs

metaphyfical refinements, that recede from nature, and

that perplex philofophy,


Itrafl principles
fall

which fhould always combine ab;

with fcnfible experiences

otherwife

we mud
that

naturally into Idealifm or Materialifm, which by different


laft to

roads lead at
nature
is

the Spinofian impiety, which

ajfferts

compofed of one only fubflance of which

all

be-

ings are only modalities, hypoitafes or confubftantial forms*

248

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


COR.
I.

III.

Hence what
ideas

the Idealifts and Splnofifts maintain that the

and the

objcifls are the

fame

is

abfolutely falfe; as alfb


thinkino; fubftance are

that the extended fubflance

and the

one and the fame fubftance, which


fometimes as extended.
trary conceptions

a<5ls

upon us by

turns,

and

which we therefore conceive fometimes

as intelligent,

and

The archetypal ideas are thefe arbiwhich God forms freely in his divine unreprefentable

when he thinks of himfelf as things external. Theobjeds createdarethe


derftanding,
felvcs,

by

fubftances them-

which he produces
he oneexifl: only

in his divine immenfity, correfpon-

dent to thefe ideas, and reprefentative of his divine perfedicns.


1.

in the
exift

fupreme mind, and are free

modes of it. The others

without the divine mind, and


it.

are real fubftances dillind from

COR.
Hence
bodies,

II.

the enthufiaftic notion ofMalebranche, that when


it is

-we fee bodies

not real created matter

we

fee

but ideal

produced

in us

by the immediate a6lion of the omni-

prefenr, all-powerful,
alfo the

and all-luminous elTence of God;

as
clfe
al-

Bcrkelean fcheme, that by creation, nothing

can be underftood but that the feveral parts of the world,


ready cxHtent from
all

eternity in the divine mind,


finite fpirits;

become
doc-

gradually perceptible by
trines, I fay,

both thefe

new

favour openly Spinofifm: for tho' the French

philofophcr differs from the Englifli in this, that Malcbranche

allows the exigence of matter, and that Berkeley denies

it;

and tho' both

differ

from Spinofa

in this,

that they diftinfpirits;

guifh always the uncreated effence from created

yet

Book
they

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
is

249
the on-

all

three agree in this, that the divine fubftance

ly caufe andobje<5lof all the ideas,fenfations

and perceptions

we have of extenfion, figure, and


from this
to Spinofifm
is

motion.

Now the paiTagc


juft

eafy, as

we fhall
III.

now Ihow.

COR.
Hence the negation of the

exiftence

of matter is followed

by vifible abfurdities and palpable contradidions, that impeach


equally the divine veracity and wifdom, fan6tity and goodnefs.

PROPOSITION
God may communicate
and
can
aft
lively pictures a real adivity,by

XXXV.

to his living images

which they

mutually upon each other.

DEiMONSTRATION.
God is efTentially and infinitely aftive (a); creation is a reprefentationof God in things external (b): infinite aftivity
cannot be reprefented by abfolute inaftion
(c).

Therefore
lively pic-

God may communicate to


tures, a real activity

his living images,


aft

and

by which they can

mutually upon

each other.

SCHOLIUM,
It

may be

faid, that

by the fame reafoning we might prove


by what has no intelligence

that

all

corporeal beings are intelligent, becaufe infinite in-

telligence cannot be reprefented


at
all.

This

is

abfolutely falfe; for


XXI.
(c)

wifdom and inteUigence,


of this Book.

(a) Prop. IX.

(b) Prop.

Ax.

5.

li

250
aft,

OF THE PROPERTIES Book III.


and knowledge, may be reprefented by the beautiful
different parts
ar-

rangement of the

of the material unlverfe, as

well as by the clTential attributes of intelligent natures: but


infinite
a<fl:ivity

cannot be reprefented by pure

pafTivity,

and
do

abfolute inaction.
nally
a<ftive as

Wherefore

all finite

beings

mud be

origi-

reprefentative

of the great archetype.

We

not fpeak here of that immanent


lone,

aflivity efTential tofpirits a-

and by which they can

a6l

upon themfelves,

to

compare

their ideas,

here to
tivity,

and chufe betwixt them, judge of them, and adthem. We fpeak of that emanant, communicated acparts

by which all the

of the creation material and ima6l re-

material, the living images


ally, reciprocally,

and the (imple pidures, can

and phyfically upon each other according

to the general laws eftablifhed

by theauthor of nature.

Moreover,

it is

certain that

God may communicate


as well as a real

a real
dif-

activity difi:in<5lfrom his


tinft

own,
if

fubfhnce

from

his

own. For

God

could not communicate a


faid for the

power of afting

to creatures, it

mult be

fame rea-

fon that he cannot communicate to them a power of reafo-

ning and willing.


the other.

The one

Is

no more incommunicable than

All God's attributes are communicable in greater


except Self-exiftence, which fuppofes abfofinite

or

leffer degrees,

lute infinity.
tent,
is

That a created

being fhould be
it is

felf-exif^

a contradi(5lion in terms: but


it

no

contradi(51ion to

fuppofe

endued with any other powers or

perfe(5lions

what-

foever in a
fa,

bounded degree. Unlefs we


and choice arc mere
fcries

fuppofe, with Spino-

that reafon

pafTive receptions

of im-

pulfe

from a continual, necelTary

of caufes

that produ-

ced each other fuccefUvely; we muft allow that the foul has a

BookIII.
real

of finite beings.
its

251
them:

power of comparing
tlierefore fince

ideas, andcliufing betwixt

and

foning and
ting.

God could communicate a power of reawilling, he may communicate alfo a power of achis living images,

As he can communicate to
an imitation of his

and fimple

pi6i:ures,

infinite

wifdom and goodnefs by


he may imafllvlty,

their e/Tentlal attributes or ImprefTed forms, fo

part to
their

them an imitation of his

infinite

emanant
forces.

by

communicated powers, and ImprefTed

The proof ana-

perty of the Father


well as that of the

may be reprefented In
all
;

external things as
rules

Son and Holy GhofL The


or give a reafon

logy are the fame in

the three; and If we deny the one,

we
of

muft deny the others


the
firft is

why

the Imitation
pofTible.

impoffible,

and that of the two


afligned,

lafl:

Now

fince

no fuch reafon can be


all

we muft

allow that an

imitation of

the three

is

equally feafible.

The
;

fchoolmen fay very well, that


a6t as

agere seq.uitur
exift infinitely,

ESSE beings

they

exift.

If they

they

a6t infinitely; If they exift dependently, they a6l dependently;


if they exift finitely, their

adion
Is

Is

finite; If

they
all

exift in

an

imperfed: manner, their action


fes their

imperfed.

In

thefc fen-

aalon Is real, tho'

their

powers be not equal.

the creatures exift in the divine immenfity, fo they

As all all ad by

the divine efHcacy: but as their receiving exiftence originally

from God does not hinder them from having a real being diftin6l from liis; fo their receiving originally power
from God, does not hinder their having a
real a(flivity diftinft

from

his.

It

is

by God's continued
fpiritual,

efficacy that all beings,


intellifpirits;

whether material or
gible; that bodies

become intelligent and


fpirits act

move

bodies; that

upon

li

252

OF THE PROPERTIES

Book

III.

and that thefe two fubftances mutually influence each other, by an immediate communication as analogous in this that
they reprefent the fame original.
that they
live,

It

is

in

God, and by God

move and have

their being.

The

creatures in

whatever

ftate

they be confidered, whether fallen or unfallen,

arc never entirely disjoined nor detached

from

their almigh-

ty caufe.

They

exifl:,

fubfift,

and

fo to fpeak,

fwim

in the

immcnfe ocean of life.


degraded natures,

The

only difference betwixt glorious


fpirits,

and mortal bodies, beatify'd and deprav'd


is,

exalted

and

that

God

operates

more in the one than


they are
entirely

in the others, manifefts himfelf

more

to the former than to


all

the

latter;

but he

is

equally prefent to
in,

all;

dependent upon, exiftent

and infeparable from

his

omniani-

prefent effence and creating energy,

which fupports
he moves

all,

mates
verns

all,

and overflows
things

all.

God not

only preferves and goall

all

by

his providence; but

things

and makes them

ad, yet in fuch a


a force that
is

manner

that fccond caufes

move and
fift

a(St

by

proper to them, as they fub-

by an exiflence that is proper to them.

As

the creating e-

nergy that gives exiftence to

finite fubftances is

not a

real e-

manation of the divine effence ; fo the omniprefent energy


that gives activity to fecond caufes
is

not the fame with the dia6livity

vine action.

In both cafes the effence and

imparted

to the creatures are quite diftin6t


aftion.

from the divine effence and


it

This

idea

is

very fubtile, but

will be

found

folid,

and profound.
It
is

true indeed that

we cannot
its effc6t.

conceive

how

this

com-

municated force produces


dies

We do not fee how bomove


fpirits,

move bodies

far lefs

how

fpirits

and leaft of

Book
all

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
two fubftances a(5l
afts

253
from place

how

thefe

reciprocally

upon each other.


it

When

one body
all

upon another
fee
is

to tranfport

to place;

that

we

contad or jun6lion of furfaces;

but the idea of contad does not infer tranfportlng.

We do

not comprehend

how

the foul moves the

hand
;

nor

hand communicates
in fine

force to a ftone

thrown

nor

how the how this

ftone preferves this force after the

how

this

hand has abandoned it; nor force pafTes from one body to another. Thus
fpirit to

the communication of force by


incomprehenfible.

body

is

altogether

Vv^e underftand far lefs yet

how

bodies

can a6l upon

fpirits. It

cannot be by conta6l and junction of


fpirits

extended furfaces; fince

have none.

It

is

alfo certain
{J3irits

that unintelligent matter alone cannot produce in

ideas

and

fenfations; fince the efFeft cannot be fuperior in reali-

ty to the caufe.That force

which

refides in matter,and

which

makes matter acfi:, is not


emanant
aclivity

eifential to matter.
fpirits

Moreover, that
matter,

by which

ad upon
is

upon a
them:

fubftance fo diftinfl from themfelves,

not

eflential to

they might have exifted eternally tho' they had had no com-

munication with matter, and tho'

it

had never been created.

The force therefore by which fpirits ad uponmatter,and matter

upon fpirits,

is

entirely

an eifed of that

vital, fpiritual, all-

creating energy that runs through the

whole feries of beings


and that connects

from the abfolute

infinite to the lowefl finite; that reaches

from one end of the


all

univerfe to the other,


firft

fecond caufcs with the

original caufe.

This
is

univerfal,

all-creating, all-preferving, all-enlivening energy,

the origi-

nal fource of

all

the activity
all

we

fee in the creatures; tho'

not the immediate caufe of

their adions, determinations,

254
and motions.
iftencc.

OF THE PROPERTIES
It

Book

III.

communicates to them

activity as well as ex-

As

they have a real exiftcnce


diftinft

dilHncfl

from God,

fo

they have a real adivity

from

his.

Their aftion is

dif-

ferent from God's, as their fubftanceis diftincl

from

his, tho'

both are derived originally from him. This univerfal force

makes bodies zCt, but they


fon

are real agents.

It renders fpirits

perceiving and intelligent; but they really perceive and rca;

it

makes matter

perceptible, but matter is really percelv'd;

otherwife, as

we

fliall

fhow, the creation of bodies would have

been

ufelefs

and fuperfluous.

I grant then that

we

have no clear ideas of this force, nei-

ther in the
creating

firft

nor in fecond caufes: but as


in

we do

not deny
fo nei-

power

God;

tho'

we

cannot conceive

it;

ther ought
caufe

we

to

deny modifying power

in the creatures, be-

we do not comprehend the manner of its


t'other, the paifage

operation. In
is

one and

from nothing tofomething

e-

qually unintelligible.Wc do not conceive the connection there


is

mode produced; nor betwixt the creating caufe, and the fubftance produced. If we deny the former becaufewe cannot conceive it, we muft for
betwixt the modifying caufe, and the
like reafon

deny the other; and maintain


fo there
is

that as there

is

but
fee

one asent,

but one fubftance in nature.


is

We

plainly that the univerfe

compofed of fubflances, powers,


ideas

and modes.
dillinguifh

We have clear enough


;

of all the

three, to

them from each other but we cannot explain how


nor

the

firft exilt,

how

the fecond
is

a61:,

nor

how the third


fuftains
is

are

produced.

fubftance

fomething that

modes; a
a

power

is

fomething that produces them ; a mode

change
as

that happens in a fubftance,

by

this a(5live

power but
:

wc

Book
power.
ftate

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
fiibftance, fo

255

have no adequate ideas of

we have none of
is

We

know

that both exift; but during this mortal

we comprehend

neither

how the one

created,nor

how

the other operates. All the fyftem of the ideaHfts comes from

prefumptuous defire and pretenfion of knowing what


not difcover,till we
fee

we can

God as

he

is

how he

created

all thino-s

without any participation or difcerptionof hisfubftance;

how

he preferves them by an unrepeated continuation of the fame creating energy and how he communicates to them a real ac;

tivity diftinft

from

his

own,

as well asadiflin^treal fubftance.

Some
ture.

ancients eftablifhed occult qualities and virtues in na-

ture, underiv'd

from the

firlt

caufe,and fo diviniz'd the crea-

Some moderns

deftroy the activity of fecond caufes,

and thereby the freedom of intelle(n:ual agents, and the exiftence of material beings; and fo make God the immediate
author of all moral and phyfical
gerous.
evil.

Both extremes
real

are dan-

The

true midft

is

to

acknowledge the

but com-

municated
it.

activity

of created beings, tho' we cannot conceive

Father Malebranche and his


trine

difciples attack'd the

doc-

of caufality

in the creatures,

and

efpecially in material

agents, for the following reafons.


I

mo. Since

in all action there

is

a paffage

from nothinor

to fomething,

a(5livity

in fecond caufes

would be a real creati-

on, which

is

an incommunicable attribute of the divine naa(5t

ture.Hence he concludes that finite cannot


that

upon finite,and
is

God

prefent every

where

to his creatures

the only

means of communication betwixt them.

I arant that
;

God
but I

cannot communicate to creatures a creating power

256
deny

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


that he cannot impart to
is

III.

them

a modifying power.

There
ftances

as great a difference betwixt the prodnftion as there


fubfifl
is

offub-

and that of modes,

betwixt fubftancesand

modes. Sub fiances cannot


creating energy
;

independently of the divine

but modes

may fubfift

independent of their
in,

producing caufe; becaufe they have fubftances to inhere

and

fo fubfifl

till

they be deftroyed by contrary

a(51s.

God

then cannot communicate to finite beings his creating power;

but he

may

give

them an image of

it,

which

is

modifying

power.

Since they are originally reprefentative of their

divine archetype; theymufi: or


fentative

ces

that

may have fomething repreof his creating energy. As he can produce fubflanhad no exiftence before his action; fo they may
acflion.

produce forms that had no exiflence before their

He
be-

may

render them aflive as well as exiflent.

1 hey may

come by

his divine beneficence real agents, as well as real

fubflances.

There

is

no denying the one, without denying

the other.

2do.
*

The
is

Cartefians reafon thus:

beings

condnual creadon ;

The confervadon of wherefore God gives to all


'

'

creatures every

moment, not only

their being, but their


in general,

'

modes of being.

He does
modes

not create Being


;

with-

out any pardcular

that

is

impoffible; but he creates


real, phyfical,

every being in each infhnt, with the


dcular

and par-

modes

it

has.

He
or

cannot create a body without

fome
al

figure,

without

reft

modon

wherefore the condnu-

creation of the fubftance fuppofes the condnual produc-

tion

of the mode; and that of the mode, the production of

thefubflance.

Thcfctwoarc infcparable,becaufe

as

no mode

Book
< *

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
no fubftance can
exill

^^y
wlth-

can

exift without a fubftance, fo

out fome particular mode.


I have already confuted this opinion that the confervati-

on of beings
fervation

is

a continually repeated creation,

and

fo all the

natural confequencesof this dodrine fall to the ground.


is

Con-

not a fucceffion of new repeated

afls,

but a con-

of the fame creating energy, whofe efFe<5ls areas permanent and eternal as if God had given them a real (latinuation
bility

of his. as God by the continuation of his creating energy gives a real fubflance to
creatures,

of

exiftence independent

Now
fo

which

is

diftinft

from

his

own,

he gives them a

real aaivity different

from

his ajflion.
caufality,'

agereseq.uitur
and power fuppofes
a^ls

ESSE.

The

idea

of aftivity,

and includes fomething that can


fe<5ts;

really

produce

and

ef-

and therefore the creatures may have a

real a(5tion pro-

per to themfelves, dlftin^: from the immediate aftion of God.

Wherefore
fes at

it Is

abfolutely falfe that modifying

power fuppo-

the fame time creating power; unlefs


all

we

maintain with

Spinofa that

beings are confubftantial forms of the deity.


it

I grant that God cannot produce a fubftance without

have

fome
and
firil:

particular

fliall

mode but we have already demonJ(l:rated> explain more fully hereafter, that God created at
;

all

beings with modes, attributes, and powers reprefenta-

tive

of his divine perfeaions.

We fhall

alfo fliow

very foon

that

by

their natural, inherent force, acfllvlty,

and freedom,
that in

laps'd fpirits loft their original forms,

and forces; and

confequence thereof the material fpheres which they inhabit


loft a

great part

of

their original

beauty and

activity.

The

CartefianandMalcbranchian philofophy gives no idea of this

Kk

258

OF THE PROPERTIES

Book

III.

pure, primitive, and uncorrupted ftate, and fo confounds eternally the laws

of nature exalted with thofe of nature dewere any

graded.
3tIo.

Malebranche adds that

if there

real

agent

in nature befides
fides

God, then

there

would be other beings befear

him, that
all

we might honour,

and

love.

anfwer

that
to
fes

beings are to be lov'd, fear'd, and honour'd relatively


as their fource

God

and archetype. Thus

all

fecond cau-

and created agents, are to be more or


a(5lion is

lefs fear'd, lov'd

and

honour'd, according as their

more or lefs conform-

able or contrary to the divine aftion; and according as the

one

accelerates or retards the other: but


all

God

is {Hll

the pri-

mitive fource of
ing.

power, as he

is

the

firfl:

author of all be-

This pious

difcourfe

of Malebranche ought no more to

impofe upon us than that of Spinofa,

a devote
je(n:s

air,

and a fincere zeal

who affecls in his works for the glory of God. He re-

with horror the imputation of Atheifm and Material-

ifm.

What

can be more pious than the editors preface to

Spinofa's works? If
tcr

we may

believe the author of it, his maf-

was a zealous

Chriftian.

All his moral and theological


gofpcl.

works are commentaries upon the

His defign was to

make men look upon all


might be honour'd,
but as the
*

created fubftances as inherencies, hy-

polhfes, and modahties of the divine effence, that fo


lov'd,

God

and fear'd not only

as the fole caufe,


'

fole objc<5l

of all our perceptions.

If there were

any fubftances but God, (may the Spinofifts fay) then there would be other fubftances befides God, that might be honour'd, fear'd, and lov'd.

'

Then God would

not be

he

THAT

IS.

The

dodiine of creation derogates from the

Book
f

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS,
of the
divine efTence;
It

259
ere^s nature

perfection and unity

'

produc'd into a deity, into a real fubftance, into a Being that IS. By creation therefore nothing elfe can be underftood,

'

but that the divine efrence,as infinitely extended or immenfe,

becomes gradually perceptible


proper faculties; and thefe
confubftantial forms or ideas
tains necefTarily all ideas

to finite fpirits

endued with
elfe

finite fpirits are

nothing

but

of the divine mind, that conand all objects, which are one and
the faall

the fame thing.'

1 hus the pious Malebranchifts and


with the devout Spinofifls ; and

natical Idealifts agree

the

three by an effect of imagination,


that
fall

deftroy the very idea


all in all.

of

God,

whom

they look upon as

Thus men may


effential to

into

A theiftical maxims as well by attributing to God what


him.
it

does not belong to him, as by denying what is

Far be
were

from

me

to accufe Father Malebranche,andDo6lor


their life

Berkeley of Atheifm ;
fully perfuaded

and character fhow that they


they eftablifhed printheir juftcon-

of

Chriftianity:

ciples that lead to Spinofifm,

but they denied

fequences, from a fincere refpcift for religion.


their hearts hindered

The

purity

of

them from purfuing too


It
is

far the errors

of their underftanding.

poflible that Spinofa did

notthink

himfelf an Atheift, and that he believed in maintaining that


there
is

but one fubflance and one agent in nature, that he ex-

alted the idea

of God,

who

defines himfelf

the being
is

THAT

IS,

perhaps thought he, tofignify that there

no oto de-

ther fubflance but he alone.


cide in his favour, for he
tir'd

His

life

and morals feem

was

a very temperate, abftemious, re-

philofophcr, without any ambition, and very difinteref-

ted: but

good intentions do not

jullify

bad principles.

Kk

26o
.

OF THE PROPERTIES
The

Book

III.

4to.

Malebranchifts fay that beings that have no


;

knowledge of the effefts they produce, cannot be caufes that there can be no real force, where there is no adequate knowledge ; and confequently that
other, nor
fpirits

can neither a6l upon each

upon bodies

and

far lefs bodies

upon each other

and upon
they
aft,

fpirits;

becaufe the one

know

not the manner how


all.

and the others have no knowledge at


firft

I anfwer, in the

place, that the idea

of force does not

include that of knowledge, as the idea of knowledge does

not include that of goodnefs.


ted,

They

are three diflinft, fepara-

and feparable qualities ; and therefore they may exifl:,and

be communicated feparately.

God may reprefent himfelf by


of one and the fame
in-

things external as powerful, without reprefenting himfelfas


intelligent,

by the

effential properties

dividual fubftance.

Thus
of all

the ethereal fluid


bodies,

may be endued

vith a

real force to

move folid

andfo become the uni-

verfal, phyfical caufe

vifible

motions, tho' this fubtile e-

ther be not intelligent.


ivith a real force

Thus

again the foul

may

be endued

ofmoving bodies,without knowing the manthis effeft.

ner

how it produces
primitive,

I grant indeed that in a ftate

of pure,

and uncorrupted nature when the foul had

an adequate idea of its

own

eirence,then activity, wifdom,and


fpirits, as

goodnefs, were infeparable from

the perfeft images

of

their

almighty archetype. But in a

ftate

of laps'd,

difeas'd,

and degraded nature,

thefe three qualities

may

be feparated,

more

or

Icfs vitiated,

weakened, or fufpended.

We

fee that

goodnefs

may

be feparated from fcience;


?

why may

not

fci-

cnce be feparated from power

Thus

bodies are aftive withintelli-

out intelligence or goodnefs ; demons arc adive and

BooKllI.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
Ipirits

2.61
all

gent without virtue; angelical


qualities together.

enjoy

thefe three

I anfwer in the fecond place that tho' the Malebranchi-

an fcheme tends

vifibly to

defboy the natural

a(5tivity

of the

underftanding and will; yet that philofopher does not and


dares not deny either.
tivity in

He admits on

the contrary a real acobje(51:s.

the foul to compare and chufe betwixt


thefe real

Now

we exert
clear idea

powers every moment without having a


foul,

of the effence of the


it

nor confequently of the

manner how
recalls to

thus

acts.

We do

not

know how
and conjoins

the
its

mind
ideas;

memory, compares,

feparates

how it defires, wills, and loves obje(n:s. We have no clear, adequate ideas of the manner how all thefe operations are produced; and yet we feel that we produce them. It is then
nor
poffible for a finite Ipirit to have real powers, without

know-

ing

how it exerts them

becaufe
is

we

have no adequate ideas of

the effence of the foul. It

poflible alfo that ethereal matter tho'


it

maybe endued with a real activity and force, know its powers and effects,
5to.
*

does,

not

Father Malebranche in

fine reafons thus;

we have
fpi-

no

idea

of action

in fecond caufes

whether material or

*
^

ritual.

When

one body moves another there flows fome-

thing or nothing out of the moving

body

to tranfport the a caufe?

*
*

body mov'd. If nothing, then how can nothing be


if

fomething,then this fomething

is

either material or fpiri-

tual; if material,

what moves
of

it?

fince the idea

of matter does

*
* *

not include that of force:

if fpiritual,

then

when one body


itfelf into

communicates

a part

its

motion to one, two, three or


two.

more bodies, this

fpiritual

Somewhat divides

62
three, or

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


more
the fpiritual

IIL

portions, to pufli the different bodies mov'd.

Thus
real.

