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Food Journalism or Culinary Anthropology? Re- evaluating Soft News and the Influence of Jeanne Voltz’s Food Section in the Los Angeles Times
By Kimberly Wilmot Voss
Jeanne Voltz was a groundbreaking food editor at the Los Angeles Times in the 1960s— a time of great change for journalism and gender roles. This articles outlines her career path and includes an analysis of her work at the Times, including her approach to food journalism as a mix of hard news, such as food safety and consumer awareness; and soft news, including recipes, and restaurant reviews. The research illuminates the significance of food sections and lays the foundation for future research on the contributions of women to food journalism. efore the success of the Food Network and the popularity of competitive cooking programs such as Bravo’s Top Chef, aspiring foodies relied on the food sections of their local newspapers for their gastronomical fix. These sections, thick with grocery store advertisements in the 1950s and 1960s, originated in the women’s pages— narrowly defined as the fashion and household pages— of metropolitan dailies across the country. A staple of mid- century metropolitan newspapers, food sections continue today. Then as now, food sections reflected gender roles, health standards, and governmental policies about food in a community. They also reflected the develKimberly Wilmot Voss is oping demographic of many cities as new iman associate professor of migrants settled into communities and shared journalism in the Nicholson their dishes. Lastly, these sections related stoSchool of Communication, PO Box 161344, Orlando, ries about food— creating a form of culinary FL 32816–1344. (618)541– anthropology, as Jeanne Voltz, the former Los 4949, voss.kimberly@gmail Angeles Times food editor, once described her .com 66 • American Journalism —
work.1 In her more than forty years as a journalist, Voltz became what one culinary authority described as “the best- k nown food expert you’ve probably never heard of.” 2 Her writing encompassed a mix of the people and the dishes of the communities she covered, the news of governmental and health studies that defined a time period, and an examination of history through food. For example, Voltz once debunked the biblical tale that Eve tempted Adam with an apple. Considering the evolution of language, Voltz wrote, the tempting fruit was likely a mango, a persimmon, or an apricot.3 Food sections do not have a well- documented history beyond brief mentions of women’s pages. (The few newspaper options for women prior to the early 1970s were in the women’s pages. These sections were known for the four Fs: family, fashion, food, and furnishings.) Prior to the women’s liberation movement, food was the rare topic on which women could claim authority. Some of these women’s-section writers were simply cooks for their families looking for paid work, while just as many were college- educated reporters who could not find jobs in the news sections.4 And a third category included graduates of home economics programs who practiced their expertise as food writers.5 Regardless of their backgrounds, they made a difference in the menus of their communities. As gender roles were changing in society, Voltz guided two of the most significant food sections in the country— at the Miami Herald in the 1950s and at the Los Angeles Times in the 1960s. This research analyzes her work at the Times during the heyday of the sections, and shows that a women’s section was laying the foundation for food journalism years well before the current surge. It also demonstrates that food journalism can tell much about a community’s ethnic growth, gender roles, and health issues at a particular time, supporting Voltz’s food anthropologist analogy. By identifying these themes found in Voltz’s reporting, this research establishes a place for Voltz and the value of the food sections in the annals of journalism history. It builds on the work of those who have examined materials like cookbooks, to better understand the lives of women who are often left out of other historical accounts.6 Dismissing the Food Section Myth For years, food sections were viewed as little more than a collection of casserole recipes and plugs for local grocery stores and other advertisers.7 In David Kamp’s captivating history of American food, women’s pages are largely dismissed, although he does — Spring 2012 • 67
few staffers exert more direct influence on readers than the food editor. as well as features about professional women. however. “Hundreds of newspapers. Yet. whose editors wielded notable influence. Voltz’s articles were about topics such as food safety. domestic violence. The reporter noted. and pay inequity were sprinkled among the traditional content. and a look at the Los Angeles Times food section in the 1960s during the Voltz years shows the depth of food journalism. coverage that went beyond recipes. which in the past have paid scant attention to the subject. only the front page and the comics have a bigger readership. noting that the home beat. But these women actually played a significant role in the story of food. As this research shows. According to a 1953 article in Time: “In US dailies.” 13 In 1950. Voltz had a traditional reporting background and developed her food skills later. which reflected a changing American appetite following World War II and the impact of women working outside of the home. the journalism industry publication Editor & Publisher reported that the number of newspaper food editors had grown from 240 to 561 in one year. and consumer issues that might have run counter to the interests of clients advertising in her section. considered the godmother of women’s page editors. Other articles viewed food through societal elements. should follow traditional news values. were also the site of “soft news.9 Food Editors Earn Their Place Women’s pages.” In these sections were fashion news and stories about weddings.refer to the “Jell- O- abusing women’s- page ladies” 8 and their simple newspaper sections. she contributed several stories each week to her section. are realizing the reader interest and the ad68 • American Journalism — .12 A regular part of these women’s sections were food pages. The American Press Institute’s 1951 industry publication Fashion in Newspapers observed that “No aspect of the news is further from the comprehension of the average male editor than fashion.” 10 In addition. just like the police beat. Jurney explained her approach in an article in a 1956 American Society of Newspaper Editors’ publication. these sections afforded women a certain authority.11 Dorothy Jurney. Even after becoming an editor. foreshadowing problems with food contamination that persist today. encouraged other women’s page editors to add stories about political and social issues. stories about child abuse. That is not to dismiss the value of the recipes. where the food section was usually found.
15 The food industry organized meetings for food editors at which the journalists learned about new products and new techniques in food preparation. with the College of Home Economics at Cornell University and whose title was listed as editor. journalistic writing style. the mythical goddess of home and hearth. “How much of your reporting (from the conference) is hard news and how much is plugging?” Further. The journalists regularly socialized with James Beard. “Too often our food pages are first- rate press agentry. A newspaper professional was among the group judging the entries. editor of Public Relations Reporter. It was reported that the Associated Press had assigned a man. in 1965 the judges were William Blair of the New York Times and president of the National Press Club. A primary reason the food editors attended the conferences.17 and Robert Barbour. US Sen. and the Herald Tribune’s Clementine Paddleford. originality.18 Food Journalism Ethics Takes a Hit Journalism is largely guided by a separation between editorial and advertising. had the editors “ever found fault with the food industry and its — Spring 2012 • 69 . Frank Moss of Utah in a speech at a food editors’ meeting raised a concern over advertisers’ influence on food sections. Emilie Hall. the New York Times’ Jane Nickerson. It provided the women a chance to socialize and network at a time when they were excluded from other journalism organizations. In 1971. If there was any question about who was doing the food writing. use of pictures.16 Awards were given in different circulation categories and black- and-white versus color pages. This separation encourages objectivity by making sure that advertisers do not influence the newspaper content.” 14 Whereas most of these sections appear to have run in the women’s pages. The food sections themselves were evaluated on their service to readers. page design. their newspapers regularly publicized the work of the winners. however. consider that the award was named for Vesta.” he argued. to cover the subject. According to food writer David Kamp. was to take part in the reporting contests. nutrition. the Associated Press’ Cecily Brownstone. Jack Ryan. For example. timeliness. only men were quoted in the article. Moss asked the editors. although there is no record of his work in this area. and thoroughness. a prominent American chef.vertising revenue possibilities of food and are appointing qualified editors to turn out readable food pages. the premier New York food journalists of that time were McCall’s editor Helen McCully.
