Virtual Open Globe

Virtual and Augmented Reality

By:
Jaime Andres Rincon Arango

RVA – Realidad Virtual y Aumentada, Curso 2012-2013

INDEX
¡Error! Marcador no definido. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................3 1.1. 2. 3. General Purpose .......................................................................................................3 BACKGROUND..............................................................................................................3 MATERIALS ..................................................................................................................4 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 4. 5. 6. Arduino Nano .......................................................................................................5 IMU-6DOF ............................................................................................................5 Bluetooth Module.................................................................................................8 Flex-Sensor ...........................................................................................................9

OPEN DYNAMIC ENGINE (ODE) .....................................................................................9 DISCUSIÓN ................................................................................................................. 12 BIBLIOGRAFÍA ................................................................... ¡Error! Marcador no definido.

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RVA – Realidad Virtual y Aumentada, Curso 2012-2013

INTRODUCTION
The computer-aided modeling in virtual reality is an important tool that allows immersion in the environment that is being built, and get the designer can observe from all possible points of view, which is designing and helps the product improvement as a car, a mechanical attraction, a building etc.. It is not only important to the visual part of the environment, but also to interact with it, so it is necessary to use devices that allow the capture of the user's movements. Among these devices are cameras, inertial sensors and mixed, among others. This work focused attention on the use of inertial sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes. An IMU or inertial capture unit, which comprises an accelerometer to capture the acceleration in the three axes (X, Y, Z) and a gyroscope which similarly allows me to calculate the rate of rotation of the three axes, this coupled with a development board Arduino Nano, a resistive sensor flexible to capture flexion and finger extension and a Bluetooth module for data he sent to the computer. 1.1. General Purpose

Design and build a low cost glove, open hardware and open software, which allows interaction with virtual environments.

2. BACKGROUND
Currently, they are developing systems that allow open electronic design projects quickly. One of these development systems is Arduino, its versatility allows the development of projects such as robots, gaming, home automation and control gloves arms or other applications such as those shown below:

Fig 1. Glove ultrasonic blind. http://es.engadget.com/2011/08/22/tacit-un-guante-ultrasonico-para-invidentes/

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RVA – Realidad Virtual y Aumentada, Curso 2012-2013

Fig 2. Power Glove. http://es.engadget.com/2009/04/04/power-glove-vitaminado-con-arduino-bluetooth-yacelerometro-por/

Examples of these gloves are constructed with open platforms, although the market also are virtual reality gloves, such as those shown below:

Fig 3. CyberGlove Systems CyberGlove III. http://www.bienetec.es/bienetec/jsp/web/catalogo/productos/cybergloveiii/index.jsp

3. MATERIALS
For construction of this glove uses the following components: 1. 2. 3. 4. Arduino Nano IMU-6DOF Bluetooth Flex-Sensor

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RVA – Realidad Virtual y Aumentada, Curso 2012-2013

Fig 4. Circuito esquemático

3.1.

Arduino Nano

As control unit and capture the signal from the sensors, you have the Arduino Nano, he takes care of processing the signals.

Fig 5. Arduino Nano. http://arduino.cc/es/Main/ArduinoBoardNano

3.2.

IMU-6DOF

This sensor is composed of a 3-axis gyroscope, 3-axis accelerometer, which are captured with the hand movements. The accelerometer is responsible for obtaining the acceleration of the hand, which signal can estimate the angle at which it is located.

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RVA – Realidad Virtual y Aumentada, Curso 2012-2013

The delivery sensor to microcontroller analog values and that are necessary to process analog to digital conversion (ADC). When using a 10-bit ADC, the maximum conversion value will be 1023 and this voltage is calculated. See Equations 1, 2 and 3. This voltage calculation is repeated for the three inputs from the accelerometer and gyroscope.

Once the voltage Dv is calculated on all axes, using the voltage plus the manufacturer delivery in sensor characteristic sheet (VzeroG = 1.65 V). This delta calculation shown in Equations 4, 5 and 6.

Having already Δv y knowing the sensitivity value (0.4785 V) also delivered by the manufacturer, you can get the inertial components of the force of gravity to the X, Y, Z, using equations 7, 8 and 9. In Figure 6 components found inertial force vector.

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RVA – Realidad Virtual y Aumentada, Curso 2012-2013

Fig 6. Componentes Inerciales del Vector de Fuerza [starlino,3]

With these components can now calculate the vector R, and for this equation 10 is used.

Having already calculated the R vector angle estimating now Azr, Ayr, Axr, using equations 11, 12 and 13.

In gyroscope is what we want to obtain the rate of change in deg / sec, so it is necessary to know the sensitivity of the gyroscope, which is 0.002Voltios having this data is calculated turning rat as shown in equation 14.

