American Journalism, 29:2, 66–91 Copyright © 2012, American Journalism Historians Association

Food Journalism or Culinary Anthropology? Re-­ evaluating Soft News and the Influence of Jeanne Voltz’s Food Section in the Los Angeles Times
By Kimberly Wilmot Voss

Jeanne Voltz was a groundbreaking food editor at the Los Angeles Times in the 1960s—­ a time of great change for journalism and gender roles. This articles outlines her career path and includes an analysis of her work at the Times, including her approach to food journalism as a mix of hard news, such as food safety and consumer awareness; and soft news, including recipes, and restaurant reviews. The research illuminates the significance of food sections and lays the foundation for future research on the contributions of women to food journalism. efore the success of the Food Network and the popularity of competitive cooking programs such as Bravo’s Top Chef, aspiring foodies relied on the food sections of their local newspapers for their gastronomical fix. These sections, thick with grocery store advertisements in the 1950s and 1960s, originated in the women’s pages—­ narrowly defined as the fashion and household pages—­ of metropolitan dailies across the country. A staple of mid-­ century metropolitan newspapers, food sections continue today. Then as now, food sections reflected gender roles, health standards, and governmental policies about food in a community. They also reflected the develKimberly Wilmot Voss is oping demographic of many cities as new iman associate professor of migrants settled into communities and shared journalism in the Nicholson their dishes. Lastly, these sections related stoSchool of Communication, PO Box 161344, Orlando, ries about food—­ creating a form of culinary FL 32816–1344. (618)541– anthropology, as Jeanne Voltz, the former Los 4949, voss.kimberly@gmail Angeles Times food editor, once described her .com 66 • American Journalism —

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work.1 In her more than forty years as a journalist, Voltz became what one culinary authority described as “the best-­ k nown food expert you’ve probably never heard of.”  2 Her writing encompassed a mix of the people and the dishes of the communities she covered, the news of governmental and health studies that defined a time period, and an examination of history through food. For example, Voltz once debunked the biblical tale that Eve tempted Adam with an apple. Considering the evolution of language, Voltz wrote, the tempting fruit was likely a mango, a persimmon, or an apricot.3 Food sections do not have a well-­ documented history beyond brief mentions of women’s pages. (The few newspaper options for women prior to the early 1970s were in the women’s pages. These sections were known for the four Fs: family, fashion, food, and furnishings.) Prior to the women’s liberation movement, food was the rare topic on which women could claim authority. Some of these women’s-section writers were simply cooks for their families looking for paid work, while just as many were college-­ educated reporters who could not find jobs in the news sections.4 And a third category included graduates of home economics programs who practiced their expertise as food writers.5 Regardless of their backgrounds, they made a difference in the menus of their communities. As gender roles were changing in society, Voltz guided two of the most significant food sections in the country—­ at the Miami Herald in the 1950s and at the Los Angeles Times in the 1960s. This research analyzes her work at the Times during the heyday of the sections, and shows that a women’s section was laying the foundation for food journalism years well before the current surge. It also demonstrates that food journalism can tell much about a community’s ethnic growth, gender roles, and health issues at a particular time, supporting Voltz’s food anthropologist analogy. By identifying these themes found in Voltz’s reporting, this research establishes a place for Voltz and the value of the food sections in the annals of journalism history. It builds on the work of those who have examined materials like cookbooks, to better understand the lives of women who are often left out of other historical accounts.6 Dismissing the Food Section Myth For years, food sections were viewed as little more than a collection of casserole recipes and plugs for local grocery stores and other advertisers.7 In David Kamp’s captivating history of American food, women’s pages are largely dismissed, although he does — Spring 2012 • 67

9 Food Editors Earn Their Place Women’s pages. Yet. stories about child abuse. As this research shows. Jurney explained her approach in an article in a 1956 American Society of Newspaper Editors’ publication. That is not to dismiss the value of the recipes. encouraged other women’s page editors to add stories about political and social issues. noting that the home beat. According to a 1953 article in Time: “In US dailies. these sections afforded women a certain authority. whose editors wielded notable influence. coverage that went beyond recipes. Even after becoming an editor. foreshadowing problems with food contamination that persist today. the journalism industry publication Editor & Publisher reported that the number of newspaper food editors had grown from 240 to 561 in one year. are realizing the reader interest and the ad68 • American Journalism — . and a look at the Los Angeles Times food section in the 1960s during the Voltz years shows the depth of food journalism. just like the police beat. she contributed several stories each week to her section. Voltz had a traditional reporting background and developed her food skills later.” 10 In addition. only the front page and the comics have a bigger readership. Other articles viewed food through societal elements. which reflected a changing American appetite following World War II and the impact of women working outside of the home. and pay inequity were sprinkled among the traditional content. The reporter noted. few staffers exert more direct influence on readers than the food editor.” 13 In 1950.refer to the “Jell-­ O-­ abusing women’s-­ page ladies”  8 and their simple newspaper sections. The American Press Institute’s 1951 industry publication Fashion in Newspapers observed that “No aspect of the news is further from the comprehension of the average male editor than fashion.11 Dorothy Jurney. and consumer issues that might have run counter to the interests of clients advertising in her section. should follow traditional news values.” In these sections were fashion news and stories about weddings. were also the site of “soft news. But these women actually played a significant role in the story of food. where the food section was usually found.12 A regular part of these women’s sections were food pages. “Hundreds of newspapers. however. considered the godmother of women’s page editors. Voltz’s articles were about topics such as food safety. which in the past have paid scant attention to the subject. domestic violence. as well as features about professional women.

If there was any question about who was doing the food writing.16 Awards were given in different circulation categories and black-­ and-­white versus color pages. A newspaper professional was among the group judging the entries. A primary reason the food editors attended the conferences. to cover the subject. and thoroughness.17 and Robert Barbour. Emilie Hall. US Sen. timeliness. the mythical goddess of home and hearth. consider that the award was named for Vesta. the New York Times’ Jane Nickerson. For example.18 Food Journalism Ethics Takes a Hit Journalism is largely guided by a separation between editorial and advertising. use of pictures.” 14 Whereas most of these sections appear to have run in the women’s pages. In 1971. The food sections themselves were evaluated on their service to readers. originality. journalistic writing style. It was reported that the Associated Press had assigned a man.15 The food industry organized meetings for food editors at which the journalists learned about new products and new techniques in food preparation. This separation encourages objectivity by making sure that advertisers do not influence the newspaper content. “Too often our food pages are first-­ rate press agentry.” he argued. their newspapers regularly publicized the work of the winners. with the College of Home Economics at Cornell University and whose title was listed as editor. According to food writer David Kamp. in 1965 the judges were William Blair of the New York Times and president of the National Press Club. Moss asked the editors. Frank Moss of Utah in a speech at a food editors’ meeting raised a concern over advertisers’ influence on food sections. editor of Public Relations Reporter. page design. only men were quoted in the article. although there is no record of his work in this area. It provided the women a chance to socialize and network at a time when they were excluded from other journalism organizations. had the editors “ever found fault with the food industry and its — Spring 2012 • 69 . was to take part in the reporting contests. The journalists regularly socialized with James Beard. “How much of your reporting (from the conference) is hard news and how much is plugging?” Further. and the Herald Tribune’s Clementine Paddleford. the premier New York food journalists of that time were McCall’s editor Helen McCully. nutrition. the Associated Press’ Cecily Brownstone.vertising revenue possibilities of food and are appointing qualified editors to turn out readable food pages. however. Jack Ryan. a prominent American chef.