Naturally. realize that ethics have gone the way of buggy whips. She only agreed to leave newspapers for a magazine journalism job after twice being reassured by her new employer that the advertising side would have no influence on her editorial copy.24 In a 1986 handwritten note to fellow journalist Helen Muir. The author also noted that the Los Angeles Times’ competitor. she was a journalist and thus followed the ethical guidelines of her profession. “Food journalism.” 26 The following year. She wrote: “The food editors I know are an extremely conscientious lot.” 27 These authors trivialize the contribu70 • American Journalism — . an industry publication. “The food section is the cash register of the newspaper. responded with a full- page letter to the editor of the Columbia Journalism Review. some of her pronouncements make me take a little less pride in my profession. The author observed. they are concerned about the financial well- being of their newspapers.23 As for Voltz. But they are not about to promote something they think is not good just because the manufacturer is an advertiser. who earned a master’s degree in home economics from Purdue University.” 21 The article featured numerous accusations about conflicts of interest. the food editor avoids thinking of the perhaps- exorbitant cost of the product she will advocate. the Columbia Journalism Review featured an article about the trend dubbed “Food Porn. The article’s subhead was. once a throwaway compendium of recipes and ‘what’s hot’ articles. the American Journalism Review also noted the trend.” 20 It was at this time that the Columbia Journalism Review. Voltz lamented the gossip that the Washington Post was publishing: “Speaking of Sally Quinn. a happy hunting ground for advertisers. as we agree often. Or.product?” 19 In newspaper interviews. was still on the advertising payroll. the Los Angeles Examiner’s food editor.” 25 Historians Discover Food Journalism According to journalism industry publications. featured an investigative article about food reporting.” 22 Food journalist Ann Hamman. In 2003. the popularity of culinary or food journalism is a recent phenomenon. By getting a particular product free of charge on a regular basis. has gone upscale. Moss claimed that food editors operating “in a rarified atmosphere clouded with smoke blown by industry press releases have simply lagged behind the healthy growth of responsible consumer journalism. Voltz (referred to as “Miss Voltz”) was quoted in the story: “The freebee has a subtle effect on the food editor.
but you can’t ever get away from grits and greens. a brief biographical sketch precedes the analysis of Voltz’s writing. — Spring 2012 • 71 . And she used her pulpit to spread local cooks’ favorite recipes. and the stories behind them. Smoked Butts.” 29 Mary Margaret McBride. more research should be dedicated to the historical content of women’s pages.tions of women’s- page journalists. A few historians and culinary writers are just beginning to study these women food journalists. Voltz’s recipe for Green Corn Tamales can be found on the Food Network website with a note giving credit to her acclaimed book.” 32 Hers was one of the first books to establish barbecue as a valued cuisine. throughout the 1950s and 1960s at many newspapers. “The South has the kind of climate that grows certain things the way no other place in the country does.34 Just as more scholarship is directed toward sports reporting. Voltz’s impact persists.28 Long overshadowed by the New York Times’ Craig Claiborne. food writers like Paddleford were quite influential in their time. she simply saw an untold story. One notable example is Hometown Appetites. a master of self- promotion.” 33 She was as much an expert on food as other journalists proved their expertise of foreign policy or courtroom analysis. and Other Great Feeds. Furthermore. by Kelly Alexander and Cynthia Harris. Because little is known about how women typically became food journalists. Today. radio personality and author of Mary Margaret McBride’s Harvest of American Cooking.30 Voltz’s work was different in that she focused on the local fare of Los Angeles and Southern California just as she previously had focused on the regional fare of Florida when the Miami Herald was considered a statewide newspaper. Voltz once said. prior to the demise of the sections in the early 1970s. who. and her story is worth recognizing. featured recipes on a state- by- state basis.31 James Beard wrote of that book. women’s pages were considered a parallel section to the sports pages. from coast to coast. a biography of longtime New York Herald Tribune food reporter Clementine Paddleford. Barbecued Ribs. Her take on barbecue was likely because she was not burdened by the food hierarchy of culinary cuisine. “Jeanne Voltz has written a definitive book on barbecuing. “Paddleford’s genius lay in tapping into what she knew best: authentic home cooking. I’ve worked in Los Angeles and New York. According to an article by Alexander. She understands the varying tastes and the techniques of each region she covers and this is THE book on barbecue. laid the foundation for food journalism.
gave her the gift of teaching a “child to taste. in 1921. Years later she noted of World War II. Emma Coker Appleton.. While in Mobile. who were assuming jobs left vacant by men headed off to war. she wrote. and when the war ended.” introducing her to a range of dishes early in her life. a palate that she would revisit. There she witnessed the crops growing. She DOES something. The Florida city was growing fast after the war.” 35 She noted that her mother. Voltz returned for a class reunion and noted that she had gone to school with an impressive group of women. This proximity to the creation of food is to credit for her later perspective. the cows being milked.” 36 She recalled being a Girl Scout who worked alongside community women at pancake suppers.” 40 It was in Mobile that she developed a taste for fresh seafood. Jeanne Voltz initially 72 • American Journalism — . She graduated in 1942. with plans to be a foreign correspondent.37 She went to school at the Alabama College for Women38 and studied political science and history. In a letter to a friend. she married newspaper editor Luther Voltz. I did a lot of casualty stories. Alabama.” and her father. the family moved to Miami. a significant time for women. Marie Sewell Appleton. “had the nerve to let a curious child invade her kitchen. “I lost so many friends.Life and Times of Jeanne Voltz Food journalist Jeanne Appleton (later Voltz) was born on her grandfather’s farm in Collinsville. and the sausage being made. She wrote that her grandmother. the trap all Southern women had up until that time. where Luther Voltz had worked earlier and had been offered a job at the Miami Herald. The impact of war was always near. rather than becomes Miss Scarlett. She described her family as “experimental eaters. They had two children. It was a busy time in the port city with its growing shipyard and increasing population. Decades later. Jeanne and Luther Jr.” 39 Early Journalism Career She began her career in journalism after college as a general assignment news reporter at the Mobile (AL) Press Register. due in part to the return of soldiers who had been exposed to the area during training at the Servicemen’s Pier. James Lamar Appleton. “contributed mountains of fried chicken to community suppers. “I think we came out of college with the first wave of the modern woman.
