Product Name CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev.

B Product Version

Confidentiality Level

Total 42 pages

White Paper for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev.B Network Planning

Prepared by

Chen Siyan Zhang Congling, Jiang

Date

2009-12-30

Reviewed by Approved by Approved by

Jindi, and Jiang Zongjie

Date Date Date

2009-01-12

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All Rights Reserved

White Paper for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev.B Network Planning

SECRET

Revision History
Date 20091230 Version V1.0 Description Completed the initial draft. Modified, supplemented, and restructured 20100112 V1.3 the document according to review Chen Siyan comments. Zhang Prepared by Congling, Jiang

Jindi, and Chen Siyan

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White Paper for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev.B Network Planning
Keywords DORB, frequency, coverage, capacity, CE, interoperation Abstract The document describes key technologies and strengths of DORB and its impacts on network planning. Acronyms and Abbreviations Acronyms and Abbreviations QN SAR DTX DRX TIC PIC HARQ RLP ACK NAK PN TCA MRU PRL CE Queue Number Segmentation and Reassembly Discontinued Transmit Discontinued Receive Total Interference Cancellation Pilot Interference Cancellation Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Radio Link Protocol Acknowledged NOT Acknowledged Pseudorandom Noise Traffic Channel Assignment message Most Recently Used Priority Roaming List Channel Element Full Spelling

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Reference (1) White Paper for Huawei DORB Solution V1.1(20091020) (2) White Paper for Huawei DORB Solution V1.1 (20091020) (3) Introduction to CDMA2000 1xEVDO Rev.B (20090526) (4) Introducation to CDMA2000 1x EVDO RevB V1.0 (20090608) (5) Technical_Rev.B Overview_030606 (6) C.S0002-0_v3.0 Physical Layer Standard for cdma2000 Spread Spectrum Systems (7) White Paper for CDMA Neighboring Protection Band Analysis and Interference Solution 20060906

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1 DORB Features and Strengths
EV-DO Rev.B (DORB) is an evolution from EV-DO Rev.A. It further improves the forward and reverse rates, increases the utilization of frequency bands, reduces the cost per bit, and provides better quality of service (QoS) assurance and enhanced user experience. DORB distinguishes between phase 1 and phase 2. This document mainly describes phase 1.

1.1 Overview of Features
(1) Phase 1 features
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Multi-carrier binding brings the forward peak rate up to 9.3 Mbps and the reverse peak rate up to 5.4 Mbps. Multi-carrier binding increases the high-rate coverage area and helps to enhance the experience of edge users. Multi-carrier binding decomposes a high-rate data flow into multiple low-rate data flows for transmission and thus reduces the required Eb/Nt and access terminal (AT) power and increases the reverse capacity. Multilink Radio Link Protocol (RLP), multi-carrier best-effort assignment, and adaptive load balancing help to obtain a frequency diversity gain and increase the resource utilization and thus bring a 5–25% increase of forward capacity (according to Qualcomm's emulation).

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Short delay provides better QoS assurance.

(2) Phase 2 features
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Feedback multiplexing enables more efficient use of CEs. Support for 8192-byte packets and 64 quadrature amplitude modulation (64QAM) increases the forward peak rate of one carrier to 4.9 Mbps and that of three bound carriers up to 14.7 Mbps. DRX, DTX, and QPCH capabilities reduce the power consumption of terminals effectively and the total time of user communication is 30% longer. The CSM6850 chip integrates TIC and PIC functions with higher spectrum efficiency and larger voice over IP (VoIP) capacity.

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1.2 Multi-Carrier Binding
The most important feature in phase 1 is multi-carrier binding. High-rate data is transmitted over multiple carriers in parallel and reassembled at the base station controller (BSC) and the terminal, as shown in Figure 1-1. Figure 1-1 Multi-carrier binding of DORB

Multi-carrier binding creates a resource pool and enables adaptive load balancing. Compared with a single-carrier system, a multi-carrier system enables joint scheduling of service requests over multiple carriers with the frequency selectiveness of radio channels. The system thus obtains a diversity gain from scheduling and therefore the system capacity is increased. In addition, if a high-rate data flow over one carrier is decomposed into multiple middle/low-rate data flows over multiple carriers, a higher HARQ gain will be obtained and the transmit power of the terminal will be lower and thus the data throughput of the system will be increased.

1.2.1 Multilink RLP
In a multi-carrier system, multiple data packets belonging to one data flow are transmitted and combined over multiple carriers by multilink RLP. The main purpose of multilink RLP is to recombine the data distributed over different carriers at the receiving end according to the sequence numbers set at the time of transmission. Multilink RLP is shown in Figure 1-2. Figure 1-2 Multilink RLP

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As shown in Figure 1-3, to avoid incorrect detection of packet loss, multilink RLP adopts a link number QN on the basis of the RLP number. The terminal checks for packet loss on a link according to the QN and recombines packets received on different links according to the RLP number. The QN is not used when a packet is retransmitted. The QN must be long enough to avoid cyclic repetition of QNs on one link. Figure 1-3 RLP retransmission of DORB

