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:^K

GIFT OF
SEELEY W.
and

MUDD

GEORGE I. COCHRAN MEYER ELSASSER DR.JOHNR. HAYNES WILLIAM L. HONNOLD JAMES R. MARTLN MRS. JOSEPH K.SARTORI
to the

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SOUTHERN BRANCH

UNi
LOL...liS

LIB

kJ

T O

Sir

JOSEPH BANKS,
OF the

Bart.
&c. &c.

PRESIDENT

ROYAL SOCIETY,

THIS

ATTEMPT

TO IMPROVE THE GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA,

AND THE NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES,


IS

INSCRIBED,

BY

HIS

MUCH OBLIGED, AND

FAITHf UL FRIEND AND SERVANT,

J.
I ft

REN NELL.

London, March, 1788.

jiiHT'ia

E.

As
fame

almoft every particular relating to


is

Hindoos tan
it

become an

objed:

of popular curiofity,

can

hardly be deemed fuperfluous to lay before the public an

improved Syftem of

its

Geography.

Indeed, the flatter-

ing reception that was given to


fubjed-,

my

former work, on the

has,

in a

manner, made that an objed: of


:

duty, which vvas originally an objed of choice

for

the

public having condefcended to receive the imperfect in-

formation afi'orded them in 1782,


obligation on me,
fect,

I felt

an indifpenflble

to render that information


poflefs the

more per-

whenever
it.

might

means of accomplifh-

ing

hefltated

only at the meafure of fubje<fting


the

them

to an additional tax^ fo recently after

payment

of the former one.

large colledlion of materials of various kinds,

having;

been added to

my

former flock,

have been enabled to

produce a work of a more

perfecfl

kind than the former


fcale
:

and have therefore drawn

it

on a larger

the furface

of the prefent map, exceeding that of the former one,


in the proportion of 2
this

and a quarter to

The

fcale

of

map,

is

one inch and a half to an equatorial degree:.


and;

iy

PREFACE.
in
it,
is

and the quantity of land reprefented


one half of Europe.
It is

about equal to

contained in four large fheets,


the purpofe of

which may

either be joined together for

bringing the whole into one point of view, or bound up


feparately,
in

an Atlas

as

may

fuit

the fancy or con-

venience of the purchafer.

By
coaft,
fula,

the aid of a fcries of obfervations of latitude and

longitude, taken by Capt. Huddart, along the Malabar


or vveftern coaft of India,

the form of the peninthe


truth
:

&c.

is

now brought
coafl:,

very near to

and
is

the eaftern

by the obfervations of Col. Pearfe,


in the diflribution

much
its

improved,

of

its

parts,

although

general form has undergone but


line has alfo

little alteration.

meafured

been

drav.'n

from the Bengal pro:

vinces to Nagpour, in

the very centre of India

which

has not only eftabliflied an important geographical point,


in

part

where

it

was moft wanted

but has been the

means of furnifhing a great deal of matter,


fillino-

towards

up the vacant

intervals

on three

fides

of that point.
Sultan,

I^aftlv,

the war with

Hyder Ally and Tippoo

his fucceflbr,
ter,

has produced

much new

geographical mat-

in various parts of the peninfula,

by the marches of
;

the different armies, and their detachments


that of Col. Fullarton,
in

particularly

the fouthern

provinces and
acquifitions

Coimbettore.
to the

Thefe are the moft material

prefent

map,

as

they,

in effed: regulate a

con-

flderable

PREFACE.
llderable part of the general outline,

and delerniine the


it.

proportions of fome oi the principal

members of
ferve

But

of the kind of materials, which without affeding the


general proportions
filling

of the map,
it,

the purpofe of

up the void

fpaces in

there will be found very

great abundance.

In particular, Guzerat, and the Raj-

poot provinces,

have undergone very coniiderable imwell


as

provement

as

the Panjab country and

Sindy.

The upper

part of the courfe of the Ganges, to the cow's


pafles
;
;

mouth, or cavern through which the Ganges


the courfe of the
inferted
tions

and
both
addi-

Gogra

river to

its

fountains

are

from the work of M. Bernoulli.


correcftions

In

fliort,

and
:

are difleminated
if

over the whole

map
rar,

and

in general,

we except

the fouth part of Be-

the weftern part of the peninfula, and the countries

bordering on the river Indus, and the Panjab, the


is

map

filled

up
it.

in fuch a degree,

as to

have no confiderable

blanks in

As Mr. fome new


I

Forfter's route
ideas,

from India to Ruffia furnifhed

and elucidated many former paflages,


fea,,
it,,

judged

it

proper to exprefs his route to the Cafpian

on a

feparate

map

and

at the

fame time

to

add to

the countries contiguous to Hindooftan on the north

and

north- weft

fo as to include

Samarcand, and the marches

of Alexander from the borders of the Cafpian fea to the


river laxartes (the

modern

Sirr).