Nixon Smiley wrote that Voltz attained the position because of her expertise as a gourmet cook.44 This account is fiction.” 49 As a journalist and the mother of two children.m. a job that offered better hours for a working mother. debunked by Voltz years later in a newspaper interview. after a minor health issue. and the value for her readers. the eminent women’s page editor of the 1950s and 1960s. a section that was a leader in the nation at the time and under the stewardship of Dorothy Jurney. who went on to become the fourth female publisher at Gannett. They were not meat and potatoes anymore. She became a local celebrity. They’d tasted curry.” 46 In the 1950s. The women journalists Jurney mentored likewise acquired this trait. The additional advertising income meant Voltz could take advantage of a significant travel budget to explore a range of regional dishes. Jeanne Voltz first worked on the news side of the newspaper. In 1952.41 She joined her husband at the Herald instead. She later moved to the women’s news section. She was a hard- news journalist. often aided by women’s club members.45 As a result. She replied that she did not know how.” 48 Miami Herald colleague Marjorie Paxson. and soon her photo was featured alongside her articles.47 Jurney described Voltz as “A very good newspaper woman— food or otherwise. Yet. helping run the city desk from 9 a. especially food of the South. to 1 p. editor Lee Hills called her into his office and told her to cover food. He told her to learn. She quickly began to study food. According to Voltz.planned to be a stay- at- home mother. her doctor said lifting and chasing her children would be too much. “In the fifties all husbands — Spring 2012 • 73 . “She had a very practical approach but at the same time she knew the food field and was very good. not a gourmet cook.m.43 She added a mix of more progressive news about needs in the community. She wrote. They’d tasted French food. was a fan of the “marvelous” Voltz. Voltz became the Herald’s food editor. she covered food the same way she covered other news. Husbands came home from war. the significant news hook. Voltz initially played a supporting cooking role to her husband. which would become her specialty. Voltz called it a pivotal time to be in food journalism: “The 1950s were very interesting in food.42 Jurney pre- was known for stretching the definition of women’s news beyond weddings and the fours Fs. In a 1974 official history of the Miami Herald. She looked for the local news angle. the Miami newspaper had a large food section that ran each Thursday.
barbecued. she never forgot that her readers looked to her for cooking advice.” 51 Joining the Los Angeles Times After a decade of low pay at the Herald and with their children nearly grown. “a woman can barbecue as well as a man. Voltz found her niche. and she proclaimed. 74 • American Journalism — . rather than reporting on food as a news beat. recipes required exact instructions and readers were quick to write her if there was a problem with a dish.” as a colleague at the paper reflected.52 Her impact was quickly felt at the newspaper.55 This change was significant. She also helped her readers discover the growth of ethnic food restaurants in Los Angeles at a pivotal time in California food history. with wives as chief assistants and errand girls. the newspaper trumpeted her accomplishments with an article and photo.” which had been established years earlier. which recognized the best regional cookbooks. When she won. Los Angeles.57 Along the way. and the University of Southern California. although it was eventually replaced by Voltz’s byline. She routinely reported on the numerous food industry studies coming out of the University of California. her work was earning national attention. and civilization at UCLA. an expectation of Voltz if she was to work in the section. preparation.” 50 Her role became more central. She won two Tastemaker Awards.56 A review of her section’s content. publisher Otis Chandler wrote that Voltz had been hired to focus on the selection. she wrote under the pseudonym “Marian Manners. The position of food editor was moved out of the advertising department and into the newsroom. Voltz struck up a partnership with her local audience and. though in an article celebrating the Times’ 80th anniversary.58 In 1970. She won six Vesta Awards. Before long. after all. the couple left for the West Coast and the Los Angeles Times in 1960. and serving of food and beverages. clearly demonstrates Voltz’s commitment to covering food as news. wine. in 1970 and 1978. food content was no longer treated as women’s fare and was held up to journalistic scrutiny. however. putting “the food section on its feet. she reached thousands of additional readers. In food journalism. The couple’s move to the West Coast coincided with the Los Angeles Times’ more serious treatment of food news.53 The Times announced the arrival of its new food editor with a newspaper article and photo.54 At times. as her work was syndicated across the country. Voltz studied food. the top recognition for best newspaper food editing and writing.
She initially rejected the job offer from the magazine because she feared the close relationship the editorial side would have with advertisers. Voltz noted that the couples’ first and last meal together was barbecue ribs in a garden in Florida. Fellow magazine food editor Jean Anderson noted that it was unusual for a newspaper food editor to make the transition to the New York magazine community. eventually writing a total of ten.61 In 1983. Voltz included Luther’s recipe for barbecue sauce. and thus Voltz was highly regarded. She was also a member of the Society of Woman Geographers. although theirs was an amicable parting.64 She died in 2002 at age 81. She divorced Luther Voltz. was The Country Ham Book. a friend from her youth. “We were shocked that she was brought in with no magazine experience.” She continued to write cookbooks. Upon her death. along with her friend and Everglades pioneer Marjory Stoneman Douglas and Miami journalist Helen Muir. The food industry was undergoing — Spring 2012 • 75 . But the promise of more than a million readers lured her to take the job. Voltz’s application for the organization listed her specialization as “food anthropology. Voltz stepped down as food editor but stayed at Woman’s Day another three years.60 Voltz entertained in her West Side Manhattan apartment. In a cookbook. published in 1999. as well as author Harper Lee.63 She moved to North Carolina and became active in the Society for the Preservation of Southern Food. a professional organization for women in food- related careers. and she remained a popular judge of barbecue contests. Her final book. Voltz’s arrival in Los Angeles was opportune. When they married in 1988. Voltz became food editor of Woman’s Day magazine in New York.” 65 Outline of Culinary Scholarship This scholarship looks at the food section of the Los Angeles Times in the 1960s and early 1970s: Voltz’s tenure. published after the divorce. In the same book. Voltz became reacquainted with Frank MacKnight.The Post-Times’ Years In 1973. Voltz was a founding member of the local chapter of Les Dames d’Escoffier. cooking for the likes of Beard.” Anderson said. the Los Angeles Times described her as a “pioneering newspaper food editor. they received a large barbecue grill as a wedding present.62 In the mid-1980s. where she remained until 1986.59 While in New York. the first of its kind.
America’s Developing Cuisine Food sections served an important purpose as the country’s city by city. alongside changes in the roles of women in society.67 oral histories of her colleagues Dorothy Jurney and Marjorie Paxson. in Maine. To clarify specific details. fish chowders and baked beans prepared. The dishes described corresponded to the demographics of Los Angeles Times readers as opposed to dishes featured in national food- related magazines. and food safety. “A jaunt through Chinatown. and women in newspapers. It demonstrates how food interacted with a growing city and a developing society.66 the papers of Miami journalist Helen Muir. chronicled the growth of restaurants. chicken pies as rich and creamy as Grandma’s.” 69 Voltz wrote. nutrition. Her cookbooks were also examined to understand her approach to food journalism. Voltz reviewed various area restaurants. soup brewed to the rule of Portuguese settlers. also named Jeanne Voltz. guided the newspaper’s coverage of this change. It also allows for a better understanding of community. in Vermont. information about Voltz came from the papers of the Society of Women Geographers.” Voltz wrote. who knew Voltz. As food editor Kathleen Purvis. A review of the Los Angeles Times food section from 1960 to 1972 revealed the themes of ethnic cuisine. traditions.” 70 It is a way of exploring social history. For example. in Massachusetts fishing villages. then dinner 76 • American Journalism — . “Community kitchens provide settings where rich culinary traditions and the hopes of new lives in America are shared. Voltz. Studying food journalism in the 1960s allows for a better understanding of culinary history. noted. In the early 1960s. In addition to issues of the Los Angeles Times. Many of these restaurants specialized in food from different areas of the world. “Tasting around the country appetite was changing— turns up. and memories. social issues. albeit “Americanized” versions. an interview was conducted with her daughter. as they were in Colonial times. changing gender roles. A review of articles in the decade of the 1960s revealed numerous topics and trends told through food. in February 1961. and noted the increasing trend of eating out. “Food writing touches people’s lives.71 The food section normalized otherwise exotic dishes.68 and interviews Voltz conducted with journalists.significant changes related to governmental scrutiny and regulation. Voltz wrote. as the food editor.