Somewhat becomes
in matter
firft

divifible

and corpo-

Wherefore motion

is

only

intelligible

by

the immediate aftion of the

caufe,

who by
all

his

omni-

prefent efficacy operates immediately

upon

the material

frame, and gives

it

infinite
2.6:

forms according to general laws.


bodies, fo far
lefs

As

bodies cannot
fpirits.
is

upon

can they aft


fee or feel

upon
them,
brain.

All that palTes in bodies,

when we

vibrations

more or
is

lefs

fwift in the fibres

of the

Now there

and can be no natural and neceffa-

ry connexion betwixt the motions in this matter and


the fenfations produced in the foul.
there betwixt a fluid

What

relation

is

moving

in the nervous channels

more
incli-

or
ter

lefs

fwiftly

and the fenfationof pain andpleafure, brightrue the

or obfcurer ideas, more refin'd or more deprav'd


It
is

nations?

one follow or accompany the others,


fooliflily, that

and therefore we believe

the one

is

the efFe6t
call
is

of the

other. Imagination impofes


is

upon us, and we


not dead,

that

acaufe which

only precedent or concomitant. It


it is

plain

then that when we fee bodies,


ciousjcreated matter that ac^s
in fo far as reprefentative

lifelefs, ineffica-

upon us, but the divine effence,

of matter.

We do not fee real, cre-

ated matter, but ideal, uncreated, intelligible extenfion. Spirits

and bodies have then no inherent aftion, no mutual union, no phyfical efficacy, no immediate influence upon
each other.
to

Moreover,

fpirits

cannot

aft

upon

fpirits
is

foas

modify them and change

their forms.
aft

There

and can

be no conneftion betwixt the


produftion of an
cfFcft that

of a

finite will,

and the
a paf-

was not before.

This is

Book
<

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
to fomething, yea a real creation,

fage
is

from nothing

26s which

one of the moft glorious, Incommunicable attributes of the

deity.
ture,

Now God cannot communicate his glory tothecrea-

nor therefore any real, phyfical, efficacious power. All Vis the efifecH; of the immediate operation of God, of his only
*
*

luminous and efficacious effence, which being prefcnt eve*


ry where a6ts alternately upon bodies and
fpirits,
all

to pro-

'

duce

all

the forms and motions of theone,and


It is in It
is

the ideas
live,

and inclinations of the other.

God alone that we


is

move, and have our being.

he that

the only caufe,


is

'

which operates
alone
ces.

effeflually

upon

all

material nature. It
all

he

who is

the light that enlightens

created intelligent
a(5l

'

His archetypal ideas of intelligible extenfion

upon

when we fee bodies. His luminous eflence alone enlicrhtens us when we fee truths. The creature is only an occafius

'

onal caufe of his communications, which produce


ferveall,

all,

pre-

and move

all,

thro' the

whole

unlverfe.

Without

his

immediate

a<5lion

and impulfion,

fpirits

and bodies are e

*
*
*

qually unintelligent and unintelligible, unperceivingandim-

perceptible.Thus

all

the imaginary powers and Pagan deities

are deftroyed, and the creatures


nitles.'

no more ere<5led

into divi-

This

is

that witty

romance of occafional

caufes, invented

by Malebranche

to explain the

union of foul and body; and

the reciprocal a<5lIon and reaction of fpirit and matter.

This

pious philofopher impofed upon

by a

full

perfuafion that this

fyftem exalted our notions of the divine power, placed the


creature In a continual dependence upon the creator, and

made

every thing even the lead motion of matter, and the fmallelt

2^4

GF THE PROPERTIES Book III.


fpirit

modification of

a proof of God's exiftence.

The

devout

father did not advert to either the falfe confequences he

drew

from

true principles; or to the falfc principles,

upon which

was founded, or to the dangerous confequences that flow from it, or its abfolute ufelefTnefs to explain what he intends. We fhall examine fully thefe four articles.
his fyftem
I

mo. There is

a ftrange mixture

of truth and

falfiiood in

this doi^rine.

We grant that the fpiritual, intimate, omni-preis

fent energy of the creator

the original fource of all the

powers of nature: but we deny, that it is the immediate caufe of all theadions of the creature. This all-powerful efficacy
can communicate activity as well as exiftencetofubftancesdiftinft

from

itfelf.

By it we fee bodies, but we really fee them.


receive their force

Bodies and

fpirits

from

it:

but by that force


is

they become adlive as well as a6ted upon.


ftead

It

degrading init

of exalting omnipotence, to maintain that

cannot pro-

duce a6live beings reprefentative of itfelf, unlefs we prove that


this idea
it is is

incompatible as well as inconceivable. Moreover,

falfe that

nicate

when the firft moving caufe operates to commumotion to many bodies, it divides itfelf into parcels. It
it

produces different effe(5ls, but


is

remains always

indivifible. It

one and manifold,


it

intelligent

and

intelligible, penetrating

and penetrable;
netrates
all

pofTefles all virtues, contains all fpirits, pe-

bodies,

and remaining
all

in itfelf

it

preferves, a-

nimatcs, and renews

things.

This

univcrfal, fecret,

om-

nipotent force that runs thro' the whole of nature, gives to


all
is

fubftances their exiftence

and

activity:

but as their eiTence


activity
is

not a part of the divine fubftancc, fo their

not a
is

portion of the divine force.

This omniprefent energy

the

BookIIL
firft

of finite beings.
It
a<5ls

2^5

mover, but not the only agent.

immediately upall fo-

on
tive

ethereal matter,

and by

this ethereal

matter upon

iid bodies.
;

and,

By its a(5tion ethereal matter becomes truely acas we fhall fhov;^ hereafter, becomes the univerfal
the corporeal world.
all

fpring of
atfls,

all

This omniprefent force


fpiri-

in,

by, thro' and with,

fecond caufes whether

tual or material, yet fo as

not to deftroy their aflion.

It ren-

ders

them

real agents,

and notfimple inftruments, nor mere-

ly paflive occafions.

2do. All the fyftem of occafional caufes depends upon this


fallacious argument,
*
*

viz.

We have no clear idea of aftion


is

in fecond caufes, therefore there

none.

'

The conclufion

is

unjuft and abfurd.

Tho

feeing clearly be always a reafbn


all is

of affirming, yet not

feeing at

never a reafon of denying.


to de-

The

fame argument that engaged Father Malebranche


creatures,

ny modifying power in the creating power in God. His


'

made

Spinofa deny
'

difciples reafon thus;

When
can

God

creates, there flows

fomething or nothing from his


eiFe<5l.

effence, to

produce the created

If nothing,
is

how

'"nothingbea caufe?
*

if fomething,

then creation

an ema-

nation of the divine fubflance, which being


aftion
is

indivifible its

immanent and
;

fo all things are

only modificati-

'

ons

of the divine effence,

and not

produ^ion of newfub-

(lances.' If

Malebranche's reafoning be jufl:,Spinofa'smufl


there would be but one fubftance in nature,
is

be

fo too.

Thus

as but
is as

one agent. This

not

all;

modifying power in

God
upon

unconceivable as creating power.


or bodies to modify and

When God afls

fpirits

move them
from the

alternately, does

there flow fomething or nothing

divine effence, to

LI

266

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


efFe(5ls.

III.

produce thefe
if

Ifnothing,howcan nothing be a
fpiritual

caufe?

fomething,

how
it.

can a

being a6l upon a corporeal?

how can an individble eflence communicate itfelf to a fubftance


diftin(5l

from

Malebranche has nothing

to reply, but that


is

God

is

prefent every where, and that his omnipotent will

always efficacious.

This we know as well

as he; but

we dewhat

mand how this


connects

all-powerful omniprefent will a^ls to modify


diftin<5l

corporeal and immaterial fubftances,


this will

from

it?

with

its efFe6l, is

and

how

does the one pro-

duce the other?

this

he

ignorant of as well as we. Will and


fame.

power

in

God are not the


;

He

executes

by

his

power

what he
rates to
fality,

wills

but

we cannot

conceive

how

this

power ope-

produce

its efFe6l.

We have no adequate ideas of caufirft,

power, or force; neither in the

nor in fecond cau-

fes.

We fee
not

that there muft be fuch a thing in nature; but

we do
;

know how it operates. We do not fee how bodies can a^l upon bodies much lefs, how fpirits can ad upon fpirits and far lefs yet how they can a6l reciprocally upon each other; becaufe we are ignorant of the intimate effences of
;

both, and of that


ders
that

vital, fpiritual,

omniprefent force that rena real


ajflivity diftindl

them active, and


of God;

gives

them

from
of

as well as a real exiftence diftin<5l

from
is

that

God. But as
tivity

I have faid already, this ignorance

not a proof

of the non-exiftence of things, nor confequently of the inacof


finite beings.

3tio.

The

confequences of

this do<5lrine are fatal

and Spi-

nofian.

If matter be altogether una6tiveand imperceptible;

if the objc6l as well as the caufe

of our perception be the

cf-

fence of God as reprefentative of matter; if we do not fee bo-

Book

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
upon
fpirits,

i6j

dies but

only ideas; then to what purpofe create matter ?fince


to give
crefu-

the divine efficacious effence a6ls alone

them

all

the ideas of extenfion, figure and motion.

The

ation of corporeal fubftance

was altogether

ufelefs,

and

perfluous;

God

does by tedious round-about methods, what


in

might have been performed


pendious.

one much more eafy and comvain,

Thus matter was made in


figures,

which being

alto-

gether incompatible with the divine wifdom, its exigence

mud

be denied. Thus
real

motions, and divifions, are nothing

without

us,

but mere fenfations of the foul; as colours,

taftes,

and

fmells.

Thus

all is

reduced to the idea of an in-

telligible

and

intelligent, indivifible

and immoveable, unfigu-

rable

and

infinite,

uncreated and efficacious, but extended


is

fubftance; and this


if

precifely Spinofifm.

This

is

not

ail;

God

be the only agent in nature, then he is the immediate


all

author not only of but


real
alfo

the phyfical actions of the creatures,

of all

their

moral determinations.

For what has no


will

power can neither chufe, nor determine, nor


this

of itfelf.

Father Malebranche forefeeing


tho' natural

dangerous and impious,


principle, fup-

and neceffary confequence of his


finite intelligences

pofed that

have a power of /topping the

divine a<5lion in them, and this according to

him

is

Liberty:

but thus he

vifibly contradicts himfelf ; for, as


it

Bayle very well

remarks, fince

requires as great a

power

to (top an action

begun, as to begin an action flopped, the creatures muft have


a real power. Malebranche to fhun the force of this reafo-

ning adds, that the

a<5l

of the creature as
itfelf alone,
;

free

is

altogether im-

manent,

it

terminates in

and produces nothing

real without itfelf; this

we grant but is the flopping of the all-

Ll

26S

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


us,

III.
is it

powerful action of God In

no

real afllon? or rather

not the greateftand highcfl of all?


this

now if created
lefFer

beings have
is

power,

why cannot

they have a
other.

one, which

that

of

acting really

upon each

If Malebranche reafon

therefore confequentially to his principles, he muft deny the

power of free determination,


on.
fin,

as well as that

of phyfical

a^fti-

Thus fatality
and Spinofifm
4to.

is Is

introduced,

God

is

made

the author of

confummated.

The

ingenious fi6lIon of occafional caufes explains

nothing, and is a vlfible contradiftion.


firft

Malebranche

fays at

we fee all things in God and then he endeavours to prove that we fee only ideas an ideal matter, an ideal face, an ideal nofe. Thus to make us comprehend how we fee bodies
that
;

in

God, he maintains
It

that

we do

not fee them

at all.

This

do<5lrine therefore does

not explain the union of foul and boa(5ls

dy.

fhows Indeed

how God
;

alternately
at all

upon matter

and

fplrit as paflive

machines
is

but not

upon each
butes,

other,

which

the fole true

how they ad union. The idea of


attriit

union docs not fuppofe perfect identity of fubftanccs,

and modes;

this

Is

more than an union; nor does


attributes

imply bare lynilltude of fubftances,

and modes

for
re-

beings may have no union nor communication and yet

femble each other.


al

Union therefore muft


of beings upon each

confift In a

mutube fo

adion and reaction

other. Bodies are

united
too.

when
Spirits

the one cannot be

moved

unlcfs the other

and bodies are united when the one ads upon


real, phyfical,

the other by a

and immediate influence.

To
is

deny the
caufe

pofTiblllty

of

this

mutual adion and readlon, be-

we have no

adequate ideas of fubftance and force,

Book
city,

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
pollibllity

2^9

meafuring the abfolute

of things by our own capa-

and opening the

fluices to Spinofifni.

Some difciples of the great Newton, fuch as Do<5lor Clarke, Baxter, Cheyne, and many others both French andEnglifh,
contrary
it

feems to the

laft

judgment of

their mafter,

have

adopted the do(flrine of the abfokite inactivity of matter, and


pretend that the great law of attradion
is

an immediate

effect

of the divine adion, which pufhes


in a certain proportion to their maflfes

all

bodies to one another


a-

and diftances without


is

ny

interveening, phyfical,or mechanical medium.It

notour

bufinefs to jQiow here that the great Sir Ifaac does not eftablifli

this do(5trine,
is

nor defpoils

all

material agents ofa^ive

force; this idea


It fuffices to

entirely fubverfive
this

of all natural philofophy.

remark that

opinion being founded upon

the fame principles as the Malebranchian notion, by confuting the

one we have overturned the other.

By

the principles explained in this Scholium

we have

a-

clear notion of the fource of our fimple ideas.

Objeds

creare-

ted or uncreated, fpiritual or material,


ally

ad upon the mind

and

efficacioufly.

This

a<flion

produces an effed, impref-

fion, or

change

in the foul.
call ideas

Thefe impreflion% are modes,

and thefe modes we

when they

reprefentfomethino^

in the obje(n:s, as figures, divilions, and motions; but they are


called fenfations,
as thofe

when

they reprefent nothing in the objects,

of pain and pleafure.

Hence

the true difference be-

twixt ideas and fenfations. Ideas reprefent to us the attributes

and modes of fubftances; v^hereas

fenfations reprefent noall

thing really exiftentin the objects ; fuch are

thefe percep-

tions called the fenfible fecundary qualities

of bodies, co-

lyo

OF THE PROPERTIES
and touches.

Book

III.

lours, talks, fmells, founds


difications

They are mere moreality, tho'

of the mind that have no external


a(5tion

they be produced in the foul by the


ly figur'd

of bodies

different-

and moved.

They

are very oft, tho* not always,


relations other bO"

fhort advertifements that


dies have to ours
;

warn us of the

or that excite us to do what

we would

o-

therwife ncgleft.
tion

Being made for God, for the contempla-

and love of the abfolute infinite, ideas of bodies are given

us to inveftigate the marks of infinite power, wifdom, and

goodnefs manifeftedin the creation, and toraife our thoughts

from the

pi<5lures to

the original.

Senfations are deflined


irregular u-

either to punifh, purify,

and detach us from our

nion with material objects ; or to foften, and mitigate the pains

of our exile. Yea very oft they are fhort ways to let us know what we ought to feekand fhun in material objects; becaufe not being made for them, the capacity of our mind ought not
to be

employed in a long chain of reafonings,to difcover what is

proper or not proper for the confervation of our bodies. If we


did not feclpleafure and pain in our different approaches to
fenfible objeds; if we

were obliged to examine phyfically the

aptitude of victuals to

promote

circulation,

and the
cold, all

neceflity

of cloathing

to prevent the fatal effc^s in thefe

of

our time
fenfati-

would be fpent

low

exercifes:

but the quick

ons of heat and cold, of hunger and

thirft, advertife

us of

our wants and dangers, without a long

feries

of reafonings.

This remark of Malebranche upon the defign offenfations


isjufl

and beautiful.

We muft not however conclude from hence that the painful or agreeable fenfationswe feel in bodies,
is

always a proof

Book

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
in a difeafed ftate, as

271

of their being noxious or

ufeful to onr corporeal machines.

The foul is now


ly
;

we

fhall

fhow

prefentis

and material nature

in the fphere

which we inhabit

quite difordered.

Plcafure does not always


ftate,

accompany
is

or-

der, nor pain diforder in this mixt

where man

neither

an angel nor a

devil, perfectly

good, or abfolutely bad.

I fhall conclude all thefe remarks

by one

that

is

moft im-

portant; as created obje6ls whether material or immaterial^

may by a
fouls,

real,

efficacious,

and phyfical

a<5tion,

modify our
in a

and produce in them different

ideas,

and fenfations

natural

manner;

fo the infinite, uncreated object

may

a6t u-

pon our
ideas

fouls in a fupernatural
far

manner, and produce in them

and fenfations

more

lively

and penetrating than ma-

terial objeifls.This is

thefource of infpiration and divine grace,

of fupernatural

light

and

love, very far different

from therea-

fonings and difcoveries

we make by
is

the fucceflive comparifbn


to fouls

of our ideas. God, who

far

more intimately prefent

than corporeal objefls are,

who

can a^ upon them, inveft

them, and penetrate them,may open their intelleftual faculties,

fhow them the


reveal

myfteries of his nature

and providence
to write, fpeak,

by an

intuitive view;

and thus
is

infpire

them

and think, to

what

hid,

and

foretell

what

is

future

in a fupernatural
calls

manner. For

this reafon

it is

that holy writ

the prophets the Seers, becaufe their intelle^ual eyes


fee into the invifible world,

were opened to

and difcover ma-

ny wonders of providence pad,

prefent,
I.

and future.

COR.
Hence
the denying the

a<5l:ivity

of fecond caufes leads to

pernicious and blafphemous confequences.

272

OF THE PROPERTIES
COR.
II.
is

Book

III.

Hence
of
creation.

the

a<5livity

of

fecoiid caufes,

the third myftery

natural religion, as incomprehenfible as immenfity

and

We

demonftrate that

all

the three muft: be true, but


{o

we do

not comprehend

how

they are
III.

COR.
Hence
all

our fimple Ideas come from the

a(fl:ion,

impref-

fion, or fenfation, that objects

difHnd from us whether crea-

ted or uncreated, material or fpiritual,


is

make upon

the foul. It

altogether paflive as to thefe fimple perceptions, and cannot


itfelf,

produce them in

unlefs theobjefts

ad upon

it.

It
it

may
can-

remember them,
fions

recall

them, and compare them, but

not create or produce them, unlefs the objects make impref-

upon

it.

c o R. IV.

Hence

fupernatural infpiration

is

poflible.

The

(bvereign

mind may a6t immediately upon fouls, open their intellectual eyes, and give them ideas and fenfations far more lively, and
penetrating than fecond caufes, whether material or fpiritual.

PROPOSITION
pound.

XXXVI.

Senfation and reflection are the only two


fources of all our ideas whether fimple or

com-

DEMONSTRATION.
All our fimple Ideas

come from

the a6tion,imprefnon, or
(a);

fenfation thatobjc(5ts dlftinCt


(a) Cor. 3. of Prop.

from us make upon the foul

XXXV.

Book
all

III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
arife

273
and a6lion

our compound ideas


its

from the

refle6lIon

of the mind upon


tion

own

modifications (a); therefore fenfa-

and

reflecflion are

the only

two fources of all our

ideas

fimple or compound.

SCHOLIUM.
Locke has very well remarked thefe two fources of fenfation or
that
all

our ideas

arife

from

the a<n:ion of objects

upon
itfelf.

us; or of refle<5lIon, or the aftion of the

mind upon

The foul,

as

we have

faid, is entirely paffive


is

with regard to

its
its

flmple ideas, as matter


figures, modes, and

altogether paffive with regard to

motions.

We cannot produce thefe fimple


upon
us: but we

ideas in ourfelves, unlefs theobjecfts ail

may

by our own immanent, innate by


reflection
It is

activity

form complex ideas

upon the

different objeCls already perceived.

however an egregious miflake


to thofe

to confine the actions

of objects upon us

of material agents.

The infinite
immediately

Intelligent caufe as well

as finite fpirits
it

may

a6l

upon the foul, and modify


all

in a

manner

far fuperior to cor-

poreal agents. It isabfolutely falfe therefore to maintain that

our ideas come originally from the perceptions produc'd

in us

by material obj efts; and that in our prefent


arife at firfl

ftate

we can

have no ideas of God, but what


fenfation.

from corporeal

Tho' wefhould fliutour eyes, flop our ears, and draw a vail upon the whole of material nature; tho' we did not reflect upon the evident marks of infinite power, wifdom,
and goodnefs
vifible in

the creation; tho'

we were

flript

of

body; tho' there were no other


terial
.

finite fubflances

whether ma-

or immaterial exiflent but our felves ; yet the fimple

(a) Cor. 5. of Prop XXIX.

Mm

274
fenfation

OF THE PROPERTIES
of our

Book

III.

own

exiftence, infufHciency,

and finitudc
felf-exiflent

would be enough
caufe,

to produce in us the idea

of a

and dcmonftrate to us the exiftence of its

obje<51:.Tho*

there were

no matter exiftent,
all

yet we might have the ideas


felf-exiftence, eternity,

of

power, wifdom, and goodnefs; of


menfity, infinity, and

im-

the divine attributes, as has been al-

ready fhown.

The
our ideas

Malebranchian
is

do(5lrine

concerning the fourceof


fophiftical.

yet

more dangerous and

The French
in the foul

philofopher reafons thus, our ideas muft either be (i) images


dctach'd from the objects, or (2) created by

God

from the beginning, or (3) originally contain'd in the mind as archetype of all things; or (4) produc'd in the foul by its

own innate aftivity;


mediate
all

or (5) form'd in the

mind by God's imas reprefentative

a<5tion

or (6) perceiv'd in

God

of

things.

He endeavours
firfl:

to prove that the foul can have its


five

ideas

by none of the
is

ways ; and therefore he con-

cludes that the fixth


is

the only true one. This enumeration

not only obfcure but imperfevft.

ther
that

way by which
is,

the foul

There may be yet anomay have fome of its ideas, and


finite objects

(7),

by the impreflion which

whether

material or immaterial
are abfurd, the fixth
is

make upon
of all our

us.

The

firft

three

ways

fanatical, the fourth, fifth,

and feventh
complex;

ways

are the true fources

ideas, fimple or

natural, or fupernatural.

We

have already demonftratcd^that

Ipiritual or material agents

may by an emanant communi;

cated
are

a(5l:ivity

really
call

modify the foul


ideas.

and thefe modifications

what we

our fimplc

Thcfe we compare and

combine, compound and divide in numbcricfs ways by our

Book
own
ral

IIL

OF FINITE BEINGS.
The
a(5lionof the
;

^ys

innate and immanent a (ftivlty; and this produces our


firll:

complex ideas.

caufe in a fupernatua na-

manner by infpiration the


manner by
fenfation;

aftion

of fecond caufcs in

tural
itfelf

and the aftion of the mind upon

by reflexion, are the threefourcesof all our ideas.


to the

The
attri-

French philofopher confounds thefe three fources, by


buting
all

immediate

a5tion

of God,

as the

only

effica-

cious caufe of all our modifications and perceptions.

Thus

he introduces enthufiafm into philofophy; thanks the Logos


for difcovering to

him

that the three angles


;

of

a triangle are

equal to two right ones looks upon geometrical theory, as a


real contemplation

of the divine efTence; and

^o

confounds

the natural activity of the mind, with the fupernatural illumination of the eternal
things in

Word.

The

priviledge

of feeing

all

God

is

an advantage not of our

exil'd ftate

here be-

low but
;

a felicity referved for our celeftial, native country.


light in its true light,

Then we fhall fee


med

God as

he is, and the


freely for-

archetypal ideas of all things, as they were at


in the divine underflanding; e'er

firft

God created fubftances


and

correfpondent to them.

Then we

(hall fee the intimate

inmoft efTence of things in the eternal effcnce ; the relation of


the original to the piftures; whereas

now we

fee

only fome

of

their attributes
is

and modes. All the Malebranchian phia perpetual confufion

lofophy
grace,
;

founded upon

of nature and

of the archetypal

ideas with the confubftantial

Lo-

gos of the natural activity of the underftanding with the fupernatural illumination of the

Word; of the

natural

imma-

nent aftion of the


the

will,

with the fupernatural impreffions of

Holy Ghofl:; and

in fine

of the

priviledges

of a

beatified

Mm

^y^
ftate

OF THE PROPERTIES Book


with thefe of our
exile.