But they are not about to promote something they think is not good just because the manufacturer is an advertiser. they are concerned about the financial well-­ being of their newspapers. In 2003. once a throwaway compendium of recipes and ‘what’s hot’ articles. an industry publication. the food editor avoids thinking of the perhaps-­ exorbitant cost of the product she will advocate. as we agree often.23 As for Voltz. She wrote: “The food editors I know are an extremely conscientious lot. a happy hunting ground for advertisers. was still on the advertising payroll. The author also noted that the Los Angeles Times’ competitor. Or. the Columbia Journalism Review featured an article about the trend dubbed “Food Porn. responded with a full-­ page letter to the editor of the Columbia Journalism Review. “Food journalism.” 25 Historians Discover Food Journalism According to journalism industry publications. She only agreed to leave newspapers for a magazine journalism job after twice being reassured by her new employer that the advertising side would have no influence on her editorial copy. By getting a particular product free of charge on a regular basis. Naturally.” 27 These authors trivialize the contribu70 • American Journalism — . The article’s subhead was. Moss claimed that food editors operating “in a rarified atmosphere clouded with smoke blown by industry press releases have simply lagged behind the healthy growth of responsible consumer journalism. the Los Angeles Examiner’s food editor.24 In a 1986 handwritten note to fellow journalist Helen Muir. the popularity of culinary or food journalism is a recent phenomenon.” 21 The article featured numerous accusations about conflicts of interest. realize that ethics have gone the way of buggy whips. featured an investigative article about food reporting. who earned a master’s degree in home economics from Purdue University. some of her pronouncements make me take a little less pride in my profession. “The food section is the cash register of the newspaper.” 22 Food journalist Ann Hamman. The author observed.” 20 It was at this time that the Columbia Journalism Review. Voltz lamented the gossip that the Washington Post was publishing: “Speaking of Sally Quinn. she was a journalist and thus followed the ethical guidelines of her profession.product?” 19 In newspaper interviews. has gone upscale.” 26 The following year. Voltz (referred to as “Miss Voltz”) was quoted in the story: “The freebee has a subtle effect on the food editor. the American Journalism Review also noted the trend.

Barbecued Ribs. Voltz once said. by Kelly Alexander and Cynthia Harris.31 James Beard wrote of that book. laid the foundation for food journalism.” 29 Mary Margaret McBride. And she used her pulpit to spread local cooks’ favorite recipes. a brief biographical sketch precedes the analysis of Voltz’s writing. but you can’t ever get away from grits and greens.” 33 She was as much an expert on food as other journalists proved their expertise of foreign policy or courtroom analysis. a master of self-­ promotion. she simply saw an untold story. who.30 Voltz’s work was different in that she focused on the local fare of Los Angeles and Southern California just as she previously had focused on the regional fare of Florida when the Miami Herald was considered a statewide newspaper. prior to the demise of the sections in the early 1970s. and Other Great Feeds.” 32 Hers was one of the first books to establish barbecue as a valued cuisine.28 Long overshadowed by the New York Times’ Craig Claiborne. Smoked Butts.tions of women’s-­ page journalists. “Jeanne Voltz has written a definitive book on barbecuing. throughout the 1950s and 1960s at many newspapers. “The South has the kind of climate that grows certain things the way no other place in the country does. Furthermore. Today. more research should be dedicated to the historical content of women’s pages. Voltz’s impact persists. Voltz’s recipe for Green Corn Tamales can be found on the Food Network website with a note giving credit to her acclaimed book. a biography of longtime New York Herald Tribune food reporter Clementine Paddleford. food writers like Paddleford were quite influential in their time. featured recipes on a state-­ by-­ state basis. — Spring 2012 • 71 . Because little is known about how women typically became food journalists. from coast to coast. and the stories behind them. She understands the varying tastes and the techniques of each region she covers and this is THE book on barbecue. women’s pages were considered a parallel section to the sports pages. radio personality and author of Mary Margaret McBride’s Harvest of American Cooking. and her story is worth recognizing. According to an article by Alexander.34 Just as more scholarship is directed toward sports reporting. Her take on barbecue was likely because she was not burdened by the food hierarchy of culinary cuisine. One notable example is Hometown Appetites. I’ve worked in Los Angeles and New York. A few historians and culinary writers are just beginning to study these women food journalists. “Paddleford’s genius lay in tapping into what she knew best: authentic home cooking.

she wrote. She DOES something. There she witnessed the crops growing. Decades later. gave her the gift of teaching a “child to taste. “had the nerve to let a curious child invade her kitchen. who were assuming jobs left vacant by men headed off to war.. Emma Coker Appleton.” 35 She noted that her mother. “I think we came out of college with the first wave of the modern woman. Years later she noted of World War II. She described her family as “experimental eaters. with plans to be a foreign correspondent.” 39 Early Journalism Career She began her career in journalism after college as a general assignment news reporter at the Mobile (AL) Press Register. a significant time for women. and the sausage being made. In a letter to a friend. James Lamar Appleton. where Luther Voltz had worked earlier and had been offered a job at the Miami Herald. It was a busy time in the port city with its growing shipyard and increasing population. rather than becomes Miss Scarlett. She graduated in 1942.37 She went to school at the Alabama College for Women38 and studied political science and history.” and her father. a palate that she would revisit. Voltz returned for a class reunion and noted that she had gone to school with an impressive group of women. and when the war ended.Life and Times of Jeanne Voltz Food journalist Jeanne Appleton (later Voltz) was born on her grandfather’s farm in Collinsville. The Florida city was growing fast after the war. the family moved to Miami. the cows being milked. in 1921.” 40 It was in Mobile that she developed a taste for fresh seafood. She wrote that her grandmother. due in part to the return of soldiers who had been exposed to the area during training at the Servicemen’s Pier. Jeanne Voltz initially 72 • American Journalism — . The impact of war was always near. While in Mobile.” introducing her to a range of dishes early in her life. Marie Sewell Appleton. Jeanne and Luther Jr. “I lost so many friends. Alabama. They had two children. I did a lot of casualty stories. the trap all Southern women had up until that time. she married newspaper editor Luther Voltz. This proximity to the creation of food is to credit for her later perspective.” 36 She recalled being a Girl Scout who worked alongside community women at pancake suppers. “contributed mountains of fried chicken to community suppers.