In

vi

PREFACE.
In the divilion of

Hindoos tan

into foubahs,

&c.

have followed ihe mode adopted by the Emperor Acbar,


as
it

appears to

m^no

be the moft permanent one

for

the ideas of the boundaries are not only impreffed

on the

minds of the natives by


in the

tradition,

but are alfo afcertained

Ayin Acbaree
general,
to
this

a regifter of the higheft authority.

But
fula

for

the lower parts ot

the

Deccan, and

the peninI

in

flandard being wanting,


I

had

re-

courfe
not,

the

beft information

could get, which was


:

indeed, of the moft perfect kind

and therefore

directed

my

attention principally to the ftate of the


thoi'e

mo-

dern divifions in
idea of which,
is

quarters,

the imprefling a clear

one principal aim of the work.

It

muft be obfcrvcd, that fince the empire has been


its

difmembered, a new divifion of


place
;

provinces has alfo taken

by which means, fome foubahs

now form
;

a part

of the dominions of three or more Princes


are

and very few


are

preferved

entire.

Theie modern

divisions

not

only diftinguillied in the


fent
polTeiTors
;

map by

the

names of the preis

but the colouring alfo

entirely

emSo

ployed in facilitating thcdiftinctions between them.


that the
g7-ou?id
\

modern

divifions appear,

as

it

were, in the fQ7-e

and the ancient ones


and explaining the

in the bach

grcund\ one

illuftrating

other.

Confidering the vaft extent of India, and


its

how
till

little

interior parts

have been

vilited

by Europeans,

the

latter

PREFACE.
latter part

vii

of the

laft

century,

it

ought rather to

furprife

us that fo

much
fliort

geographical matter fhould be colleded


a

during

fo

period

efpecially

where

fo

Htde has
as

been contributed towards


in the prefent cafe.

it

by the natives themfclves,

Indeed,

we muft

not go

much

far-

ther back than thirty-five years, for the matter that lorms

the bafis of this the

vey

And it muft not be forgotten, that Eaft India Company have caufed a mathematical fiirto be made, at their own expence, of a trad: equal
Map.
France and England taken together
;

in extent to

beddes

tracing the outline of near

2000

miles ol fea coaft,

and a

chain of inlands in extent 500 miles more \

In genera],

have acknowledo-cd
that I

in the

courle of the

Memoir,
different

the

afilftance

have received from the

Gentlemen,

who

have obHgingly furniOied

me

* Whatever charges may Be imputable to the Managers- for the Company, the negledl of ufeful Science, however, is not among the number. The employing of Geographers, and furveying Pilots in India ; and the providing of aftronomical inftruments, and the holding out of encouragement to fuch as fhould ufe them ; indxate, at but above all, the leafl:, a fpirit fomewhat above the mere confideration of Gain eftablifhment of an office at home, for the improvement of hydrography and navigation, and their judicious choice of a fuperintendant for it, reflects the higheft honour on their adminiftration ; and ought to convince us, that in a free country, a body oF For, howfubjefts may accomplifli, what the State itfelf defpairs even to attempt.
:

ever furprifing

it

may

appear,

it is

neverthelefs true, that the

firft

inaritime nation in the


:

world, has no good chart to direifl its fleets towards its own coa-fts nor even a criterioa by which the public may be enabled to judge of the merit of any hydrographical production whatfoever. So that the foundings on the cor.it of Bengal, are better known than, thofe in the Britifh chaimel ; of which, no tolerable chart exifts, even at this day. During the late war, an Eaft India hip owed her fafety to the knowledge obtained from a chart of the mouths of the Ganges (made, and publifhed by order of the Company) into one of which {he efcaped from two French cruifers, and afterwards came into the Hoogly river by the inland navigation. had juft become maflers of the hydrography of America, when we loft the fovereignty of it. I hope no one will think ominoufly of our Indian pofleffions from this circumftance but even if he does, he may

We

make

himfelf eafy

on

the fcore of

Great Britain.

witk

viii

PREFACE.
But there were
acknowledorement occurred
fuch as the furerrors,

with the materials, therein difcufled.

other kinds of afliftance afforded, for which no opportunities for


;

nifhing of ufeful hints,

and corredling of
fallen,

into

which
local

had unavoidably
or

through ignorance of

circumftances,
to

hiftorical fadls.