IIL
all

The Spinofifts make ufe

of

thefe obfcure ideas to confound the aftlon of the firfl: caufe with the aflionof fecond caufes, and the fubftance of the cre-

ator with that of the creature; and

by

a tendency to the

fame

purpofe, the Malebranchian fyftemis exceedingly dangerous:

itfeems the beginning of Spinofifm; andSpinofifmis Male-

branchifm confummated.

By
may

this

enquiry into the different fources of our ideas, we

refolve the great queftion

about innate ideas and judg-

ments or maxims. By innate

ideas or judgments are to be

un-

deritood thefe natural notions, and felf-evident, natural, univerfal

maxims which
reflect

all attentive

minds may

difcover,

when

they ferioufly

upon

their

own

modifications; and the

necefTary relations of conformity or

difagreement

among
by

them.

They

are called felf-evident; becaufe they are feen

one

intuitive view,

without a laborious, fuccefllve comparifon

of ideas. They
fleclions

are called natural, becaufe they are the moft

fimple, the moft obvious, the moft eafy, the moft congenial re-

of the mind, when

it

begins to exert

its

intelleftual

and comparing powers. They are called univerfal,becaufe the general ideas of being and not being, of a whole and of a part,

of caufe and
ligence

efFe<fl,

of fubftance and mode, of

effential attri-

butes and accidental qualities;

of finite and

infinite,

of intel-

and vohtion, upon which felf-evident axioms are founded, are the fame in all. Thus no man can doubt of thefe truths, *that a thing cannot be and not be at the fame time;
*

that the

whole is greater than the

part; that nothing has

no

'

properties ; that the fame fubftance cannot have at the

fame

V.timc, Incompatible

and contradidory

attributes; that a fub-

Book
*

III.
Is

OF FINITE BEINGS.
Infinite
;

277

jRance

not a mode; that


thefe truths in

is

greater than finite.'

We
by

do not fee
reflecting

God we fee them


ideas,

in ourfelves

upon our own modes or

and

their relations

of conformity or difagreement; equality or


ty or diiference.

inequality; identi-

COR.

I.

Hence the Malebranchian fyftem about feeing all objefls and all ideas in the divine mind is an imaginary fcheme that
tends Indire<5lly to Spinofifm, to confound the action of God

with the aftionof the creatures, and the fubftance of God with thatof the creatures.

COR.
Hence
fines all

II.
its

that fyftem,
firft

whoever be

defenders,

which conwith

our

perceptions and fimple ideas to the impreflius, coincides

ons which corporeal objefts make upon


thatfalfe

maxim of the Ariftotelians nihil est in intelLECTU Q.UOD NON FUERAT PRIUS IN SENSU. Thls maxim is abfolutely falfe, if we underftand by Senfatlon the modes of the foul produced by the a<5tion of material objcvfls upon our corporeal organs.

PROPOSITION
There may,
Is,

XXXVII.

and muft be in nature, a third

fubftance befides

God

and

finite fpirits, called

body or
Infinite

matter.

DEMONSTRATION.
power can produce new fubftances
is

as well as

new

forms (a); creation


(a) Pop.

a reprcfcntation

of God by things ex-

XV.

278
tcrnal (a):
p'Kflures

OF THE PROPERTIES Book III.


God
can thus reprefcnt himfelf both by material

and intelligent images (b):

God is not and

cannot be

the immediate author of all the ideas, fenfations, and percepti-

ons we have of matter


matter
is

(c):

The

negation of the exigence of


vifible

followed by palpable abfurdities, and

contra-

diftions (d):

God may communicate


upon each other

to his living images,

and

material pictures a real, phyfical activity


aft reciprocally

by which

they can

(e): the negation

of this afli-

vity

of fecond caufes

leads to pernicious

and blafphemous

confequences (f ). Therefore there is, may, and muft be in nature a third fubflance befides

God and finite fpirits, called

bo-

dy or matter.

SCHOLIUM.
ftrange, that in this chain
is

It

may feem
:

of truths, the proof

of theexiftence of matter
pofitlon

placed as the thirty feventh pro-

but in theordcr of jufl: reafoning,all the others muft


e'er this

be demonflrated
all this

can beproved.

I grant indeed that

feriesof reafoningsby
is

which we evince the

exiftence

of matter

only a proof and not ademonftration. I have rethat demonftration belongs only

marked from the beginning

to neccfTary, eternal, and immutable truths.

Thus we
eternal,

can de-

monftrate the exigence of a God, becaufe


table
:

it is

immu-

and neceffary but the exigence of matter being continit

gent, mutable, and temporary,

can only beproved; that is,


to

we
cal.

have

all

reafons to believe

it,

none

deny

it,

and the ne-

gation of it reduces to abfurdities equally impious and fanati-

Now

this

is all

the proof that can be

demanded by

rea-

fonable minds, for a matter of faft.


(a) Prop.

XXI.

(b) Prop.

XXVI.

(c) Prop.
2.

XXXIV.

(d) Cor. 3. of

Prop.

XXXIV.

(c) Prop.

XXXV.

(f) Cor.

of Prop.

XXXV.

Book III.

OF FINITE BEINGS.
activity

279
of bo-

All theufe that canbemade of the Berkeleyan and Malebranchian reafonings againft the exiftence and
dies,
is

to confute Materialifm, to

fhow that we have a greamight have the moft vi-

ter certainty

of the exiftence of fpirit, than of that of matter,


v^^e

to prove, that, abfolutely fpeaking,

vid ideas and fenfations of matter, tho' there w^ere


at all;

no bodies

and therefore

it is

certain, unconteftible,
is

and demon-

ftrated, that a

being whofe exiftence

only contingent and


felf-exiftent

pofTible,

cannot be the necelTary, eternal, and


is

fubftance. Materialifm therefore

a poor,

weak fyftem withfubtility

out any fhadowof reafon; whereas


strength,

Idealifni requires a great

and

vivacity

of imagination, of the moft

wonderful

of genius,

a complication
it

abftraft ideas; but at

the fame time

is

not folid; fince

it is

founded upon
;

falfe

confequences drawn from true principles

its

fundamental

maxim
"US

is

undemonftrable, and

its

natural confequences lead

to

lookupon

God as

the author of fin, and the immediate,

deliberate, voluntary caufe


terialifm affirms that there
efFedl
it

of all moral and


is
it

phyficalevil.

Ma-

a neceffary relation

of caufe and

where

it

fees

none;

confounds identity with union;

fuppofes that the felf-fame fubftance

may

have

contradi<51:o-

ry,

and incompatible

attributes.

Idealifm denies that there

can be a real activity

in fccond caufes, becaufe


it

we cannot pon-

ceivethe manner of their operation;


poftibility

meafuresthe abfolute
it

of things by

its

own

capacity;

denies modifying

power in the
'jiies

creatures, for the

fame reafon that Spinofa dehead.

creating

power

in the

God

Both

thefe fyftems are equally undemonftrable


:

and inca-

pable of folid proofs but Idcaiifmis far more dangerous than

aSo

OF THE PROPERTIES
wanton imaginations
all
air,

Book IIL

MaterlaUrm.TheMaterialifts can only impofe upon weak, fuperficial,

that pretend openly to degrade

human
of the
and
but

nature, and flatter

thepaflions: but the Idealifts

have a devout and ferious

an apparent zeal for the rights

deity, a fpecious pretence

of feeing

all

things in

God,

God
it

in

all

things,

which

allures at

firft

virtuous minds;

hurrys them at

laft

into the darkeft Atheifm,

when they
the Male-

reafon confequentially, and are not ftartled at the neceflary

confequences of the principles

laid

down.

Thus
fi<5tion

branchian enthufiafm, and the Berkeleyan

end

inevi-

tably in Spinofian blafphemy, contrary to the pious intenti-

on of their

inventors, and thus thefe three fp routs

of the Car-

tefian philofophy have corrupted, debauch'd,

and perverted
age.

fome of the greateft and


fore
it

fineft

Genii of the

lafl

Where-

was with reafon

that

fome learned men of all nations


againfl: his

contemporary with Defcartes declaimed

fyftem as

dangerous, tho' they were unjuft to attack his defigns as pernicious.

COR.
Hence it is
neither probable, nor pofTible.

I.

abfolutely falfe that the exiftence

of matter

Is

COR.
Hence
It Is

II.

pure Fanaticifm to maintain that

we

can be

fure of the exiftence

of matter only by

revelation.

Thus we have demonft rated


and
exiftence

the properties, differences

now

of material and Immaterial fubftanccs. We {hall examine their laws, refemblances, and relations, during

the pure and primitive ftate of nature exalted.

END OF THE THIRD BOOK.

28l

THE

PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES
OF

NATURAL AND REVEALED

RELIGION.
BOOK
IN
IV.

OFNATURE
AN EXALTED STATE.

DEFINITIONS.
I

T>
-*-^

NATURE EXALTED,
all
;

mean

that original ftate

wherein

things were created, as they


reprefentative

came pure

from the hands of God


and conformable

of

his perfeflions,

to eternal order.

Nn

282
2.

OFNATURE
mean
the conformity

Book IV.
of the created

By ETERNAL ORDER, Bcauty, Harmony, or propor-

tion in the univerfe, I

images, and piOures to their uncreated original, and his dcfigns in producing them.

AXIOMS.
1.

Beings that refemble one

common third,

muft re-

femble one another.


2.
verfal,

Inaftate of pure and exalted nature, the eternal, uni-

and immutable law of all


infinite intelligence.

finite intelligences,

was that

of the

SCHOLIUM.
The fource ofmany egregious miftakes
divinity
is

in philofophy

and

the confounding the flate of nature exalted, with

that of nature degraded.


fifls,

The Atheifls,
many

Materlalifts, Spino-

and minute philofophers, pretend that there

are in the

prefent conflitution of nature,

irregularities, diforders,

and contradi(5lions;
defign, wifdom,
infinitely lefs

fo that

or

we cannot from it conclude either goodnefs. Some anfwer that the evil is
as nothing,

than the good in the univerfe, and that thereis

fore the

one

to

be accounted

when compared
evils that

with the other. Others fay that the neceiTary


peri are as fhades that give aluftre to God's

hap-

works. Others af-

firm that

God ought

not to change the fimplicity of his laws,

and his general

wills to prevent particular diforders.

Some go

yet further, and maintain that

God

forefaw infallibly, preorevills

dained inevitably, and permitted deliberately the


to manifeft his divine perfections

we fee

of mercy and juftice; others

Book
tion
is,

IV.

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
it

283

in fine are fo extravagant as to advance that fuch Is the perfec-

of the divine nature, that


all

cannot but produce

all

that

and

that

is

poffible,

what we

call bad, as well as

what

w^e call

good; what

we

call vitlous as

well as

what we

call vir-

tuous;

what we

call

miferable as well as
all

what we call happy.

We fhall fhow hereafter that


worthy of God, and tenduig
moral

thefe lyftems are lame, un-

vifibly either to difparage his

attributes, or to deftroy his very effence.

All thefe

fchemes came from confounding the

efFe<5ls, irregularities,

and

defe6ls

of nature

in a degraded ftate,

with the properties,


ftate.

laws and perfe(5lions of nature in an exalted


firft

We fhall
it

confider nature in

its

primitive original creation, as

came pure out of the hands of God; then


ftate after the introdufllon

in a fallen lapfed
evil

of moral and phyfical


its

into

it;

and

laft

of all, nature

re-eftablifhed in

original glory, or-

der and perfe<5lion.

PROPOSITION
In a
one
ftate

XXXVIIL
all fi-

of pure and

exalted nature

nite intelligences

enjoyed a double happinefs;


di^

in the

immediate contemplation of the

vine effence; another in the knowledge of his


reprefentations.

DEMONSTRATION.
God
a
ftate

created finite intelligences to

make them happy


can manifeft his

in

the contemplation and love of his divine perfections (a); in

of pure and exalted nature


XXIV.

God

di-

(a) Prop

Nn

2^4
admitting
fence, or

OFNATURE
them
to the

Book IV
by
ef-

vine perfeftions to finite intelligences, two ways, either

immediate vifion of his abfolute

by

difplaying to

them

his

power, wifdom, and good-

nefs in his created reprefentations (a): Therefore in aftate

of pure and exalted nature,

all finite

intelligences enjoyed a

double happinefs; one in the immediate contemplation of


the divine elTence, another in the knowledge of his created
reprefentations.

SCHOLIUM,
We
have already demonftrated itpofTible that God's creit

ating energy never ceafed fince

began ; that
;

it

may

be e-

ver fince continually fruitful and produdive


create

that he

may
and

new

fubftances material and immaterial without end,


to

and communicate

them new forms, new


progreflion;

capacities,

new perfections by an everlafling


it is

and therefore
fHll re-

pofRble and probable that the immenfe fpaces are

plcnifhlng with new worlds and


al pi(5tures

new

inhabitants,with materi-

and

intelligent

images innumerable.

Now in thefe
finite

bleft abodes,

and immenfe regions we muft conceive


of
a double happinefs.

fpirits pofleifed

As God had no other


it is

defign in creating
tain that

them but

to

make them happy,

cer-

he

beatifies thefe unfallen intelligences,

not only

by the
by

intuitive view

of his pure and abfolute


all

eifence, but alfo

difcovering to
fee

them
he
is,

the wonders of his omnipotence.


all

They

God

as

and

his
is

produdions

as they

came
never

pure from his hands.

The

one

the efientlal, the other Is


celellial fpirits as

only the acceflbry happinefs of fuch


(a) Cor. 2. of Prop.

XXI.

BookIV.

in

an

exalted state.

285
thus that

felljor that are reftored to their primitive (late. It is

they pafs an eternity. Sometimes they lofe themfelves in the central abyfs of the pure divinity; and fometimes they enter
into fociety with each other, and adore
their

God

in his v^^orks.

fupreme and ultimate objefl; but they adore He is ftill him by turns in himfelf and in his reprefentations. For this
reafon the fcripturefays,
'
'

that

all

God's works

will

be eter-

nal;
tal

and that we

fhall rife again

with glorious and immor-

'

bodies;'

which would be

ufelefs

and fuperfluous,

if the

material world were not to be eternal.

The forms will changfe,

but the elTences will

laft

for ever.
affert

Far be

it

from us then to
of created
;

with Orlgen, that the acis

celTory happinefs
hi a ftate

intelligences
all

altogether ufelefs

of

beatific vifion

that

material nature will be de-

flroy'd after the final re-eftablifhment

of all fallen

intelligenfpirit;

ces; that in eternity nothing will

remain but pure


fill

that

then the efTential


city

blifs

willfufEce to

all

theboundlefs capa-

of

finite

beings; that the pretended accidental felicity, in

the knowledge and enjoyment of the material pictures would

be an interruption, and

fo to fpeak,

an amufement, which fupream


original.

would divert

celeftial fpirits

from

their

All

thefe reafonings are falfe in their principle,

and dangerous in

their confcquences, yea they tend vifibly to deftroy all the a-

nalogy of faith; as fhall be fully demonftrated hereafter.

They

proceed from not underftanding the following principle.


If finite
fpirits

could contemplate the divine eflence with-

out interruption, the creation of the material world would


have been
enjoy
tliis

ufelefs;

becaufe they would have had no time, to

accejOTory accidental happinefs:

they would never

226

OF
minds

NATURE
is

Book IV.
the nature

have turned from the orlguial to the pldures ; nor preferred

an

inferior to a fuperior blifs: but fuchkfeenis


finite

of

how

exalted foever, that the conftant irradiainfinite

tions

of the abfolute

would over-power

their

bounded
fo flrong

faculties,

over-whelm them with joys and raptures

and vehement, that they could not fupport the immenfe


weight of glory.
All finite intelligences therefore are oblielTential

ged to the alternate returns of


nefs.

and acceffory happi-

Admitted

to the beatific vifion, received into the di-

vine effenccj and immerfed in the immenfe ocean of light,


there they remain
its
till
;

they are no longer able to fupport


veil their eyes, fally out, fo

radiant fplendors

then they

to fpeak,

from the

centre, retire to the circumference,

and

there contemplate the original in the pictures, and enter into


fociety with each other;

and

it is

during thefe intervals that


finite

they

may become

peccable.

If

intelligences could

have remained eternally in the divine prefence, they would


have been for ever impeccable.
reafon of knowing, chufing, or

They would have had no loving inferior good; God

would have been


elTcnce,

their

only objeft; immerfed in the divine

no other borrowed ray could have turned them off


boundlefs fource of light: but in thefe intervals,
finitude

from

this

wherein they are obliged by the


fally

of their

natures, to

out of the divine prefence, and to adore their infinite cre-

ator in the creatures, they enter into

commerce with
activities;

finite

things,and exert their natural powers and

they

may

judge, reafon, and compare, and therefore

may

err in their

judgments, make a

falfe choice,

and

fo depart infenfibly
fcrics

from

eternal order; and that

by along, continued

ofgra-

BookIV^.
book.

in an

exalted state.
COR.

287
the next

dations imperceptible, as fhall be explained in

I.

Hence we fee
of
.ror

the true reafon of the creation and duration


It

the material world.

was not made, according

to the er-

of Origen, for the punilhment of degraded intelligences but to be the acccffory happinefs of the molt exalted fpirits.
G o R.
II.

Hence
by
telle6tual

finite intelligences are

obliged at certain intervals

their natural finitude

and weaknefs, to turn off their incontemplation of the pure and

eye from the

dire<5l

abfolute efTenceof God, to adore the original in his pi^ures

and images: then they are

faid to veil their faces

with their

wings, and turn their eyes from the dazzling original to ad-

mire and behold him in his created fhadows and

pi<5tures.

COR.
Hence,
as

III.
this

wefliallihow in the fecond part of

work,

feveral ancient fathers

of the church, and the

wifeft

Pagan
what-

philofophers, yea

all

the fages of antiquity both facred and


all finite fpirits

profane, maintained with reafon, that


foever are

fomehow

or other united to material, ethereal and


are in

celeftial vehicles;

by which they

commerce with the

glorious corporeal world in the celeftial regions.

None of

them whether of
with an open,

feraphical, angelical,

or any lower order

can contemplate the pure, naked, and abfolute efTence of God


direfl,

and uninterrupted view.

COR.

IV.
finite intelligences

Hence we may underftand how


mitted tQ the beatiiic vifion can

ad-

become

peccable.

They

288

OFNATURE
and
fo mufl:

Book

IV.

are not able to fupport with a permanent, immutable,

imme-

diate

view the fplendors of the divine prefence, becaufe of

their natural finitude;


ter, to

go out of their divine cen-

adore the original in his created images, and during

thefe intervals they

may

err in their judgments,

make

a falfe

choice,

and thus

feparate the love

of pleafure from the love

of order, which

is

moral

evil.

PROPOSITION
difierent fubftances,

XXXIX.
in-

In a ftatc of pure and exalted nature, the

telligent images and material pidiures, tho' quite

muft have neceflary refem-

blances to each other.

DEMONSTRATION.
In a
IS

ftate

of pure and exalted nature the whole creation

an external reprefentation of God (a) ;

God
by

can reprefent
material pic-

himfelf thus both by intelligent images and


tures (b):
ceffarily

beings that refemble one

common

third

muft ne-

refemble each other (c): therefore in a

ftate

of pure

and

exalted nature, the intelligent images

and the material

pictures, tho' quite different fubftances,

muft have neceflary

refemblances to each other.

SCHOLIUM.
Tho'
the intelligent images, and material pidures, be different fubftances, that have contrary
perties, yet they are in this
"

and incompatible pro-

analogous as both are reprefenta(c)

(a) Prop.

XXI.

(b) Prop.

XXVI.

Ax.

of

this

Book.

Book
tlve

IV.

in an

EXALTED STATE.
yet

289

of the fame archetype.

the Inthnate eflence

Tho' we do not fee at prefent of things as we fhall fee them one day,
is,

when we behold God as he


properties

we now

perceive that the


to the

and modes of matter are analogous

powers

and modes of Ipirit. Thus


bility in
tivity,

figurability, divifibility,

and mo-

matter are fimilar to and fhadows of intelligence, acin fpirits.


different
fpirits

and love

As the
them

impreffions

made upon boand


ideas.

dies give

them

forms and

figures; fo the imprefli-

ons made upon

give

different fenfatlons

As

the moving external force divides, feparates and reunites


;

the different parts of matter


vides, feparates

fo the innate activity within di-

and unites the

different ideas

of the mind; and

this

is

reafon or comparifon.

As
form

the impulfe given to bodire<n:ions, fo

dies produces in

them
It

different
fpirits

motions and
in

the impulfions given to

them

different defires

and

inclinations.

is

thus that configuration, divifion and

motion
fon,

in bodies are fhadows,


volition in fpirits.

and images of perception,


this reafon,

rea-

and

For
very

when we

talk

of the

attributes,

modes, and operations of intellectual agents,


ufe, are
oft,

the exprefTions

we

yeaalmoft continually,

drawn from
agents.

the forms, properties, and a(5tions of corporeal


genius, an high mind, a

Thus we fay a profound foft heart, warm paffions, a boiling


a fhallow judgment.

imagination, a fvveet foul,


it is

For the fame reafon

that facred

writ in fpeaking of the infinite


a confuming
fire

mind

calls

very oft the Father


light

and a devouring flame ; the Son, the

of

the world, the fun of righteoufnefs, and the

morning

flar.

The Holy Ghoft, a


of God's mouth.

ftrong wind, a foft zephyr, and the breath

Yea the

purifying, fandifying, beatifying

Oo

290
and
living waters.

OF

NATURE
balmy
was
oil,

Book IV.
a foft

influences are called an holy unflion, a

dew,

This great

principle

alfo the fource

of

that fymbolic
fages,
all

and hieroglyphic language, by which the


earlieft

firfl:

from the

times after the


all

fall

of man, ex-

prelfed

the myfkries of religion, and

the fecrets of the

invifible world.
all its parts as
le(n:ual

They looked upon

the material univerfeand

fliadows, emblems,

and

pictures

of the

intel-

world; and fo made ufe of the properties,

virtues,

and

qualities

of the one,

to defign, indicate

and reprefent the

powers, attributes, and faculties of the other.

Thefe

facred

fymbols therefore were not at

firfl:

veils

and masks to hide


and Images to
Ihall

fubhme

truths

from vulgar minds but


;

types,

recall thefe great truths to

our remembrance, as

be

ful-

ly explain'd in the fecond Part.

COR.
Hence
fplritual

I.

if we

knew the

properties, forms,

and laws of the

world, and the reafons of their inftitution,

we might

thereby difcover the properties, forms and laws of the material

world, and the reafons of their inllitution.

COR.
Hence flow
all

II.

the rules

of analogy which run through

the whole creation; and this analogy

may be of great
form

ufe to
a

guefs at the principles of true philofophy, and


fyfl:em

new

of natural philofophy, more luminous and fruitful than any that have yet been invented, as ftiall be unfolded
very foon.

COR.
Hence
as there
Is

iti.

a centripetal force that impells necef-

farily material

objeds to the center; fo there

may be

a cen-

Book
trlpetal
finite

IV.

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
draws freely
their

291

force, that

intelligent beings to the in-

and omniprefcnt mind,

common and

univerfal

center; and as bodies that tend to their center

augment more

and more their velocity the nearer they approach it, fo fpirits augment for ever and ever their activity, the more they approach to their
infinite center.

PROPOSITION
In a
io w'd
ftate

XL.
all
fi-

of pure and exalted nature

nite intelligences,

or the living images, fol-

the eternal, immutable, and univerfal


is

law of order, which

to love

God

for himfelf,

and

all

other beings proportionably as they

refemble him.

DEMONSTRATION.
By
a ftate

of pure and exalted nature,

mean

that origi-

nal integrity in

which

all

things were created, and as they


divine per-

came pure from God's hands, reprefentative of his


feftions,

and conform to eternal order (a); the eternal, immuall finite

table

and univerfal law of of the


is

intelligences

is

and ought

to be that

infinite intelligence (b);

God

loves himfelf

becaufe he

infinitely perfciH:,

and loves

all

beings proporti-

onably

as

they refemble him


all finite

(c): therefore in aflate

of pure

and exalted nature


nal,

intelligences followed the eteris

immutable and univerfal law of order, which


for himfelf

to love

God

and

all

beings proportionably as they re-

femble him.
(a) Def. I. of this Book,

(b) Ax. 2. of this Book,

(c)

Cor

i.

and

4.

of

Prop. XI.

Oo

392

OF

NATURE
who
is

Book

IV.