The additional advertising income meant Voltz could take advantage of a significant travel budget to explore a range of regional dishes. She wrote. Yet. Husbands came home from war.47 Jurney described Voltz as “A very good newspaper woman—­ food or otherwise. She became a local celebrity. “In the fifties all husbands — Spring 2012 • 73 .45 As a result.43 She added a mix of more progressive news about needs in the community. She was a hard-­ news journalist. a section that was a leader in the nation at the time and under the stewardship of Dorothy Jurney.” 49 As a journalist and the mother of two children. often aided by women’s club members.” 46 In the 1950s. She quickly began to study food. debunked by Voltz years later in a newspaper interview. Voltz called it a pivotal time to be in food journalism: “The 1950s were very interesting in food. the significant news hook. Nixon Smiley wrote that Voltz attained the position because of her expertise as a gourmet cook. She looked for the local news angle. the Miami newspaper had a large food section that ran each Thursday. she covered food the same way she covered other news. a job that offered better hours for a working mother.planned to be a stay-­ at-­ home mother.m. not a gourmet cook. editor Lee Hills called her into his office and told her to cover food. He told her to learn. and the value for her readers. “She had a very practical approach but at the same time she knew the food field and was very good. They’d tasted French food.44 This account is fiction. after a minor health issue. who went on to become the fourth female publisher at Gannett. In a 1974 official history of the Miami Herald. She later moved to the women’s news section. She replied that she did not know how. especially food of the South. the eminent women’s page editor of the 1950s and 1960s.41 She joined her husband at the Herald instead.42 Jurney pre-­ was known for stretching the definition of women’s news beyond weddings and the fours Fs. and soon her photo was featured alongside her articles. Jeanne Voltz first worked on the news side of the newspaper. helping run the city desk from 9 a. They’d tasted curry. to 1 p. The women journalists Jurney mentored likewise acquired this trait.” 48 Miami Herald colleague Marjorie Paxson. Voltz became the Herald’s food editor. In 1952. was a fan of the “marvelous” Voltz. They were not meat and potatoes anymore. which would become her specialty.m. her doctor said lifting and chasing her children would be too much. According to Voltz. Voltz initially played a supporting cooking role to her husband.

She also helped her readers discover the growth of ethnic food restaurants in Los Angeles at a pivotal time in California food history. clearly demonstrates Voltz’s commitment to covering food as news. When she won. and she proclaimed.52 Her impact was quickly felt at the newspaper. with wives as chief assistants and errand girls. wine.55 This change was significant. In food journalism. putting “the food section on its feet.” as a colleague at the paper reflected. the top recognition for best newspaper food editing and writing. as her work was syndicated across the country. publisher Otis Chandler wrote that Voltz had been hired to focus on the selection. Voltz studied food. She won two Tastemaker Awards. and the University of Southern California. in 1970 and 1978.53 The Times announced the arrival of its new food editor with a newspaper article and photo. Los Angeles. food content was no longer treated as women’s fare and was held up to journalistic scrutiny. She won six Vesta Awards.58 In 1970. She routinely reported on the numerous food industry studies coming out of the University of California. Voltz found her niche. her work was earning national attention. rather than reporting on food as a news beat. although it was eventually replaced by Voltz’s byline. she never forgot that her readers looked to her for cooking advice. she reached thousands of additional readers. Before long.54 At times. which recognized the best regional cookbooks. recipes required exact instructions and readers were quick to write her if there was a problem with a dish. an expectation of Voltz if she was to work in the section. The position of food editor was moved out of the advertising department and into the newsroom. “a woman can barbecue as well as a man.barbecued.” 51 Joining the Los Angeles Times After a decade of low pay at the Herald and with their children nearly grown. however. Voltz struck up a partnership with her local audience and. 74 • American Journalism — .” which had been established years earlier. after all.56 A review of her section’s content. she wrote under the pseudonym “Marian Manners. and serving of food and beverages.” 50 Her role became more central. preparation. the newspaper trumpeted her accomplishments with an article and photo. and civilization at UCLA. though in an article celebrating the Times’ 80th anniversary. The couple’s move to the West Coast coincided with the Los Angeles Times’ more serious treatment of food news. the couple left for the West Coast and the Los Angeles Times in 1960.57 Along the way.

The food industry was undergoing — Spring 2012 • 75 .The Post-­Times’ Years In 1973. the Los Angeles Times described her as a “pioneering newspaper food editor. along with her friend and Everglades pioneer Marjory Stoneman Douglas and Miami journalist Helen Muir.64 She died in 2002 at age 81. Upon her death.60 Voltz entertained in her West Side Manhattan apartment. was The Country Ham Book.59 While in New York. where she remained until 1986. the first of its kind.61 In 1983. She divorced Luther Voltz. eventually writing a total of ten. Voltz’s arrival in Los Angeles was opportune. “We were shocked that she was brought in with no magazine experience. In the same book. When they married in 1988.” She continued to write cookbooks. and she remained a popular judge of barbecue contests. Voltz was a founding member of the local chapter of Les Dames d’Escoffier. She was also a member of the Society of Woman Geographers. as well as author Harper Lee. they received a large barbecue grill as a wedding present. although theirs was an amicable parting. Voltz became reacquainted with Frank MacKnight.” 65 Outline of Culinary Scholarship This scholarship looks at the food section of the Los Angeles Times in the 1960s and early 1970s: Voltz’s tenure. But the promise of more than a million readers lured her to take the job.” Anderson said. published in 1999. and thus Voltz was highly regarded. Her final book. Voltz became food editor of Woman’s Day magazine in New York. Fellow magazine food editor Jean Anderson noted that it was unusual for a newspaper food editor to make the transition to the New York magazine community.62 In the mid-1980s. Voltz noted that the couples’ first and last meal together was barbecue ribs in a garden in Florida.63 She moved to North Carolina and became active in the Society for the Preservation of Southern Food. a professional organization for women in food-­ related careers. cooking for the likes of Beard. In a cookbook. Voltz included Luther’s recipe for barbecue sauce. She initially rejected the job offer from the magazine because she feared the close relationship the editorial side would have with advertisers. Voltz’s application for the organization listed her specialization as “food anthropology. a friend from her youth. Voltz stepped down as food editor but stayed at Woman’s Day another three years. published after the divorce.

Her cookbooks were also examined to understand her approach to food journalism. noted. and noted the increasing trend of eating out. A review of articles in the decade of the 1960s revealed numerous topics and trends told through food. To clarify specific details. and food safety.67 oral histories of her colleagues Dorothy Jurney and Marjorie Paxson. For example. alongside changes in the roles of women in society. “A jaunt through Chinatown. in Massachusetts fishing villages. Voltz. social issues. The dishes described corresponded to the demographics of Los Angeles Times readers as opposed to dishes featured in national food-­ related magazines. Voltz wrote. chicken pies as rich and creamy as Grandma’s.” Voltz wrote. information about Voltz came from the papers of the Society of Women Geographers.” 70 It is a way of exploring social history. In the early 1960s. Many of these restaurants specialized in food from different areas of the world. It also allows for a better understanding of community. A review of the Los Angeles Times food section from 1960 to 1972 revealed the themes of ethnic cuisine. chronicled the growth of restaurants. America’s Developing Cuisine Food sections served an important purpose as the country’s city by city. Voltz reviewed various area restaurants. changing gender roles.” 69 Voltz wrote. as the food editor. an interview was conducted with her daughter. albeit “Americanized” versions. traditions. in February 1961. and women in newspapers. then dinner 76 • American Journalism — . as they were in Colonial times. soup brewed to the rule of Portuguese settlers. who knew Voltz. in Maine.71 The food section normalized otherwise exotic dishes. Studying food journalism in the 1960s allows for a better understanding of culinary history. As food editor Kathleen Purvis. “Food writing touches people’s lives. fish chowders and baked beans prepared.66 the papers of Miami journalist Helen Muir. also named Jeanne Voltz. and memories.significant changes related to governmental scrutiny and regulation. In addition to issues of the Los Angeles Times. “Community kitchens provide settings where rich culinary traditions and the hopes of new lives in America are shared. in Vermont. It demonstrates how food interacted with a growing city and a developing society. “Tasting around the country appetite was changing—­ turns up. guided the newspaper’s coverage of this change.68 and interviews Voltz conducted with journalists. nutrition.