The

Gentle-

men
are,

whom

ftand particularly indebted on this fcore,

Mr. Francis Ruffell, Mr. David Anderfon, and Mr.


*
;

James Anderfon

Capt. Jonathan Scott, Mr. Wilkins,


late Col.

Mr. Middleton, Col. Popham, and the


all

Camac

of the Bengal eftabliduiient

Mr. Benfiey, and Mr.


Diredion
:

Inglis,

both

of the Eaft India

Mr. John
Callander

Sulivan of the Madras eftablifhment, and Mr.


late of

Bombay.
Lord Mulgrave
from

To

Forfter's route

am indebted for a copy Jummoo to the Cafpian fea


I

of Mr.
as

well

as for his Lordfhip's very ready

communication of every

fpecies

of information that could be of fervice to the work

in quefliion.

The
acrofs

routes of Mr. Smith, and of General Goddard,

the

continent, from the

Jumna
;

river

to Pooiaah

and Surat, contain much

ufeful matter

and have been ihe


points.

means of determining
* To Mr.
James Anderfon,
I

a
am,

number of geographical

in pp.vticular, indebted, for the account of the and for that of the anceftryof Sevajee as aid for the fubjed matter of the notes that sccompan)' thofe articles. And to him, 3ii Vt0 hrs brother, Mr. David Anderfon (each of whom, at differcur times, refided in a piiblie Capacity with Madajee Sindia) I owe the inofl: valuabte part of the informationj rrfpectijig the geographical divifioa of die Mahratta States, and their tributaries,

derivation cf the term

Mahratta,

MS.

PREFACE,
A
other

IX

MS. account of
provinces,

the country of the

Rajpoots, and

on the fouth,

and S

of

Agra

together with a map, both

of them by P. Wendell

*,

were of very great ufe in defcribing the geography of


thofe parts.

And

to render the
it,

MS. more

valuable,

there

has been added to

Mr. James Anderfon's account of

the changes that have taken place fince that period, in

confequence of Sindia's attacks, and negociations.


former was communicated by Col. Popham, and the
ter

The
lat-

by the Right Hon. Charles Greville.

Mr. Dalrymple,

to

whom

made my acknowledgments
in

for the ailiftance afforded

me,

the courfe of
occafion,
fell

my
his

for-

mer work,
cured for
tice,

has,

on the prefent

not only pro-

me

every

new

material that
to

under

no-

but inftrudled
inform.ation
of.

me how

procure others, and to


that
I

draw

from various
his valuable,

fources,

was before

ignorant

To
MS.

and perhaps unequalled,


travels,

coiledion of

charts,

and of voyages and


all

have

alfo

had

accefs,

on

occaiions

and

wifh to be

underftood to fpeak with the utmofl: fincerity,


fay,

when

that without this

afliftance,
:

my

performance muft
that

have been extremely imperfedt

or in other words,

Mr. Dalrymple
a pofitive

is

intitled to the
;

thanks of the public, in


fhare of thofe thanks,,

degree

although

my

may

be only comparative.

They were compofed

in the year 1779.

Although

PREFACE.
Although the new
tranflation

of the

Avin Acbaree

may

have in part fuperfeded the value of the extrads

furnifhed

me on
;

the former occafion by Mr. Boughton


in

Roufe, as the tranflation contains the whole fubjed:


connedted form
perfon yet I

and was

alfo a

tafk v/hich

none but a

who devoted his whole time to it, could efledl am by no means unmindful of my former obligaGentleman.

tions to this

have borrowed largely from

M. D'Apres' New
:

IVepalfo,

tune Orkntah^ for

the fea coafls and iflands

and

though

in a fmaller degree,

from M. D'Anville's maps of

Alia and India publilhed in 1751 and 1752.

When

it is

confidered that this excellent Geographer had fcarccly any


materials to

work on
itineraries,

for the inland

parts of India,
travels,

but

fome vague

and books of

one

is

really
It

aftonifhed to find
is

them
I

fo well defcribed as they are.

with regret that

find

my felf obliged

to difTer in opinion

from him concerning fomxC


I

pofitions in ancient
in particular
;

Geography

mean, that of Palibothra,


I

and lome
of

it\Y
this

others.

have generally avoided

all difquifitions

kind, from a convidion of the general obfcurity of the

fubjed

and which even an intimate knowledge of the


not enable

Indian languages would

me

to clear

up
is

for

the fimiiitude between ancient and modern names,


fallacious,

very

unlefs flrongly corroborated by fituation.