SCHOLIUM.
A modern author, (a)
genius, delicate
tafte,

juftly valuable for his fine

noble fentiments, and univerfal lear-

ning, has demonftrated

by

experience, that there


fenfe or fentiment,

is

in the foul

an intimate, moral, fuperior


difcovcr

by which we
a-

and approve,

relifh

and love virtuous aflions and

gentSjindependentof all interefted views; and that the fenfible pleafure

accompanying thcfe adions, or the future

re-

wards that attend them, or any other natural good which may be the confequences of than; are not always the motive

of our cfteeming, loving and praftifing them;

fo that

we
are

undefignedly promote our

own

private good, while

we

only intending the good of others.

This was the


as (hall be
fhall

univerfal fentiment
in the

of all the refined Pagans^,


this v^^ork:
firft

fhown

fecond part of

but

we
and

refume

this fubjeft higher, rife this

up

to

principles,

endeavour to fhow that

moral fenfe and difinterefled love


relations betwixt

of

virtue

is

founded upon the immutable

finite

and infinite.
love

The
him,
is

of God for

himfelf,

and of all other beings for

the law of eternal order; for order in the creation is

the conformity of the created images and pidures to their uncreated original, and to the defigns he

had

in

making them.

This is the fupreme

original law,

yea the law of God himfelf,

from whence he cannot depart without ceafing to be what he is. He did not make this law in any determinate period
of duration, by
a free arbitrary decree;
it

flows neccflarlly

from

his cffence,

and

is

equally binding

upon him and upon

(a) See

Mr. Hutchefon's enquiry into moral good and evil.

Book IV.
all

in an

EXALTED STATE.
It
is

293
eternal,

created intelligences.

founded upon the


infinite.

im-

mutable relations of

All other laws are only emanations of this original law; or helps to arrive at it.

finite

and

We

might have been placed in circumflances, wherein


ufelefs.

all

other laws would have been


ry,efrential,univerfal

This

is

the only necelTaall

law of all intelligent natures, in

times,

in all places,

and

in all fituations.

God cannot give

a difpenfa-

tionfromit without contradicting himfelf, without overtur-

ning eternal order, and deflroying the


twixt the creature and the creator.

eilential relations

be-

This

do<5lrine

of the pure love of

God

for his fovereign

pcrfe(5lIon,

was ftrongly combated


laft

in France,

by

feveral phi-

iofophcrs and divines of the


all times,

age,

who

maintained that In
Is

places

and

flates, fallen
;

or unfallen, pleafure

the

only fpring of the foul


nefs,
is

that the invincible defire

of happi-

the elTence of the will; and in fine that the perception

of truth, and the beauty of virtue never move the foul othervife than by the celeflial delcflatlon which accompanies
them; and therefore that
felf,
it is

impoflible, even in

heaven

it-

to love

any thing but for the pleafure, happinefs,

relative

good, andintereft

we find

in

it.

E'er I confute this fcheme,


cal fenfe

it is fit

to

remark the equivo-

of the word Pleafure.

It fignifies either the delibe*

rate
*

a<5l

or purpofe of the will ; as when kings fay,


'

fuch

is

our

pleafure;

or an Indeliberate pafFive fenfation.of the foul, as


that mufic gives us great pleafure.
is

when we fay

Thofe who

maintain that pleafure

the only fpring of the will, mufl


latter fenfe,

underftand this word in the

not in the former;


will; as the

for the motive of the will cannot be the

ad of the

294
moving
cffefl.

OFNATURE
Now
fclf-intereft

Book

IV.

force cannot be the motion itfelf ; or the caufe, the


in the latter fenfe Pleafure, or the agreeable fcn-

fationof the foul, the defire ofhappinefs, of relative good,

and

cannot be the only motives of the will for

three rcafons.
I

mo. If

pleafure, happinefs,

good

relative to ourfelves,
will,

and

felf-intereft,

were the only motives of the

then

it

would be impoffible
produces in us
lefs

to have greater love to an objc(ft that

agreeable fcnfations, than to another that

produces in us more agreeable fcnfations.

Now it is

certain

by experience

that during this

life,

truth, virtue,

and eternal

order do not always produce in us fuch

lively, penetrating,
it

gratifying fcnfations as terreftrial obje<5ls; and therefore

would be impoffible
ter,

to love the

former preferably to the


follicited

lat-

and to remain virtuous when

by ftrong

terreftri-

al dcle6lation.

Thus the moft vicious would be


any pleafure
is

excufable, be-

caufe they do not feel

in virtue.

If

it

befaid
it

that intelle(n:ual pleafure

ftronger than corporeal, tho'


is

be

not fo
its

fenfible; I anfwer, that fince pleafure

a fenfation,
if

force muft be meafured

by

its fenfibility,

and therefore

a pure reafonable pleafure a6l

upon us more ftrongly than an


it

impure unreafonable
as

pleafure,

does not then a6l upon us


as

more

agreeable,

but as more reafonable, or

of a fupevirtue

rior dignity;

and confequently the view of truth or

may
For
they

a<n:

as forcibly

upon the will

as the fenfation

of pleafure.

this rcafon it is that the vicious are

always blamcable, be-

caufe by virtue of the univerfal grace and light rcfufed to none,

may

always turn their intclledual eye to the view of

truth, virtue,

and juftice.

Book
<

IV.

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
'

The modern

refined Epicureans will urge,

295 that when we we


pre-

facrlfice fenfible pleafure to intellectual,

temporal happinefs
becaufe

to eternal,

and apparent good

to real,

it is

fer a

more durable

to a lefs durable pleafure; that a vicious


his pafHons,

'

man who follows


more

may have an hundred degrees

fenfible pleafure than a faint,

who

facrifices all his

'

pafTions: but that the latter with


le<5tation

one degree of celeftial de-

furmounts the hundred degrees of terreflrial, be-

caufe he confiders the one as eternal,


fient.

and the other

as tran-

Now

<

of pleafure,

an eternal duration multiply'd by one degree is infinitely fuperior to an hundred degrees of


;

<

pleafure multiply'd

by any finite time becaufe in fpiritual as in material motions, the force is ftill to be meafured by the vivacity or momentum multiply'd by the duration and the

number of repeated imprefTions. Thus happinefs prefent or


future, relative good, felf-intereft,
terreftrial; are

and

pleafure, celeftial or

always the

latent, primitive,

and only fprings

of the will.'
Itis

by

this

comparifon of fpiritual and corporeal agents

that the
rit

modern Epicureans reduce all the operations of fpicalculation.

to

mechanifm and

They

fuppofe tacitely that


differs

the foul is an intelkaual machine, whofe mobility


that of bodies in this alone, that the
fesin
nical,
pells
it,

from
paf-

one perceives what

and the other does not: but both are equally mechapufli'd necelTarily

and

by the moving

caufe, that

im-

and determines them inevitably and


all

invincibly.

Thus

they deftroy
fpontaneity,
free,

ideas of Liberty ,which they reduce to a fimple

andfo confound what is voluntary with w^hatis

I grant that

we may facrifice

a temporal interelt to an.

29^
eternal,
lights

OF
of
fenfe, to thofe

NATURE
refin'd
;

Book

IV.

an impure pleafure to a more


;

one and the demoft rcafoalfo

of the mind and

this is a

nable felf-love: but this does not prove that


facrifice the natural love
rice,

we cannot

of pleafure to the pure love of juiPthus.

which Idemonftrate

2do. Since that for which

we

love

is

properly the end and

object of our love; if pleafure, happinefs and relative

good
love

were the only

fprings

of the

will,

then

we would not

God as

he loves himfelf; we would love nothing but ourfdves;


the original
lefs

we would love
the Infinitely
Icfs

than the image; the fmall rays


infinitely great for

more than the immenfe ocean of light, the


little,

and thus love the

total

fum of perfedion

Thus by the elTential fundamental conftitution of our natures we would be obliged


than a fmall participation of it.
neceffarily to overturn
all

order, contradicfl the eternal law

of

God himfclf, and have a will diametrically oppofite to his. The modern Epicureans will fay, that God loves himfelf
becaufc he
is

happy, and that the pleafure accompanying the

view of his perfeftions, produces in him the love he has for


himfelf,

and that therefore

to love

him

as beatifying, as

our

fupreme happinefs,

as infinite fource

of pleafure,

as relative

good, as our fovereign


fclf.

intereft, is loving

him

as

he loves himis

anfwer that the knowledge

God
love.

has of himfelf

no

doubt accompanied with


fure
is

infinite pleafure,

but then

this plea-

rfotthe formal rcafon

of his

God's love of him-

l4:lfisnota
infinite

bUnd

inftind, but a nccefTary emanation

of the

knowledge he has of himfclf ;otherwife God's love of

himfclf, or the
tlier

Holy Ghoft, would not proceed from

the Fa-

by ihcSon,but from the

fenfation of his happinefs;

and

Book
mind
from
three.

IV.

in

an
in

EXALTED STATE.
God
ail

297

fo there

would be

four perfons inftead of three; the

conceiving; the idea conceiv'd, the happynefs flowing


this

conception; and the love proceeding from


is

the

This

equally falfe philofophy, and falfe divinity.

The

happinefs of the

Godhead

is

the infinite complacency he


is

takes in himfelf; this complacency

his love;

and

this love

flows from the knowledge he has of his

own

perfetftion.

In

God knowledge
a6ts,

and love are not the fame; they are difUnct

emanations, and perfonalities: but God's eiTential hap-

pinefs
ty,
is

and

coeifential love are the

fame

afl, virtue, perfonali-

and both have the fame motive or formal reafon, which

theboundlefs perfe6lion

God

difcovers in himfelf.

We are

made for the knowledge of truth, as well as for the enjoyment of happinefs. As God loves himfelf, becaufe of his perfeftion, and not becaufe he is happy; fo we are made to
love

God becaufe

of

his perfe6lion,

and not becaufe our hapGod's happinefs,


is is

pinefs flows

from him; or rather

as

the
the

love of his perfection, fo our fupernatural beatitude,

love of the fame perfe<n:ion.

If it be urged that
good,
this
is

God loves himfelf not only as fovereign but as good to himfelf, as his own good. I anfwer that
abfolutely falfe.

If there were any other good befide


to fpeak, to enjoy
it,

God, he would go out of himfelf, fo


as his
is

and

therefore he does not love his perfe<n:ion, as proper to him,

own, from
in
itfelf,

a principle

of intcrcfl:; but becaufe

this

good

good

and amiable by effence. Self-love in us pureand not a virtue; and


fo has

ly asfelfifhis a defe6l

no archehe is

type in our great original.


perfect;

God

loves himfelf becaufe

and not becaufe he

is felfifh.

We ought to love our-

298
felves for

OFNATURE
him
as his images,

Book
we

IV.

and in

fo far as

refemble him

in

any degree

ofperfecHiion,

and not forourfelves andasfe-

parate beings diftinft

from him.

The

knowledge

God

has

of his abfolute
fonrce, motive,

perfection, or his eternal

Word,

is

the only

and reafon of

his co-eternal love or

Holy

Ghoft.
thinois

To maintain
itfelf,

therefore that the creature can love no-

but

for

its

own

pleafure, intereft

and happinefs,

to

deny that

God

can make a being that loves him as he

loves himfelf, that he can produce a creature after his

own

i-

mage, and that has the fame law with him. 3tio. If pleafure, happinefs, and relative good, were the
only fprings of the
truth,
as
will,

then

God

confidered as fovereign
us,

would

zS: lefs ftrongly

upon

than

God confidered
for

fupreme happinefs.
to us, than for

We

would
is

love

him more

what

he does

what he

In himfelf, for his

boun-

ded communications, than for his boundlefs


relative

perfe<5tions, as

good than

as abfolute good, as beatifying to us,


It

than

as beatifying to all intelligences.

may be
is

faid that fince

the view of truth, pcrfeClion and order is always accompanied

with
love.

pleafure,

it

is

the pleafure that


all

the only motive

of
is

I anfwer that in

intelligences the view

of order

always accompanied with pleafure: but as the pleafure that accompanies the view of truth is not the reafon why we acquiefce in
it

as true,fo the pleafure that

accompanies the view


it

of order,
juft.

is

not the reafon

why we
cafe,
it is

love and adhere to

as

In one and t'other

the immutable relation

of things that determines our judgment and choice, and not the agreeable ImprefFions they make upon us. If it be faid
that this
is

only eflecm, adoration, fpcculative love, and not

Book IV.
an

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
This we deny,
finceit produces a

299
con-

efficacious charity.

formity to the obje^, a confbnt obfervation of his laws, an


inviolable attachment to juftice

and an imitation of

all

the

divine perfedions.

It

is

not a fendble, indeliberate, voluptuchoice of,


a transforlov'd. It

ous

dele(5lation,

but a

fpiritual, deliberate, univerfal

and adherence

to eternal order.

Now true love

is

mation of the foul into a conformity with the objefl


IS

true that
aft

The

we always love with pleafure, but not for pleafure. of love when fenfible is the greateft pleafure; but
is

the a6lis not the motive. Moreover, the pure, fpiritual love of

God

in the faints

not always fenfible nor perceptible


is

by
and

its effects.

This habitual love of preference


as in

very oft acaridities

company'd,

our great modell, with inward

outward

defolation, fpiritual agonies,

and

internal martyr-

dom; and yet the mind adheres invincibly to the has made from the fole love of juftice. This love
pure, not only becaufe of
its

choice
is

It

called
its act,

objeft,

but becaufe of
central, does

which being altogether

intelleftual

and

not

al-

ways
tions,

afFeft the

imagination with grateful ideas, ftrong emo-

and

fenfible deleclatlons.

The modern more


this

refined Epicureans have


is

no notion of and upon a

pure love. All their devotion

a pious drunkennefs,

a fenfible delegation.

They

defire to

go

to heaven

bed of rofes; fofoon

as they feel

no inward joys
fall

in the paths

of virtue, they
till

recoil,

turn back, and

into defpondency,

they

feel again the

fweet returns of a

celeftial

delegation.

They

look upon

this

milk of babes as efficacious grace, and

upon the

aridities, defolatlons,

and the fufpenfions of thefe and marks of repro-

fenfible favours as dereliftion, infidelity,

Pp

30O
batlon.
ty,

OFNATURE
They
love, value, fearch

Book

IV.

and efteem nothing

in pie-

but the melting tranfports of a mechanical devotion.

Thus
grofs

Self is the fource and center of all their virtues,

and pleafure
fallen fe-

the only fpring of their will.


paflions of fenfe, with the

Thus they exchange the


of the

mod refined vices


is

raphin.
fire

Their

felf-denial

very oft oltentation; their de-

of perfciftion, an

intelleftual

ambition

their fhining vir-

tues,

gawdy

fliows

their apparent difintereftednefs, a fecret

vain glory,

and

their love

of God a

fpiritual

concupifcence.
as vain refine-

They condemn

all the delicacies

of pure love
fubtility

ments of mind; and if they have any


love of order.
I

of genius, they

propofe the following objections againll the eternal law and

mo. The love of

God

is

our fupreme

intereft, foit

can

never be gratuitous and without view to a recompenfe; and


therefore
this
it

is

always interefted.

But there
love

is

no force

in

argument:

we grant that the

ofGodis our fupreme


is

intereft,

but it does not thence follow, that this interefl

the

reafon, the

end or the motive of our


our
a<5l

love.

This love

will

not

become

interefled, becaufe
it,

greatefl: intereft is in fa6t infefclfifh

parable from

unlefs

we

only from a

view to obit

tain this intereft.


facH:

Neither

is

this love interefted, becaufe

in

procures us neceffarily eternal happinefs, fince our view


is

in loving purely

not to be happy but to be good


juft;

not to en^
infati-

joy the recompenfe, but to be


able thirft of felicity, but to
der.

nor to quench our

conform

ourfelves to eternal or-

Thus

thefc Epicurean divines

confound

eternally the

motive and the efFe6l, or confequent of pure love.


2do. Thefe miftaken divines urge that

we can

love

no

Book
is

IV.

in an
is

EXALTED STATE.
is

301

thing but what

amiable, and that God

only amiable as he

beneficent to us.

The
is

latter propofition is falfc:

God

as

beneficent toward us
reignly perfe<5t,and
ty; that
is,

defirable, but

he

is

amiable as fove-

good toward all, and

as the

fupreme beaua-

becaufe of the immutable


his perfe<5tions.

harmony and order

mongft

all

All other beings are only ami-

able in fo far as they refemble him.

The

intuitive

view of

his abfolute beauty ravifhes fuperior intelligences, and tranf^

ports

them

fo entirely

beyond themfelves, that they have not

time to think

of, or refle(n:

upon

their

own

happinefs.

Thefe

incautious philofophers perpetually confound defire with


love; chafle hope with fpiritual cupidity,

and the natural love

of happinefs with fupernatural

charity.

We

defire

what

is

good
ty

we love what is good initfelf. The intrinfic beauand perfection we fee in an object may be a reafon of love j
to us,
it; as

of adherence and tendency to


pinefs,

well as the relative hap-

and agreeable fenfations we

expe(5t

from

it.

3tio.

Thefe fpiritual Epicureans add, that if God were not

beneficent to us, if he refufed to

make us happy;

if he

were

indifferent about his creatures, they could not love him,

and
in-

he would not be amiable, and therefore our love is always


terefled.

This too

is

mere

cavil.

If

God were
he
is

not infinitely

beneficent to his living images, he would not be infinitely perfe<5l.Heis free to create finite beings,but

not free to make

them
them

miferable, to hate

them

gratuitoufly, to predeftinatc

to eternal mifery purely to

fhow

his

empire over them.


to his defignsin
is

This were

a contradiction to his nature,

and

producing them.
love
all

One of his

molt amiable perfedions


all intelligences;

to

he has made; andto beatify

but

this ia

30Z
not the

OFNATURE
fole pulchritude and pcrfe(n:ion
life,

Book

IV.

of his nature.Tho' he
and thereby
yetfo long as

fhould annihilate us in particular after this

refufe us the beatific vifion during eternity;

we

exift, it

would be jufl: and reafonable


all

to love

him

as

ami-

able in himfelf, and beneficent to

the other myriads

of be-

ings and orders of fpirits that he has created.

He cannot torhappy: but the

ment us without

reafon, nor

make

us forever miferable, his

overflowing goodnefs muftatlaft

make

us

all

degrees of happinefs he gives us, are not the ftandards of the


love

we owe

to

him, nor what make him precifely and fo-

vercignly amiable.

We ought to love
is.

him not only

for

what

he does, but
beatifying
as the fource

for

what he

To

feparate the love

of God as

from the love of God


of

asperfe61:, the defireof

God

pleafure, true happinefs, and relative good,

from the
is

love of God as fovereign juftice, order and beauty^


in

mangling

our notions and dividing the living God:


is

it is

loving

him only for what he

to us,

and not for what he

is

in himfelf.

This probably was the fin of Lucifer.

Thus

the devout Fatalifts and rigid Predeftinarians

from
bethat

a latent felf-love fancy themfelves the only elcd.


finitely perfc(5l in himfelf,

God as into
all

and

as infinitely

good

ings,

is

not the objed of their love; but a partial


neglefls, hates,
is

God

doats

upon them, while he

and damns

all

o-

ther beings. Their mofl: perfect charity


titude,

only a

love of gra-

and of gratitude for an arbitrary choice,

predilecflion^

and preference unworthy of God, and


ral perfc6lions.

dcflru6tive

of his mo-

4to.

Thcfe Epicurean

cafuifts,

enraged to fee the idol of


is

Self overthrown,contendearneftly that felf-love

infeparable

Book

IV.

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
then

30^

from our

natures:

we can

never be indifferent about our own

happinefs: if

we could,
at hell

we might become independent,


defpife eternal fe-

defy God, laugh


licity.

and damnation, yea


is

This objedion

founded upon the

fophiftical rea~

fonlngs of fome antagonifts of pure love;

who

pretend that a

necelTary confequenceof this fublime do6lrine is,that


facriiice

we may

eternal blifs

that

is,

to the hatred

damnation, of God, from a principle of abfolute reAll this


is

and fubmit to

everlafting

fignation to the divine will.

extravagance, and a

wandring from the true queftion.


the pure love of
chafte

We

can never feparate

God, from the

true love

of Self; nor the


charity.

hope of eternal happinefs, from pure

laws of immutable order

we ought

to

By the love all that God has


as his livino- i-

made; love even


vine love in us.
purely?
is

ourfelves out

of pure charity

mages; and our everlafHng

felicity as the
lefs,

confummation of di^
becaufe

Do we

defireGod
lefs

welovehim

our chafte hope

ardent, becaufe

we hope from

God? do we become indifferent to the beatific vifion, becaufe we afpire to it as the period, and perfecllon of pure love? do we love ourfelves lefs, becaufe we
a motive worthy of
love ourfelves for

God,

as

God

loves us, and as finite ima-

ges of his confubftantial


vifion

and love

Word? our effential happinefs is the of God. Can we become indifferent to love
is

by an

excefs of love? this

downright contradiction. All the

fome pious minds make of the beatific vifion are the tranfports of a heart inflamed with love, that forp-etsfacrificcs that
itfclf,

and that does not advert to the repugnancy of its ideas, which are not conformable to the juft and noble fentimcnts

we ought to

have of the Deity.

They

fuppofe that

God can

304

OFNATURE
in eternal mifery,

Book IV.

contradlift his defigns in creating,

leave a being that loves

him

and

will deliberately the irretriveable

damnation of any creature.


divinity; as

Falfe philofophy and yet faller

we

fliall

fully

demonftrate hereafter. All thefe

impoflible fuppofitions far from being the fupernatural efforts

of pure

love, are the imperfect fallys

of a mind not

fuf-

ficiently

enlightned.

When

Mofes

offered to be blotted

out of the book of life, and

St.

Paul to become Anathema

for the falvation of his brethren; they

meant

their

own

per-

fonal annihilation or privation of the beatific vifion, if this

could procure the return of their fellow creatures to eternal


order.

They

could never

mean

that they defired hell

and

damnation, or confented to hate God from an excefs of love;


this is a contradi(ftion.

If by an impofliblefuppofition, the

perfection and happinefs

of all the human race,and of all

cre-

ated beings, depended


tion of any one
tures, then
it

upon the

particular, perfonal annihila-

man, or his being deprived of the

beatificrap-

would bejuftand reafonable


;

to fubmit to thefe

two privations
ftill

becaufe by the laws of eternal order

we ought

to prefer the greater to the leffer

good: but thefe pious

tranfports

of the

faints

prove rather their felf-forgctfulnefs,

and

univerfal charity, than the pofFibility

of any fuch fuppo-

fitions.

Thus the modern


fome pure

Epicureans, unhappily prejudiced againft

intelledual ideas, fublime reafonings, profound

thoughts, and noble fentiments,perpetually confound the motive

with the effed; Defire with Love;

God as beatifying with


and natural

God as

perfect; the falfe with the trucfelf-love;


charity.

hope with fupernatural

The fource of all the clouds

Book IV.
and
diift,

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
Is

^05

they ralfc on this head

their miftaking always

na-

ture
rated

for

grace; what
and

fouls laps'd, difeas'd,


fliould,

and degeneand
will do,

do

ordinarily,

with what they may,


purified.

when

exalted, cured

In our prefent

ftate,

the

^eculative Ideas of truth and order do not always


Gully upon the will to determine
its

a(fl

efficaci-

choice, unlefs accompalies

nied with
fpiritual

celeftial pleafure;

and herein

the neceflity

of

delegations to divert us from corporeal objefts, and

convert us to
after, is

God

as beatifying.

This, as

we

fhall

fhew here-

only the firft ftepof the divine life: but thefe novices

in true piety confound the beginning with the end, the milk

of babes with the food of flrong men; the jargon of children


with the language of the perfed.

They pretend

to be doflors

in Ifrael, profound divines, yea fathers

of the church, but

they are ignorant of the


ftop at the rudiments

firft

elements ofreafonlng.

They

of true theology; they know nothing by which fome

but thealphabet of Chriftianlty.

Having thus

diflipated all the clouds

fu-

perficial or prejudiced

minds endeavour to obfcure the fublet

lime do(5trine of feraphic love;


jea.

us

now return

to our fub-

In thefe fuperlor regions of pure and exalted nature,


nite Intelligences follow this eternal,
fal

all fi-

immutable, and univerit

law ; and from the obfervation of

flows necelfarily

all

their perfedion

and happinefs.

This is not an arbitrary law,


;

which

obedience to
py.

make them merit nor is their it a motive determining him to make them hapHe cannot beatify them without it, and they cannot be
has impofed, to
it.

God

happy but by

Felicity

is

not an arbitrary recompence, but

3o6
and

OFNATURE
Is

Book
are

IV,

a necefTary confeqiience of this pure love.