She wrote about a European dessert. Voltz wrote.” 72 The local analysis made foreign food sound less intimidating.78 Voltz’s repertoire included a variety of ethnic dishes.” 75 These articles described the range of available food more than offering a critical review of its quality. Later that month. She responded to a reader’s request for an Italian pickling recipe in 1970. if short.79 In 1971. substitute for a trip to faraway lands. and enchiladas. tacos. beginning with a short history of the cake pan: “The kugelhupf pan. “Where else but in California will you find your Japanese neighbors barbecuing shish kebab to go with their avocado salad. then with a fine Italian hand.” 81 filled with liqueur-­ Voltz also combined traditional storytelling techniques with the basic elements of a recipe. in Studio City. especially for family. she described Italian desserts.’ reputedly was invented in 1683 after the Turks were defeated at the gates of Vienna. but actually it is one of the world’s most splendid desserts. it’s flavored custard and berry jam. she wrote: “Great Britain’s almost 200 years of domination in India opened a flavor gateway for the world’s gastronomes. but the cake endures.77 and a year later. By the early 1970s.” 73 In April. she authored a cookbook devoted to California cooking. and the Danes up the road serving enchiladas and chiles rellenos. writing: “Zuppa Inglese is a delectable paradox.80 In a 1973 story. The literal translation from Italian is English soup. although Voltz eventually was more analytical in her writing.76 She introduced her readers to Chinese cooking. writing. all washed down with California wine.” she marveled. she recommended an Easter meal of Mexican-­ inspired punch. The battle is buried in history books. often called a ‘Turk’s head.at Gen. “Diners who apanother European-­ preciate the warm spice of Spanish food will find it at Casa Madrid on La Cienega. kugelhupf. Voltz’s reporting aided in the transition as new.” 82 When she addressed Indian cooking. Lee Man Jen Low is a low-­ cost. she featured themed restaurant.” 74 In July. “The nice. “Traditionally foods with ties to an ethnic past have been important in regional food customs. deftly seasoned foods of Old Russia are specialties of the Moskva Cliff on Ventura Blvd. Without the British military and trade missions in the East.” she observed. exotic kinds of food were becoming part of the American diet. writing. “Don’t let the name Andre’s of Beverly Hills mislead you. Andre’s food and Chianti bottle décor is more Italian than French.” 83 In another story on the topic she — Spring 2012 • 77 . she took on a new culture. Sponge cake is cut into layers. curry powder and the aromatic heat of Indian cuisine might still be unknown to the West.

In Madrid they are tapas. which would 78 • American Journalism — .” 86 In one story. and taquito become part of the household kitchen vernacular. “The exotic fragrance of curry seasonings creates excitement in the most ordinary foods.” 92 In another story she praised the use of nuts as a source of extra protein in recipes—“Nuts are an ancient food”—­ and noted that nuts were mentioned more than 70 times in the Old Testament and still are produced in the Holy Lands and other parts of the Middle East. One story lauded what she described as a “luxury” vegetable. “Fresh spring asparagus is cause for cele­ bration by epicures. “The ubiquitous broiler-­ f ryer is so standard on everyday menus that hosts and hostesses often are inclined to avoid chicken when planning menus for entertaining. seasoned.90 Voltz encouraged her readers to experiment by adding unusual ingredients to typical recipes.94 Eating Healthy The Food and Drug Administration was active in the 1960s and 1970s as more research on nutrition was done and the interest in consumer issues grew. and garnished chicken can be epicurean fare indeed. In Japan they are sushi. sauced.87 In another article. “Yet artfully cooked.91 She also encouraged cooks to explore new ways to cook standard-­ fare chicken. since meat is used sparingly.” 84 Voltz educated her readers on sushi: “In Los Angeles they are called hors d’oeuvre or snacks.93 Voltz even spiced up traditional American foods. Muscovites call them zakuski. with beans and corn and cheese supplying much of the protein. Voltz wrote. tortilla. “The conversion of a Middle Westerner or Easterner to California cookery usually is complete when tostada. suggesting cooks use blue cheese rather than cheddar to accompany apple pie.wrote about a meatball recipe that she described as “adventuresome.” she wrote.” 88 Other stories ranged from the simple tamale89 to the more exotic dessert almendrado —­ described as a tri-­ colored. she described a Mexican-­ themed party buffet at the pool. explaining that. Most noticeable was the 1969 White House Conference on Food. tamale.” She noted. Sushi is a savory tidbit of cold vinegared rice pressed or molded into any of several shapes and finished with tiny pieces of seafood or fish. taco. Nutrition. “Mexican cuisine in general is low cost. Voltz wrote that her readers were requesting recipes for enchiladas.” 85 The most common ethnic style of cooking Voltz wrote about in the 1960s was Mexican food. and Health.” she wrote. cold foamy egg-­ white pudding.

she interviewed a nutrition expert from the American Medical Association. Milwaukee Journal food editor Peggy Daum emphasized the continued significance of that summit: “It has been referred to as the Vatican II of the food world. He also credited newspapers with providing information on proper nutrition. She covered the various meetings with consumer advocates. “Several landmark policy efforts with profound and lasting effects emerged from this conference. and food industry representatives over what the requirements should be. Voltz questioned the overconsumption of sugar in Americans’ diets. About two-­ thirds of the states already had similar laws and California was debating possible legislation.” 101 For the story.103 With an emphasis on — Spring 2012 • 79 . an FDA official addressed the group.change the course of food policy in the country.” 96 Voltz covered that White House meeting and reported the need to address malnutrition due to poverty. this can be important in improving total nutrition. Voltz wrote about a California law that would require enrichment in grains to improve nutritional value. According to a government report based on the meeting. scientists. including expansions of the food stamp program. along with the food research being conducted at Los Angeles universities. She researched the problem by examining the ingredients list on different packaged foods.97 The work of the federal agency.” 100 In 1972.99 She described the new policy as “a mixed blessing–or at least brought mixed responses. and the school lunch program. noting that sugar was often a hidden ingredient. Voltz covered the FDA as it readied for the first guidelines on nutrition for processed foods in 1971. she traveled to Houston to a meeting of food editors. Voltz also conducted an investigation of the foods in the local grocery store. He said malnutrition was a result of poor eating habits rather than a poor food supply. meant that the content of Voltz’s section went well beyond including recipes.98 A few years later she covered the FDA-­ required nutrition labeling guidelines.” 95 Nearly 20 years after that meeting. She quoted a home economist who had lobbied for passage of the bill: “Since so many people use highly processed foods without really knowing what they contain. For one story. food labeling. describing the new Recommended Daily Allowance guidelines that replaced the 1941 Minimum Daily Requirement. looking for what was printed on the labels and reporting the results. This was the kind of reporting that Senator Moss had called for earlier.102 For another story. In several stories. In an article the following year. At the meeting.