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After multi-carrier binding is adopted in DORB, high-rate data will be transmitted over multiple carriers in parallel. The RLP function of the BSC will schedule data among multiple carriers and the retransmission technique of DORA will be inapplicable to multi-carrier transmission. According to the RLP retransmission technique of DORA, when the terminal receives packets numbered 2, 3, and 5, the terminal requests retransmission of the No. 4 packet. But in fact, the No. 4 packet is not transmitted yet, as shown in Figure 1-3. For the need of retransmission, DORB adopts QNs on every carrier. If the terminal detects discontinuous QNs on one carrier, there is loss of packets. As shown in Figure 1-3, because QNs are continuous on both carriers, the terminal will not request retransmission of the No.4 packet. If the terminal finds the QNs of one carrier are discontinuous, the terminal initiates a Quick NAK, requesting the BSC for retransmission. In this case, the BSC does not retransmit all packets. Instead, the BSC finds the packets associated with the missing QNs on the relevant carrier. Some packets are transmitted over other carriers and the Quick NAK is targeted at only packets lost on the local carrier. Multilink RLP is necessary only when different chips are used. Because two-carrier binding can be implemented by one CSM800 chip, multilink RLP is not adopted. In addition, in the reverse direction, the terminal uses a single chip to schedule packets. The time sequence of initially sent packets is definite. Therefore, multilink RLP is not required. Figure 1-4 shows the multi-carrier transmission in the reverse direction. Figure 1-4 Multi-carrier binding for reverse channels

1.2.2 Adaptive Load Balancing
The purpose of load balancing is to distribute network loads evenly among carriers. Load balancing includes static load balancing and adaptive load balancing. Static load balancing distributes newly accessed terminals to certain carriers. Due to the change of application layer data flows and burst data sources, static load

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balancing is unable to achieve balance of loads in a short time. DORA adopts static load balancing, which is implemented through hard assignment. Adaptive load balancing splits all packets to transmit evenly to all carriers through collaboration of the access network and the AT and thus achieves balance of loads among all carriers. DORB adopts adaptive load balancing. Figure 1-5 shows the adaptive load balancing. Figure 1-5 Adaptive load balancing

1.2.3 Multi-Carrier Assignment
During the setup of a connection, the network assigns a carrier to the terminal according to the flow request of the terminal, available power margin, and functions of the terminal. In addition, the network can reassign a carrier or delete the carrier according to the need of the connection. The assignment and deletion of a carrier can be initiated by the network or the terminal. In most cases, the network makes the final assignment decision. Figure 1-6 shows an example of multi-carrier assignment. Figure 1-6 Example of multi-carrier assignment

(1) When the session begins, the network negotiates the multi-carrier capability of the terminal with the terminal. (2) During the setup of the connection, the network assigns a carrier to the terminal through a TCA message according to the flow request and available power margin of the terminal.

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(3) When the connection is kept alive, the network can reassign a carrier or delete the assigned carrier dynamically. (4) The network can assign more carriers according to the length of the forward user queue. The terminal sends a CarrierRequeset to the network and the network sends a TCA message in response to assign another carrier to the terminal. (5) On the reverse link, if the available power margin is insufficient, the terminal may delete a carrier automatically. Figure 1-7 shows the signaling flow of multi-carrier assignment. Figure 1-7 Signaling flow of multi-carrier assignment

(1) The connection setup initiated by an AT is the same as in DORA. (2) Multiple carriers are assigned through a multi-carrier TCA message to set up a multi-carrier link. (3) When one reverse link is captured, the connection is set up successfully and step 4 proceeds. If no reverse link is captured, the connection setup fails. (4) The reverse links of other carriers are captured. If the capture fails, step 5 proceeds.

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(5) The reverse links of other carriers are captured unsuccessfully. The AT initiates a carrier deletion request.

1.2.4 Pilot Set Management
In a single-carrier system, the PN offset of pilot channels is used to identify pilots. In a multi-carrier system, because one base transceiver station (BTS) may be equipped with multiple carriers, the PN offset alone is not enough for the identification. Therefore, a two-dimensional vector [PN offset, CDMA channel (carrier No.)] is used to identify pilots.

I. Pilot Group
In EV-DO Rev.B, pilots with the same PN offset and the same coverage are categorized in one pilot group. The terminal does not need to report pilot strength repeatedly for the multiple pilots in one pilot group but only needs to report the strength of the primary pilot. The Multi-Carrier Routing Update Protocol (MC RUP) will add all pilots in one pilot group to the active set. In the active set, candidate set, and neighbor set, the terminal reports only the strength of one pilot in one set. The active set may include multiple pilots from one pilot group but the candidate set or neighbor set includes only one pilot from one pilot group. Furthermore, a pilot leaving the active set will not necessarily join the candidate set. The pilot joins the candidate set only when the pilot group of the pilot is not in the active set. This means, no pilot of a pilot group in the active set will be in the candidate set or neighbor set. Figure 1-8 shows the division of pilot groups. Figure 1-8 Pilot groups

II. Sub-active Set
In EV-DO Rev.B, the sub-active set is a set of pilots that can be identified by the terminal using the DRC Cover and that have the same PN but different carriers. The sub-active set is made up of a group of <PN_offset, Channel> pairs. The terminal may get service from any pilot in the sub-active set. Two pilots in one sub-active set cannot be placed in one pilot group. Figure 1-9 shows the sub-active set.