But

we cannot

well refufe our aflent to the opinion that Ptole-

my

PREFACE.
my
meant the Suttuluz^ or
Setlege by the

xi

Zaradrus

the

Rauvee by the Rhuadis^ or Adaris \ and the yenauh^ or

Chunauh by the

Sandal?2i\h

becaufe not only the names,

but the pofitions have an


this
is

affinity to

each other.

And

vet

a part of Ptolemy, which


:

M. D'Anville
rivers,

difcredits

the moft

but the reafon

U'as,

that he was not himfelf

acquainted with the true names of the

M.

BufTy's

marches in the Deccan afford data for fixing

the pofitions of

many

capital places

there

particularly

Hydrabad, Aurungabad, Bifnagur, and Sanore.


there are plans of fome of his marches wanting,

But

fliil

which,

could they be procured, would throw

much

light
:

on the
as

geography of the peninfula, and the Deccan


that

fuch

from Pondicherry to Cuddapah, Adoni, and Hydra;

bad

that

from Aurungabad

to

Nagpour

and the cam-

paign towards Poonah.

There are

alfo exifling, itineraries

kept by very intelligent people,


Pondicherry, dired: to Delhi
fet I
;

who
but
I

have travelled from

know not how

to

about procuring them.

The

public records at Goa,

am

informed, contain a vaft fund of geographical


;

knowwith

ledge

and yet we are more

in the dark,

concerning the
v/e are

country on that fide of the peninfula,

than

refped to the centre of the Deccan.

Could the whole mafs of geographical matter


fpeds India (much of which,
people
is

that re-

probably in the hands of


I

who are

ignorant of

its

value) be colledlcd,

make
no

xii

PREFACE,
that very complete

no doubt but
vinces of
for
it,

maps of the

feveral pro-

might be conftruAed, on

fcales large

enough

any ordinary purpofe.


intended by this Memoir to particularize the feveral

It

is

authorities

from whence the

pofitions in the

map are drawn;


in
cafes

together with the

manner of comparing them,


:

where they difagreed

as alfo,

the

manner of combining

them, when more than one circumftance was required to


eftablifli a pofition.

By

this

means, the authority for each


to

particular,

may

be

known
it
:

thofe

who

have curiolity

enough

to enquire after

and the defedive parts being

thus pointed out, fome future Geographer


lated to feek for better materials.
It

may be

ftimuthofe

may alfo tempt

who

are already in pofleffion of fuch materials,

when

they are apprized of their ufe, to contribute them to the


public ftock.

Any communications
;

of the kind will be

thankfully received

and a proper ufe made of them.


the end of the work,

There

will be found, at
;

two

diftind Indexes

the one referring to the matter of the


to the

Memoir, the other


in

names of countries and

places

the

map.

The

great wafte

of time occafioned by

fearching after particular fituations, in

maps of any

extent,
a large
firft

renders an index as neccflary an appendage to

map,

as

to a large book.

For an index will in the

inftance inform the reader whether the place fought after,

be in the map, or not.

If in the

map, he

is

direded to
it

PREFACE.
it

xiii

with

as

much

facility,

as to a paflage in a book,
if it

from

an ordinary index.

And

be not there, although he


for
its

may, indeed, blame the map


allow that
fruitlefs
it

deficiency,

he muft

does not rob

him of

his time,

by encouraging
Tables of

refearches.

There are

alfo

added.

diftances

between the principal

cities

and towns of Hin-

dooftan

and a fmall map, which brings into one view


all

the refpedive portions of


tables.
I

the places mentioned in the

As

there

does not exift at

prefent,

under any form


it is

whatfoever, a conneded abftraft ol Indian hiflory,

a very difficult tafk for any reader, although poffefTed of

iucHnation and leifure, to

make

himfelf acquainted with

the principal events that form the groundwork


hiftory of that country
:

of the
laid

and particularly thofe which

the foundation of the Britidi power there.


valuable trads
ferent

The many

on

this

fubjcd, that have appeared at dif-

times, are fo disjointed in point

of chronology,

that

no idea of general

hiftory can be obtained


filled

from them

nor can the chafms be readily


fore

up.

have there-

been tempted to compile a


of events, from the
xva.

fort

of chronological
firft

table

of the

Mahomedan
is

conquefts, to the final difiblution of the

Mogul empire
what
offered

and

vvifii

the reader

to underftand,

that

to his pcrufal under

that

form,

is

intended as a mere
fo

fketch

and

that, chiefly

with a view to render

dry and

fo unentertaining a fubjed as the

geography of a country,

fome-

xiv

P R E F A C E/
interefting,

fomewhat more

by accompanying

it

with an

account of the principal events and revolutions, to which


the country has given birth. the deficiency of this part of

am but too confcious of my performance. Befides,


I

many of the people, who


if I

events are related fo differently by different

pretend to an equal knowledge of the cirit

cumftances of them, that

will be

no matter of

furprife

am

found (by thofe whofe knowledge of eaftern lan-

guages has gained them accefs to authentic records) to be


often miftaken.