the legendary Macy’s department store food-­ taster. During her vacation. Voltz’s section also included people in the food industry and issues related to food. “Tasting has become almost a quaint custom by today’s merchandising standards.” 105 Food Intersects with Life In addition to articles about types of food and food policies. She also documented culinary trends such as the development of convenience foods and the conflict over their nutritional value. largely a return to Grandma’s fundamentals. the director of the restaurant in the Dallas-­ based Neiman-­ Marcus department store while the Texan was on vacation in Los Angeles. Voltz offered up Corbit’s rebuke in the story: “I think with the wealth of fresh fruit and vegetables. Lastly. Voltz profiled Helen Corbit. 80 • American Journalism — .” 106 Voltz used a story about a wine and food taster to critique the food industry overall. and human interest. low price and one of nature’s most nutritious gifts to man. Corbit freely shared her views on food and gender and proclaimed there was a myth that men were meat-­ and-­ potato eaters whereas women preferred chicken and salads. Voltz wrote about how to prepare vegetables in order to maintain the most nutrients: “The ‘new’ cooking. as she outlined the problem of hunger in the United States. proximity. She began by describing the 72-­ year career of William Titon. She said that in her restaurant.107 She argued that the food industry was largely based on packaging and advertising schedules rather than focusing on whether the food tasted good or was nutritious: “The major bastion of honest-­ to-­ goodness tasting is food manufacturing plants. Corbit also expressed disappointment in Los Angeles restaurants. glorifies fresh vegetables.” she wrote. she viewed food in a broader context.” 104 In another article. men were just as likely to order fruit salads and soufflés. In 1963. She spoke with food experts when they visited her city and explored their expertise. she focused on timeliness. Taking a typical approach to news. Not afraid to include a critique of her community. Young folk proudly proclaim they never use a frozen or canned vegetable.nutrition. while women ordered steak and hamburgers. a particular vegetable: “Cabbage is that budget-­ always available at a very low. there is very little imagination here. she described nutritional and financial value of pampering wonder.” 108 Women’s roles are often connected to the preparation of food. conflict.

111 Voltz described the kind of cooks who years later might embrace Martha Stewart for her “scratch-­ made” meals. In a change from previous stories.115 In another article that month. and pregnant women who could not afford to eat properly. Voltz wrote about the problem of hunger in America. “If we want to do it from scratch. For example. we can. or quick recipes intended for the “busy mother or volunteer worker who has scant time for the kitchen” 110 that could still perk up a menu.” 114 Also that year. Voltz wrote: “A young career girl bakes and serves tortes that outdo the efforts of a professional pastry chef. one of the most progressive laws in the country at the time.with the expectation that cooking was not cooking unless from scratch. She began by quoting a senator who noted there was talk about hunger but no action was being taken. seeking a balance between the sophisticated and the simple. Voltz also wrote about a growing rebellion against the convenience-­ food explosion. Another career girl fries chicken from scratch—­ just as her grandmother did. Voltz wrote about proposed legislation that would have required healthier school lunches. she interviewed a professor who pointed out the common misconception that. she would include recipes for women who were too busy to cook from scratch. If we want to serve convenience foods that take little time. In another issue. quoting him. “California’s unwritten nutrition policy is at a crossroads. In examining the problem of malnutrition.” 112 In 1972. a novel idea. Voltz examined the food needs on the nearby Havasupai — Spring 2012 • 81 . At risk were children who were hungry by noon. Voltz did not feel beholden to this requisite in her newspaper section.” she declared. Her story followed up a federal study that identified places where malnutrition occurred in the nation. several of the women used as role models were not described as homemakers.113 Voltz reported a meeting in Mexico City of the International Congress of Nutrition. The story examined food as an educational issue. Grocery stores were full of more than 4. On the other hand. She received inspiration from friend and culinary legend James Beard.600 short-­ cut foods. The bill ultimately passed so that students would have hot lunches. noting that students would be better able to learn if they were well-­ fed. The potential decline of women’s home-­ cooked meals threatened tradition. we can go that way.” 109 Voltz would provide recipes for those opposed to cooking with shortcuts for meals such as baked polenta. veal cordon bleu. “The poor generally select foods more wisely than the affluent. and cream puffs.

a coordinator with the Food Advocates.” not “consumer panic. the president of the Institute of Food Technology. He noted that most reactions to safety issues were emotional rather than reasoned responses to scientific problems. You may think of tires as being safe. The country was experiencing a recession in the 1970s. and he blamed the ignorance on restrictive gender distinctions: “Half our population—­ the men—­ are taught no nutrition at all. she addressed problems of contamination in the poultry industry. Leighton Hatch: “The consumer has the right to know that the goods he purchases are safe for himself. but this applies to food. Regulating the Food Industry As consumer news increased in the late 1960s and early 1970s.119 In another story on food safety. Voltz published stories suggesting ways to prepare a nutritious meal on a budget. Voltz wrote about the ease of preparation and economic value of meatballs. you can offer an epicurean treat.” 118 Voltz’s numerous food safety stories throughout the early 1970s included an article focusing on a food scientist who described the average home kitchen as a “food poisoning time bomb” and warned of the dangerous organisms lurking in kitchens. food-­ industry safety became a regular topic in Voltz’s section. and there was an emphasis on women taking extra care while shopping at the grocery store. who rode on horseback to the reservation to explain the details of the food-­ stamp programs and the problem of hunger in the community.” 121 82 • American Journalism — .117 Other stories also noted how cooks could save money when shopping for groceries. and although it exists today as an agency to regulate professional services.116 As a potential solution to the hunger issue. speaking at a related conference.” 120 In another story. It was determined that the current attitude was of “consumer concern. too. since most of it is taught to girls in home economics. He expressed his belief that a lack of food knowledge was based on how children were educated.” she wrote. Voltz began with the story of Gene George. “For only a few cents a serving.Indian Reservation. It was in response to what she had learned at a recently attended conference of the Western Food Processing Industry. the Department of Consumer Affairs was created in 1970. Voltz highlighted this need for consumer protection in a story about the agency and quoted its original director. In California. in its original form it included oversight of food. announced the need for consumer education about food.