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Figure 1-9 Sub-active set

III. Scheduler Group
EV-DO Rev.B adopts the concept of scheduler group. Pilots sharing one Quick NAK (QN) instance belong to one scheduler group. Pilots between which softer handoff is allowed must be in one scheduler group. A scheduler group is indicated by the SchedulerTag field in a TCA message and associated with the softer handoff set. Figure 1-10 shows the planning of scheduler groups. Figure 1-10 Scheduler groups

1.2.5 Forward and Reverse Scheduling
I. Forward Scheduling
In a DORA system, data frames are transmitted in a time division method over the forward traffic channel. One timeslot can provide service for only one user (except for multi-user packets). One user may have multiple flows and each flow may have multiple queues. Byte flows enter different queues depending on their attributes. In

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each timeslot, bytes in all queues of a user compose a candidate transport instance in descending order of priority. The scheduler calculates the priority of each user packet according to the given candidate transport instance with reference to the packet format supported by the current air interface environment and decides the user whose candidate transport instance will be transmitted in the timeslot by comparing the priority of packets. The forward air interface scheduling algorithm is implemented by the BTS chip, which decides the user that a given timeslot will serve. Because a DORB system supports multilink RLP, a forward scheduling algorithm is necessary at both the SAR and QN layers. The forward scheduling algorithm of the SAR layer is implemented by FMR. Assignment of resources to different QNs is decided according to the algorithm. The scheduling algorithm in the QN layer is implemented by the BTS chip in the same way as the air interface scheduling algorithm of DORA. Figure 1-11 shows the forwarding scheduling of DORB. Figure 1-11 Forward scheduling

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II. Reverse Scheduling
In a DORB system, reverse scheduling is implemented by the T2P algorithm. The terminal calculates the T2P inflow resource of each carrier according to the number of pre-assigned carriers and loads. Figure 1-12 shows the reverse scheduling of DORB. Figure 1-12 Reverse scheduling

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1.2.6 Power Control
Unlike DORA, DORB is a multi-carrier system. There may be multiple carriers in both the forward and reverse directions. How to allocate power among carriers is a major issue in DORB. For a given AT, the difference between the transmit power of two neighboring carriers must not exceed the MaxRLTxPwrDiff. For any two neighboring reverse CMDA channels, even if the power of one carrier is increased, the AT must also ensure that the power difference between two carriers does not exceed the power difference threshold. When the MaxRLTxPwrDiff is updated, the new MaxRLTxPwrDiff value is applicable only at the subframe time when the maximum number of transmissions of the packet is reached or the time when the packet is terminated earlier. This means the MaxRLTxPwrDiff can be updated only when the transmission of a packet is complete.

1.3 Influences of DORB on Network Planning
1.3.1 Increase of Forward/Reverse Rate and Capacity
(1) Increase of forward rate and capacity Multi-carrier binding brings the forward near-point peak rate to N x 3.1 Mbps. The forward far-point rate is also N times higher. With multilink RLP, multi-carrier best-effort assignment, and adaptive load balancing against the selective fading of channel frequency, a frequency diversity gain can be obtained. This helps to reduce the intra-frequency interference of neighboring cells and improve the coverage quality. Compared with the conventional hard assignment, this further improves the utilization of resources and brings a 5–25% rise of forward capacity. Figure 1-13 shows the forward capacity increase according to Qualcomm's emulation test of DORB with three-carrier binding. Figure 1-13 Increase of forward capacity

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(2) Increase of reverse rate and capacity Multi-carrier binding brings the reverse near-point peak rate to N x 1.8 Mbps. Due to the restriction of AT power, the reverse far-point peak rate is not N times higher. Figure 1-14 shows the reverse capacity increase according to Qualcomm. Figure 1-14 Increase of reverse capacity

In addition, multi-carrier binding can decompose one high-rate data flow into multiple low-rate data flows for transmission and thus reduce the required Eb/Nt and AT transmit power. Therefore, the reverse capacity and reverse high-rate coverage are increased.

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1.3.2 More Flexible Radio Networking
A mobile terminal can be handed off between multi-carrier cells and single-carrier cells seamlessly. This gives great convenience for mixed networking in hot-spot areas but the decision of handoff is also complex (based on a pilot group). In densely-populated urban areas, CDMA 1X data services can be gradually migrated to DORB and 1X can be used in rural areas to provide low-rate data services. DORB is deployed in hot-spot areas first and continuous coverage is gradually realized according to service requirements as shown in Figure 1-15. Figure 1-15 DORB overlay in hot-spot areas

Scenario 1: Initially, multi-carrier DORB is deployed only in hot-spot areas. Network construction is more flexible and the cost of construction is saved. As high-value data users are mainly indoor users, indoor deployment of DORB is enhanced in the initial stage. Figure 1-16 Initial DORB deployment

Scenario 2: DORB only coverage is gradually deployed on the entire network, which avoids active personality handoff between DORB and DORA and improves the continuity of real-time services. Figure 1-17 Mature DORB deployment

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2 Frequency Planning
2.1 Frequency Deployment Strategy
Due to the multi-carrier binding feature of DORB, there must be at least two DO frequencies to construct a DORB network. Restricted by the terminal chip, DORB supports binding of at most three carriers. If frequency resources permit, three-carrier binding is recommended, which can improve the experience of edge users and increase the high-rate coverage. Carriers bound by DORB may be discontinuous carriers in one frequency band or carriers spanning sub-bands. The largest frequency span between the carriers must not exceed the frequency band width of the terminal chip. At present, the frequency band width supported by the QSD8650 chip is 5 MHz. In view of the chip restriction and the difficulty of implementation, the binding of three continuous carriers in one frequency band is recommended. Furthermore, unlike the descending order of 1X frequencies, the ascending order of DORB frequencies is recommended. For example, the order of 1X frequency numbers is 283, 242, and 201 and the order of DO frequency numbers is 37, 78, and 119. If frequency resources permit, inter-band DORB deployment can be considered and indoor and outdoor networks can be separate to enhance the user experience.