It conftltutes their

happinefs,
love

infeparable

from

it.

They

happy by

and by

free love.

So long as they remain

faithful to this

eternal law, they

open and expand themfelves

to

God's lumi-

nous Influences; and the more they


are dilated.

receive, the

more they
li-

God
to

cannot but communicate himfelf to his

ving images, that love him, as he loves himfelf.

He made
him-

them only
felf to
all

know and

love him,
illapfes,
all

and therefore when they


manlfefl:

put no flop to his divine

he cannot but

them, and difplay

the beauties of his eflencc; and

the

wonders of

his

omnipotence.

When

they can no

more fupport
ture;

the dlrefl view of the divine fplendors, they en-

ter into fociety

with each other, admire the wonders of nafee In the piflures


fee all in

and compare the beauties they


and proportionably
beauties

with

thofe they have feen in the original.

They

God and

God

in all;

as

they difcover in ^the fu-

preme archetype new

and newpcrfe<5lIons; they dif-

cover alfo In the created


nite

pl<51:ures

new manifeftatlons of Infi-

power, wifdom, and goodnefs.

God

flows continually
his beatifying ef-

into them;
fluences,

and they tranfmit to each other

which return again


of divine
light

to their almighty center withthis everlafting flux, reflux,

out any let or hindrance. In


circulation
life,

and

and love

confifls the beatitude

of all the

celeftlal choirs,

and of each

particular fpirit.

The

aftlon of the Father augments for ever their aftlvlty ; the action

of the Son communicates

to

them

ftlU

new knowledge;
in unity,

and the aftlon of the Holy Ghoft


fo that loft in the divine ocean,

exalts eternally their love,

and confummated

they partake in the operations of the Eternal Three.

Book
It
rits fell

IV.

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
law of pure love that lapfed

307
fpi-

was by
from

failing in this

their primitive ftate;

and

it is

in order to ree-

ftablifh

them

for ever

immutably in

this eternal law, that

they

pafs thro' a flate of fufferings, expiation

and mifery.

c o R.

I.

Hence

in a ftateofpure, primitive

and exalted nature, there

was and could be no moral evil, no falfe ideas, nor irregular loves, noinjufl: aflions, fmce God was the life, light and love
of all created intelligences, and they all followed the immutable, and univerfal law of order.
eternal,

COR.
Hence
of their
In all dates, fallen

II.
all finite Intelli-

and unfallen,

gences in order to enjoy the fupreme


natures, that
is,

felicity

and perfection

the fupernatural knowledge and love

of the abfolute

Infinite,

mufl expofe

their faculties to his

im-

mediate influence, by a free converfion of all their powers to


the eternal fource of
freely palTive before
life,

light

and

love.

They muft

remain

him
all

to receive his divine irradiations

and
ori-

motions.

They have

but one

efTential, primitive

and

ginal law, in order to be continued in, or reftored to their fu-

preme happinefs; which is

to (land

Itill

before the

being of
Reafon

BEINGS,
and

that he

may

flow Into them, irradiate their underwills,

Handings, animate their


their only

and become

their only

Law.

COR.
love; if they ceafe to

III.

Hence If finite Intelligences deviate from the law of eternal


open and expand themfelves to the
di-

vine influences, if they voluntarily turn themfelves away


this almighty fource

from

of life,

light

and love; they mufl

3o8
neceflaiily

OFNATURE
become
loves
all

Book

IV.

dead, dark and miferable.


that

Wherefore
finite

lince

God

he has made, fince he created


if

hitelligences

only to make them happy,


it

they be exiled from

this beatific vifion,

muft only be becaufe they have devia-

from the eternal love of order, render'd thcmfelves incapable of all communication with God, and flopt as to thcmted
felves that continual circulation

from the center

to the cir-

cumference, which makes the perfection and


created intelligences.

felicity

of

all

COR.
Hence
beatifying and as relative good,

IV.

the natural tendency of the will towards


is

God

as

not the love of God, accor-

ding to the laws of eternal order.


inherent love of felicity
is

This

natural, congenial,

common

to the devils

and the

damn'd: whereas the pure love of order can be produced in


the foul only by God's immediate, continual irradiation, and

adion.

C O

R.

V.

Hence
nably
as

to love

God

for himfelf,
is

and

alt

beings proportio-

they refemble him,

the eternal, immutable, and

nniverfal law
ture,

of all
all

intelligences.

This

is

the true law of na-

of which

particular, pofitive laws,

whether
;

civil

or

religious, are

but branches, and confequences or means, and


-

helps to facilitate the obfervation of it.

COR.
and

VI.

Hence we ought to love general, more than particular good;


in all circumftances, times, places,

and

flates,

whether

fallen or unfallen,
reft;

we ought

to prefer public to private inte-

we ought

to love our family

more than

ourfelves,

our

Book
try;
all

IV.

in an

EXALTED STATE.

309

country more than our family; mankind more than our coun-

more than the human fpecies; and the BEING OF BEINGS morc than all his productions. This is
intelligences
jfhorteft, fureft,

the

and moft univerfal way to

inveftigate

and

demonftrate the religion of nature; the laws of nations, the


fecial duties,

and

all

human

virtues.

They

flow from the ne-

celTary

and immutable relations betwixt

finite

and

infinite.

And

to

deduce them from the love of felf-prefervation and


alone
is

felf-intereft

inverting the order

of

things,

drawing

univerfal confequences

from

particular principles,

and endea-

vouring to prove truth by falfhood.

PROPOSITION
In
a flate

XLI.
finite

of pure and exalted nature, no

hitelligence can
its

obey the law of eternal order by

own

natural and inherent force; without a fu-

pernatural grace and afliftance.

DEMONSTRATION.
Finite intelligences

by

their

own

natural inherent force,

can love nothing but themfelves, and their


(a); the natural tendency

of the
is

tifying

and

as relative

good

not

own happinefs will towards God as beathe love of God according


in a ftate even

to the laws

of eternal order (b): therefore

of

pure and exalted nature, no

finite intelligence

can obey the

law of eternal order by

its

own

natural and inherent force


affiflance*

without a divine fupernatural grace and


(a) CQr. I. Qf Prog.

XXX.

(b) Qqv, 3. of Prop.

XU

310

OF

NATURE

Book

IV.

SCHOLIUM.
We may indeed by feeling our own nothingnefs, mifcry and
infufficiency,
nite

by difcovering the incommenfurability of all ficapacities, defire to

good to our boundlefs

be united to

the infinite as our fupream felicity: but this natural love of

God

as beatifying to us, as relative


is

good, as the fource of e-

ternal pleafure,

not loving
to the

God

for himfclf.

This
It

is
is

not
only

loving

him according him


for our

lav^^s

of eternal order.

loving

own

fakes, a defire to fatisfy our infatiable


is

thirftof happinefs; and, as I have faid, this defire

common
a necefla-

to us with the devils

and the damn'd.


;

It

is

nothing beyond
it is

the reach and power of finite minds

or rather

ry and natural confequence of the invincible love


for Self.

we have
he loves

To love God for


him

himfelf, to love

him

as

himfelf, to love
juftice

for his infinite perfe6lions, as fovereign


rife

and eternal order, to

above ourfelves, and lofe our-

felves in

tened,

him by a total preterltion of Self, we muft be enlighinfpired and animated by a fuperior force continually

defccnding upon us and invefting us.

As

it is

God alone

that
us.

can enlighten

us, fo

it is

he alone that can love himfclf in


but by the Son, {o no

As no man
tural light
ternal

can

know the Father

man
e-

can love the Father but by the Holy Ghoft.

As

the fuperna-

by which we know God

is

an emanation of the
light

Logos, and a participation of that

by which he

knows himfelf, fo the fupernatural love by which we can love God, is an emanation of the Holy Ghoft, and a participation of that love by which he loves himfclf.

By

this great principle

we come

to underftand the true

Book

IV.

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
The one was
all-powerful, fimple, creating

3ir
efta2LCt,

difllnfllon
blifh'd at

betwixt Nature and Grace.


firft

by God's

whofe energy continues without interruption and without


petition.

re-

The other

requires a conftant, immediate repetition


in the creature,

of the

divine als

and operations

which

are

oft interrupted,

and renew'd by the

alternate refinance

and

co-operation of our free will.

The

natural properties

of finite

beings are thefe which they have by creation, as infeparable


adjuncts of their eflence.
perfections

The fupernatural graces of God, are


receives immediately

which the creature

from the

divine atSlion.
rable

The

former are inamiflible

qualities, infepaloft

from our natures; the others may be

by

the abufe

of liberty. Thus

in fpiritual agents, or the intelligent images,

the powers of perceiving, comparing, and willing, of know-

ing their being, and of defiring their well-being are effential


properties, infeparable

from

their nature,

and communicated

to

them by

God
him

the Father, in giving

them exigence: but

fupernatural light and love ; their feeing


their loving

God

as

he

is,

and

as

he

deferves, are

imprefHons that come


eternal

from the immediate operation of the


the Holy

Word

and of

Ghofh Thus again

in the material pictures, figura-

bility, divifibility,

and mobility are properties that flow from

the idea of an extended fubftance: but their reprefenting the


divine perfe(ftions

by

their

harmonious forms,

divifions

and
of

motions, are modes given them by the immediate aftion of


the Deity.

Being and

all its effential

properties are ef}e6ts


all its

Godasfource of nature: but Perfection and


five

progref-

augmentations, are

efFeCts

of God

as the fource

of grace.
of the.

Both

thefe gifts are equally gratuitous,

and pure

eiTcCts

312
herent

OFNATURE
in,

Book IV
inlatter are conti-

divine beneficence: but the former

become by donation

and

cfTential to the creature.


it

The

nually communicated to

as qualities

and modes, that depend

upon
from

its its

adherence

to,

union with, and receiving influences

almighty original ; and fo are not attributes and pro-

perties that

belong to

its

efTence.

Wherefore Malebranche
all

was

egregioufly in the
aftivities

wrong when he made

the natural

powers and

of the creature immediate effedsof the

divine operation.

This is confounding nature and grace, and


This
is

the a6lion of God with the aftion of the creature.


far

more dangerous
by
attributing

error than that of Pelagianifm.


to the creature divinizes

Pelagiit;

us by afcribing too
ther

much
all

the o-

to

God, makes him the author of evil,

and fo demonizes him.


moral

The

one extends our ideas of the diall

vine liberahty too far; but the other tends to deflroy


attributes.

his

The one may


may

lead to a prefumptuous felf-

idolatry. but the other

lead to theblackeft atheifm.


activity as

The

true midft confifts in

fuch an account of our


evil,

makes

the creature the free caufe of all

and God the folecaufe

of all

true good.

COR.
{late

I.

Hence it is abfolutcly falfe, that there ever was, or can be


of

PURE NATURE, wherein fouls by their own inherent force could love God as he deferves, without any fupernatural grace or immediate influence of the
it is

Holy Ghoft:

as

impoffible that there can be any ftate

ofpURENATURE
without any fuper-

wherein the foul can know

God

as

he

is,

natural illumination or irradiation of the eternal

Word.

Men

indeed

may

acquire

by

a fuccclTive comparifon

of their ideas

Book IV.
ral

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
tlie

313
fupernatu-

a natural knowledge and love of God, but not

knowledge and love we are Ipeaklng


might beget within
Its

of.

If this were oLof^os,


its

therwife, the foul

itfelf the eternal

and the

Holy Ghoft; be

own

light,

and

its

own

love;

own

perfe<n:ion,

and its own happlnefs.

COR.
Hence
felf-love,

II.

the will

may

have two motives of alIon, natural


;

and the fupernatural love of God

the defire of hap-

plnefs or the perception

of truth ;

Perfetfllon

known, or Pleamtelle6lual eye

fure

felt.

The foul may always


folliclted

turn off

Its

from the view of truth,


fure; or

by ftrong

fenfations ofplea-

may remain

firm and

unmoved

in the love

of truth
will

from
is

a principle

of juftice. Wherefore the elFence of the

not, as the

modern Epicureans
relative;

fay, the Invincible defire

of

its

own

happlnefs; but a tendency towards good In general

whether abfolute or

good

In itfelf or

good

to us;

good
fal

to all beings, or

good

to

our particular being; univer-

good, or private

interefl:.

COR.
Hence
all finite

III.

Intelligences

may

feparate the love

of or-

der from the love of pleafure; fince the view of the one and

the fenfation of the other may equally aft upon and influence
their will ;

and

this feparation Is fin

or moral

evil.

c o R.
Since

IV.

we

can love nothing but by the motive of PerfectiPleafure


felt,

on known, or
or becaufe

we may ceafe to
its

love eternal

Or-

der, either becaufe

we do

not perceive

fovereign Beauty,
it.

we

feel pleafure in departing

from

There can
evil,

therefore be but

two

pofTible

ways of curing moral

and

Rr

314

OFNATURE
COR.
V.

Book

IV.

reclaiming lapfed intelligences; the fcnfation of pleafure In

the difcovery of truth, or the fenfation of pain in the love of


error.

Hence as
ral aflivities

there

is

an

efTential difference

betwixt the natu-

of the underflanding concerning God, and the


is

fupcrnatural illuminations of the eternal Logos; fo there

an

efTential difference

betwixt the natural tendency of the will

towards

God

as beatifying, as relative

good, as the fource of

infinite pleafure;

and the fupcrnatural a6lion of the Holy

Ghoft, which makes us love


the law of eternal order.
devils cal

God for himfelf, according to The one is common to us with the

and the damned; the other makes us refemble angeli-

and beatify'd fpirits.

COR.
Hence
there are but

VI.

two

forts

of affeOions that can


falfe felf-love,

divert
ir-

us from the love of eternal order;

and the

regular love of the creatures; for befides

God,

ourfelves,

and

the creatures there can be no other objecls in nature.

We
as

fm

againft eternal order

by loving
both

God only for ourfelves,


our love
is

we fin againft
ned

the fame eternal order


;

by loving the creatures


not proportio-

more than God

fince in

cafes

to the perfedion

of

obje6ls.

COR.
Since

vir.

we

never love the creatures in an irregular

manner

but for our

own
and

interefl:,

or the pleafure they procure us,


is

hence
all

it

follows that falfe felf-love


evil,

the primitive fource of

moral

a felf-idolatry that crc^is the creature into

the place of God; that ufurps

upon

all his rights,

that renders

Book
itfelf

IV.

in an

EXALTED STATE.
the creation, and the end
allpaflions, fins,

315
of all
Its

the center of

all

ac-

tions,

and thereby engenders

and crimes.

PROPOSITION
In a
ftate

XLII.

of pure, primitive and exalted nature all

the properties, forms, and laws of the material


pictures

were reprefentative of the divine

perfe(5ti-

ons.

DEMONSTRATION.
God's defign
fections
in creating

was to reprefent
;

his divine per-

by external beings

(a)

in a ftate
pi<ftures

of pure,

primitive,

and exalted nature, the material


not
refift

of the Deity, could


and ex-

the divine adlion, nor hinder the execution of his alprimitive,

mighty defigns (b): therefore In the pure,


alted ftate

of nature

all

the properties, forms, and laws of the

material world,

were reprefentative of the divine perfedions.

SCHOLIUM,
This great truth
principles that
I
.

is

a fruitful fource

of many luminous

Since

may be of great ufe in natural philofophy. we have ftiown that the creation muft be origiit

nally reprefentative of the divine perfeclions,

follows evi-

dently that to paint forth in a fenfible manner by material pictures, the infinitely active
ty, that gives life, light,

and omnlprefent eflence of the Dei-

and order to

all

things, nothing

is

more proper than the


matter that
(a) Prop.
fills all,

creation

of an

infinitely active ethereal


all.

penetrates

all,

and overflows
XXXIV.

It

is

true

XXL

(b) Cor. 3. of Prop.

Rrz

3i6

OFNATURE
infinite
is

Book

IV.

that created matter muH: always be finite; becaufe, as

we have

fliewn,

God's creatuig power can never be exhaufted, nor can


of any kind;
infinite-

he produce without himfclf an abfolute and


in this fenfc as in
all

others, the pi(5lure

always

ly inferior to the original:

but

we may

conceive this ethereal

matter as eternally augmenting by the continual external activity

of the

divine nature. In this

immenfe ocean of ethereal

matter

we may

conceive by the fame rules of analogy, three


^
:

diftindtions, conditions or principles

a fiery aftive principle'

that difTufes itfelf every where, and

is
'

the

firH:

original fpring

andfourceof motion in the univerfe; an ethereal luminous fluid' that tranfmits the a<^ion of its flaming fource or center to all the points

of the circumference

and

'

an

elaftic ac-

rial fluid'

dilatibleand compreflible;thatis the fource

of unire-

on

in all the different parts

of the material lyflem.


is

This

femblance betwixt the archetype and the type


reafon

perhaps the

why the

facred writers

when

they fpeak of God,


the

com-

pare the Father to a confuming


Jight,

fire,

Son

to an univerfal

and the Holy Ghofl

to a fubtile air or fpirit.

Thus Fire,

Light, and Air the component parts of the pure fluid which
fills

the vafl expanfe are types, emblems, and pidures of the

divine effence,

and

its

three confubflantialperfonalities.

2. Befldes this ethereal fluid reprefentative

of the divine
life,

effence we obferve in nature folid bodies that have neither


light,

nor motion in themfclves; and therefore reprefent in-

telligent beings that receive all thefe

from

God alone. As the


life, light,

fupcrnatural emanations or influences of the divine

and love modify

differently fpirits

of all

pofFible degrees,

and

thereby form different kinds, orders, and hierarchies of in-

Book

IV.

in an

EXALTED STATE.

317

telligent

images; fo the luminous, univerfal, adive, ethereal

fluid modifies differently all the various parts

of folid bodies,

and thereby produces innumerable kinds of material pictures.

As

each intelligence

is

one fimple

indivifible effence, fo

the

elementary part of all compound bodies,

may be

unities, a-

toms or monades not abfolutely


feparable and infrangible

indivifible like fplrit,

but in-

by any finite
and
figures

force.

Thcfe original
at

atoms of numberlefs

fizes

were not produced

random, by one blind fhock imprefs'd upon matter, but were


all at firlt

modelled and formed by an almighty wifdom that


efFe(5ts.

forefaw all their pofTible combinations, ufes and


fubtile ethereal fluid

The

by

circulating thro' all the parts

of the

univerfe produces in thefe original

monades

various motions

and

velocities,

unions and

divifions,
it

and thereby compound

bodies of all kinds. When

binds together thefe original mo-

nades, fo that they adhere to each other


continuity,
it

by

a flrong

union of

forms

folids

of all kinds.

When it approaches
it

thefe indivifibles, fo as to render

them fimply contiguous, or


produces liquids

make them join in


of all kinds.
folid

fmall malfes

and drops,

When it mixes
and
prefTes

thefe primitive

compounds both
formed by the

and

liquid,

them

into the pipes and channels


firft

of organlcal moulds or feeds which were all


fingers
;

of the Almighty then it forms animals, vegetables, and

individuals

of all

forts.

In

fine,

when
folids
it

it

gathers together eleliquids

ments, animals, and vegetables,


patible natures into vaft malfes,

and

of

all

comthen,

produces planets, orbs, and


ethereal fluid
is

worlds of innumerable kinds.

This

fo to fpeak, the inftrumcnt, image,

and fenfory of the Deity,


exprclTion,

to

makeufe of Sir

Ifaac

Newton's

upon which he

3i8
afts immediately,
real beings.
It
is

OFNATURE
and by which he
acls

Book

IV.

upon all other corpoagent that ani-

the phyfical fpring of the univerfe that fets


It
is

the great machine agoing.

this univcrfal

mates and enlightens, moves and penetrates, unites and feparatcs,

comprefTcs or expands, forms and produces

compound

bodies of all kinds folid and liquid.

Hebrew

language, the plural

Hence it is that in the word Schemim which exprelles

the different principles of the celeftial fluid fignifies in different places of the facred text ; agents , formers , difpofers
placers, fliifters, enliveners, enlightners, producers,
ters, dividers,

augmen-

compreffors, and feparators.

All the different


bodies,

forms, diviflons and motions of folid,


are produced

viflble, tangible

by the

action

of

this invifible, univerfal fluid,

according to immutable laws

known to God

alone,

and moft

proper to exprefs his divine perfeftions, and accomplifli his


great defigns.

As

the different combinations of letters proat lad:

duce

at

firfl:

words, then fentences, next difcourfes, and


all

volumes, which exprefs


different compofition

the thoughts of the mind, fo the


original

of the

monades, form

firfl:

ele-

mentary

folids

and
laft

liquids,

then individuals, next fpheres, or

worlds, and at
is

the whole material univerfe.

Each monade

a letter, each primitive

compound a word; each Individual a


and the whole together juft-

fcntence, each (phere a difcourfe,


ly

combined
all

is

that great

cxpreffes
is

the divine

book and volume of nature which perfe(5lions and archetypal ideas. This
which Dr. Berkeley miftakes for
but in order to read this great
fees
it,

the true vifive language,

a wild metaphyfical theory:

volume we muft
primitive

fee

it

as

God

and behold

it

in

its

pure,

and exalted

ftate as it

came pure from

his hands, ere

Book
in
it

IV.

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
obliterated, darken'd,

319
and defac'd

phy ileal and moral evil had


the noblcfl: characters

of the divine refemblance.


all

3.

As

the perfection and happinefs of

intelligent na-

tures confifts in

an uninterrupted reception and tranfmiflion

of the divine communications without any let or hinderance fo the beauty and harmony of all material fubftances in a pure

and primitive

ftate, confifts

in a continual admiflion and tranf-

miflion of the ethereal fluid.


therefore,
tive,

In

this exalted original flate

wc may

conceive that

all

was compofed of an
of the divine

acef-

luminous, ethereal

fluid, reprefentative

fence,

and atthefame timeof tranfparent,

folid fubftances reit is

prefentative

of intelligent beings. For this reafon

that tho'

nature be

now vail'd and


its

dilturb'din this fpot of the univerfe

we

inhabit, yet

original principles are not deftroy'd.

All

bodies are reducible to light and glafs or cryftal; and for the

fame reafon

it is,

that thefcripture always reprefents the


glafs
is

new

Jerufalem as a fea of
thereof.

or

cryftal,

and

God

as the light

Nature then

compofed of two elementary prinIs

ciples: the

one an

ethereal, active, fubtile matter that


all

the

depofitory or fource of
folid, infeparabie,

the motions in nature.

The other

altogether paflive monades form'd by the


figures, that are

handsofthe Almighty of different fizes, and


fo to fpeak depofitories or feats

of

all
is

the reft and inadion in


a great

the univerfe.

The

material world

machine comfet in

pos'd of innumerable fprings


tion

and wheels,which are


upon

mo'

by

a fubtile matter, whofe parts are alfo

of different magcertain fo-

nitudes and velocities. Thus the fluids that aft


lids

have no cfFed on others.

The forces

and the forms of e-

very monade are regulated; the aftivity and fwiftnefs of every

320
fluid
tible.
is fix'd:

OFNATURE
The one
as to
circulate, the others
acfl

Book IV.

the fluids are unmixable, the fprings indcftruc-

with a perfedt har-

mony, fo

fhew that none but an


of

infinite

power, wifdom,

and goodnefs could have imagin'd, produced, and adjufted


thcfe feveral parts
this beautiful

machine.

It is as

impofa<5live

fible to difcover at prefent

the particular laws of this

fluid as

it is

impoflible to difcover the particular forms of each

paflive folid.

The Cartefian vortices and

the

Newtonian

at-

tractions are equally unfufHcient to explain all the

phenome-

na of nature.

We may by thefe helps make fome fcanty guelTcs


fuperficial

about fome of the more general,

and obvious phe-

nomena of nature: but


and
will

thefe are fubje(5l to great difficulties,

be an eternal fource of difputes.

Neither can w^e

come to any true knowledge of the primitive laws of nature, till we fee it as God fees it, know his way of operating in the
material world,
ting

and

all

the different defigns he had in crea-

and reprefenting himfelf by it.

4.