Without the British military and trade missions in the East. if short. Andre’s food and Chianti bottle décor is more Italian than French. “Where else but in California will you find your Japanese neighbors barbecuing shish kebab to go with their avocado salad. but actually it is one of the world’s most splendid desserts. “Don’t let the name Andre’s of Beverly Hills mislead you. The battle is buried in history books. exotic kinds of food were becoming part of the American diet. often called a ‘Turk’s head.” 75 These articles described the range of available food more than offering a critical review of its quality. Voltz wrote. in Studio City. She wrote about a European dessert. but the cake endures. “The nice.at Gen.” 72 The local analysis made foreign food sound less intimidating. tacos.79 In 1971. Lee Man Jen Low is a low- cost. beginning with a short history of the cake pan: “The kugelhupf pan.76 She introduced her readers to Chinese cooking. she featured themed restaurant. especially for family. it’s flavored custard and berry jam. Later that month.78 Voltz’s repertoire included a variety of ethnic dishes.” 73 In April. “Diners who apanother European- preciate the warm spice of Spanish food will find it at Casa Madrid on La Cienega. The literal translation from Italian is English soup. kugelhupf. then with a fine Italian hand. she recommended an Easter meal of Mexican- inspired punch. she took on a new culture. all washed down with California wine. She responded to a reader’s request for an Italian pickling recipe in 1970. although Voltz eventually was more analytical in her writing.” 81 filled with liqueur- Voltz also combined traditional storytelling techniques with the basic elements of a recipe. writing. By the early 1970s.’ reputedly was invented in 1683 after the Turks were defeated at the gates of Vienna. and the Danes up the road serving enchiladas and chiles rellenos. writing: “Zuppa Inglese is a delectable paradox.” she marveled.” she observed. writing. deftly seasoned foods of Old Russia are specialties of the Moskva Cliff on Ventura Blvd.” 74 In July. curry powder and the aromatic heat of Indian cuisine might still be unknown to the West. substitute for a trip to faraway lands. Voltz’s reporting aided in the transition as new.77 and a year later. she authored a cookbook devoted to California cooking.” 82 When she addressed Indian cooking. Sponge cake is cut into layers. she wrote: “Great Britain’s almost 200 years of domination in India opened a flavor gateway for the world’s gastronomes. “Traditionally foods with ties to an ethnic past have been important in regional food customs. she described Italian desserts.80 In a 1973 story. and enchiladas.” 83 In another story on the topic she — Spring 2012 • 77 .
In Madrid they are tapas. One story lauded what she described as a “luxury” vegetable. explaining that. “Yet artfully cooked. “The ubiquitous broiler- f ryer is so standard on everyday menus that hosts and hostesses often are inclined to avoid chicken when planning menus for entertaining.wrote about a meatball recipe that she described as “adventuresome. Voltz wrote that her readers were requesting recipes for enchiladas.94 Eating Healthy The Food and Drug Administration was active in the 1960s and 1970s as more research on nutrition was done and the interest in consumer issues grew. and Health.” 84 Voltz educated her readers on sushi: “In Los Angeles they are called hors d’oeuvre or snacks. cold foamy egg- white pudding.” 85 The most common ethnic style of cooking Voltz wrote about in the 1960s was Mexican food.” 86 In one story. Muscovites call them zakuski. with beans and corn and cheese supplying much of the protein. suggesting cooks use blue cheese rather than cheddar to accompany apple pie. she described a Mexican- themed party buffet at the pool.” 92 In another story she praised the use of nuts as a source of extra protein in recipes—“Nuts are an ancient food”— and noted that nuts were mentioned more than 70 times in the Old Testament and still are produced in the Holy Lands and other parts of the Middle East. “The conversion of a Middle Westerner or Easterner to California cookery usually is complete when tostada. tamale.” 88 Other stories ranged from the simple tamale89 to the more exotic dessert almendrado — described as a tri- colored.” she wrote.” she wrote. tortilla. Nutrition. and garnished chicken can be epicurean fare indeed. taco. “Fresh spring asparagus is cause for cele bration by epicures. and taquito become part of the household kitchen vernacular. sauced. Sushi is a savory tidbit of cold vinegared rice pressed or molded into any of several shapes and finished with tiny pieces of seafood or fish. which would 78 • American Journalism — . Most noticeable was the 1969 White House Conference on Food.87 In another article.90 Voltz encouraged her readers to experiment by adding unusual ingredients to typical recipes. In Japan they are sushi.93 Voltz even spiced up traditional American foods. “The exotic fragrance of curry seasonings creates excitement in the most ordinary foods.91 She also encouraged cooks to explore new ways to cook standard- fare chicken. “Mexican cuisine in general is low cost. since meat is used sparingly. seasoned.” She noted. Voltz wrote.
noting that sugar was often a hidden ingredient. In several stories. and food industry representatives over what the requirements should be.97 The work of the federal agency.” 100 In 1972. Voltz also conducted an investigation of the foods in the local grocery store. she traveled to Houston to a meeting of food editors.” 101 For the story. At the meeting.” 96 Voltz covered that White House meeting and reported the need to address malnutrition due to poverty. Milwaukee Journal food editor Peggy Daum emphasized the continued significance of that summit: “It has been referred to as the Vatican II of the food world. an FDA official addressed the group. Voltz covered the FDA as it readied for the first guidelines on nutrition for processed foods in 1971. looking for what was printed on the labels and reporting the results.102 For another story. He said malnutrition was a result of poor eating habits rather than a poor food supply. In an article the following year.change the course of food policy in the country. meant that the content of Voltz’s section went well beyond including recipes. He also credited newspapers with providing information on proper nutrition. This was the kind of reporting that Senator Moss had called for earlier. She researched the problem by examining the ingredients list on different packaged foods. food labeling.” 95 Nearly 20 years after that meeting. For one story. along with the food research being conducted at Los Angeles universities. Voltz questioned the overconsumption of sugar in Americans’ diets.103 With an emphasis on — Spring 2012 • 79 . She quoted a home economist who had lobbied for passage of the bill: “Since so many people use highly processed foods without really knowing what they contain.99 She described the new policy as “a mixed blessing–or at least brought mixed responses. Voltz wrote about a California law that would require enrichment in grains to improve nutritional value. and the school lunch program. describing the new Recommended Daily Allowance guidelines that replaced the 1941 Minimum Daily Requirement. she interviewed a nutrition expert from the American Medical Association. About two- thirds of the states already had similar laws and California was debating possible legislation. She covered the various meetings with consumer advocates. “Several landmark policy efforts with profound and lasting effects emerged from this conference.98 A few years later she covered the FDA- required nutrition labeling guidelines. According to a government report based on the meeting. scientists. this can be important in improving total nutrition. including expansions of the food stamp program.