In whatfoever cafe this

may happen,
I

make no doubt
their candour,

but that
as to the

I fhall

experience the exercife of

motives by which

was adiuated,

when
tion.

adopted any particular opinion, or

mode of

relahif-

The

prefent difputes concerning

fome recent

torical fa<5ls in this

and the neighbouring countries, fhew


it

how

extremely

difficult

is
it,

to
are

come

at the truth,

even

when

the refearches after

made under every

favour-

able circumftance that can poffibly attend them.

CON-

CONTENTS.
Page
Explanation of the Colouring of the

Map
-

xvi

INTRODUCTION
Sketches of the Hiftory of the

xix
xl

Mogul Empire

Sketches

of the Hiftory of the Mahrattas


-

Ixxix

Conquefts of European Powers, fince the downfall of the

Mogul
xc
cviii

Empire

General

Divifion of Hindooftan, &c. into Provinces or States

Divifion of the

Memoir

with an Account of the Itinerary Mealures


-

ofHindooftan

I.
..

SECTION
Conftrudion of the Sea Coafts and Idands

SECTION
The
furveyed Tra<5t on the fide of Bengal
its
;

II.

or that occupied by the


-

Courfe of the Ganges, and

principal Branches
III.

48

SECTION
The Traft
cipal Branches
-

occupied by the Courfe of the River Indus, and


-

its

prin65.

Account of a Map of die Countries lying between the Head of the . . _ Ganges and the Cafpian Sea 102

SECTION
The Traft
fituated

IV.
tra-

between the Kiftna River, and the Countries verfed by the Courfes of the Ganges and Indus

128

SECTION
The
the

V.

Countries contained in that Part of the Peninfula lying South of

KiUna River

182

SECTION
SECTION
Tables of Diftances
in

VI.
-

The Countries between Hindooftan and China


VII.
-

215.

Hindooftan.

235

APPENDIX.
Account of
the

Ganges and Burrainpooter Rivers

255-

POSTSCRIPT.
The Geogrnphy of
the Countries contiguous to
-

the lower Part of the


-

Courfe of the River Indus, &c.

-S5

xvi

Explanation of

the

Colouring of

the

MAP.

The

Colours are ufed to point out the Boundaries of the principal

States

now

exlfting in Hindooflan, and thefe are divided into fix

ClafTes,

(viz.

Class

I.

The British CoMPANV, The Powers

Possessions
diflinguifhed
in

-,

or thofe of the

East India
-

by
the

Red.

II.

Alliance with
States,

Company, by Yellow.
-

III.

The Mahratta
The Nizam's

by

Green.
Orange.

IV.

Territories,

by
-

v.
VI.

Tippoo Sultan's, by

Purple.
-

The Seiks, by

Blus.

The

following are the Territories comprifed in each Clafs.


I.

British Possessions.^

Red.

1 Bengal and Bahar, with the Zemindary of Benares. 2 Northern Circars. 3 Jaghire in the Carnatic.

4 Bombay,
II.
1

Salfette,

&c.

British Allies.
Oiide.
Carnatic.

Yellow.

Azuph Dowlah. Mahomed Ally.

III.

Mahratta

xvii

111.

Mahratta

States.

Greew.

Light Green.

PooNAH
1

Mahrattas.
I

Tributaries^
Rajah of Jyenagur. Joodpour. Oudipour. 3 Narwah. 4
1

Malwa.

2 Candeifli.

3 Partof AmednagurorDcwlatabad. Vifiapour.

5 Part of Guzerat. Agra, 6

Gohud. 5 6 Part of Bundelcund.

Agimere.

S Allahabad.

BopakoL 7 Mahomed Hyat. 8 Futty Sing. Amedabad.


9 Gurry Mundella, &c. &c.

Deep Green,

Berar Mahratus.
1

Tributarv.
Bembajee.

Berar.

2 OrilTa.

IV.