2.2 Introduction to CDMA Frequency Bands
Common CDMA frequency bands include the 800 MHz band (Band Class 0), 1900 MHz band (Band Class 1) and 450 MHz band (Band Class 5). (1) CDMA 800MHz (Band Class 0) Band Class 0 System Frequency Correspondence

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Figure 2-1 CDMA 800 MHz frequency band

(2) CDMA 1900MHz (Band Class 1) Band Class 1 System Frequency Correspondence Figure 2-2 CDMA 1900 MHz frequency band

(3) CDMA 450MHz (Band Class 5) Band Class 5 System Frequency Correspondence and Band Subclasses Figure 2-3 CDMA 450 MHz frequency band

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2.3 Band Width and Protection Band Requirements
2.3.1 Band Width Requirement
(1) DORB 3X: 3.69 MHz is required for an 800 MHz network and 3.75 MHz is required for a 1900 MHz network. (2) DORB 2X: 2.46 MHz is required for an 800 MHz network and 2.5 MHz is required for a 1900 MHz network.

2.3.2 Protection Band Requirement
(1) No protection band required for a co-sited system: In this case, network drop will occur when the power difference between the interfering frequency and the interfered frequency exceeds 33 dB. In a co-sited system, however, the power is close in any location so that the power difference will not reach 33 dB. Therefore, no protection band is required. (2) A 150 KHz protection band required for a non-co-sited system: A 120 kHz protection band is enough for a non-co-cited system working in neighboring frequencies. In view of the variance of terminal indicators in practice, 30 kHz is added to the protection band. Therefore, a 150 kHz protection band is recommended for a non-co-sited system.

3 Coverage Analysis
EV-DO Rev.B phase 1 is in nature the binding of multiple EV-DO Rev.A carriers. Therefore, the coverage performance of one carrier is the same as that of an EV-DO Rev.A carrier. In multi-carrier deployment, EV-DO Rev.B is laid over the existing

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EV-DO Rev.A to enlarge the high-rate coverage area and increase the edge rate. The edge rate thus achieved is unreachable by EV-DO Rev.A. (1) Multilink RLP and multi-carrier best-effort assignment: For a same application rate R, EV-DO Rev.B requires only R/N from one carrier in comparison with EV-DO Rev.A. Accordingly, the demodulation threshold and power are much lower than when the entire R rate is carried over a single EV-DO Rev.A carrier. The coverage radius is thus larger. As for the user, the coverage of high-rate R is greatly enlarged. (2) The cell edge rate of EV-DO Rev.A is R. When EV-DO Rev.B is deployed at the same site, because N carriers are bound, the edge rate is N x R. For example, if the edge rate of EV-DO Rev.A is 200 kbps, the edge rate of three-carrier EV-DO Rev.B is 3 x 200 = 600 kbps. The overall rate of network coverage is improved.

3.1 Forward Link Coverage
In an ordinary urban area under the 800 MHz band, the coverage probability in the area is 95% (the edge coverage probability is 87%), the antenna height is 25 m (the feeder length is 35 m), the antenna gain is 15 dBi, and other parameters take on default values. The forward link budge is described in Table 3-1. Table 3-1 Forward link budget Cell Edge Forward link Budget Detail Information service for DoA Forward Effective Burst Data Rate (kbps) BS Max Traffic Channel 300.00 Cell Edge service rate Cell Edge service rate remark

rate (kbps) (kbps) for DoB (kbps) for DoB 2X/ per carrier 3X/ per carrier 150.00 100.00 cell rate a

edge

data

Transmitting power (dBm) BS System Feeder Cable Loss (dB) BS System Jumper Loss (dB) BS System Connector Loss +TMA Insertion Loss (dB) BS Antenna Gain (dBi) BS System EIRP (dBm)

43.00

43.00

43.00

1.27 0.13 0.50 15.00 56.10

1.27 0.13 0.50 15.00 56.10

1.27 0.13 0.50 15.00 56.10

b c d e f=a-b-c-d+e

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Cell Edge Forward link Budget Detail Information service for DoA Background Thermal Noise -174.00 8.00 Forward -3.37 0.00 -108.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 -108.48 4.10 10.72 7.43 18.00 132.52 Urban Okumura Hata Center 875.00 25.00

Cell Edge service rate

Cell Edge service rate remark

rate (kbps) (kbps) for DoB (kbps) for DoB 2X/ per carrier 3X/ per carrier -174.00 8.00 -6.11 0.00 -111.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 -111.21 4.10 10.72 2.49 18.00 140.21 Urban Okumura Hata -174.00 8.00 -7.61 0.00 -112.72 0.00 0.00 0.00 -112.72 4.10 10.72 1.60 18.00 142.59 Urban g h i

Density (dBm/Hz) AT Noise Figure (dB) Required C/I For

Investigated service (dB) Forward Processing Gain (dB) Terminal Receiver Sensitivity (dBm) AT Atenna Gain (dB) AT Feeder Cable&Connector Loss (dB) AT Body Loss (dB) Required Minimum Received Signal Strength (dBm) Virtual SHO Gain (dB) Shadow Fading Margin (dB) Forward Interference Margin (dB) Building Penetration Loss (dB) Max Allowed Propagation

j=10*log(W/R) k=10*LOG(10^(g /10)*W)+h+i-j l m n o=k-(l-m-n) 0 q r s t=f-o+(p-q-r-s) u

Loss For Cell Radius (dB) Morphology Propagation Model System Carrier

Okumura Hata v

Frequency (MHz) BS Effective Height (m)

875.00 25.00

875.00 25.00

w x

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Cell Edge Forward link Budget Detail Information service for DoA AT Effective Height (m) Forward Link Cell Radius (km) 1.50 1.41

Cell Edge service rate

Cell Edge service rate remark

rate (kbps) (kbps) for DoB (kbps) for DoB 2X/ per carrier 3X/ per carrier 1.50 2.32 1.50 2.70 y

z=function(t,u,v, w,x,y)

Table 3-1 compares the forward link budge of DORB 2X (two-carrier binding), DORB 3X (three-carrier binding) and DORA. When the cell edge data rate is the same (300 kbps), the forward cell radius of DORB 2X or DORB 3X is larger than that of DORA. Figure 3-1 gives a bar chart comparing the forward cell radiuses. Figure 3-1 Comparison of forward cell radiuses

From the above forward link budget and cell radius comparison, it is known that under a same edge rate (300 kbps), the forward cell radius of DORB 2X or DORB 3X is larger than that of DORA.