She began by describing the 72- year career of William Titon. she viewed food in a broader context. there is very little imagination here. Taking a typical approach to news. and human interest. the director of the restaurant in the Dallas- based Neiman- Marcus department store while the Texan was on vacation in Los Angeles. men were just as likely to order fruit salads and soufflés. “Tasting has become almost a quaint custom by today’s merchandising standards. She also documented culinary trends such as the development of convenience foods and the conflict over their nutritional value. while women ordered steak and hamburgers. glorifies fresh vegetables. Young folk proudly proclaim they never use a frozen or canned vegetable.” 108 Women’s roles are often connected to the preparation of food. low price and one of nature’s most nutritious gifts to man. She spoke with food experts when they visited her city and explored their expertise. Not afraid to include a critique of her community. Voltz’s section also included people in the food industry and issues related to food. Corbit freely shared her views on food and gender and proclaimed there was a myth that men were meat- and- potato eaters whereas women preferred chicken and salads. largely a return to Grandma’s fundamentals.” 104 In another article. She said that in her restaurant. Voltz profiled Helen Corbit.” 106 Voltz used a story about a wine and food taster to critique the food industry overall. the legendary Macy’s department store food- taster. In 1963.nutrition. Lastly. Corbit also expressed disappointment in Los Angeles restaurants. a particular vegetable: “Cabbage is that budget- always available at a very low. proximity. as she outlined the problem of hunger in the United States. conflict. Voltz offered up Corbit’s rebuke in the story: “I think with the wealth of fresh fruit and vegetables.107 She argued that the food industry was largely based on packaging and advertising schedules rather than focusing on whether the food tasted good or was nutritious: “The major bastion of honest- to- goodness tasting is food manufacturing plants.” she wrote.” 105 Food Intersects with Life In addition to articles about types of food and food policies. Voltz wrote about how to prepare vegetables in order to maintain the most nutrients: “The ‘new’ cooking. During her vacation. she focused on timeliness. 80 • American Journalism — . she described nutritional and financial value of pampering wonder.
several of the women used as role models were not described as homemakers. Another career girl fries chicken from scratch— just as her grandmother did. and cream puffs. “The poor generally select foods more wisely than the affluent.115 In another article that month. a novel idea. noting that students would be better able to learn if they were well- fed. Voltz examined the food needs on the nearby Havasupai — Spring 2012 • 81 . In examining the problem of malnutrition. Voltz did not feel beholden to this requisite in her newspaper section. Voltz wrote about proposed legislation that would have required healthier school lunches. veal cordon bleu.” 109 Voltz would provide recipes for those opposed to cooking with shortcuts for meals such as baked polenta. and pregnant women who could not afford to eat properly. Her story followed up a federal study that identified places where malnutrition occurred in the nation.” 114 Also that year. The story examined food as an educational issue. quoting him. Voltz wrote about the problem of hunger in America. At risk were children who were hungry by noon.” she declared. On the other hand. She began by quoting a senator who noted there was talk about hunger but no action was being taken. or quick recipes intended for the “busy mother or volunteer worker who has scant time for the kitchen” 110 that could still perk up a menu. she would include recipes for women who were too busy to cook from scratch.113 Voltz reported a meeting in Mexico City of the International Congress of Nutrition. we can go that way. “California’s unwritten nutrition policy is at a crossroads. Voltz wrote: “A young career girl bakes and serves tortes that outdo the efforts of a professional pastry chef. Voltz also wrote about a growing rebellion against the convenience- food explosion.600 short- cut foods. seeking a balance between the sophisticated and the simple. She received inspiration from friend and culinary legend James Beard. “If we want to do it from scratch. The potential decline of women’s home- cooked meals threatened tradition. The bill ultimately passed so that students would have hot lunches. For example. she interviewed a professor who pointed out the common misconception that. In another issue.” 112 In 1972. If we want to serve convenience foods that take little time. In a change from previous stories. one of the most progressive laws in the country at the time. Grocery stores were full of more than 4.111 Voltz described the kind of cooks who years later might embrace Martha Stewart for her “scratch- made” meals. we can.with the expectation that cooking was not cooking unless from scratch.
He expressed his belief that a lack of food knowledge was based on how children were educated. It was in response to what she had learned at a recently attended conference of the Western Food Processing Industry. Regulating the Food Industry As consumer news increased in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In California. you can offer an epicurean treat. Voltz wrote about the ease of preparation and economic value of meatballs. since most of it is taught to girls in home economics. Voltz highlighted this need for consumer protection in a story about the agency and quoted its original director. food- industry safety became a regular topic in Voltz’s section. “For only a few cents a serving. Voltz published stories suggesting ways to prepare a nutritious meal on a budget. and although it exists today as an agency to regulate professional services. speaking at a related conference. Voltz began with the story of Gene George. who rode on horseback to the reservation to explain the details of the food- stamp programs and the problem of hunger in the community.119 In another story on food safety. the Department of Consumer Affairs was created in 1970. she addressed problems of contamination in the poultry industry. He noted that most reactions to safety issues were emotional rather than reasoned responses to scientific problems. Leighton Hatch: “The consumer has the right to know that the goods he purchases are safe for himself.” 118 Voltz’s numerous food safety stories throughout the early 1970s included an article focusing on a food scientist who described the average home kitchen as a “food poisoning time bomb” and warned of the dangerous organisms lurking in kitchens.” 120 In another story. a coordinator with the Food Advocates.” 121 82 • American Journalism — .” not “consumer panic. You may think of tires as being safe. and he blamed the ignorance on restrictive gender distinctions: “Half our population— the men— are taught no nutrition at all. the president of the Institute of Food Technology.117 Other stories also noted how cooks could save money when shopping for groceries. and there was an emphasis on women taking extra care while shopping at the grocery store. in its original form it included oversight of food. announced the need for consumer education about food.116 As a potential solution to the hunger issue.Indian Reservation. It was determined that the current attitude was of “consumer concern. too. but this applies to food. The country was experiencing a recession in the 1970s.” she wrote.