Nizah-Allv, Soubah of

the

Deccan.

Orange.

Golconda, Aurungabad, Beder, part of Berar, Adoni, Rachore,

&c

V.

Tippoo Sultan.

Purple.

My fore,

Bednore, Canara, Cuddapah, &c. &c.

VI.

Seiks.

Blue.

Lahore, Moultan, and the wellern parts of Delhi.

Small States,

not diftinguiflied by Colours,

3 Zabeda Cawn, now Golam Cawdir, 2 Jats. 3 Pattan Rohillas. Furruckabad, 4 Adjid Sing. Rewah, &:c. 5 Bundelcund, or Bundela.

Sehaurunpour,

Little Ballogiftan.

7 Cochin. S Travancore,

"For //6^

Errata, fee

tbe lajl

Pages of the Book,

INTRODUCTION.
HINDOOSTAN,
tarian mountains,
ftricftly

has by the people of

modem

Europe,

been underflood to mean the trad: fituated between the rivers

Ganges and Indus, on the

eafl

and weft
j

the Thibetian and Tarfea


is
:

on the north

and the

on the fouth.

But

fpeaking, the extent of Hindooftan

much more circumand the name ought

fcribed, than thefe limits

convey an idea of

to be applied only to that part of the above tradl,

which

lies to

the

north of the parallels of 21 or 22.

The Nerbudda

river, is indeedj,
it

the reputed fouthern boundary of Hindooftan, as far as

goes

and.

the fouthern frontiers of Bengal and Bahar, compofe the remainder

of

it.

The

countries

on the fouth of

this line,

according to the
:

Indian geographers, go under the general

name of Deccan

and

comprife nearly one half of the

tra<ft

of the

Mogul

empire.

But

as

the

applied in a lax fenfe to this v/hole


dillinguifti the

known by the name term Hindoostan has been region, it may be neceflary tO'
generally

northern part of

it,

by the name of Hindooftan pro-

per.

This

tratfl

has indeed the Indus, and the mountains of


its

Thiinter-

bet and Tartarv, for

weftern and northern boundaries


as

but the
it

Ganges was improperly applied


fe(fls

an eaftern boundary
richeft provinces
is

as

in

its

courfe,

fome of the

of the empire

while the Burrampooter, which


eaftern
ftate,

much
is

nearer the mark,, as an

boundary, was utterly unknown.

In this

circumfcribed.

the extent of Hindooftan proper,

about eqqal to France,


Italy,

Germany, Bohem.ia, Hungary, Switzerland,


Countries,
collectively
:

and the
peniniula,

Low
are

and

the

Deccan

and

about

^^

about equal to the


I

Britlfli

Ifl^ds, Spain, and

Turkey

in

Europe.

have here called the


the peninfula
;

tra<5l

which

lies

on the fouth of the Kiftna


;

river,
its

in

conformity to general praftice


it.

although

form does by no means warrant

The term Deccan, which


its

fignifies the

south,

is

applied (as before-'Md) in


lies

mofl extenfive

fignification, to the

whole region that

on the fouth of Hindooits

flan proper
fenfe,
it

apprehend, however, that in


fituated
fea,

proper and limited

means only the countries


the weftern

between Hindooflan
:

proper,

the Camatic,

and OrilTa

that

is,

the

provinces of Candeifli, Dowlatabad, Vifiapour, Golconda, and the

weftern part of Berar.

The term India, by which


is

this country,

as far as it

was known,
be de-

diftinguiflied in

the earliefl Grecian hiftories, appears to

rived

from Hind,

the

name given

it,

by the ancient Perfiansj

through
its

whom,

doubtlefs, the

knowledge both of the country and

name, were tranfmitted to the Greeks.

We have
as

the ftrongefl:

affurances

from Mr. Wilkins,


are to

that

no fuch words

Hindoo, or
It

HiNDoosTAN,

be found in the Sanfcrit Didlionary.

ap-

pears that the people

among whom
to

the Sanfcrit language was vera

nacular, ftyled their country


believe, quite novel

Bharata*;
Hind

name, which

is,

the ears of the learned in Europe.