Tho'

there might have been but one

common

center
all

that

was the original fource of life, light and motion to


vafl:

the

material univerfe; yet, as in a


tends, dilates,

expanfe of matter that ex-

and augments every moment, the rays in flowdif-

ing from this univerfal center would have been w^eakned,


fipated, loft, or
is

made

ufelefs,

we

fee

by experience

that there
ftars

not one only fyltem; but many, yea innumerable,

or

.funs that are the luminous centers

of each fyftem; and thereplanets, orbs,

fore

by the

rules

of analogy there may be

and

worlds that rowl about thcfe flaming centers, and that

may

be the abodes of
kinds.

intelle(5tual

inhabitants

of innumerable

The wonders of every iphere, world or fy Item are dif-

Book IV.
are the fame.
efie(5ls

in

an
the

EXALTED STATE.
two
original pafTive

321
principles

fcrent: but in

all,

and

acflive

The great laws of analogy prevail in all ;tho'

the

be different and various, yet all are fimilar and reprcfen-

tatlveofthe fame original.

Now

it is

the contemplation of thefe


its

wonders and beauties of nature


and uncorrupted
blell intelligences.
ftate that

in

pure, primitive, exalted

makes the accelTory happinefs of


is

We have already fhown that fuch


finite intelligences, that

the efal-

fential

weaknefs of

they cannot
dire<fb,

ways contemplate the divine fplendors with


nate returns of an
tervals
efTential

uninteralter-

rupted view; and therefore they pafs an eternity in the

and acceffory

blifs.

During the

in-

of

this later,

they remain in their re(pe6live orbs,

fpheres,

and planets, converfe with each other, and contem;

plate the original in the picftures

but

when

their fouls are adloft

mitted to the immediate vifion of the pure divinity,

and

immcrfed

in the central depths

of their immenfe original, then

their glorious bodies are tranfported to the hig'hefi: heavens, to

the feat of God's glory, to the throne of his majefty, that the empyreal regions
,

is

to

where there

are neither funs,

ftars,

nor

planets,but one uninterrupted ocean of light,


verfal

which is the uni-

common center of the vail expanfe, where they fee light


true light, till they return again into their refpecflive orbs.
great idea feems to have been tranfinitted

in

its

This

by

original

tradition

from

age to age, to the Platonic phiiofophers,


fpirits as

who

reprefent celeftial

fometimes confin'd to particular

orbs within thefphere of the heavens, and then tranfported


to a fupramundane, fupraceleftial fpace where they fee the

Being that
.truth in
its

is, the eternal elTence, face to face,

andfee

fource.

It

is

perhaps by the ciHuences from that

322

OFNATURE
where

Book

IV.

unlvcrfal empyreal center,

God

manifefts his

a(fl:ivlty,

power, and energy in a more particular manner than in any


other part of immenfity; that
all

the funs,

ftars,

and luminous and moti-

centers of the univerfe or vaft expanfe are nourifhed and fupplied with matter fuiRcient to preferve their force

ons, during a

whole eternity.
of pure,
primitive,
evil,

V. As

in all the fuperior regions

and
falfe

exalted nature there


ideaSj

was and can be no moral


intelleflual

no

nor irregular loves in the

world; fo in the
evil,

material univerfe there could be


fenfations,

no

phyfical

no painful

opacity,

no contradictory elements, no mortal qualities, no darknefs, or confufion. None of thefe can be in a


;

ihte where all the ideas and incHnations of fpirit

all

the forms

and motions of matter were


fection
;

reprefentative

of the divine per-

where

all

the intelligent images are full of Hfe, light,

and

love;

where
fluid,

all

the material pictures were compofed of


folid fubn:ances,a(fl:ing

an ethereal

and tranfparent

upon
and

each other, fo as to paint forth eternal power,


goodnefs.

vv'ifdom,

The irregularities
this:

therefore that

we

fee in

our init

ferior fphere

muil be derived from another principle; and

feems to be

As
firfl

the deviation of

fpirits

or of the living

images from the

and primitive law of eternal order muft


world diforders, irreguthe deviation of bodies or of the
firft

rieccflarily occafion in the intelle(5l:ual


larities,

and moral

evil; fo

material pidures,
ncccflarily
gularities

from the

original laws

of nature, muft
irre-

produce in the corporeal univerfe, diforders,


evil.

and phyfical

Wherefore
of fpirits,

if at

any time one or


their
iirft life,

more
light,

particular hierarchies

fall

from

and

love, the material orbs, or liars

which they

inhabit.

BookIV.

in

an

exalted state.
and harmony.

323
lofe alfo
is

and the corporeal vehicles which they animate, mufl


their original a6livity, fplendor,

There

phyfical, nccefTary connecftion betwixt the changes

of the im-

material and material world.

The

divine

a<fl;ivity

the original

fource of order, proportion, and beauty in both, muft by a


natural,

and neceflary confequence be fufpended in the one,


interrupted in the other.
five great

when

it is

Thefe

Metaphyfical principles combined with

Phyfical experiments, and Geometrical calculations,

may per-

haps be of great ufe to invefligate the properties of material nature;

and form

new Phyfiology more perfed than any that

has yet appeared. I have adopted none of the maxims of the


Cartefian philofophy, as they are purely hypothetical, dubious, or
falfe,

fuch as the formation of the univerfe by purely

mechanical laws from one or

many

impulfes given to the

formlefs mafs of infinite matter; the abfolute Impoflibility of

a void in nature; the generation of the three imaginary ele-

ments; the rotation of the planets about the fun by

celeltial

whirlpools according to the fimple laws of centrifugal forces;

and the other

peculiar, diftinftive,

and

fpeclfic

hypothefes,

proper to the French philofopher. Moreover, I have rejecfled

none of the Newtonian difcoveries

that are founded

upon un-

contcftiblc experiments, or invincible demonflratlon.

For

it

may be

proved that the great Sir Ifaac never taught, v/hat


difciples

fome of his

have maintain'd, that attraction

is

an in-

herent, innate, abfolute quality of all matter; nor an univerfal,

immediate, perpetual impreffion of the author of nature:


Englifli philofopher fuppofes

on the contrary, the fubllme


that attradion

may be an

effect

and not

a caufe; tlTat-gt^avita-

Sf2

324
tion

OF
is

NATURE
it

Book

I Y.:

may be produced byimpulfion; and

that a fubtile fplrit

or fluid
is

perhaps the primitive univerfal fpring of nature. It


dcfign, nor

not

my

would

be proper here, to enter into

the detail of particulars, nor explain the general

phenomena
all

of nature in

this

lower fpherej but it

is

perhaps poflible to rethat

concile the antient do6trine of ethereal matter, with


is

demonftrable or dcmonftrated in the Newtonian fcheme.

COR.
Hence
in the
firfl:

I.

production of the univcrfe and in

all

the

fupcrior regions of pure, primitive and exalted nature, there

could be no phyfical or moral

evils.

As

there were

no

falfe

ideas, irregular loves, or unjufl anions; fo there


ful,

were no pain-

noxious fcnfations, no contradi(ftory elements, no mortal

qualities.

None of
of

thefe can be in a ftate

where

all

the ideas

and
ter,

inclinations

fpirit, all tlie

forms and motions of matperfe5lions


j

were reprcfentative of the divine

where

all

the intelligent images were full of


all

life, light,

and love; and

the material pi^ures painted forth eternal power, wifdoni

and goodncfs.

COR.

II.

Hence it is, that the chaos which Mofes mentions book of Genefis cannot be underftood of the firfl: and
tive ftate

in the

primi-

of nature. Darknefs, confufion, anddiforder; death,

opacity and deftru(5livc elements, cannot reprefent


is all

him

that

hfe, all light,

and

all

love;

all perfe(5lion, all


firfl:

beauty and
all-

all

harmony.

To fuppofe that the

productions of an

powerfuU
of

intelligence,

who had no other dcfign


to be a

in creating,.

but to paint forth


light

his divine perfections, could

be a chaos void

and without form feems

mere Pagan fidion,

Book

IV.

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
of this
III.
In
v^^ork.

325"

which Chriftian

divines have adopted too eafily; as fhall be

fully unfolded in the fecond part

COR.

Hence the prefent difpofition of things


on of the

our

folar fyftem;

the rotation of the planets about the fun, the oblique pofitiecliptic to the equator, thediftincftlons
vi^inter,

of night and
and
all

day, of fummer and

of fp ring and

harveft,

the

viciffitudes, irregularities,

and diforders that have happened

fince the fall

of angels and men, fince the origin of moral and


are qualities, accidents

phyfical

evil,

and defers of fallen, de-

graded nature, that are to pafs, difappear, and be entirely deflroy'd in a re-efhblifhed ftate.
Ifaiah, St. Peter the apoftle,

For

this reafon the

prophet

clare that

evangeHfl: St. John deupon the fecond advent of our Saviour the prefent
fhall pafs

and the

heavens and the prefent earth


place there fhall
fhall

away, and that in their

be

new heavens and


All this
fhall

new

earth,

where

all

be renew'd.

be more fully explain'd, and

unfolded in the fecond Part.

COR.
Hence
and
ture
it is

IV.
flate

a great

miftake to confound the

of pure

exalted nature with that of lapfed


;

and degenerated na-

and

to regard the defetfts

of the latter as neceifary cfTcds

of the primitive laws of the former. This poor notion fortifies all the objections which atheifts make againft the exiftence of God, and
gularities
rities
all

their cavils

drawn from the prefent IrreIf thefe Irregula-

of nature

in

our

terreflrial globe.

flow neceifarily from the fir ft eftablifhed general laws of


It

ijature.

Is

impoflible to juftify the divine wifdom, julHcc


fa-

and goodnefsj which made fuch imperfeftlavvs, with fuch

32^
tal

OF NATURE

Book IV.
when
fall

confequences.

All this will appear in a clearer light

we

confider nature in a lapfed Ibte, and the changes


in

which
of

happened to the material world


angels and

our fphere, (ince the

men.

PROPOSITION
In
a ftate

XLIII.
it is

of pure and uncorrupted nature,

pofTible that the eternal

Logos might
to

have taken

a corporeal vifible

form

communicate with finite

intelliQiences in a fenfible

manner.

DEMONSTRATION.
In a
ftate

of pure and exalted nature


felicity;

all finite

intelligences

enjoy'd a double

one in the immediate contemplation

of the

divine effence, another in the

knowledge of

his repre-

fentations (a); finite intelligences are obliged at certain intervals,

by

their natural finitude

and weaknefs, to turn off their

intellciftual

eye from the direct contemplation of the pure and

abfolute elTence of
his images

God,

to
;

admire and adore the original in


during thefe intervals none but
reveal to them, the in-

and

pictures (b)

the eternal

Logos could manifeft and


of nature, the defigns

finite beauties

God had in creating, and


pl61:ures

the numberlefs refemblances of the original and the


(c): therefore in a ftate

of pure, uncorrupted nature the etera corporeal, vifible

nal

Logos might have taken

form to com-

municate with

finite intelligences in a fenfible

manner.

SCHOLIUM.
Wc
Xa) Prop.
fiiall

fiiew in the fecond part

of this work that there

is

no doctrine more
XXXVIII.

clearly reveal'd in the


(b) Cor. i. of Prop.

Old Teftamentthan
Cor. i. ofProp.XXI.

XXXVni.(c)

Book
that

IV.

in

an

EXALTED STATE.
his incarnation in the
it

327

of our Saviour's preexiftent humanity, from the beginning

of the world, long before


BlelTed virgin; that

womb of the
firft

was he that converfed with our


it

parents in a paradifiacal ftate; that

w^as

he that appeared
;

to the holy patriarchs under a vifible


that difcourfed with

form

that
;

it

was he

Mofes upon the mountain

it

was he that

manifefted himfelf to the prophets in fupernatural vifions,

with a glorify'd body.

We fhall alfo fhcw in the fame fecond


difl:in6l

Part that the Pagans themfelves had a


vine perfon or Being united to a

notion of a di-

human

nature or form, that


in-

was the

leader, the conductor,

and the chief of all created

telligences.

It is thus that the

Logos

will converfe

under a
;

human form
thefe

with bleffed

fpirits

during a whole eternity

in

moments and

intervals that they

cannot contemplate
It is

the divine fplendors with a dired and immediate view.

thus that he will lead them from the central depths of the
Divinity into
thfe
all

the

immenfe regions of nature, fhew them

numberlefs relations, and refemblances of the original


pictures; then lead

and the

them back again


It
is

into the facred

abyfs of the divine eJfTence.

thus that the

Logos huma-

niz'd will be the eternal high

prieft

of the
the

intellectual world,

becaufe he alone can render to

God

homage and worfhip

due to him; fince he alone knows the Father, and the adoration that belongs to him.

give us

of the hypoftatick

What a glorious idea does this union, and how contemptible and
and blalpheme
it?

ignorant are thefe

who

fcofF at

this

myltery

becaufe they do notunderftand

COROLLARY.
Hence
the doclrine of the hypoltatic union betwixt the

328
divine

OFNATURE
and human nature has nothing
;

Book IV.
contradictory to

in

it

the'fublimefl: reafon

but

it is

no wonder

that

men blafpheme
fee the

themyflerics of our holy religion,

when

they do not

connexion they have with the


philofophy.

principles

of the moft exalted

We

have endeavoured to deftroy in the four preceeding


great principles of

books the
only three
nor

Deifm and Socinianifm, by


are neither fimple attributes,
real, confubftantial,

fhewing that abfolute infinite contains ncceflarily three and


diftinClions,

which

different fubftances,

but three

coc-

ternal, fclf-confcious perfons or intellectual agents, equal in


.all

things, felf- origination only excepted: that the eternal

Logos united himfelf from


fible,

the beginning to a vifible, fenfinite beings,

human form

to

communicate with

during

thofe intervals wherein they cannot contemplate with a direct

open view the unveil'd fplendors of the uncreated


;

ef^

fence

that this eternal

Logos took upon him our mortal


and
facrifice,

natures,

and by

his humiliation, fuffcrings,

ex-

piated fin,
juftice,

and reconciled God's clemency with

his unfpotted
infinite

and his paternal love of the criminals, with his

abhorrence of their crimes.

We

fliall

now proceed

to confute

Fanatifm and Pharifaifin that difhonour and difparage Chriftianity


,

and fhew wherein true

practical religion confifts.

This

is

the great end andfeope of thiseffay, and without

this all the reft are

but dry, fuperfluous, barren fpeculations.


at the

All philofophy that ftops


ing to the heart,
is

underftanding without reach-

at beft

but an ingenious romance.

END

OF

THE FOURTH

BOOK.

32?

THE

PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES
OF

NATURAL AND REVEALED

RELIGION,
BOOK
V.

OF NATURE IN A DEGRADED STATE.

AXIOMS.

N
2.

Being can have merit or demerit perfonally, before


its

exiftence.

Experience teaches ns that

we

feel pain,
fin
;

and that we

are frequently unjuft ; that


jet to phyfical

we

fuiFer

and

that

we are fub-

and moral

evil.

Tt

330

OF

NATURE
peccable.

Book V.
XLIV.

PROPOSITION
All
finite intelligences are
1^1

DEMO STRATION.
All
viz.
finite Intelligences

may

have two reafons of willing,,

the perception of truth and the fenfatlon of pleafure

felf-love

and the love of order


the love of order

(a);

all finite intelligences

may feparate
telligences

from the love of

pleafure, and,
all finite

this feparation Is fin

or moral

evil (b):

therefore

in-

may

fin,

or are peccable.

SCHOLIUM,
God
ftanding,
is

Impeccable for two reafons; as

finite

minds are

peccable for two reafons; the one drawn from the undcr-

and the other from the will.

God

can never err or


falfe

fail in his

knowledge; and therefore cannot make a

choice.

His judgments are always conformed

to eternal rea-

fon; and fo he cannot fin: but the creature

may

err in its

judgment, and fo make a

falfe choice.

Moreover,

God

can

never feparate the love of order from the laveof himfelf, becaufe he
is

order.

Whereas

the creature

may
and

love

itfelf,

with-

out loving order, and fo feparate felf-love from the love of

God. Thus whatever is

efiTentially free
till

finite

muft be by

nature fallible and peccable,


a(fls it

by long continued repeated


as

be confirmed in the immutable habits of good,


hereafter.

we

fhall

fhew

Vannini

maintains that the idea of fin


XLI.
(b) Cor.. 3. of Prop.

is

a contradi<^*

(a) Cor. 2. of Prop.

XJLL

Book
on.

V.

in a

DEGRADED STATE.
is is

331
di-

Sin, fays he,

an oppofitlon, and refiftance to the

vine will.

Now to fuppofe that


This
is

a finite being can contradid

or

refifl:

the will of an infinite being


a

altogether repugnant

and

impoffible.

poor fophifm.

finite

Being can-

not refifl the abfolute, dire<5l, immediate

afts

of infinite power,

which fuppofe no co-operation of the


have, demonftrated that

creature: but fince

we

God

can communicate a real aftivity

to fecond caufes

that his intelligent images arc perfectly free;


this

and that he cannot deftroy


their effence,
it is

freedom without annihilating

plain that they

may will

contrary to what

he

wills.

He leaves

them

to their free choice,

and does not

force
It

them

abfolutely to

do what he would have them.


fo,

may

be urged, that if this be

then

God does
This

not will
alfo
is

abfolutely the happinefs

of

all

intelligences.

fophifm.

If by abfolute

wills

we mean omnipotent ads by


without any co-operation of
;

which God produces


not

his effeS:

hitelledual beings, as in creation


will abfolutely the felicity

then

it is

true that he does

of the

creatures.

The fupreme
knowledge
that an inits

beatitude

of

all

intelligent natures confifts in the

and love of the divine

perfections.

Now to will
is

telligent creature fhould

know and love him


This

without

free

co-operation,

is

a contradiction.

willing that an intelli-

gence fhould be happy by love and by free love, while he


forces and conftrains
fifiible
it

to love without freedom,

by the

irrc-

dint of almighty power.


a triangular circle.
all

This

is

willing an impofilbili-

ty,

and

God wills

abfolutely and without

exception that
fliould love

beings fliould love

him

freely, that

they

him without

force and conftraint; in this love

confifls their effential

and fupreme felicity ; and therefore Go J

Tt2

332
py without

OFNATURE
their co-operation.

Book V.

not only will not, but he cannot make them foverelgnly hap-

He might indeed modify them


in

agreeably, overflow

them with pleafure,and produce


not loving
is

them

a continual fucceflion of ravifhing fenfations; but this invincible love

of happinefs and pleafure

is

God

accor-

ding to the laws of eternal order. This


himfelf,
all his

not loving him for


perfciftions to

by

a free preference

of his boundlefs

bounded communications.

Spinofa denies liberty as well as Vanini: but he maintains


the impeccability of the creature from another principle than
that Italian Sophift.

He fays

not only that the creatures canall

not

refift

the divine aflion, but that

their modifications,
eiFe5ts

fenfations, perceptions,

and voHtions, are immediate


fays he,
is

of

the divine a6lion.


'

'

God, however,

not the author

of fin; for

fin

is

a privation, a negation, a nothing;

and fo

'

does not want a caufc.

God is

the only efficient caufe of all

that expreffes reality or power; but the defecluofity

comes

'

from
(a)
:

their finite natures in

which there

are infinite degrees

now
is

to afk

'

perfe6l,

to

why God did not make all things equally afk why the divine nature is necelfarily and inSo
vaft

finitely productive.

and

fo fruitful are the

powers,

'

and perfections of the divine


celTarily to all degrees

effence, that they extend nere-

of being, which tho' unequal with

'

gard to each other, yet are equal with relation to

God, and

nccefiary to complete the boundlefs effeCts of his ae:livity(b).

'

He

gives virtue to the good,

and

refufes this perfection to

the bad, not by free choice and arbitrary decrees; but by


the neccffary laws of his infinite fecundity,
(a) Epift.

which obliges

XXXVL

(b) Ethices Part.

I.

append, pag. 39.

Book
*

V.

in a

DEGRADED STATE.
of all degrees from the
poflible,
highefl: to

335
the
call-

him

to produce beings
all forts

*
'

loweft, yea

of beings

both thefe

we

virtuous and thofe


I anfvver in the

we call
firfl:

vicious (a).'
it is

place, that
efFecT:s

abfolutely falfe, that


aftion.

all

events are the immediate

of the divine

We
and

have already demonflrated that


the creatures diftind from his

God can give a real activity to own by which they can be;

come
will.

real,

and free agents; and thereby produce

effefls

voHtions that are diftincb from, and contrary to the divine


A6livity and freedom are infeparable properties

of

all

intellectual beings;

and therefore by the

elTential finitude

of

their natures they are fallible

and peccable.
it is

I anfwer in the fccond place, that

abfolutely

falfe,
all

thas
is

God

is

obliged

by necefHty of nature

to

produce

that

pofTible.

He is
creates

entirely free to create or not to create;

and

when he
is

he produces only what he

pleafes,

and what

reprcfentative

of

his divine perfeflions.

All his primitive,


evil.

original produ(flions are free


It
is

of moral and phyfical

however remarkable that tho' Spinofa denies the culpability of the creature, yet he authorizes not the impious
opinion of thofe

who maintain

that there
evil,

is

no

eflential diffe-

rence betwixt moral good and


*

for as he fays very well

our being determin'd neceifarily by the original confHtution

*
'

of our nature

to virtue or vice, to the love or hatred


is

of God,
betwixt
(b).'

does not dellroy the elTential diftinftion there


thefe

two contrary and oppofite difpofitions of mind

The

devout Fatalifts and PredelHnarians do not deny ths

exiftence

of fm; but they fay that the origin of moral


(b) Epifl.

evil is

Ca) Epifl. XXIII.

XXIIL

..4.

OFNATURE
infufed habits.
I anfwer, that this opinion feems to

Book V.

altogether unconceivable: for tho' the creature be fallible and'

peccable by nature; yet

God might have confirmed it in grace


mc to
dejflroy at

by fupernatural and
the natural ideas

once

all

we

have of the divine wifdom, goodas infinitely wife

nefs,

and

faiidity.
all

God

and provident

Xhould have taken

the meafures pofTible to accomplifli his

great end in creating, that fo he might not be eternally fruf*


trated in his defigns.

Now

fince

God's defign in creating,


ever and ever happy; if it

was
ous

to

make

finite intelligences for

had been
zS:

pofTible to accomplifh this

end by one inlbntane-

and infufion of fupernatural graces and habits of


all finite fpirits

good, he fliould have given to

thefe efHcaci-

ous graces that would have afcertained


inevitable.

his end,

and made
l{^es
all

it

Moreover,

God

as infinitely

good

his

creatures without exception,


fpirits,

and

is

the

common

father

of

andfoihould have refufedto none of them

the graces

neceffary to prevent their total ruin and mifery.


hifinitc fanclity

In
all

fine as

and

juftice,

he fhould have done


evil, injuftice,

that

was

poffible to prevent

moral

and diforder; and

therefore if the infufion of fuch habits and graces had been


pofTible,

he fhould have granted them to

all

his creatures, ra-

ther than cxpofe any one of them to


diencc.

fin, revolt

and difobc-

This makes me

believe that the infufion


a6t
is

of fuch

fu-

pernatural habits

by one infhntancous

impofTiblc,

and

contrary to the nature of a free intelligence, which cannot be

confirmed in immutable habits of good, but by a long conti-

nued
is

repetition

of

free, deliberate

and

fuccefiivc acts.

This

the leafon

why all

created

fpirits

both fallen and unfallcn,

BookV.
till

in a

degraded state.
a ftate

335-

muft pafs through

of probation

In felicity or fufferlno-

they be confirmed in the habits of pure love.

We do not fay
by God,

that this ftate


to

of probation was
;

inftituted arbitrarily

make

us merit

but that it

is

a natural

and neceffary confe-

quence of our free natures that cannot be confirmed otherTvife in the immutable love of order. Thus it Is that bleffcd
fplrits

whether

fallen or reftored
it

become

at laft

Impeccable
fplrits,

in heaven.

Such

feems

is

the nature of finite

that

of good habits contracted, they become unpervertlble and immutable in the love of order, bccaufe
after a certain degree

thefe habits

become

fecond nature, fo that they can no


c o R.

more chufe

evil,

nor milhke in their deliberations.


I.

Hence

the origin of all

evil

comes from the natural free-

dom and

finitude

of the

creature, that can always feparate

the love of perfection from the love of pleafure, and the love

of felf from the love of order.

COR.
Hence
cable
till

II.

all free

and

finite intelligences are fallible

andpec-

by the repeated ads of pure love they be confirmed in the habits of good, which become a fecond nature, indeftruCtible, InamifiTible,

and unchangeable.

No

fupernatural:

graces, nor infufed habits can operate this fecond nature in

them by an inftantaneous

a6l

of omnipotence. It can be pro-

duced only by the long repeated free co-operation of the creatures with theilipernatural operation of God in them. Thus
deification
aCt
is

not

like creation, a fnnultaneous

momentary
co--

of almighty power; but an effeftof the creatures free operation with the divine transforming aClion.