especially ingredients of snack foods their children craved.” The growth of the counterculture community in Berkeley clearly had an impact on food in the state. She questioned again the meaning of the term “organic. the increase of health food stores was a reaction against the massive US food industry. In the introduction.128 The power of the consumer and the power of motherhood made for a strong combination in food coverage. who in turn wanted the media to take the topic of food safety seriously. although she made several references to organic food in the early 1970s. and they remained ambiguous until the passage of the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990. decades earlier.” this time in a story about grocers facing off with angry customers. Voltz noted that.124 The shoppers accused the businesses of having poor- quality foods and not weighing food accurately. Central to the research was the question about the sociological aspects of the movement. who included a black mother at a time when minorities were often excluded from newspaper coverage. At the meeting. The mothers accused the food industry of providing consumers with puffery about products rather than information about nutrition. Voltz advised that food consumers demand organic foods at their supermarkets for better value and safety. Voltz covered a panel in Las Vegas in which homemakers with children critiqued their experiences with the food industry in front of 70 food scientists.” 127 Voltz’s expertise in the growing health- food movement was a significant one at the time. she wrote of the trend. also questioned the rising costs of food and the high level of fat. the grocers sought to open communication with consumers. Experts believed the trend of health food would continue in the future.125 Voltz also covered the results of a three- year study about the health- food movement and organic food.129 — Spring 2012 • 83 . “The home cook who bakes good honest bread.122 Later in the story. particularly in relation to food safety.Voltz’s work preceded the current organic food revolution by a few decades.” she asked. They requested more nutritional information. The women. The researcher found tensions between the first- wave health- food advocates and “hippies. makes a fragrant soup or stew from scratch or prepares her own homemade pie is regarded as the culinary genius of the 1970s. she posed a how question that remains a conundrum within the food industry— is “organic” defined? “What is organic. organically shipped or organically grown food.126 Voltz capitalized on the wave and wrote a cookbook about natural foods.123 There were no clear guidelines at the time.
it is usually a matter of politics. Her impact and her knowledge are vast.131 The 2011 edition includes a section devoted to food. grammar. a food editor and charter member of Julia Child’s American Institute of Food and Wine. In a recent example of their continued marginalization. the work of Voltz is an opportune place to start. 84 • American Journalism — .134 It is time to do the same for food sections and the women journalists who toiled in obscurity to produce them. and usage. While Jeanne Voltz was under consideration. business.” wrote one scholar. “Her career goes bicoastal. According to an AP press release. the annually updated “Journalist’s Bible” of style. the impetus for the addition was the media’s newfound interest in food. “Until recently women’s historians largely dismissed home economics as little more than a conspiracy to keep women in the kitchen. These sections gave women a voice and an opportunity to develop expertise.” such as war correspondents. Her marginalization in culinary history parallels the lack of recognition of women food editors in journalism history. If food sections are to be written into journalism history. historians have re- evaluated the field and in doing so. She is very gifted. raised its status.133 However. food journalism has long been a fixture among the media. newswriting. Studying their contributions serves to establish those voices as a valuable part of American mass media history. publisher ABC- CLIO began collecting names for a book based on the icons of American cooking.” said Terry Ford. the four Fs of the women’s pages are largely forgotten. or sports. she was not selected. More attention should be paid to the content of food sections and the careers of food editors. When you read something Jeanne Voltz writes. consider the Associated Press Stylebook.Conclusion In 2009. to name a few.” 130 Other food journalists whose careers merit study include Jane Nickerson of the New York Times. which more often celebrates women reporters who generate “hard news. very crafted. When specialized reporting is studied. you can say it was 100 percent thoroughly researched. Ruth Ellen Church of the Chicago Tribune. too. women’s pages have been looked at by many scholars as sections that did little more than reinforce women’s traditional role. For too long.132 yet. This was once how the field of home economics was viewed. as this article has demonstrated. “She’s an extraordinary person. and Cecily Brownstone of the Associated Press.
1983). no. Petersburg. interview by Anne S. folder 9.” Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture 4. Library of Congress. Eat My Words: Reading Women’s Lives Through the Cookbooks They Wrote (New York: Palgrave MacMillian. a charter member of Julia Child’s American Institute of Food and Wine. “Newspaper Food Pages: Credibility for Sale. 8 David Kamp. 2003). Spring 2007. Knopf. Taking Their Place: A Documentary History of Women and Journalism. Florida Cookbook: From Gulf Coast Gumbo to Key Lime Pie (New York: Alfred A. An Apple a Day (New York: Irena Chalmers Cookbooks. 10 Garrett D. said this about Jeanne Voltz. 7 Richard Karp. 1951). 104–111. Records of the Society of Woman Geographers. August 31. 12 Dorothy Jurney. Kimberly Wilmot Voss. “Forgotten Feminist: Women’s Page Editor Maggie Savoy and the Growth of Women’s Liberation Awareness in Los Angeles. 1. William Alex McIntosh and Mary Zey. 1993). “Words to Eat By. November/December 1971. Spring 2009.” Southwest Historical Quarterly. eds. (Washington. Manuscript Collection. 1993). 3. 2006). 6 Janet Theophano. 1990. Application for the Society of Woman Geographers. “Women as Gatekeepers of Food Consumption. 1 — Spring 2012 • 85 . 9 One of Voltz’s best- k nown recipes was for the Florida version of key lime pie.” California History. 11 Kimberly Wilmot Voss. no. 1981. “Vivian Castleberry: A Case Study of How a Women’s Page Editor Lived and Translated the News of a Social Movement. 398–421. DC: The American University Press. March 2011. The United States of Arugula: How We Became a Gourmet Nation (New York: Broadway Books. “Dorothy Jurney: The ‘Godmother’ of Women’s Page Editors.” Food and Foodways 3. “Anne Rowe Goldman: Refashioning Women’s News in St. 4 Maurine Beasley and Sheila Gibbons. 4 (1989): 319–321. Kasper.. the Evansville Indiana Courier women’s page editor Ann Hamman had a master’s degree in home economics from Purdue University. 36–44.Endnotes Jeanne Voltz. 2 (2004): 35–42. 2 Terry Ford. 5 For example. 3 Jeanne Voltz.” Florida Historical Quarterly. “Romanced by Cookbooks. February 18. Spring 2007. 10. Kathleen Purvis. Kimberly Wilmot Voss. no. January 16. “A Women’s Page Pioneer: Marie Anderson and Her Influence at the Miami Herald and Beyond. 165–66. Kimberly Wilmot Voss. Kimberly Wilmot Voss and Lance Speere. Anna Bower. 1 (Spring 2010): 13–22. Jeanne Voltz and Caroline Stuart. 48–64. 6. Florida.” Columbia Journalism Review. box II.” Charlotte Observer. 1998.” FCH Annals: Journal of the Florida Conference of Historians. Fashion in Newspapers (New York: American Fashion Institute by Columbia University Press. 514–532.” Journalism History 36. Byrnes.