It is

probable then, that the word

furnifhed that of India, to the


in the Per-

Greeks
fic,
is

and the termination stan, fignifying country


:

of more modern date

for

we
;

lind

it

joined to

many of

the

ancient Perfian names of countries

as to

Dahae, whence Daheftan

See the notes

to the

Hcctcpades or Fables, recently tranflated from the Sanfcrit (or San-

fcreet)

by Mr. Wilkins, page 33;. Thii E,er.tleinan h.ib the merit of being thj i.nt European who acquired the knowledge of the Sanfcrit language which was that of ancient Hindoollan (or Bh. rata) but which ceafed to be the vernacular tongue, foon after the Mahomedan conqueil, in the i ith century A few years ago, it was known ordy to the Pundits or learned Bramins ; who r'digioully kept it from the knowledge of all but their own order it bei;ig the facred depofitary ot their religious iniHcutions, and myfterles ; and which it was incoii\enient to cominu..icate to the vulgar, othcrwife than through the medium of their own comments, and interpretations. The honour done Mr. Wilkins on this occahon, reminds us of the communications made to Herodotus, by the Egj'ptian Prieils and it is a fair inference, that the perfonal merit of both of thefe men, had a principal fliare in obtaining io aiftinguilhed a pre: : :

/frcRce.

and

xxi

J
:

and Tapuri,

is

Taberi-flan
It

Corduene, Curdi-flan

together with

many

others.
as

has happened in
;

the application of this name,


is

India,

on

fimilar occafions

that

to lay,

it

has been applied,


it,

not only to the country originally defigned by


adjacent
to,

but to others

and beyond

it

for the countries

between Hindooflan
;

and China, came to be called the further India

or India extra

Gangem
gem.

whereas. Hind, or India, properly belonged only to the


;

country of the people called Hindoos

or thofe of India

wtra Gan:

The name is as ancient as and this may ferve among many


antiquity of the Perfian language.

the earlieft profane hiilory extant

other inftances, to prove the high

India has in

all

ages excited the attention


life.

of the curious, ia

almoft every walk of

Its
;

rare

produ^fts

and manufiiitures,
reli-

engaged that of the merchants

while the mild and inoffenfive


it,

gion of Brama, and the manners inculcated by


BOtice of philofophers.

attracted
is

the
re-

The

ftrudture of

its

language too,

markable

and has a claim to originality.

It.

had been happy for

the Indians, if they had not attrafted the notice of a clafsof

men
foil,

more

inimical to the happinefs of

mankind

for the foftnefs and effe-

minacy induced by the climate, and the yielding nature of the

which produces almofl fpontaneouily,


more hardy neighbours
foreign invader.
;

invited the attacks of their


every,

and rendered them an eafy prey to


find

Hence we

them
:

fucceffively conquered
it is

by

the Perfians, Patans, and

Moguls

and

probable, that, like

the Chinefe, they have feldom had a dynaily of kings, from


their

among

own countrymen.
:

fent the Indians as a

The accounts people who flood

of 22 centuries ago, reprevery high in point of civili-

zation

but to judge from their ancient monuments, they had not

at firll only to the countries of Africa, that were colonized by but was afterwards applied by them to the whole ccnti lent. The Romans, in a fimilar manner, extended the name of Africa, which originally belonged only to the territories of Carthage, to the whole continent or, at leaft, to as much as they knew of it. Asia was applied at firfl: only to Natolia ; which took the name of Lesser Asia, afterwards, when Asia was applied to all the known parts of that continent.

The term Lybia belonged


:

the Greeks

carried.

xxii

carried the imitative arts to any thing like the degree of perfedtion

attained

by the Greeks and Romans, or even by the Egyptians.


to

Both the Hindoos and Chinefe appear


proached the fummit of perfeftion,
defign.

have carried the


j

arts jufl

to the point requifite for ufeful purpofes


as
it

but never to have ap-

refpefts tafte, or boldnefs of

The

principal

the peninfula.

monuments of Hindoo fuperftition are found in Some have concluded from this, and from other
Hindoo
religion,

circumftances, that the original feat of the


there.

was

Others, perhaps with more appearance of probability, fupto

pofe

it

have originated on the banks of the Ganges.


to

Monuments

of a

fuperftition, apparently anterior

the Hindoo, exift in the the weftern coaft

caves of Salfette and Elephanta, two iflands on

of India

thefe confift of apartments of extenfive dimenfions, exca-

vated from the live rock, and decorated with figures and columns.

India was but


dition, about

little

known

to the

Greeks until Alexander's expe-

327

years

before Chrift.