33^

OFNATURE
COR.
III.

Book V.
when they and men im-

Hence

the fchoolmen are egregloufly mlftaken

maintain that

God
:

could have rendered angels

peccable by fupernatiiral graces and infufed habits, which he


refufcd

them

fince this opinion attacks


fan6tity,
it.

and impeaches God's

wifdom, goodnefs, and


evil,

which could have hindered


IV.

and yet would not do

COR.
Hence
to maintain that

God

could have hinder'd the


fpirits

fall

of rebellious angels,

and of human

without deftroying
fo, in
is

their Hberty, but that

he chofe not to do

order to dif-

play his perfe(5tions of jufHce and mercy,

the higheft blaf-

phemy;
his love

for thus

God

to difplay his vindidive juftice violated

of holinefs; and

to

fhew

his gratuitous

mercy

to a

few derogated from

his eternal

goodnefs to many.

He

crea-

ted finite inteUigences to


liberately in the defigns

make them happy, and he fail'd deof his eternal wifdom. Thus his per-

fections contradict

and deftroy each other mutually.

COR.
Hence the
and
that

V.

Predeftinarians favour the monflruous atheifm


fay that

of Vanini, when they


he

God's graces are

irrefiftible,

refufes thofe irrefifHble graces to the mofl: part


is

of men.
falvation

This

really

denying that he
it is

wills fmcerely the


wills delibe-

of all men; yea,

fuppofmgthathe

rately their crimes

and damnation, and thereby deftroying


c O R.

the idea of fm, of peccabihtyand culpability in the creature.


VI.

Hence

Spinofa's fuppofition that

God by

nccefTity

of na-

ture produces beings of all degrees,

fome virtuous and others

Book V.
vicious;

in a

DEGRADED STATE.
is

337

fome

ele<5t

and others reprobate; fome happy and


far lefs

others unhappy

impious than the predeftinariaii

fcheme, wliich
nioft part

aflerts that

God out of free choice deftin'd the

of mankind to everlafling torments and blafphcmy.

PROPOSITION
The
prefent ftate

XLV.
a Rate

of human nature

Is

of

degeneracy and corruption.

DEMONSTRATION.
In the
firfl:

produ(5tion

of the univerfc, and

in all the fupe-

rior regions

of purC; primitive and uncorrupted nature there


evil (a);

was and could be no moral, nor phyfical


teaches us that in the prefent ftate of

experience

human
is

nature

we

fin

and

fuffer; that

wc

are fubje^ to

moral and phyfical


a ftate

evil (b):

therefore the prefent ftate of human nature

of dege-

neracy and corruption.

SCHOLIUM.
Thofe who deny our
caufe they
prefent degradation deny
it

only be-

know no

true, ideas either

of the nature of God, or


If fouls
to

of his defigns
be
living

in creating, or

of the deftiny of man.


if

images of the Deity;

happy;

if this happinefs confifts

God made them only in the view of God as


?

be
is,

he

we be faid to be in the fame ftate, in which we were created are we admitted unto the immediate intuition of the divine elTence? do we enand
in the lore
as

of God

he

deferves, can

(a) Cor. I. of Prop.

XL. compared with Cor.

i.

of Prop.

XLIL

<b) Ax, 2. of

this

book,

Uu

338
ternal order?
fentative

OFNATURE
is

Book
is all

V.

joy the beatific vifion?

our love regulated by the laws of e-

do we

fee nature as

God fees it?


?

in

it

repre-

of the divine perfedions

we need

but look into

ourfelves

and abroad into the world, to

fee evident proofs

of

the contrary.

The mind of man


defires.

is

a continual fource

of inconftant

thoughts, and contradictory ideas, of falfe hopes, and anxious-

The
itfelf

foul deprived

of

its

true objed, finds nothing


refl:-

within

but a tumultuous ocean of incoherent and

iefs paffions

that deftroy each other fucceflively.If thewifeftof

men would keep a regifler of the


his

incongruous thoughts, wild

imaginations, and chimerical ideas that prefent themfelves ta

mind from morning

to night:

if the

moft virtuous

men

would unfold and follow out all the padions, defires, and fentiments which they find fpringing up in themfelves,they would
fcem not only bedlamites, but monfters.
ftate feels

Man in

his prefent

nothing within himfclf but an empty void, thick

darknefs, grofs ignorance, and rcftlcfs felf-love. Incapable ta

fupport the lingring torment of his


felf,
felf.

own

fociety,

he

flys

him-

wanders abroad, andfeeks where- with-all


His

to

amufe him-

own

pailions expofe

him

to thofe

of other men. His


boiderous fea
delicacy^

felf-love incompatible

with

theirs, rages like a

Every thing combats,


fcnfibility

repulfes, or

wounds

its falfc

and jealoufy.

We

live in fociety

very oft as fick

perfons,

whom

the gentlefi: approaches hurt, ruffle and difis

compofe.

This

the prefent

flate

of the fbns of Adam*


rena-

They torment each other mutually, the one half of them


ders the other miferable;

and

this

martyrdom of felf-love

bounds in

all

nations, provinces, citys, familys,

and even in

BookV.

in a

degraded state.
who is
a little republic

339
effe<5ls

each particular man,


contrary members.
felf-love

of faci^ious and
of

Who

can exprefs the terrible

which appear in the world, and of the inordinate

love of pleafure that flows

from

this irregular love

of

felf ?

They

beget

atfirft

lufl:,

intemperance, and hatred; then rapes,

debaucheries, robberies, murders, poifon, perjury, treafon,

forgery, and

all

the monftruous fpawn of the blacked crimes.


forts

If we confider the three principal

of men who fhinc


and

upon the
of

great theatre

of

life,

warriors, ftatefmen,

men

learning, what terrible fcenes

of vice prefent themfelves to

the mind?

'

'

The trade of a foldierlslook'dupon as the mod honourable, and yet he is a man hired to kill in cold blood as many of his fpecics as poflibly he can. The motives to war
(a)
*

'

are very oft to revenge a minifter, to pleafe a miftrefs, to fa-

* tisfy
'

the ambition of a prince. Sometimes


their neighbours are too
:

monarchs declare

war becaufe

weak, fometimes be-

*
*

caufe they are too ftrong fometimes to preferve an imagina-

ry ballance of power,
itroy.

which every one endeavours


fleets,

to de-

*
*

At

other times they equip vaft

levy armies,
in-

and run

to far diftant continents,

upon pretence that the

'

habitants are ignorant.

Then
reft,

they invade them, tho' far

^ more virtuous than themfelves; put half of them to death,


*

and makeflaves of the


teach them
all

in order to civilize

them, and

polite vices.

In

fine the

molt cruel wars are


ri-

very oft produced by the moft trifling difputes, and for as


diculous fubjeds as to
(a) This
is

know, If whiftling be
a

a virtue or a

much borrowed from

modern

Huraonrift, well verlcdin the darkell

fide

of human nature, and of a very lingular genius, Dr. Swi f t,

UU2

340
'

OFNATURE
what
it is

Book V.
whebroke

'

vice?

thebeft colour of a coat, black or white?

ther

fhoiild

be long or fhort; narrow or wide?


is

whether

fhoes fhould be high or low hccl'd? or if an egg

to be

by the big or
fo furious,

fmall end.

Neither are any wars

fo bloody,

and

fo durable, as thofe occafioned

by

difference

of opinions,

cfpecially

about things indifferent.

And

be-

'

caufe nature has not furniflied


fcience has

men with

offenfive

weapons,

been employed

to invent all forts

of inftruments
art,

for defl:ru6lion;

Geometry, Mechanics, the Metallic

Chymiftry, have been improved to find out


facrificing

new means of

each other; from whence

arife

deaths under a

thoufand hideous ihapes;


dys
left for

fields flrew'd

with carcafes; bo-

food to wild beads and birds of prey.

If we go from the camp to the court, what

new

fcene of

mifery, and iniquity prefent themfelves to our view, flattery,


diffimulation, grafping avarice,

unbounded luxury,

opprefll-

on, profcriptions, and

all

the refinements of vice.

Superior

and

inferior courts

of juftice inftcad of being protectors, and

executors of laws, deftroy them by chicaning; and by ufelefs,


intricate,

and tedious

formalities.

When

the ftates of a na-

tion arc affembled, three or four intriguing, eloquent, perverfe

men

hurry on the monarch or the fenate to the moft

perfidious decrees, they betray the public truft, confult their


private intereft rather than the general

good members are


:

bribed by

money and
civil

penfions

places are fold,

money
from

pro-

motes the ignorant to be judges of the laws, cruel laws are

cnaded and

government perverted

entirely

its
;

na-

tural purpofes.

Thefe public
is

injuftices create civil


all falls

wars

law-

ful

and regular power

overturn'd;

into anarchy;

BookV.

in a

degraded state.
man
gains at
laft

341

fonie brave, bold, Impious


enflaves the people,
forts

the multitude,

and declares himfelf a monarch.


of the labours of the po5r,
multitude
is

In

all

of government even the moft regular and peaceful, the

rich enjoy the fruits

who

are a

thoufand to one.

The

obliged to live miferably

by drudging hard every day

to indulge the padions, luxury, Is this following the

intemperance, and vanity of the few.

laws of human fraternity ? and could the


fubjc(5led

God

of nature have
were not
in

men

to fuch inevitable miferles, if they

a frate

of punlfhment and degradation?

When we go from the


of the
learned, what

camp and the court


a

to the clofets
cal-

newmonfters appear! Some of thefe


is

led exalted Genii,


vice,
call

deny there
that

God, laugh
a cheat.

at virtue

and

them only

political Inventions to
all

Impofe on the

mob; and pretend


that fplrit

religion

is

Others

affert

and matter are the fame, that

man

is

compofed of
fil-

ten yards of gut, and that his fupreme felicity confifts in


ling

and emptying them by

turns.

Others that pretend to

confute thefe impious freethinkers, trump up fuch fyflems of


prefcIence,predeftination and providence, as dcftroy
all

God's

moral

attributes,
all

and reprefent him

as a tyrant, or a cheat.
in

Others fpend

the force of their

mind

the (peculations of

Algebra and Geometrical curves, or in metaphyfical quibble?,


or in etymologies, antiquities, criticifms,
fhells,

cobwebs, and

a thoufand curiofities, fo as to forget the great end of their


creation,

and

inflead

of knowing, loving, and adoring the Sufo

preme Infinite, they never


Phyfical
infirmities
is

much

as think

of his

exiftence.

evil is

no

lefs

abundant than moral.

To

what

human

nature fubjcd, not only by voluntary

3;^2
pafTions, but

O
by

NATURE
ftrucHiure

Book V.
from the
confti-

inevitable accidents arifing

tution

of the elements; the

of the animal machine,


this inferior globe?

and the prefent frame of nature in havocks produced by inundations,


endlefs to give a catalogue

the

peftilence, earthquakes,

florms, thunders, (hipwracks, are innumerable. It

would be

of

all

the difcafes incident to hu-

man

bodies; every part external

and internal have maladies

appropriated to them.

From

the cradle to the grave, from

the throne to the cottage none are exempt from thefe epide-

mic

evils.

The whole

creation languifhes and groans.

Can
be

fuch an ignorant, miferable and imperfe(5t creature as

Man

the immediate production of infinite power, wifdom and

goodncfs ?

Muft not fome


this

ftrange Catallrophe have happenit

ed to nature in

dim fpot of immenfity fmce

came

lirfl

out of the hands of the Almighty?

COR.
Hence

I.

the wife legiflator of the Jews was in the right,

when he
in

taught that

Man

is

fallen
is

from the
banifh'd

primitive ftate
divine
exile

which he was created;


and condemn'd

that he

from the
and

prefence,

to a ftate

of mortality and

while the material world

is

accurfcd, changed,

disfigured.

The foul is detach'd from God, and debarr'd from an immediate view of its almighty original; its aftivity is diminifh'd, its

un-

derftanding
ties

is

darkened,

its

will

is

depraved, and

all its

facul-

are fick and lame; becaufe the divine

communications of

life, light,

and love are fufpended. All is dark, obfcure and irregular by a fufpenfion of the divine aftivity, which reigns thro*
all

nature in the fuperior regions.


is

All external nature in this

earth

an image of the changes within, and the laws of the

BookV.

in a

degraded state..
COR.
II.

343

thofe of the intelieaual in material world are analogous to

the fphere of degraded beings.

Hence

to

deny that we are

at prefent in a

degraded

ftate

providence unjuftifiable, renders the conduct of eternal oeconomy of divine providence, and a dark vail upon all the impiety. The Deifts, Socinitends indirealy to atheifm and thofe who deny original fin, can never ans, Pelagians, and all God, in the government of the world,
juftify

throws

thecondu(^of

in fubjeaing

nature to fuch inevitable mifery, in exand vice, and in creating a pofing us to temptations, paffions and phyfical evil. They can never pro-

human

world

fo full

of moral

worthy of eternal power, wifpofe any fcheme of providence

dom, and goodnefs.

PROPOSITION
Under
good, and juft Being, no creature can

XLVI.

the government of an infinitely wife,


fufFer,

but

what has merited punifhraent.

DEMONSTRATION.
God can create nothing but what
he loves (a) ; his
defigii

could only be to make them in creating finite intelligences and love of his boundlefs eternally happy in the knowledge therefore if they be unhappy or fufFer, there

perfeaions(b):

goodnefs in God: muft be fome other caufe than defeft of of theirs, and no other can be fuppofed than fome demerit

which makes punifhment


(a) Cor. 4. of Prop.

necefTary.
(b) Prop.

XVI.

XXIV.

344

OFNATURE

Book

V.

SCHOLIUM,
The fchoolmen fay, that God punifhes Adam's fault m
poftcrlty, as Icgiflators do,

his

when

they deprive the children of


is

criminals of their inheritance.


afcribing to

This

humanizing God, and

him our own mortal and even wicked paflions, and imperfe(n:ions. Kings and magiftrates have no power but
over the bodies of men.

The

defign of their laws

is

not to

reform the heart, but to preferve external order

in fociety.

They

punifli only to hinder political vice

and

to reinforce

their laws, they are obliged very oft to

do one

evil to

prevent

a greater; to facrifice private families to public good, and fo to

make innocent
his

children fufFer, becaufe of their father's

fault.

Eternal juftice cannot ac^ in this imperfecfl manner.

Under
It
*

government no Being can fjfFer but what has me-

rited punifliment
is

own voluntary free choice. that God is a jealous true that Mofes fays (a)
by
its
'

God,-

vifitingthe iniquity
third

of the fathers upon the children to the


text

and fourth generation.' This

however(if it was not

prophecy of what was to happen

to the
it

Jews upon their devery probable) mufl

fe6lion to idolatry, as the event

makes

be explain'd fo as not to contradiiH: that of the prophet Ezekiel

who makes the Almighty

fpeak thus,

(b)

Behold all

fouls

are mine, as the foul

of the

father, fo alfo the foul

of the

fon; I will judge every one according to his works.


rightcoufnefs of the righteous
fliall

The
text

be upon him, and the

wickedncfs of the wicked ihall be upon him.'

By this

the prophet feems to have forefecn, and defign'd to confute


(a) Exod. XX.
5.

(b) Exekiel xviii. 4. 20. 30.

Book V.
fin
*

in a

DEGRADED STATE.
who
maintain that
his pofterity

the monftruous opinion of thofe

345 Adam's
conduft

was imputed to

without their co-operation.


ever:' his

God is the fame ycfterday


'

to

day and for

can never contradict

his attributes.

If therefore he declares

by a folemn oath,
*

that the fon fhall not bear the iniquity


at

of

the

father,'

nothing can be more oppofire

once to both

natural and reveal'd religion, than the horrible, modern,


fcholaftic notion

of imputation.

To
kiel

reconcile thefe

two

texts

of Mofes and Ezekiel, wc


evils;

mxiilunderftandMoifes of temporal, prefent

and Ezeeffects

of infernal, future punifhments.

The phyfkal

of

certain vices extend

from generation

to generation.

Thus very

oft the bodily dlfeafes,and external misfortunes that happen to

lewd, corrupt,and profligate men become hereditary and affecl


their pofterity with ficknefs

and poverty: but the divine wif-

dom and mercy knows how to turn thefe temporary and tranfitory evils to

the eternal good of thofe that do not imitate

their father's vices;

and

his

fupreme jufHce

wilt hinder

him
of

from condemning fouls

to future, punifhments or judging


their perfonal malice

them otherwife than by

and voluntary

co-operation with their fathers unrlghtcoufnefs.


ture never contradI(5ts fcrlpturc;

Thus

fcrlp-

and one paffage of


is

it

that

feems to obfcure the divine attributes


other that clears them up, and
fets
I.

to be explain'd

by an-

them

in a true light.

COR.
Hence
all

thofe

corrupted nature,

who maintain that In a flate of pure, unGod by virtue of his fovereign dominion
ftate

over the creatures, might have placed them In a


rings and mlfcry, to try their obedience,

of fufFe-

and make them me-

Xx

34<^
rit,

OFNATURE
have no
juft

Book V
his paternal

notions of the plan of eternal providence,

nor of God's original defign in creating, and


love for his creatures.

God

does not want or

demand any

merit in us to beatify us, but that of our love.


a6t as
fliip

He

does not

an arbitrary

legiflator in

rewarding

us.

Our only wor-

and merit in

his fight

is

pure charity: but he cannot

make
ration

us happy by love,and by free love without our co-ope-

and correfpondcnce.
c o R.
II.

Hence we have

a full confutation

of the opinion of thofe^

who grant that the fouls of beafts are immaterial, and yet fuppofc that they are created by God to animate for a time brutal

forms, and afterwards to be annihilated.


reflection has

A being capable
reali-

of thought, fenfation and

no doubt more

ty and perfection than a being


thcfc faculties.

which

is

entirely depriv'd

of

Can God

create a being

of a fuperior nature,
it

to fubjed

it

to a being

of an

inferior nature, unlefs

be for

a punifhment?

Can he condemn an

intelligence that

comes

pure from his hands to the cruel pains, and horrible mifcries
that beafts fufFer, without recompenfing
it

for

its

flavery ? will

he ever annihilate what he has once created? and are not all his works eternal ? Moreover, an intelligent being capable of
thought, fenfation, and reflexion in the lowefl: and
gree,
finite
leaf):

de-

may be

exalted

and

elevated, as

we have fhewn,

to

any

degree of knowledge, perfection and felicity


Is
it

how great

foever (a).
foul capable

poJfFible that

God

can create an immaterial

of know^ledge and happinefs without end, for no

other defign but to animate for fomc hours, days, month?;,


(a) Cor. 4. of Prop.

XX.

Book
and

V.

in a

DEGRADED STATE.
machine of a
beaft:?

347
foolifh

years, the miferable

This

ppinion therefore attacks all the divine attributes,

God's

WISDOM,
for fuch

in creating to annihilate after a minute's duration,


all

is

definite time in

comparifon of eternity; his

GOODNESS,
compenfe
a

in rendering miferable a being that

he created
re-

pure and innocent; his justice, in deflroying without


being he made fo unhappy; and that by
its

intel-

ligent nature

was capable of an

everlafting felicity.

PROPOSITION
According to the bare
it

XLVII.
reafon,

light

of natural

feems evident that

all

the

human

race finn'd in

a pre-exiftent paradifiacal ftate.

DEMONSTRATION.
Under the government of an infinitely good, wife and jufl Being, no creature can fuiFer unlefs it has merited punifhnient (a);

no being can merit or demerit before


the

its

exiflence

(b)
it

therefore according to the bare light of natural reafon,


all

feems evident that

human

fpecies finned in a pre-

exiflent (late.

SCHOLIUM.
There are and can be but
the
three opinions concerning the
fin.
;

imputation, or tranfmiffion of original

The

doctrine of

IMMEDIATE CREATION

offouls

that

of their

tra-

duction, or spiritual GENERATiON;and thatof their. preexistence. Nowif it can be proved that the two (irft
(a) Prop.

XLVI.

(b) Ax. i. of this book,

Xx:;

348

OF NATU RE
lafl:

Book V.
muft be true (a).

opinions are abfurd, it will follow that the

The ck)ftrine of the immediate creation of fouls, and their


infufion into mortal bodies,
is

contrary to

all

the divine attri-

butes, renders oiiginal fin inexplicable;


Sc<;inianifm,

and paves the way to

which denies this great and fundamental' article


the father of fpirits and loves

of faith.
it

God is

them now is
;

confident with loving them to ftake


firfl:

down innocent

fouls^

from the very

moment of their
?

creation, to a ftate

of ig*

norance and fuffcring

to fubjecl intelligent natures that

come

pure out of his hands, to mortal bodies, that give them propenfities to vice,

and to pafllons contrary to the love of orthat are capable

der? to

condemn beings
ftate

of knowing and

lo-

ving him, to a
to expofe

wherein they neither know nor love him ?

them to

eternal mifery becaufe they follow thefe in-

evitable propenfities

with which they are born? and

all this

for the fin

of a man,

who lived fix

thoufand years ago, and

with whofe foul ours have no more relation than with that of

Nero or Mahomet. Father Malcbranche's hypothcfis obviates


none of thofe difficulties.
*

He fuppofes

that

God unites
their

ac-

cording to general laws, pure,


real

new created minds to


and byaffes

a corpa-

machine that darkens, obfcures, and degrades

un-

derftandings, that taints, corrupts,

their wills;
his general

becaufe

God

as

immutable fhould not change

laws, to prevent particular diforders.'

What

a flrange notion

does this fyftem give us of infinite wifdom, jufHcc, and' goodnefs

which

eflablifhed general laws, that have fuch

monftru-

ous confequences.

Here the Malebranchian and Spinofiaa

fchcmes unite again in the fame principle.


(a) Populate 2.

God cannot change

BookV.

in a

degraded state.
he
forefees, wills,
will
is

349

his laws, fays Spinofa, becaufe


neceflarily all that
poflible.

and produces

God

not change his laws,


is

fays

Malebranche, becaufe in him there

no

variation
this

nor

fliadow of change.
tability

Now

it is

no matter whether

immu-

flow from the neceflity of the divine nature, or from

his arbitrary decrees, providing the inevitable confequences

of his general laws be contrary


and
juftice.

to infinite

wifdom, goodnefs,
fuch laws?
infinite

Why

did infinite

wifdom

eftabliih

why

does

infinite

goodnefs continue them?

how can

juflice execute

them ?
opinion of the Tradu(fl:ion of fouls, as
if

The fecond
had

they

a real, phyfical fecundity to propagate each other, de-

ilroys the immateriaHty

of the

foul.

Generation in bodies

is

only an evolution of their


to them.

parts,

by new

liquids that flow in-

Souls that are immaterial can have no fuch fecunis

dity. If it befaid that this generation

entirely fpiritual,

and

has nothing in

common

with corporeal procreation; that as


within himfelf, as well as exter-

God

is

infinitely productive

nally, fo his living

images in imitation of him, have a real


in fine, that fince bodies have thi3
it.

power of fecundity; and


quality, fpirits

muft have fome perfection analagous to

an-

fwer that

if fouls

procreated fouls, there either flow'd fome-

thing from them,or nothing: if nothing,howcan nothing be a


cauie? if fome thing; then thefoulis divifible,and fb material;

If it be urged that we ought not to deny

this fecundity

becaufj
in the

we
firfl

cannot conceive
caufe,

it,

no more than we deny creation


fecond caufcs
;

and

activity in

tho' they are

uncon-

ceivable.

I reply that if

we ought not

to deny, becaufe

we

do not

fee, far lefs

ought we to affirm, becaufe we do not conr

350
ceive.

OFNATURE
The reafon why we
is

Book

V.

admit creation in

God and activity

in the creatures,

becaufe

we can demonftrate that thefe attri-

God and fpirits;or admit of confequences that deltroy both the nature of God and fpirits. Now no fuch
butes muft belong to

dcmonftrations can be given for the neceflity of admitting the

tradudion of fouls; and no abfurdities follow from denying On the contrary by admitting it, the fame difficulties reit.

main with regard


did not

to the tranfmifTion

of original

fin.

Why
e-

God

interrupt and fufpend this fpiritual fecundity,


it

fince he forcfaw that

would bea fource of temporal and


was unbecoming

ternal mifery to his creatures? It

his wif-

dom,

juftice,

and goodnefs to continue


gift to lapfed

this free, arbitrary,


fouls,

communicated

and degenerated

which
it is

would perpetuate
culties, for

for ever moral

and phyfical evil.