May/ June 1972. February/ March 2004. Putnam’s Sons. “Editors Criticized by Senator. 50. July 18. Papers of Helen Muir. 29 Kelly Alexander.” Columbia Journalism Review. 2005). folder 173. box 13. 1971. The United States of Arugula. 1950. 1972.” Washington Press Club Foundation Oral History Project. January 9. 31 Jeanne Voltz. 16 “Journal Wins Award at Food Conference. Susan Ware.” American Journalism Review. Special Collections.wpcf. teaching. “Newspaper Food Pages: Credibility for Sale. 18 “Vesta Award to Journal Food Writer. at the Milwaukee Journal. University of Miami.” Milwaukee Journal. January 16. It’s One O’Clock and Here Is Mary Margaret McBride (New York: New York University Press. 13 “The Press: The Kitchen Department.” Editor & Publisher.00.saveur. See also.pdf. 38. 20 July 1986.” Los Angeles Times.823077. 20 Jack Anderson. Hometown Appetites: The Story of Clementine Paddleford. 25 Jeanne Voltz to Helen Muir. 14 Ray Irwin. letter to the editor. the Forgotten Food Writer Who Chronicled How America Ate (New York: Gotham Press.” Milwaukee Journal. 27 Doug Brown. “Moss to Probe Newsmen. 1965. November/December 1971. “Haute Cuisine. September 28.html. 2002. Columbia Journalism Review. 22 Ibid. Feminist. 1969. “Newspapers Find Food Profitable News Subject.” Columbia Journalism Review. Knopf. 2007. October 19. October 8. 41.. Smoked Butts and Other Great Feeds (New York: Alfred A.com/article/Kitchen/Hometown- Appetites/1. 15 Kamp. http://www. 24 Interview with Jeanne Voltz (daughter). 21 Richard Karp. the sports editor and the 86 • American Journalism — .” Milwaukee Journal. Emilie Hall was responsible for developing journalistic material for the extension. July 15.html. “Hometown Appetites. September/ October 2003.” Tuscaloosa (Alabama) News. and research for home economics audiences. Mary Margaret McBride’s Harvest of American Cooking (New York: G.org/oralhistory/jurn1. 2008). http://beta. 19 Peggy Daum. “Food Porn.” Time. 30 Mary Margaret McBride. September 24. 81. 34 In one example. 28 Kelly Alexander and Cynthia Harris. 2008. 61. 33 “Jeanne Voltz.ecommons. 26 Molly O’Neill. 1953. November 19.“Women in Journalism. 32 Ibid. http://www.” Saveur.edu/bitstream/1813/17970/2/ Hall_Emilie_Towner_1981. Barbecued Ribs. 57.com/time/magazine/article/0.time. 1996).9171. 36. 1956). Past Editor of the Times’ Food Section. 17 In this position.cornell. http:// www. 23 Ann Hamman.
Washington Press Club Foundation. 52 Kathleen Purvis. 41 Ibid. 42 In 1950. dedication. “Duet Dinners Are Easy to Prepare These Days with New Food Packaging. Session 1. 1990). “L. “Word to Eat By. 1998. April 10. 54 “Miami Writer New Times Food Editor. Robert W. 1977). Barbecuing Ribs. 48 Dorothy Jurney. folder 174. Special Collections. Smoked Butts and Other Great Feeds (New York: Knopf. The Milwaukee Journal: An Informational Chronicle of its First 100 Years (Milwaukee.women’s page editor joined together to demand to be paid as much as the news editors. September 13.” Culinary Historians of Southern California. 40 Kathleen Purvis. American Society of Newspaper Editors.” Los Angeles Times. 1960. http://www. 1953. September 19. dedication. 1984). 1 January 1956. 44 Nixon Smiley. 36 Jeanne Voltz. Miami Herald Editor Lee Hills called longtime women’s page journalist Dorothy Jurney and asked her a question: “Could you take on the women’s editorship so that we could get something in the paper that is worth reading?” See Kimberly Wilmot Voss. 50 Jeanne Voltz. box 13.A.” Miami Herald. Times Food Gals. x. 1998.html. Community Suppers and Other Glorious Repasts (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 37 Jeanne Voltz. 46 Ibid. Knights of the Fourth Estate: The Story of the Miami Herald (Miami: Banyan.” Charlotte Observer. 1998. http://www. Women in Journalism. WI: Milwaukee Journal. 38 The college later became the University of Montevallo. 18 February 1982. 2010. The Flavor of the South (New York: Random House. “Words to Eat By. February 18.” Charlotte Observer. http://chscsite. 39 Jeanne Voltz to Helen Muir. 1991. 53 Barbara Hanson. “Women in Journalism. 1990.org/food- section- gals/.” The Bulletin. Wells. February 18.wpcf.html. University of Miami.wpcf. Community Suppers and Other Glorious Repasts (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. January 16. — Spring 2012 • 87 . 58. 24. no. 47 Jeanne Voltz. 45 Kathleen Purvis. January 16.” Journalism History 36. Session 3. 51 Ibid. 1 (Spring 2010). 43 Dorothy Jurney. 1988). 1981). Papers of Helen Muir. “Dorothy Jurney: A National Advocate for Women’s Pages as They Evolved and Then Disappeared. 35 Jeanne Voltz. 5. 1988).” Charlotte Observer. Washington Press Club Foundation.org/oralhistory/ ohhome. Women in Journalism. 49 Marjorie Paxson. 39.org/oralhistory/ ohhome. February 18. “Words to Eat By.
1961. and Other Great Feeds (New York.” Los Angeles Times. “Not Just Jello and Hot Dishes: Representative Foods of Minnesota. “Les Dames d’Escoffier International. Knopf: 1990). 64 Interview with Kathleen Purvis.” Los Angeles Times. Add a Dash of Mexico. the First Celebrity Cooks. Alfred A. 58 Associated Press. September 29. 68 Dorothy Jurney and Marjorie Paxson. 76 Barbara G. June 24.” Journal of Cultural Geography. For example.org/history. June 24. Lloyd Wendt. 62 Jeanne Voltz. “For Flavor. July 2. 77 Jeanne Voltz. “Californians Bow to Chinese Cookery Californians Bow to Chinese Cuisine. Records of the Society of Woman Geographers. 1979). 79 Jeanne Voltz. “Marian Manners.wpcf. University of Miami. Voltz was president of the organization from 1985 to 1987 and helped it expand. 1998. “An Octogenarian and Still More Growth Ahead.” Los Angeles Times. http://www. “Dining Out.” Los Angeles Times. 57 Interview with Kathleen Purvis. June 24.” Los Angeles Times. Fall/Winter 2003. 75 Jeanne Voltz. Smoked Butts.” www. 1.” Los Angeles Times. February 12. December 3. 81. It was not unusual for food writers to adopt pen names. 67 Papers of Helen Muir. 70 Jeanne Voltz. 71 Ibid. 2010. January 16. 1961. April 4. Library of Congress. “True Italian Recipes for Pickled Peppers. 1961. Chicago Tribune: The Rise of a Great American Newspaper (Chicago: Rand McNally & Company. 59 Interview with Jean Anderson. 2009. 2010. 66 Jeanne Voltz Membership form. 72 Jeanne Voltz. Manuscript Collection. 725–726. Prudence Penny. “Dining Out. February 18. 63 Ibid.” Los Angeles Times. folder 9. June 26.Jenn Garbee. September 17. 1970. Barbecued Ribs. June 30. longtime Chicago Tribune food editor Ruth Ellen Church wrote under the pen name “Mary Meade” for most of her career. 55 88 • American Journalism — . 2010. Special Collections.” Los Angeles Times. 80 Jeanne Voltz. The organization continues today.” Los Angeles Times. April 30. Women in Journalism oral history project. ix. 74 Jeanne Voltz. 1970). 1971. 1966.org /oralhistory/ohhome. 60 Nancy Brussat Barocci. April 22. 73 Jeanne Voltz. 2010. Inc. History. 1961. 65 “Jeanne Voltz. “Dining Out. “Word to Eat By. 1961. xii. box II.html 69 Interview with Kathleen Purvis. Community Suppers and Other Glorious Repasts. 2002.asp.” Los Angeles Times. 79.” Los Angeles Times.” Charlotte Observer. Shortridge. The California Cookbook (New York: The Bobbs- Merrill Company.ldei. February 5. 61 Kathleen Purvis. Washington Press Club Foundation. Past Editor of the Times’ Food Section. 56 Otis Chandler. “The Times’ Jeanne Voltz Wins Vesta Food Award. 1969. 78 Jeanne Voltz. See. “Dining Out.