Varef is constant reference analog voltage in this case is 3.3 volts. In Figure 7 shows the components for the gyroscope.

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RVA – Realidad Virtual y Aumentada, Curso 2012-2013

Fig7. Componentes del Gyroscopio [starlino, 3 ]

And estimated bearing angles of both the accelerometer and the gyroscope are estimated standard end angles.

3.3.

Bluetooth Module

The Bluetooth module is in charge of sending data to the computer, using the RS-232 protocol, the Arduino sends a data string which is encapsulated estimated angle values, the values of the acceleration voltage and the value in flex sensor voltage. Figure 8 shows the Bluetooth module used.

Fig 7. Modulo Bluetooth

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RVA – Realidad Virtual y Aumentada, Curso 2012-2013

3.4.

Flex-Sensor

This is a resistive sensor, which varies its value depending on the deflection Ω have unit. This sensor is located in the fingers. Figure 8 shows the physical form of the sensor.

Fig 8. Flex-Sensor

4. OPEN DYNAMIC ENGINE (ODE)
Open Dynamic Engines (ODE) is a physics simulation library written in C + +, with which you can perform simulations of rigid bodies, body dynamics and collision detection. The virtual environment was created entirely with ODE. Arm was used, which was built an API that allows access to data capture serial port, a section of calculations which were programmed functions for signal filtering, smooth type filter and Kalman filtering, these filter can eliminate involuntary movements or small movements that would make the virtual model moved the wrong way. Smooth filter allows smoothing the input signal, in order to avoid jerking. Smooth filter for Equation 15 was used.

(15)

The graph of the signals are shown in Graph 1 for movement in X and in Figure 2 for the movement in Y.

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RVA – Realidad Virtual y Aumentada, Curso 2012-2013 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 -18 Grafica 1. X axis movement
MMAX Smooth - MMAX

0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 -18 Grafica 2 Y-axis movement
MMAY Smooth - MMAY

The data shown in these graphs were obtained when the hand was in neutral. In Figures 3 shows the data obtained by making flexion and extension of the wrist for the X axis (MMAX).

1 94 187 280 373 466 559 652 745 838 931 1024 1117 1210 1303 1396

1 94 187 280 373 466 559 652 745 838 931 1024 1117 1210 1303 1396

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RVA – Realidad Virtual y Aumentada, Curso 2012-2013 1,0000E+01 5,0000E+00 0,0000E+00 1 309 617 925 1233 1541 1849 2157 2465 2773 3081 3389 3697 4005 -5,0000E+00 -1,0000E+01 -1,5000E+01 -2,0000E+01 Grafica 3. Flexion-extension movement MMAX Smooth - MMAX

Chart 4 is the data obtained by making the movement of pronation and supination of the forearm to the Y axis (MMAY).

1,5000E+01 1,0000E+01 5,0000E+00 0,0000E+00 1 309 617 925 1233 1541 1849 2157 2465 2773 3081 3389 3697 4005 -5,0000E+00 -1,0000E+01 -1,5000E+01 -2,0000E+01 Grafica 4. Pronation-supination movement. MMAY Smooth - MMAY

In this graph we see that the filter does its job Smooth, smoothing the signal and avoid sudden movements.

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RVA – Realidad Virtual y Aumentada, Curso 2012-2013

5. DISCUSSION
For improvement of this prototype, it is advisable to use a IMU but the output data are not similar, because in the micro controller in this case Arduino, the analog inputs are limited. In this glove sensors occupy all Arduino entries in the market but can be found IMU's the same type but with I2C and PCI communication thus could be left free analog inputs for connecting other sensors flex . As for the virtual environment can be improved using 3D Delta or other software for the design of virtual worlds, this would increase the applicability of the glove. One might even think of the connection of the glove to mobile devices. Something not speak was the haptic feedback, get some information coming from the virtual world that we feel with the glove, the glove has installed an engine in the event of receiving a data that comes from the virtual environment, to vibrate , although in this case the virtual environment does not provide this information to produce this sensation.

6.REFERENCES
1. starlino, A Guide To using IMU (Accelerometer and Gyroscope Devices) in Embedded Applications. December 29, 2009 2. Simon Haykin, ADAPTATIVE FILTER THEORY. 1986 by Prentice-Hall 3. Paul D. Groves, Principles of GNSS, Inertial, and Multi-Sensor Integrated Navigation Systems (GNSS Technology and Applications). 4. http://www.ode.org/ 5. http://dreamcaller.tistory.com/entry/ODE-322-Robot-arm-with-hand-attached-tothe-bodypanel 6. http://www.chem.uoa.gr/applets/appletsmooth/appl_smooth2.html

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