Now

abfurd to adopt an opinion which far from folving the

diffi-

removing of which itwas invented, tends rather to

augment and reinforce them. If it be further urged that fpiritual fecundity is an effcntial quality of all intelligent natures,
as hbcrty,
fition

and

activity.

We anfwer

that this

is

a bare fuppo-

undemonftrable by any
grant that

folid reafon.

Moreover, tho'

we fhould
nue
it

God

could impart fuch a quality to inyet he


is

telligences in

an exalted

(late,

not obliged to conticontrary, all his


quali-

to

them

in a degenerate ftate:

on the

moral attributes fecm to demand the fufpenfion of this


ty in lapfed fpirits.

The
fpiritual

doftrines then

of the humedlate

creation, or

of the

generation of fouls, to be united to corrupted, de-

praved bodies, can never account for the depravation of our


nature called original fin: they are both incompatible with

BookV.

in a

degraded state.
:

351

the divine attributes, and confequently impofTible wherefore


the third opinion of pre-exiftence muft afford the true account

of

it.

We
is

fhew

in the fecond part

of

this

Work

that this

do(ftrine

perfecftly

conformable to the
;

fcriptures,

was never

condemn'd by the Chriftian church


receiv'd

and was a commonly

doMne
firft

of the Jewifh church in our Saviour's time,


yea confirm'd by the univerfal

approved by his not oppofing it when mentioned, believed by

many of the
dition

fathers,

tra-

of

all

antiquity both facred and profane.

We

fhall

now fhew
be made
I.

that there arc but

two

plaufible obje(5lions that can

againfl: this
firft

opinion.
is,

The

obje<5tion

that

all

the individuals of the

human

fpecies could

not

exill:

in the paradifiacal earth at the

fame time with bodies


caufe our globe

as well as fouls perfectly form'd; be-

would not have

fufficed to contain

them.

This poor objection comes from a chimerical fuppofition that


the paradifiacal earth and bodies were fuch as

we now

fee.

This
the

is dirciflly

contrary to the whole tenour of fcriptures,

which

afTures us, that fince the curfe

impofed upon
to our globe,

man by
and that
,

fall,

great changes have

happened

the whole creation both material and intellecftual fphere of lapfed Beings was
*
'

in the

fubjected to a bondage of cortravails in

ruption, under

which

it

groans and

pain

till

now.*

We ihall fhew in

the fecond Part, that tho' the paradifiacal

earth and bodies were not fo perfe6l as they will be after the
refurre<5lion in a re-eftablifh'd flate,

nor as the celeffial abodes


a purely angelical

and
Hate
fo,

ethereal vehicles
J

of unfallen

fpirits in

yet they were quite other than they are

now. If this be

who

can decide what fpace was occupied by paradifiacal

352
bodies, or

OFNATURE
what the extent and form of the
all

Book

V.
;

primitive earth

which contain'd then

bodies, as the

renewed

earth will

contain them after the refurrection.

All our miftakes then

come from
ll:ate

the

falfe, grofs,

and abfurd ideas we have of the and here we may fay of pa-

in

which man was


faid

created:

radife

what Virgil

of ancient

Rome;
;

Orbem quem
2. It
trine

dicunt

primum

putavi

Stultus ego hiiic noftro fimilem.

may be obje^^ed

in the fecond place, that if the doctrue,

of pre-exiftence be
of thisparadifiacal
in

how come we
intelligences,

to have loft all

ideas

ftate?

To this I anfvver,
any
finite

that as
exalt,

God
aug-

by a<5ling
fection

and upon created

may

ment, and enlarge

their faculties to

degree of per-

how great foever,

fo

by

his ceafing to a6t in

them they

anay fall into any finite degree ofinfenfibility, ignorance and


forgctfulnefs,

how low
and

foever (a), yea into a flate of fpiritual


fleep (b).
firft

inaction, lethargy,

It

is

thus that

all

human

fouls are with refpeft to the

years of their cxiltence in

mortal bodies: nor do they ever recover any remembrance of

what
two
ages

paffed in them.

Now what may happen


alfo for

for a year or

years,
;

may happen
ceiTation

many years, and


is

even

many
This

by the

of the divine

activity in Ipirits.

total oblivion

of our

pre-exiftent ftate

a pure efFed of the

divine mercy; for if

we knew and

retain'd a lively

remem-

brance of the glory from whence

be

infinitely

more

miferable than

we are fallen, we would we are. Thus a king conwould


this condition.

demned
be
far

to tug in the galleys, or to labour in a mine,


flaves

more miferable than


.

born in

The

(a) Cor. s

of Prop.

XX.

(b) Schol. 2 . of Prop.

XXX,

Book V.
comparifon
faint idea

in a
is

DEGRADED STATE.
it

353

low and Imperfect; but

fuffices to give us a

of the reafon

why we

have no notion of a pre-exfplri-

iftent ftate.

By

this ftate

of infenfibility, inaftion, and


remain more
orlefs, e're

tuallethargy in which

all fouls
;

they

awake
and

into mortal bodies

the habits of

evil

are laid afleep,

in forae are totally extinguifhed, fo that they fcarce pafs


ftate

through a
die in the

of purification here below. It

is

thus that

fome

womb, and
life,

others in their tender infancy.

Thefe
and

fouls are toopure, to pafs

through the temptations, pains, and

dangers of this

or too

weak

to be expofed to them,
it is

if any impurity remains in them, in a

confumed and deflroyed


through
life,

middle

ftate after death.

They

pafs rapidly

and

fo to ipcak,

only to take poffeflion of their corporeal vebe eternal and foon lay them

hicles, that are to

down

again,

till

they rea/Fume them after the general refurre<5lion.


is

All

this

ordered and adjufted with number, weight and meafure, by


all- wife,

an all-powerful,

all-beneficent providence, that

is

e-

ver attentive to the difpofitions and indigences


vidual.
It
is

of every

indi-

therefore a flrange phrenzy in the fchocjlmen to

deny the

do<5lrine

of pre-cxiftence, becaufe we have

retain'd

no remembrance of it; and upon


fion

this miferable pretence, to

introduce an opinion about the immediate creation and infu-

of fouls into mortal bodies, which


;

is

contrary to

all

the

ufual laws of nature

which darkens all the oeconomy of pro-

vidence,; renders his conduct

more barbarous than


moral

that

of the

moft cruel tyrant, deftroys


riginal fin inexplicable,

all his

attributes;

makes o-

yea ImpofTible; contradlcfls reafon,


all

Tcripture and the univerfal tradition of

nations.

To

be

Yy

354
fure there
is

OFNATURE
COR.
I.

Book V,
ra-

no hypothefis, but what (hould be admitted

ther than an opinion that has fuch fatal confequences.

Hence
on
as

the fchoohnen

who

reprefent

Adam's

tranfgrefll-

miputed to fouls immediately created; that came pure


relation to the

from the hands of God, and therefore have no


foul

of the

protoplaft, introduce into religion a

myftery un-

known
God,
the

to fcripture,

and antiquity, that was never revealed by


of original
fin

that renders the facred doctrine

not on-

ly incomprehenfible but abfolutely impoflible, and fo paves

way

to Deifm, Socinianifm,

and
II.

incredulity.

G o R.

Hence
greflion,

all

thofe

who

pretend that fince Adam's tranP


fubjcfled to a ftate of phy-

human nature was only


not infefted,
fin,

fical evil, fufFering

and mifery, purely to make men merit; and


vitiated,

that

men were

and corrupted by moral


indirecftly Sociniaii

evil; really

deny original
errors.

and fo favour

and Pelagian

PROPOSITION
Finite Intelligences
eternal order

XLVIII.

may

fall

from the love of

two ways.
intelligences

DEMONSTRATION.
In
a flate

of pure and exalted nature

all finite

follow'd the immutable, and univerfal law of eternal order,

which

obliges us to love

God

for himfclf, and

all

other be-

ings proportionably as they rcfcmble


(a) Prop.

him

(a) ; falfe felf-love

XL,

Book

V.

in a

DEGRADED STATE.

355
obje<5i:s

and the irregular love of the creatures are the only two
that can divert us

therefore finite
nal order thefe

from the law and love of eternal order (b): intelligences may fall from the love of eter-

two ways.

SCHOLIUM.
Sacred tradition reprefents two forts of Beings that
fell

from the
tion

love

of eternal order

devils

and men.

The

defec-

of the former was according to fcripture an effe<n: of felf-

.complacency and pride.

The fall of the latter proceeded from


pleafure.

an

irregular love
difficult

of knowledge and

Nothing

is

more

than to conceive the fource of

this defeflion.
all

Incredulity pretends to triumph here, and to baffle

the ac-

counts that can be given of this original apoflacy.

Some
fic vifion,

think to anfwer this difficulty by maintaining that

angelical fallen fplrits

were not

at firft

admitted to the beati-

which would have render'd them impeccable. This opinion is not only contrary to fcripture; which ftill repreof light, and gratify'd from of the Divinity: and goodnefs. If
them. His
the beginning with the
fulleft irradiations

fents thofe rebellious fpirits as fons

but

it is

aifo injurious to the divine fan<5tity

the beatific vifion could have preferv'd thefe angelical beings

from

falling,

then

God would

not have deny'd

it

infinite purity,

and abhorrence of fin,

as well as his effential

love for the creatures,

would have engaged him

to refufe

no-

thing that could have confirm'd them in a permanent and im-

mutable

ftate

of perfection, jufHce, and

felicity.

We

mufl:

therefore find out fome other fource of evil, ariflng not from
(b) Cor. 6. of Prop.

XLI.

Yy2

356
*

OFNATURE
in,

Book V.

any defc^

nor rcfufal of the divine graces, but from the

nature of free agents.

Now this

is

not impoflible to conceive

by the three following


1.

principles.

If

finite intelligences

could have remain'd for ever in

the divine prefence,they would have been for ever impeccable:

but

we

have already demonftrated that they cannot always


dire<5l,

contemplate thus, the uncreated eflence with a


diate,and uninterrupted view.
their inherent cffential

immc-

They are fometimes obliged by


vail their eyes,

weakncfs to

and adore

their almighty original in his created pi6lures


tions:

and reprefenta-

and

in thofc

moments they become

peccable, fallible,

and capable of departing from the laws and love of eternal


order (a).
2.

We have alfo demonftrated that


till

all

free

and

finite intel-

ligences are fallible and peccable,

by the repeated

a6ls

of

pure love, they be confirm'd in the habits of good, which at


lafl:

become

a fecond nature infeparable, inamiffible,

and un-

changeable.

No

fupernatural graces,

no

infus'd habits, can


it

operate this fecond nature in them by an inftantaneous acl:

can be produced only by the long repeated, free co-operation

of the creature
3.
al,

to the fupernatural action

of God

in

them

(b).

The

defeftion

of angelical
of repeated

fpirits

was no doubt gradu-

as finite beings cannot


feries

become

perfectly good, but

long continued

acls; fo

by a they cannot become


of irregular
flate

perfectly criminal but


defires.

by

a fucceflive gradation

They did

not pafs inflantaneoufly from the

of

perfe6t innocence in

which they were created

to a flate

of de-

pravation.

The degrees by which they fell


XXX Vni.

were various.
XLIV

The

(a) Cor. 2. of Prop.

(b) Cor. 2. of Prop.

BookV.
Thefe three
ted,

in a

degraded state.
of return and
relapfe

357

difTerent fhades

were imperceptible.

great principles premifed as already demonftra-

we may

thus conceive the different fhades, fteps and gra-

dations of

defe(fi:ion, fird: in angelical fpirits,

and then

in

hu-

man fouls.
I.

By

the laws of eternal order, the feraphic intelligences


to rife continually

were obliged

above themfelves; to love

God

only for himfelf, to be padive channels of communica-

tion betwixt

him and

all

inferior fpirits; to retain nothino^

of his

beatifying influences for themfelves, but to tranfmit


that fo the eternal circulation
all

all to others,

of life,

light

and

love might never be flopt through

the ccleftial regions.

The leafl felf-attribution, fclf-appropriation and felf-complacency


in

God's

gifts,

graces and communications

is

an ufur-

pation upon his rights.


felf-evacuation,

On
is

the contrary, felf-preterition,

and

fclf-annihilation

of the

infinitely Httle

"before the infinitely great,

the eternal facrifice which crea-

ted beings

owe to abfolute Infinite. neceffarily bound and reflrain their


Yea
it is

Now

this facrifice

muft
till

natural love

of fclf,

they be confirm'd in the fupernatural habits of divine love.


poflible,

that

till

created

fpirits

acquire this fecond

nature, this fupernatural transformation, this true deificati-

on, the exercife of pure, difinterefted love and felf-oblivion

maybe
ful,

painful to them, becaufe

of the natural love of

felf,

infcparable

from our

effcnce. I

do not mean by pain ungrateeffort,

noxious fenfations; but a fupernatural


to rife above
felf,

combat,

and contention

and correfpond

to the di-

vine attraction that draws


his pure effence.

them out of felf,

to unite

them

to

This cannot be undcrflood by minds im-

358

OFNATURE
all

Book

V.

merfcd in matter and Grangers to


funftlons of the foul:
lity in all finite fpirits

the pureft
firfl:

inj:elle<5liial

And
upon

this is the

fource of peccabiIt arifes

their

firft

creation.

not

from any

defeat in

God, nor

refufal

of his graces; but from

the natural, necelTary finitude and weaknefs of the creature,

how

great foever

its

natural capacity be,

till

by a
it

free

and

long correfpondence to God's fupernatural action,

be truly

transform'd, diviniz'd, and confirm'd in the habits of pure


love.
2. It
ted,
Is

not altogether inconceivable


fpirits

how the

mofl: eleva-

and molt luminous order of

that approach'd nea-

reft to

the throne, and that were immediate channels of comall

munication to
view of their
the

other intelligences, might be dazzled by the


excellency.

own

The greater, the fublimer, and


more
eafy
it is

more

exalted their natures were, the

to

imagine that they might be capable of felf-attribution,

felf-

appropriation, and felf-complacency, unlefs they continually turn'd off their


riginal;

view from

felf,

to refer all to their great o-

and by the

leaft infidelity,

the facrifice offelf-annidifficult,

hilation,

mufl have become more and more

and

felf-complacency more ealy; and this might have been the

fecond imperceptible fource of their declenfion.


3.

In thefe moments wherein the angelical fpirits, went out


immediate prefence of God, and enter'd into fociety

of the

with each other, they became fufccptible of error, and fo by


degrees might have flattered themfelves that God's infinite

goodnefs and felf-fufficiency would engage him to relax the


purity of his eternal law, and difpenfe

them from the duty


have begun then to

of fclf-difappropriation.

They might

Book
tific

V.

in a

DEGRADED STATE.
and
to defire
fpiritual

Z59
thirft

love him' only as beatifying,


vifion,

no longer the beaof

but to gratify their natural and infatiable

happinefs.

This

concupifcence, this difguifed and


referr'd the Creator to the

refin'd felf-love

by which they

creature, the fource to the rivulets,

and the

infinitely great to
ftep

the infinitely
poftacy.
4.

little

might have been the third

of

their a-

They

did not

however

as yet

confummate

their crime;

their defetflion
efforts

was gradual.

God employed no

doubt

all

the

of his power, without doing violence to


fo to fpeak, all the treafures

their Uberty;
dif-

he opened,
played
lity:
all

of his wifdom, he

the charms of his goodnefs to hinder their infide-

but the more abundant his luminous communications

were, the more they ferv'd to augment in thefe feraphic fpirits


the high opinion they had of their

own

excellency;
all

which

is

the mofl: delicate and the moft dangerous of

delufions.

God purfued them from

error to error,

till

at laft there

was

no other remedy, no other way of curing their natural weaknefs, but by depriving them for a time of the beatific vifion,
without degrading them altogether; and
the fourth flep of their declenfion.
5.
this

might have been

During

this interval,

it

is

pofiible that the

firft

and
their

chief of the feraphic


elTential happinefs,
felicity

fpirits, irritated

by the privation of

tho' not as yet deprived

of the acceffory

which they enjoyed


w^as the fifth

in their celefiial abodes; fell

by

degrees into open rebellion, and declared war againft Heaven,

which

and

la ft ftep

of

their apoftacy.

Holy

writ

Teprefents

them

as yet inhabitants

of the

cthcrial regions,

3(^o

OF

NATURE

Book

V.

when tliey made war upon Michael and his angels: after mighty combats they were at lad defeated, thrown out of the divine
prcfence, precipitated
elTential

from the heavens, deprived both of their


to punifhin the a-

and acceflbry happinefs, and condemned


were not
explain
ail

ment;

tho' they

immediately

fliut

up

byfs ; as

we

fliall

more

fully in the fecond Part.

Thcfefeem
ons,

to be the different fhades, fteps,

and gradati-

by which feraphic fpiritsfell from their primitive abodes. Let us now fee what facred writ authorizes us to think of the manner and degrees by which human fouls loft their original
innocence.
I

mo. So foon

as angelical fpirits

had proved rebellious

by pure choice and

deliberate free will,

God who is immumeans by

table in his defign; but who changes very oft the

which he executes them, becaufe he accommodates himfelf to the freedom of intelligent natures, refolved to accompHOi in
another manner the wonderful plan
laid

from the foundation


ele<^

of the world; which was

to

form

number ofchofen,

fouls to reign in the new Jerufalem, to be exalted to the thrones

from which fcraphims had fallen, and to be made conformable to his only begotten Son in their obedience, adoration
and
love.

They were

to be tried in a ftate

of delights and imIn

mortality, if they

had continued

faithful therein or purified


if

in a ftate of fufferings

and expiation

they

fell freely.

confequence of

this great decree,

God

difTipated the

Chaos
was

introduced into the folar fyftem by the fall of angels, and for-

med anew

the paradifiacal earth, far inferior to

what

it

during an angelical, primitive, original ftate, but exempt from

Book V.
all

in a

DEGRADED STATE.
He
then created a

3^1
fpccles

moral and phyfical evM.

new

of

intelligent natures united to material vehicles,

and placed them

in this paradifiacal manfion.


2.
devils,

To prevent mens
by

falling into the

fame revolt with the

a refin'd felf-love,

and

a too high opinion

of

their

own
fic

excellency,

God
we

did not as yet admit

them

to the beati-

vifion; but, as

fhall

fhew

in the fecond Part, the facred

pre-exiftent

der a vifible

humanity of the Logos converfed with them unform in paradife. There they enjoyed the accef-

fory happinefs, contemplated the original in his reprefentati-

ons, faw the beauties, and tafted the pleafures to be found in

the enjoyment of the material pi<n:ures and the fociety of the


intelligent images. If they

had continued

faithful in this hap-

py

ftate

till

they were

repeated zSiS in
exalted at
fence.
3.
laft

immutably by long, continued and the habits of pure love, they would have been
fix'd

to the intuitive,

immediate view of his pure

ef-

In

this flate

of probation and

tryal

man was

obliged

by
as

the fundamental laws of his creation, to look upon


his

God

fupreme

obj-e-(5l

to adore

him

as prefent tho' invifible; to

afpire continually to the


ferrall the creatures to

view of his unvail'd eflence;and'to re-

God, and attach himfelf to them pro-

portionably as they refembled their great original.

Thus fu-

pernatural faith, hope and chanty were to be man's continual

duty and worfbip, even in paradife. In

this

happy date how-

ever

men were expofed by their natural


:

fallibility to

two

forts

of dangers

the one of being fo charm'd with the delight-

ful fenfationSjwhich the material pidures excited In

them; the

other danger was that of being fo Immerfed in the admiration

Zz

3^2
with

OFNATURE
paradifiacal
felicity,

Book V.

of the wonders of the


felves

world as to conteht them-r

this acceflbry happinefs, negle(fl: afplring to their

fupreme

and thus relax

their fuperior

powers

in

the

fupernatural exercife of faith, hope, and charity. In one word,

the delights of paradife and the wonders of nature were ca-

pable to turn off the minds and hearts of men from divine con-

templation and love, unlefs they were continually upon their

guard again ft their


4.

own natural

defciflibility.

the

The holy fcriptures affure us that all the Individuals of human fpecies were not produced at once by an inftantaadt as angels,

neous
lJ3ecies

but that the original pair of

this

new
fe-

were united by marriage, endowed with a divine


and multiply.

cundity, and ordained even in this paradifiacal ftate to increafe

They no doubt obeyed

this great

com-

mandment
and

given them from thefirft inftant of their creation;

fo replcnilhed the paradifiacal, primitive,

uncorrupted

earth with inhabitants, as wefhall fhew in the fecond part of


this

Work. This
all

is

that golden age, that reign of Gods

and

men,

that primitive ftate of innocence, juftice

and

purity, in

which
gos
'

the

human
is

fpecies

was

at

firft

placed, created or

procreated.

It

during this happy


to have
*

ftate that

the divine

Lo-

God-man
it

is faid

taken his delights with the fons

of men.'

How

long this

ftate lafted

no mortal can tell.


and that
all
it

To

fuppofe

was only for an hour or


firft

a day,

was en-

joyed only by the

original pair, while

the reft of man-

kind were unborn,

Is

mere fi(5tion, not

at all

authorized by

fcripture or antiquity; as
5.

we

fhall

prove in the fecond Part.


firft

Revelation however affures us that our

parents

fell

at laft

from

this

happy

ftate

by the temptation of the

devil.

Book

V.

in a

DEGRADED STATE.
(hall fliew in the

3*!;^

All the rebellious angels, as we

fecond Part,

were not fhut up

in the abyfs

their defection; a great part


living creatures in paradife,

of darknefs, immediately after of them animated the bodies of

fpoke and converfed with

men

as

we fhall fhew in the fecond Part. They were then fubje<5led to men, who had an abfolute empire over them, and gave them names according to their natures. The chief of thefe
degraded intelligences feduced our
firfl:

parents

by

exciting
ir-

them

to

an inordinate

defire

of natural knowledge, and an


All the

regular love of fenfible pleafure.


fubfifted with
iirft

human

Ipecies that

them

in paradife, followed the

example of our

parents, co-operated voluntarily with


fell,

them in their crime,


I

and

perfonally into the fame defedlion.

do not fay that


all

diabolical fpirits,

and degraded

intelligences

tempted

the

fons of Adam in the fame manner, and

by the fame means;


fruit; fincc
all

and
St,
*

that they

all

ate corporeally
*

of the forbidden
all

Paul fays exprefsly

that tho'

finned, yet

did not fin

after the fimilitude


all

of Adam's

tranfgreflion.'

Neither do I
fell

fay that

the offspring of Adam In a paradifiacal ftate


It Is

with Adam, and finned voluntarily with him: but

clear

by the Mofalcal account of the


rated with our
firfi:

fall,

that

all

thofc that co-ope-

parents in their difobcdience were con-

of punlilimcnt; and that the great fource of our firll parents Infidelity and of their pofterlty's degradation,

demn'd to a

fiate

was the

irregular love
folllcltcd

of pleafure and knovv ledge,

to

which

they were
deceived
ipecies

by the temptation of fallen


this reafon

angels,

who
two

firft

the female fex, and by that fex

all

the

human

who

fell.

For

it Is,

that ever fince, the

fources

of all the

evils that

overflow the world, are the im-

z 2

3^4
moderate
able
thirfl:

OFNATURE
aftivities

Book V.
infati-

of human underftandlng, and the


pleafure.

of fenfiblc
all

The

former fountain of cor^

ruptlon produces

the Hydras of error and falfe fcience, that


it

puff up the mind, and divert

from divine contemplation.


from divine love. All

The
fhall

other produces

all

the monfters of vice and debauchery,


divert
it

that pollute the heart,

and

this

be fully unfolded, illuftrated and prov'd in the fecond

Part.

we underftand how the wills of all the individuals of the human race were contain'din that of Adam

By this

explication

for the will of one foul can be contain'd in that of anotheri

only as
that

It

approves of, co-operates to, and unites

itfelf

with

of another by dehberate choice, voluntary adhefion, and

a perfe<fl imitation.

Thus theMofaic
fable,
as

hlftory

of the

fall,

has

no longer an
fectly

air

of

but becomes a fublime truth per-

conformable to reafon; and

we

fliall

fliewin the fe-

cond Part exprefsly taught


the age of Noah
tions, ages,

in fcripture,

and tranfmitted from


of all na-

by

univerfal tracBtion to the Sages

and

religions.

Dellb, Socinians, and Freethin-

<