“Roar of Approval for Curry. 1972. 92 Jeanne Voltz. 1972. 1973. 1971. 1988. 91 Jeanne Voltz. 85 Jeanne Voltz.” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times.Jeanne Voltz. 104 Jeanne Voltz. 1973.” Los Angeles Times. “Spice Apple Pie with Blue Cheese. 101 Jeanne Voltz. August 5. March 15. “Kugelhupf.” Los Angeles Times. 96 Peggy Daum.” Los Angeles Times. 1973. 102 Jeanne Voltz. “A Mexican Party Buffet by the Pool. January 24. 1971.” Los Angeles Times. 1973. Nutrition.gov/1969/conference. January 28. March 2.nns. 1973. 105 Jeanne Voltz.nih. 88 Jeanne Voltz. April 8.” Los Angeles Times. as Exotic as Sikhs and Saris. 1969.” Los Angeles Times. January 25. 100 Jeanne Voltz.” Los Angeles Times. March 25. 82 Jeanne Voltz. 95 “1969 Conference on Food.” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times. January 7. February 15.” Los Angeles Times. 89 Jeanne Voltz. 1973. “For Gourmets on a Budget. 1971. “Enchiladas: They’re Easy on the Budget and Hard to Resist. 94 Jeanne Voltz.” Los Angeles Times. “The Cream of Italian Desserts. “Grain Enrichment Law—1970’s Gift to Californians. 99 Jeanne Voltz. 1973. July 23. “A Retrospective. 1971. “Little Water Goes a Long Way. 97 Jeanne Voltz. February 17. 86 Jeanne Voltz. April 27. and Health. “Labeling System Proposed by FDA. 90 Jeanne Voltz.” Los Angeles Times. “Lexicon with a Latin Accent for California Cooking. September 12. January 30. April 8. 83 Jeanne Voltz. February 15. 103 Jeanne Voltz. 1972. “Malnutrition Detection Urged.htm.” Los Angeles Times. 84 Jeanne Voltz. April 19.” Los Angeles Times. http://www.” Los Angeles Times. March 22.” Los Angeles Times. November 30.” Los Angeles Times. “Sushi a Great Snack from Japan. 1961. “Asparagus Tips for Epicurean Tastes. 1973.” Los Angeles Times. 1963. February 6. “Expert Hits Myths on Male Taste. “Malnutrition Blamed on Eating Habits. “Tamales. “FDA Readying First Guidelines on Nutrition. 98 Jeanne Voltz. 1969. “You Can Thank Mad Dogs and Englishmen for Indian Curry.” Los Angeles Times. December 27.” Milwaukee Journal. June 4. June 1. “Cheers and Jeers for New Nutrient Labeling Regulations. “Almendrado. February 7. “Are Americans Programmed to Overconsumption of Sugar. 81 — Spring 2012 • 89 . 1971. 1972. 93 Jeanne Voltz. “Chicken with a Twist. 106 Jeanne Voltz. 1973. 1973. 1972.” National Nutrition Summit 2000.” Los Angeles Times. 87 Jeanne Voltz. “Nuts Star as the Extra that Glamorize the Ordinary.
123 Jeanne Voltz. G. 119 Jeanne Voltz “Home Kitchen a Time Bomb?” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times. February 18. 1971. 120 Jeanne Voltz. 1969. 1972. “Overcoming Food Stamp Reservations. “How to Protect Consumer. 122 Jeanne Voltz “Markets Listening to Shoppers. “A Vanishing Breed: The Food Taster. P. eds. 2011). February 2. 118 Jeanne Voltz. 1971. “Round the World on a Meatball Budget.” Los Angeles Times.Jeanne Voltz. 1972. 131 Dattell Christian.” Los Angeles Times. October 6. 110 Jeanne Voltz. September 7. 115 Jeanne Voltz. June 22. 1971. September 28. 1998. “Malnutrition in the City. June 29. 112 Jeanne Voltz. “Hungry— A Lot of Talk About It. February 16. 111 Laura Shapiro.” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times. 129 Jeanne Voltz. 126 Jeanne Voltz. “Quick! Quick! Quick!” Los Angeles Times.” Los Angeles Times. Sally Jacobsen and David Minthorn. “Problems in Food Protection. 130 Kathleen Purvis. and Class at the Dinner Table (New York: Palgrave MacMillan.” Los Angeles Times. 109 Ibid.” Los Angeles Times. 7.” Los Angeles Times. but What’s Being Done. 128 Sherrie A. Secret Ingredients: Race. Natural Foods Cookbook (New York. November 19. 1971. 124 Jeanne Voltz. 113 Jeanne Voltz. Putnam’s Sons: 1973). March 4. 127 Jeanne Voltz. 1972. Inness. 2004). October 16. 125 Ibid. 89. 114 Jeanne Voltz.” Los Angeles Times. 117 Jeanne Voltz. “The Rebellion Against Convenience. 1972. 107 90 • American Journalism — . 101. March 23. “Nutritionists Back School Lunch Bill. 1971.” Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. 108 Ibid.” Los Angeles Times. 44. 1972. November 11. Something from the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America. 1970. “Word to Eat By. 121 Jeanne Voltz. “Panel Bakes Grocers Over the Coals. December 21. “Looking Into Health Food Movement. AP Stylebook (New York: The Associated Press. 1971. 1969.” Charlotte Observer. 1973.” Los Angeles Times. December 22. 1972. Gender. “Plan Announced for Food Safety Panel. 2006). “Food Shopping Rapped by Housewives. April 18. “Standards on Organic Food Questioned.. (New York: Viking. 116 Jeanne Voltz. November 4. 1972. October 4.” Los Angeles Times.
Carolyn M. 1.“Food is a Focus in 2011 AP Stylebook. 134 See. 132 — Spring 2012 • 91 . 1997). Vincenti (Ithaca: Cornell University Press.org/pages/about/pressreleases/pr_051611a. “Home Economics: What’s in a Name?.ap.” Associated Press. Creating Consumers: Home Economists in Twentieth- Century America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.html. 2011. http://www. Sarah Stage and Virginia B. 133 Sarah Stage. 2012). Goldstein.” in Rethinking Home Economics: Women and the History of a Profession. for example. ed. May 16.
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