128 The power of the consumer and the power of motherhood made for a strong combination in food coverage. Voltz noted that.126 Voltz capitalized on the wave and wrote a cookbook about natural foods. She questioned again the meaning of the term “organic.” this time in a story about grocers facing off with angry customers. organically shipped or organically grown food. and they remained ambiguous until the passage of the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990. the grocers sought to open communication with consumers.125 Voltz also covered the results of a three-­ year study about the health-­ food movement and organic food. They requested more nutritional information. particularly in relation to food safety. who included a black mother at a time when minorities were often excluded from newspaper coverage. although she made several references to organic food in the early 1970s. also questioned the rising costs of food and the high level of fat. “The home cook who bakes good honest bread. especially ingredients of snack foods their children craved. At the meeting. The researcher found tensions between the first-­ wave health-­ food advocates and “hippies. she wrote of the trend. The mothers accused the food industry of providing consumers with puffery about products rather than information about nutrition. who in turn wanted the media to take the topic of food safety seriously.” she asked. Central to the research was the question about the sociological aspects of the movement. Voltz advised that food consumers demand organic foods at their supermarkets for better value and safety.” 127 Voltz’s expertise in the growing health-­ food movement was a significant one at the time. makes a fragrant soup or stew from scratch or prepares her own homemade pie is regarded as the culinary genius of the 1970s. The women.” The growth of the counterculture community in Berkeley clearly had an impact on food in the state. Voltz covered a panel in Las Vegas in which homemakers with children critiqued their experiences with the food industry in front of 70 food scientists.124 The shoppers accused the businesses of having poor-­ quality foods and not weighing food accurately.129 — Spring 2012 • 83 . the increase of health food stores was a reaction against the massive US food industry.122 Later in the story. In the introduction.123 There were no clear guidelines at the time. she posed a how question that remains a conundrum within the food industry—­ is “organic” defined? “What is organic. Experts believed the trend of health food would continue in the future.Voltz’s work preceded the current organic food revolution by a few decades. decades earlier.

as this article has demonstrated. While Jeanne Voltz was under consideration. “Her career goes bicoastal. Her impact and her knowledge are vast. “Until recently women’s historians largely dismissed home economics as little more than a conspiracy to keep women in the kitchen.134 It is time to do the same for food sections and the women journalists who toiled in obscurity to produce them. More attention should be paid to the content of food sections and the careers of food editors. In a recent example of their continued marginalization. Studying their contributions serves to establish those voices as a valuable part of American mass media history. food journalism has long been a fixture among the media. She is very gifted. to name a few.” said Terry Ford. If food sections are to be written into journalism history. According to an AP press release. a food editor and charter member of Julia Child’s American Institute of Food and Wine. raised its status. These sections gave women a voice and an opportunity to develop expertise. When you read something Jeanne Voltz writes.133 However. “She’s an extraordinary person. historians have re-­ evaluated the field and in doing so.132 yet. you can say it was 100 percent thoroughly researched. or sports. very crafted. publisher ABC-­ CLIO began collecting names for a book based on the icons of American cooking.Conclusion In 2009. When specialized reporting is studied. Her marginalization in culinary history parallels the lack of recognition of women food editors in journalism history. the four Fs of the women’s pages are largely forgotten. and Cecily Brownstone of the Associated Press. women’s pages have been looked at by many scholars as sections that did little more than reinforce women’s traditional role. the impetus for the addition was the media’s newfound interest in food. newswriting. grammar. too. business. consider the Associated Press Stylebook. the annually updated “Journalist’s Bible” of style. This was once how the field of home economics was viewed.” such as war correspondents. and usage. it is usually a matter of politics. For too long. 84 • American Journalism — .131 The 2011 edition includes a section devoted to food. which more often celebrates women reporters who generate “hard news.” wrote one scholar. she was not selected. Ruth Ellen Church of the Chicago Tribune. the work of Voltz is an opportune place to start.” 130 Other food journalists whose careers merit study include Jane Nickerson of the New York Times.

Records of the Society of Woman Geographers. interview by Anne S. 8 David Kamp. eds. “Newspaper Food Pages: Credibility for Sale. Kimberly Wilmot Voss. William Alex McIntosh and Mary Zey. Taking Their Place: A Documentary History of Women and Journalism. 5 For example. 3 Jeanne Voltz. no. Kimberly Wilmot Voss. “A Women’s Page Pioneer: Marie Anderson and Her Influence at the Miami Herald and Beyond. Kimberly Wilmot Voss and Lance Speere. 4 (1989): 319–321. “Women as Gatekeepers of Food Consumption. 10 Garrett D. Eat My Words: Reading Women’s Lives Through the Cookbooks They Wrote (New York: Palgrave MacMillian.” Columbia Journalism Review. Jeanne Voltz and Caroline Stuart. 1981. “Vivian Castleberry: A Case Study of How a Women’s Page Editor Lived and Translated the News of a Social Movement. 514–532. Library of Congress. Petersburg. 165–66. Spring 2007. Manuscript Collection.” Journalism History 36. “Dorothy Jurney: The ‘Godmother’ of Women’s Page Editors. 2003). February 18. “Forgotten Feminist: Women’s Page Editor Maggie Savoy and the Growth of Women’s Liberation Awareness in Los Angeles. folder 9. An Apple a Day (New York: Irena Chalmers Cookbooks.” Food and Foodways 3. 36–44. March 2011. Anna Bower.” Charlotte Observer.Endnotes Jeanne Voltz.” Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture 4. Knopf. Florida.” Florida Historical Quarterly. Kimberly Wilmot Voss. 6.” FCH Annals: Journal of the Florida Conference of Historians. The United States of Arugula: How We Became a Gourmet Nation (New York: Broadway Books. 2 Terry Ford. 10. 1983). 11 Kimberly Wilmot Voss. 1993). 1990. the Evansville Indiana Courier women’s page editor Ann Hamman had a master’s degree in home economics from Purdue University. January 16. 104–111. 1. Byrnes. 398–421. Fashion in Newspapers (New York: American Fashion Institute by Columbia University Press. box II. “Romanced by Cookbooks. 1951).. 4 Maurine Beasley and Sheila Gibbons. 9 One of Voltz’s best-­ k nown recipes was for the Florida version of key lime pie. “Words to Eat By. no. a charter member of Julia Child’s American Institute of Food and Wine. Application for the Society of Woman Geographers. 1 (Spring 2010): 13–22.” Southwest Historical Quarterly. said this about Jeanne Voltz. 3. August 31. 7 Richard Karp. 1998. Spring 2007. November/December 1971. 6 Janet Theophano. (Washington. Spring 2009. DC: The American University Press. “Anne Rowe Goldman: Refashioning Women’s News in St. 48–64. 12 Dorothy Jurney. Kasper. no. 2 (2004): 35–42. 1993). Kathleen Purvis. 1 — Spring 2012 • 85 . Florida Cookbook: From Gulf Coast Gumbo to Key Lime Pie (New York: Alfred A.” California History. 2006).