3.2 Reverse Link Coverage
In an ordinary urban area under the 800 MHz band, the coverage probability in the area is 95% (the edge coverage probability is 87%), the antenna height is 25 m (the feeder length is 35 m), the antenna gain is 15 dBi, the reverse load rate is 75%, and other parameters take on default values. The reverse link budge is described in Table 3-2.

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Table 3-2 Reverse link budget Cell Edge Reverse link Budget Detail Information service for DoA Reverse Service Data Rate (kbps) 76.8 Cell Edge service rate Cell Edge service rate remark

rate (kbps) (kbps) for DoB (kbps) for DoB 2X/ per carrier 3X/ per carrier 38.4 25.60

cell edge service rate A = 10 x

AT Max Transmitting power (dBm)

log(200mw/N), 23.00 20 18.23 where N is the number of bound carriers

AT Feeder Cable&Connector Loss (dB) AT Antenna Gain (dBi) AT Body Loss (dB) AT EIRP (dBm) Background Thermal Noise

0.00 0.00 0.00 23.00 -174.00 4.00 1.71 12.04 -119.43 15.00 1.27 0.13 0.50 -132.53

0.00 0.00 0.00 20 -174.00 4.00 2.36 15.05 -121.79 15.00 1.27 0.13 0.50 -134.89

0.00 0.00 0.00 18.23 -174.00 4.00 3.00 16.81 -122.92 15.00 1.27 0.13 0.50 -136.02

b c d e=a-b+c-d f g h i=10*log(W/R) j=10*LOG(10^(f/ 10)*W)+g+h-i k l m n o=j-(k-l-m-n)

Density (dBm/Hz) BS Noise Figure (dB) Required Eb/Nt For Reverse Investigated service (dB) Reverse Processing Gain (dB) BS Receiver Sensitivity (dBm) BS Antenna Gain (dB) BS System Feeder Cable Loss (dB) BS System Jumper Loss (dB) BS Total Connector Loss (dB) Required Minimum Received Signal Strength(dBm)

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Cell Edge Reverse link Budget Detail Information service for DoA Soft HandOver Gain Again Slow Fading (dB) Shadow Fading Margin (dB) Interference Margin (dB) Building Penetration Loss (dB) Max Allowed Propagation 4.66 10.72 6.02 18.00 125.45 Urban Okumura Hata Center 825.00 25.00 1.50 0.93

Cell Edge service rate

Cell Edge service rate remark

rate (kbps) (kbps) for DoB (kbps) for DoB 2X/ per carrier 3X/ per carrier 4.66 10.72 6.02 18.00 124.82 Urban Okumura Hata 4.66 10.72 6.02 18.00 124.17 Urban p q r s

Loss For Cell Radius (dB) Morphology Propagation Model System Carrier

t=e-o+(p-q-r-s) u

Okumura Hata v

Frequency (MHz) BS Effective Height (m) AT Effective Height (m) Reverse Link Cell Radius (km)

825.00 25.00 1.50 0.90

825.00 25.00 1.50 0.86

w x y z=function(t,u,v, w,x,y)

As shown in Table 3-2, when the cell edge service rate is the same (76.8 kbps), the reverse cell radius of DORB 2X or DORB 3X is smaller than that of DORA. The DORB terminal reduces the number of carriers from three to two or one automatically when its power is insufficient. Therefore, in fact, the reverse coverage of DORB may be considered to be the same as that of DORA. Note: The reduction of carriers is decided by the terminal. The transmit power of the terminal is unknown to the system. All DORB terminals have the function, which is implemented by Qualcomm chips.

3.3 Use of Coverage Estimation Tools
RNPS CDMA V6.0 Dimensioning Tool V3.0 already supports the estimation of coverage in DORB phase 1. The calculation is as follows:

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(1) Select the network technology and number of carriers: Figure 3-2 Select network technology and the number of carriers

The following Traffic and Service Table will be updated. When the number of carriers is N, the edge rate changes to N times the rate of DORA. Figure 3-3 Change of DORB edge rate

The DORB terminal reduces the number of carriers from three to two or one automatically when its transmit power is insufficient. Therefore, in fact, the reverse coverage of DORB may be considered to be the same as that of DORA. Therefore, one carrier can be selected for the calculation of DORB reverse coverage. (2) Set BTS transmit power Figure 3-4 Setting the transmit power of a single-carrier BTS

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(3) Other settings are the same as those in the coverage estimation of DORA.

3.4 Summary
Considering the balance of forward and reverse links, under the same user experience, DORB is better than DORA in terms of forward coverage. Owing to the forward interference, the cell edge C/I of DORA is subject to an upper limit. Accordingly, the forward edge rate also has an upper limit Redge. After the multi-carrier DORB system is deployed, the forward edge service rate perceived by the user is up to N x Redge. The inherent edge rate limit of the single-carrier DORA is thus broken. The reverse rate is restricted by the power of the terminal. The edge service rate perceived by a user is equivalent to that of DORA. Within a cell where power restriction is not present, however, the service rate perceived by a user is N times that of DORA.

4 Capacity Planning
4.1 Throughput per Sector
Because of the multi-carrier binding of DORB, the forward peak rate of 2X will rise to 6.2 Mbps and that of 3X will rise to 9.3 Mbps. The distribution of forward rates of DORA, DORB 2X and DORB 3X is shown in Figure 4-1, according to the emulation of Qualcomm.

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Figure 4-1 Throughput per sector

As shown in Figure 4-1, the throughput per sector of DORB 2X and DORB 3X is respectively increased to 2.5 Mbps and 3.8 Mbps relative to DORA.

4.1.1 VoIP User Size
According to Qualcomm emulation, DORA allows 44 VoIP users and the user size is restricted on the reverse link. According to the maximum reverse capacity formula, the result of calculation is about 42. The formula and calculation are as follows:

N max 

W R E  b (1   ) Nt

1

Where: Nmax is the maximum number of users simultaneously accessed to a cell; W/R is the spreading gain, where W = 1.2288 MHz and R = 9.6 kpbs; ——  is the voice activity factor which equals 0.45; Eb/Nt is the required signal to noise ratio which equals 4.955 dB; ——

is the cell interference factor which equals 0.5.

The calculation result is Nmax=60.69. Allowing for a 5 dB margin (68.37% load), the allowed number of users is 60.69 x 68.37% = 41.5.

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is obtained through calculation. According to the MSO model, there are 29% full rate channels, 4% 1/2 rate channels, 7% 1/4 rate channels, 6% 1/8 rate channels, and 54% idle channels. Considering a 22-byte voice payload and an 8-byte overhead, the equivalent voice activity factor is 0.45. Therefore, in the case of 5 dB rise, the number of VoIP users is 42, close to the emulation result of Qualcomm. For DORB, the supported number of VoIP users is two times (2X binding) or three times (3X binding) that of DORA, in particular, 84 and 126.

4.1.2 BE Throughput
I. Forward BE Throughput
Forward BE services are relevant to the terminal type, user distribution, terminal movement, HARQ, radio channel environment and scheduling algorithm. Figure 4-2 shows the emulation result of forward BE throughput of DORA. Huawei's emulation result is close to that of Qualcomm. Figure 4-2 Forward BE throughput

In capacity planning, to ensure the Internet experience of broadband users, the recommended forward BE throughput of DORA is 1.2 Mbps. For DORB 2X and DORB 3X, considering the scheduler gain of BE services, the forward BE throughputs are respectively 2.5 Mbps and 3.8 Mbps.

II. Reverse BE Throughput
Reverse BE services are relevant to the terminal type, user distribution, terminal movement, HARQ, and radio channel environment. Figure 4-3 shows the emulation result of reverse BE throughput of DORA. Figure 4-3 Reverse BE throughput

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In Figure 4-3, the reverse throughput per sector is obtained by averaging the throughputs of 57 sectors. It is the largest throughput among all sectors where the probability of ROT larger than 7 dB is below 1%. The emulation result of Huawei is consistent with that of Qualcomm. In capacity planning, to ensure the Internet experience of broadband users, the recommended reverse BE throughput of DORA is 600–700 kbps, depending on the number of ongoing connections. For DORB 2X and DORB 3X, because the service rate is two or three times that of DORA, the reverse BE throughputs are respectively 1.2–1.4 Mbps and 1.8–2.1 Mbps.

4.1.3 Hybrid Service Planning
Figure 4-4 shows Qualcomm's emulation of VoIP and BE hybrid throughput on the forward link. Figure 4-4 Forward hybrid throughput

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As shown in Figure 4-4, when 30 VoIP users are on the forward link, 50% of the forward load is occupied and the forward throughput of BE will be 50% down. Therefore, for DORB 3X, in the case of 10 VoIP users, the forward BE throughput is 3.8 Mbps x 0.75 = 2.8 Mbps; in the case of 20 VoIP users, the forward BE throughput is 3.8 Mbps x 0.69 = 2.6 Mbps; in the case of 42 VoIP users, the forward BE throughput is 3.8 Mbps x 0.4 = 1.5 Mbps.

4.2 Traffic Model
Table 4-1 describes the forward traffic model of DORB. Table 4-1 Forward traffic model Items Proportion Hierarchy Sub-proportion Traffic type VOIP (erl) VT (erl) BCMCS (second) PPP session Time (s) Packet call duty ratio Data rate (kbps) 9.6 76.8 204.8 Data & voice subscriber 100% Lower 60% 0 0 0 300 10% Voice subscriber 0% Medium Higher 25% 0 0 0 600 15% 15% 0 0 0 900 20% 0 0 -

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Items 115.2 kbps 230.4 kbps 460.8 kbps 921.6 kbps Traffic specified (kbps) Traffic specified (kbps) 115.2 230.4 460.8 921.6 3000 4500

Data & voice subscriber 20% 30% 25% 25% 0% 0% 15% 25% 30% 27% 3% 0% 10% 20% 35% 30% 2% 3%

Voice subscriber -

437.76 551.952 690.36 Average PS data rake (kbps) 504.198

Table 4-2 describes the reverse traffic model of DORB. Table 4-2 Reverse traffic model Items Proportion Hierarchy Sub-proportion Traffic type VOIP (erl) VT (erl) PPP session Time (s) Packet call duty ratio 28.8 kbps 57.6 kbps 115.2 kbps 230.4 kbps 460.8 kbps Data rate (kbps) 9.6 76.8 28.8 57.6 115.2 230.4 460.8 Data & voice subscriber 100% Lower 60% 0 0 300 10% 20% 30% 25% 25% 0% Medium Higher 25% 0 0 600 15% 15% 25% 30% 27% 3% 15% 0 0 900 20% 10% 20% 35% 30% 2% Voice subscriber 0% 0 0 -