81. 29 Kelly Alexander. the Forgotten Food Writer Who Chronicled How America Ate (New York: Gotham Press.” Columbia Journalism Review. Emilie Hall was responsible for developing journalistic material for the extension. October 19.edu/bitstream/1813/17970/2/ Hall_Emilie_Towner_1981. 15 Kamp.” Los Angeles Times. 25 Jeanne Voltz to Helen Muir. September/ October 2003.9171. at the Milwaukee Journal. It’s One O’Clock and Here Is Mary Margaret McBride (New York: New York University Press.” Tuscaloosa (Alabama) News. 2008). The United States of Arugula.” Time. 41.pdf. “Moss to Probe Newsmen. box 13.” Columbia Journalism Review. Susan Ware. 24 Interview with Jeanne Voltz (daughter). 2007. 33 “Jeanne Voltz.time.” Editor & Publisher. 28 Kelly Alexander and Cynthia Harris. http://beta. 1953. 20 Jack Anderson.com/time/magazine/article/0.” Milwaukee Journal. 57. Papers of Helen Muir. 1971. http:// www. folder 173. January 16. 18 “Vesta Award to Journal Food Writer. http://www. Past Editor of the Times’ Food Section. See also. Knopf. 13 “The Press: The Kitchen Department. 27 Doug Brown.” American Journalism Review. Smoked Butts and Other Great Feeds (New York: Alfred A. 30 Mary Margaret McBride. Special Collections. “Haute Cuisine. “Editors Criticized by Senator.com/article/Kitchen/Hometown-­ Appetites/1. Mary Margaret McBride’s Harvest of American Cooking (New York: G. May/ June 1972. 1956).cornell. 22 Ibid. 50. “Newspaper Food Pages: Credibility for Sale. “Food Porn. 26 Molly O’Neill. “Newspapers Find Food Profitable News Subject. 31 Jeanne Voltz. http://www. Hometown Appetites: The Story of Clementine Paddleford. and research for home economics audiences. teaching. January 9. September 28.ecommons. 20 July 1986.wpcf. Columbia Journalism Review. 1950. 14 Ray Irwin. Putnam’s Sons..saveur.823077. 1996). July 15. letter to the editor. 1965. 36.html. 17 In this position. 38. October 8. 23 Ann Hamman.” Saveur. July 18. November 19.html.” Milwaukee Journal. 2005). 1969. 34 In one example. 19 Peggy Daum. 32 Ibid. 21 Richard Karp.00. Feminist. University of Miami.” Milwaukee Journal. 16 “Journal Wins Award at Food Conference. “Hometown Appetites. November/December 1971.” Washington Press Club Foundation Oral History Project.org/oralhistory/jurn1. the sports editor and the 86 • American Journalism — .“Women in Journalism. 2008. 61. February/ March 2004. 1972. Barbecued Ribs. September 24. 2002.

” Journalism History 36. 49 Marjorie Paxson. x. 37 Jeanne Voltz. Times Food Gals. 5. Smoked Butts and Other Great Feeds (New York: Knopf. Women in Journalism.” Los Angeles Times. 40 Kathleen Purvis.org/oralhistory/ ohhome. 58. dedication. dedication.women’s page editor joined together to demand to be paid as much as the news editors. 1953. American Society of Newspaper Editors.” Culinary Historians of Southern California. Special Collections. 1981). “Word to Eat By. Community Suppers and Other Glorious Repasts (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 41 Ibid. Papers of Helen Muir.org/oralhistory/ ohhome. January 16. http://chscsite. February 18. “Duet Dinners Are Easy to Prepare These Days with New Food Packaging.html. 1960. 1998. 47 Jeanne Voltz. The Milwaukee Journal: An Informational Chronicle of its First 100 Years (Milwaukee. The Flavor of the South (New York: Random House.” Charlotte Observer. 46 Ibid. — Spring 2012 • 87 . 43 Dorothy Jurney. Robert W. 51 Ibid. 1977).org/food-­ section-­ gals/. “Dorothy Jurney: A National Advocate for Women’s Pages as They Evolved and Then Disappeared. 1 (Spring 2010). “L. http://www. Washington Press Club Foundation. WI: Milwaukee Journal. 1990. 50 Jeanne Voltz. 52 Kathleen Purvis. January 16.” The Bulletin. http://www. Barbecuing Ribs. 2010. no. Washington Press Club Foundation. February 18. 54 “Miami Writer New Times Food Editor. Session 3. April 10. 39 Jeanne Voltz to Helen Muir. 1 January 1956. 39. Wells. 1991. Women in Journalism. 44 Nixon Smiley. 48 Dorothy Jurney. Community Suppers and Other Glorious Repasts (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. September 13. September 19. Miami Herald Editor Lee Hills called longtime women’s page journalist Dorothy Jurney and asked her a question: “Could you take on the women’s editorship so that we could get something in the paper that is worth reading?” See Kimberly Wilmot Voss. 45 Kathleen Purvis. 36 Jeanne Voltz. 53 Barbara Hanson.wpcf. 1988). February 18. 42 In 1950. 18 February 1982.” Charlotte Observer. 24. “Words to Eat By. 1984). University of Miami.html. “Women in Journalism. folder 174. “Words to Eat By. 1988).wpcf. 38 The college later became the University of Montevallo. 35 Jeanne Voltz.” Miami Herald.A. Session 1. Knights of the Fourth Estate: The Story of the Miami Herald (Miami: Banyan. box 13.” Charlotte Observer. 1990). 1998. 1998.

box II. “Dining Out. 1969. 1961. http://www. February 18. Add a Dash of Mexico. 63 Ibid. “Les Dames d’Escoffier International.asp. 55 88 • American Journalism — . Women in Journalism oral history project.” Los Angeles Times. “Californians Bow to Chinese Cookery Californians Bow to Chinese Cuisine. Shortridge. 81. 72 Jeanne Voltz. 80 Jeanne Voltz. 2010.html 69 Interview with Kathleen Purvis. Manuscript Collection. For example.” Los Angeles Times. 2002. Past Editor of the Times’ Food Section. 74 Jeanne Voltz. 1961. 1961.” Los Angeles Times. 67 Papers of Helen Muir. Smoked Butts. Records of the Society of Woman Geographers. Voltz was president of the organization from 1985 to 1987 and helped it expand. 70 Jeanne Voltz. 57 Interview with Kathleen Purvis. 1961. It was not unusual for food writers to adopt pen names. Chicago Tribune: The Rise of a Great American Newspaper (Chicago: Rand McNally & Company.wpcf. 75 Jeanne Voltz. 2010. December 3. 61 Kathleen Purvis.” Los Angeles Times.ldei.” Los Angeles Times. 71 Ibid. 1979). Lloyd Wendt. 62 Jeanne Voltz.Jenn Garbee. September 17. 60 Nancy Brussat Barocci. 79. ix. 1.org /oralhistory/ohhome. Prudence Penny. 64 Interview with Kathleen Purvis. 66 Jeanne Voltz Membership form. History. “Dining Out. 1970. “An Octogenarian and Still More Growth Ahead. 77 Jeanne Voltz. “Marian Manners. January 16. “Word to Eat By. 1998. Inc.org/history. Barbecued Ribs.” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times. June 24. 725–726. “Dining Out. 1971. June 30. April 4. The organization continues today. and Other Great Feeds (New York.” Los Angeles Times. “For Flavor. 78 Jeanne Voltz. 79 Jeanne Voltz. “Not Just Jello and Hot Dishes: Representative Foods of Minnesota. 68 Dorothy Jurney and Marjorie Paxson. 76 Barbara G. University of Miami. July 2. Special Collections.” Charlotte Observer. 58 Associated Press. 56 Otis Chandler. 73 Jeanne Voltz. April 22. longtime Chicago Tribune food editor Ruth Ellen Church wrote under the pen name “Mary Meade” for most of her career. The California Cookbook (New York: The Bobbs-­ Merrill Company.” Los Angeles Times.” Journal of Cultural Geography. 2010. September 29. February 5. 2009. Alfred A. 59 Interview with Jean Anderson. June 26. 1966. 1961. April 30. “Dining Out. xii. 2010. Washington Press Club Foundation. the First Celebrity Cooks. folder 9.” Los Angeles Times. 65 “Jeanne Voltz. 1970).” Los Angeles Times. Community Suppers and Other Glorious Repasts. Knopf: 1990). See. February 12. Library of Congress. “True Italian Recipes for Pickled Peppers. June 24. Fall/Winter 2003. June 24.” www. “The Times’ Jeanne Voltz Wins Vesta Food Award.