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Items 921.6 kbps 1382.4kbps 921.6 1382.4

Data & voice subscriber 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 1%

Voice subscriber -

109.44 129.312 165.312 Average PS data rake (kbps) 122.7888

4.3 Use of Capacity Estimation Tool
RNPS CDMA V6.0 Dimensioning Tool V3.0 already supports the estimation of capacity in DORB phase 1. The calculation is as follows: (1) Select the network technology and number of carriers: Figure 4-5 Select network technology and the number of carriers

(2) Open the General Assumptions Configuration table. Figure 4-6 Opening the General Assumptions Configuration table

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(3) Set the number of VoIP users and the number of VT users and select the forward air interface scheduling algorithm. Figure 4-7 Setting the number of VoIP users and the number of VT users

The emulation result of Qualcomm is 44 and the value can be modified.

The emulation result of Qualcomm is 10 and the value can be modified.

The default scheduling algorithm uses proportional fairness and can be modified.

(4) Open the Traffic_Service_Conversion table and adjust the proportions according to the traffic model. Figure 4-8 Adjusting the traffic model

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(5) Other settings are the same as those in the capacity estimation of DORA.

5 DORB Support and CE Calculation
5.1 DORB Support of BTSs
5.1.1 First Generation BTSs
The first generation BTSs of Huawei include BTS3612/A and BTS3601C. These BTSs cannot be upgraded to support DORB.

5.1.2 Second Generation BTSs
The second generation BTSs of Huawei include BTS3606/A. These BTSs can be conditionally upgraded to support DORB. Due to the restriction of the backplane, one DO channel board of the BTS3606 supports only one DO frequency. To support multi-carrier DORB, an appropriate number of DO channel boards must be added. If single-carrier CHPA and CTRM are used as RF boards, the maximum configuration of a single cabinet is S2/2/2. To support multi-carrier DORB, the RF boards must be replaced by CMPA and CMTR. After DORB is supported, two functions are restricted. One is the inability to perform handoff between DORB and DOR0. The other is the inability to guarantee

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QoS-sensitive services of DORA and DORB in ATM transmission, supporting BE services but not real-time services.

5.1.3 Third Generation BTSs
The third generation BTSs of Huawei include BTS3606E/AE and BTS3606C. These BTSs can be upgraded to support DORB. For the BTS3606E/AE, if the CRDM is configured, one CSM6800 channel board supports two DO frequencies and therefore better supports DORB multi-carrier binding. Otherwise, one CSM6800 channel board supports only one DO frequency. The cost of DORB upgrade is therefore high. For the BTS3606C, because the baseband subrack is equipped with only three channel board slots. With the slots for two 1X channel boards, only one channel board slot remains. Upgrade is necessary to support multi-carrier DORB. An 800 MHz main cabinet supports up to three carriers and a 450 MHz cabinet supports up to two carriers. To support multi-carrier DORB, it is necessary to extend the RF cabinet. After DORB is supported, two functions are restricted. One is the inability to perform handoff between DORB and DOR0. The other is the inability to guarantee QoS-sensitive services of DORA and DORB in ATM transmission, supporting BE services but not real-time services.

5.1.4 Fourth Generation BTSs
The fourth generation BTSs of Huawei include BTS3606CE/AC, BTS3900/A/C/D and DBS3900. These BTSs can be upgraded to support DORB. For the BTS3900/A/C/D and DBS3900, the BBU can be upgraded from DORA to DORB phase 1 through software upgrade; the RRU or RFU supports the multi-carrier technology and supports DORB multi-carrier binding. The baseband subrack supports up to six channel boards. For the BTS3606CE/AC, the baseband part is the same as that of the BTS3900/DBS3900; the RF part supports the multi-carrier technology and supports DORB multi-carrier binding. The baseband subrack supports up to six channel boards. A BTS3606CE 800 MHz cabinet supports four carriers and a 450 MHz cabinet supports three carriers. With an extended RF cabinet, the 800 MHz system supports eight carriers. A BTS3606AC 800 MHz cabinet supports four carriers and a 450 MHz cabinet supports three carriers. The BTS3606AC does not support extension of the RF cabinet.

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5.2 DORB Support of Channel Boards
Each CSM6800-based DO channel board supports the sharing of up to six sector carriers (three sectors) and 192 reverse CEs.

5.3 Calculation of Chips
Assume that the number of CEs required by each sector carrier is total number of sector carriers is CSM6800 chips is as follows: (1) The total number of chips required by a sector carrier is:

CE RL and that the

S S ,C

. Then the calculation of the required number of

roundup (( S S ,C / 6),0)

.

(2) The number of chips required by each sector carrier on the reverse link is:

roundup (( S S ,C * CERL / 192),0)

.