nns. 1972.” Los Angeles Times. “Cheers and Jeers for New Nutrient Labeling Regulations.” Los Angeles Times. December 27. April 8. “You Can Thank Mad Dogs and Englishmen for Indian Curry.” Los Angeles Times. “A Retrospective.” Los Angeles Times. 85 Jeanne Voltz. January 7. 1972. January 28.Jeanne Voltz.htm. 1973.” Los Angeles Times. 104 Jeanne Voltz. “Malnutrition Detection Urged. February 15.” Milwaukee Journal.” Los Angeles Times. “Labeling System Proposed by FDA. and Health. 98 Jeanne Voltz. February 15. 91 Jeanne Voltz.” Los Angeles Times. 94 Jeanne Voltz. March 22. 86 Jeanne Voltz. “Chicken with a Twist. 88 Jeanne Voltz. April 8. 1973. August 5. “Expert Hits Myths on Male Taste. 1971. 1988. 97 Jeanne Voltz. 82 Jeanne Voltz.” Los Angeles Times. “For Gourmets on a Budget. July 23. November 30. 1971. 95 “1969 Conference on Food. “The Cream of Italian Desserts. 83 Jeanne Voltz. http://www. April 27.nih. 1972. “Almendrado.” Los Angeles Times. 1973. January 25. March 2. 1973. 93 Jeanne Voltz. 100 Jeanne Voltz. 1969. 81 — Spring 2012 • 89 . “Kugelhupf.gov/1969/conference. “Are Americans Programmed to Overconsumption of Sugar. 1972.” Los Angeles Times. 1973.” Los Angeles Times. 1963. January 24. September 12. 1971. April 19. 1971. “Spice Apple Pie with Blue Cheese. 92 Jeanne Voltz. 1972.” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times. June 4. 102 Jeanne Voltz. 90 Jeanne Voltz. January 30. “Sushi a Great Snack from Japan. “Nuts Star as the Extra that Glamorize the Ordinary. “FDA Readying First Guidelines on Nutrition. February 7. 103 Jeanne Voltz. 101 Jeanne Voltz. 87 Jeanne Voltz. 99 Jeanne Voltz. 1973.” Los Angeles Times. 1969.” Los Angeles Times. 1973.” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times. “Malnutrition Blamed on Eating Habits. 106 Jeanne Voltz. “Roar of Approval for Curry. “Asparagus Tips for Epicurean Tastes. 89 Jeanne Voltz. “A Mexican Party Buffet by the Pool. 1973. 1973.” Los Angeles Times. 105 Jeanne Voltz. 1961. June 1.” Los Angeles Times.” National Nutrition Summit 2000. March 25.” Los Angeles Times. February 17. Nutrition. 1971. February 6. “Little Water Goes a Long Way.” Los Angeles Times. 84 Jeanne Voltz. “Enchiladas: They’re Easy on the Budget and Hard to Resist.” Los Angeles Times. 1973.” Los Angeles Times. March 15. “Lexicon with a Latin Accent for California Cooking. 96 Peggy Daum.” Los Angeles Times. “Tamales. “Grain Enrichment Law—1970’s Gift to Californians. as Exotic as Sikhs and Saris.

Secret Ingredients: Race. “Food Shopping Rapped by Housewives. “Nutritionists Back School Lunch Bill.” Los Angeles Times. 7. “Standards on Organic Food Questioned.” Los Angeles Times. 129 Jeanne Voltz. “The Rebellion Against Convenience. September 28. 1972. 130 Kathleen Purvis. 127 Jeanne Voltz. October 6. 109 Ibid.” Los Angeles Times. 124 Jeanne Voltz. 1972.” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times. 119 Jeanne Voltz “Home Kitchen a Time Bomb?” Los Angeles Times. Natural Foods Cookbook (New York. 107 90 • American Journalism — . 116 Jeanne Voltz. but What’s Being Done. February 2. 120 Jeanne Voltz.” Los Angeles Times. Inness. Gender. November 11. September 7. Something from the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America. March 4. “How to Protect Consumer. Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times. 1969. 118 Jeanne Voltz. 2004).” Los Angeles Times. “Panel Bakes Grocers Over the Coals. February 16. 1973. Sally Jacobsen and David Minthorn. 1972. 1972. and Class at the Dinner Table (New York: Palgrave MacMillan. 122 Jeanne Voltz “Markets Listening to Shoppers. 1970.” Los Angeles Times. 1971. (New York: Viking. 117 Jeanne Voltz. 1971.. “Overcoming Food Stamp Reservations. “Plan Announced for Food Safety Panel. December 22. June 29. October 4. “Looking Into Health Food Movement. 1971. 123 Jeanne Voltz. “Problems in Food Protection. “Malnutrition in the City. 89.” Charlotte Observer. 101. 110 Jeanne Voltz.” Los Angeles Times. P. 1971. 111 Laura Shapiro. 115 Jeanne Voltz. June 22. 1998. “Word to Eat By. “Round the World on a Meatball Budget. 125 Ibid. 114 Jeanne Voltz. 1972. 131 Dattell Christian. eds.” Los Angeles Times. “Hungry—­ A Lot of Talk About It. 121 Jeanne Voltz. November 19. 2011). 1971. Putnam’s Sons: 1973). “A Vanishing Breed: The Food Taster. 1969. November 4.” Los Angeles Times. “Quick! Quick! Quick!” Los Angeles Times. December 21.” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times. G. 1971. 126 Jeanne Voltz. October 16. AP Stylebook (New York: The Associated Press. 2006). April 18. 128 Sherrie A. 112 Jeanne Voltz. 113 Jeanne Voltz. 108 Ibid. 44. March 23. 1972. February 18. 1972.Jeanne Voltz.

org/pages/about/pressreleases/pr_051611a. 133 Sarah Stage. 132 — Spring 2012 • 91 . 2011. Sarah Stage and Virginia B. ed.ap. 134 See. “Home Economics: What’s in a Name?. for example. 1. http://www. 1997). Carolyn M.“Food is a Focus in 2011 AP Stylebook. 2012).” Associated Press.html. May 16. Creating Consumers: Home Economists in Twentieth-­ Century America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Vincenti (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Goldstein.” in Rethinking Home Economics: Women and the History of a Profession.

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