(3) Obtain the maximum number of chips from the above two calculations:

CSM 6800  MAX (roundup (( S S ,C / 6),0), roundup(( S S ,C * CE RL / 192),0))
Where, roundup is the function to get the upper integer. Figure 5-1 Features supported by DORB chips

5.4 Calculation of CEs
The reverse CE demodulation capability of DORB phase 1 is the same as that of DORA. The data flows of multiple carriers cannot be demodulated simultaneously on one CE. Because the VoIP and VT sessions can be carried over only one carrier, one

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connection requires one CE. A BE session can be carried over multiple carriers and one connection requires multiple CEs. The users on the network are diversified. The reverse service type and traffic (data services can be converted into equivalent traffic) initiated by each user are different. To calculate the number of CEs required by a DORB phase 1 system, we first consider the situation where every user has an active BE session. The formula and calculation of CEs required by DORB phase 1 are as follows: [Number of users active in simultaneous BE sessions (M) x (1 + rate of soft handoff) + 1] x number of bound carriers (N) Where: The number of users active in simultaneous BE sessions (M) = reverse sector carrier BE throughput / reverse average BE rate, and particularly, M = 2100 kbps / 122.8 kbps = 17; The number of bound carriers (N) is 3 in the case of DORB 3X and 2 in the case of DORB 2X; The rate of reverse soft handoff is 35%. The result is: DORB 3X requires 72 CEs; DORB 2X requires 48 CEs. In the case of A VoIP users and B BE users, the number of CEs required by DORB phase 1 is A x (1 + 35%) + B x (1 + 35%) x N + N, where N is the number of bound carriers. In particular, in the case of 30 VoIP users and 10 BE users, the number of CEs required by DORB 3X is 84.

6 Emulation
The existing U-Net emulation tool does not support DORB emulation. The DORB emulation support is planned to be implemented in the first quarter of 2010.

7 Comparison of Technologies
7.1 DORA and DORB
Table 7-1 lists the differences between DORA and DORB.

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Table 7-1 Differences between DORA and DORB Key feature Differences between DORA and DORB In DORA, data flows from the PCF to the FMR and the FMR further sends the data to the AT on one Forward data service link. In DORB, forward data also flows from the PCF to the FMR but the FMR sends the data to Improvement the AT on multiple service links. This means the FMR sends data to the AT simultaneously in multiple sub-active sets. In Reverse reception DORB, reverse data must be received Attribute

transmission

simultaneously in multiple sub-active sets. The data selective combination of received data in one active set is almost the same as the DORA procedure. The difference is the unified sorting of selectively combined data in multiple active sets. Because there are multiple carriers on the forward link of DORB, the data packets sent over each FMR processing AT's requests of data carrier are different and the packets over one of carrier are unnecessarily continuous. The BTS sets data a transmitting queue QN for each carrier active in transmission and the packets sent from each QN Improvement encapsulating a QN header to the original packets. When a packet is retransmitted, no QN header is added because the packet can be transmitted in a queue of any QN. In DORB, an AT works in Lock or Unlock mode depending on the configuration. The difference between the two modes is: in Lock mode, the DRCs of three sub-active sets can point to only one Virtual handoff soft PN; once the DRC Cover changes, handoff must take place in the three sub-active sets. In Unlock mode, the DRCs of three sub-active sets may point to different PNs and their handoff is independent of each other. Therefore, the AN must support virtual soft handoff in the two modes. Improvement and are numbered independently by the queue by Improvement

retransmission retransmission

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Key feature Forward reverse restriction

Differences between DORA and DORB supports QoS-based rate restriction.

Attribute

and DORB grades.

rate Different rates are allocated for users at different Improvement

To enable DORB terminals to better use DORB functions on a DORB network, DORB service negotiation needs to be added. DORB supports three personalities. Personality 0 is DO0, personality 1 is DOA and personality 2 is DOB. During session negotiation, the AN decides the Session negotiation number of personalities and the specific personalities to negotiate according to the type of AT. For a DO0 terminal, only one personality is negotiated, specifically DO0. For a DOA terminal, two personalities are negotiated, DO0 and DOA. For a DOB terminal, two personalities are negotiated, DOA (personality 0) and DOB (personality 1). After adoption of DORB, in the case of a DORB terminal, one call can be bound with multiple carriers. Setup release multi-carrier calls The associated changes. resource allocation, are and resource management, and procedures all need of appropriate DORB services supported and one call is bound with multiple carriers. The associated resource allocation and links all change accordingly. When a call is released, all allocated links and resources must be released. New Improvement

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Key feature

Differences between DORA and DORB After a DORB terminal sets up a DORB service session, the AN can add carriers dynamically and the AT also initiates carrier addition requests actively. The processing complies with the original soft handoff procedure. The document only

Attribute

Dynamic addition deletion carriers and of

describes the procedure where the AT actively sends a carrier addition request. The procedure New where the AN adds a carrier actively is the same. After the DORB terminal sets up the DORB service session, the AN can delete a carrier dynamically and the AT may also initiate carrier deletion actively. The processing still complies with the original soft handoff procedure. The call procedure of soft handoff is unchanged but the carrier addition and deletion in the process

Soft handoff

of soft handoff are added in the DORB soft handoff Improvement algorithm and a neighbor list combination algorithm is also added. Both DOA/0 and DOB carriers may be planned on an AN or both an old version and a new version of the AN exist. Therefore, the negotiated attribute has two possibilities: 1. A DOB terminal gets access from the new AN

Idle personality and two attributes (DOA and DOB) will be handoff configured and negotiated, and the AT version is saved as DOB. 2. A DOB terminal gets access from the old AN and two attributes (DO0 and DOA) will be configured and negotiated, and the AT version is saved as DOA.

New

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Key feature

Differences between DORA and DORB The AT gets access from the DOB network and when it moves to the coverage area of a DOA carrier, the AT reports an RU message and the target carrier carried in the message is DOA. The RRM makes a handoff decision and also the personality handoff decision. Then the RRM initiates a hard handoff procedure. If personality handoff is required, personality handoff is performed to hand off the AT to the DOA carrier before the hard handoff.

Attribute

Active personality handoff

New

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