Herodotus, who wrote


its

about

1 J

3 years

before, appears to have heard but indiflinftly, of


it
;

any but the weftern part of


tary to Periia.

and that only, by

being tribu-

He

informs us (Book IV.) that Darius Hyftafpes


to explore the Indus, about

had difpatched Scylax of Caryandra

508 years before Chrift


rodotus continues to

and that he departed from Cafpatyriis

and Pa^iya, which were fituated near the head of the Indus.
fay,

He-

that the Indians

who

inhabit towards the

north, and border on thefe territories of Cafpatyrus and Padya,

refemble the Badlrians,

(that

is,

their neighbours)
all India.
:

in

manners

and

are the

moft valiant people of


is

The

eaftern part

of

India, fays he,

rendered defert by fands

which

defcription ap-

plies only to the

country lying
this

eaft

of the Indus, and fouth of the


that

Pan JAB

and

fhews pretty evidently,

Herodotus's

knowledge of
the above
*

India, as to particulars, extended


:

no further, than to
mention

ti-ad:

and a

collateral proof, is,

that he does not

The

country watered by the 5 eaftern branches of the Indus, See page 80 of the Memoir.

the

[ tlie

xxiii

Ganges, which becanie

fo

famous, a century afterwards,

iii-

deed, he tells us very plainly, that this fandy defert,

was the ex''

treme point of his knowledge eaftward.

With
**

refpedl to Scylax's difcovcries,

this is
part,

Herodotus's account.
the Indus (which
fea,
is

Darius being defirous to

know

in

what

the fecond river that produces crocodiles) runs into the


Scylax of Caryandra, with others of approved
difcovery.
territories
fidelit)',

fent

to

make

the

They

departed in divers
;

fliips

from Cafpatyrus, and the


;

of Fatlya *

filled

down

the river, eaft Aard to the fea


in the

and then, altering their courfe to the weft, arrived

30th

month,

at

that

place,
I

where the King of Egypt (Nechao) had


mentioned before, to embark in order to
After this voyage, Darius
fea."

caufed the Phenicians

furround the

coafl;

of Lybia (Africa).

fubdued the Indians, and

became maftcr of that

Herod.

Book IV.
fome Indian
Ethiopians

In another place, in the fame book,, he takes notice of


nations,
fituated
;

to the fouthward, very

remote from
as

the Perfian conquefts


:

and whofe complexions were


to

black as

thefe

ought

be the people of the peninfula.

He

had

alfo learned

that they killed

no animals, but contented them;

felves

with the produce of the earth


ill

that they expofed thofe

whom

they deemed too

to recover

lived chiefly

upon

rice
j

had horfes

of a fmaller breed than their weftern neighbours


manufaftured their
fine cotton

and that they

wool into cloathing.

Now,

after the

above account of Scylax's expedition, can

we

give credit to the ftory of Alexander's fuppofing that he had difco-

vered the head of the Nile,

when he was

at the

Indus

Are we

to fuppofe that Ariftotle concealed the


his

books of Herodotus from

pupil

Or, on the contrary, ought

we
:

not rather to believe,


that the difcoveries

that the matter of

them was on

his

mind

and

of Scylax, made within iSo years of his


*

own

time,

and of a kind

conclude that Pttctya, ib the nicdern Pfhkely. See page io3 and 1 16 of the Memoir. fuppofed Cy/'a/^;-;jj to mi.^\\ C/ipmtre : but this is improbable, from its fituacion, which is remote from the Indus.
l'

Some have

that

xxlv

that particularly Interefled


find

him; were

detailed
?

to

him; when we
the tides in the
that

them given
ftory

incidentally in Herodotus
furprife at

The

of Alexander's

feeing
;

Indus, appears to

me

equally improbable

feeing

the fame

Herodotus (Book

II.) fpeaks

very particularly of the tides in the


as

Redfea; and

defcribes

them

being not only ilrong, but ebbing

and flowing every day.


veller,

(That

mod

intelligent

and ingenious

tra-

M.

Volncy, informs us, that the tide ebbs and flows three
at

feet

and a half

Suez).

Arrian takes no notice of the tides until


near the

Alexander's
true,
rivers

fleet

iiad arrived

mouth of
go up

the river.

It is

that the tide in the Indus does not

fo high,

as in other

of equal bulk, and that run on fo fmall a defcent; but neveris

thelefs, as the tide

perceptible at 50 or 60 miles above the river's


that
it

mouth*, we may conclude


fea

could hardly efcape the notice

of Alexander and his people, in their voyage from Pattala to the


:

fuppoflng they- had not been apprized of the circumftance.

Befldes, Arrian's account of the

coming

in

of the

tide,

which

did fo

much

mifchief to the

fleet,

is

defcriptive of the

bore, or fudden in-

flux of the tide, in a

body of water, elevated above the common fur&c.

face of the fea; fuch as occurs in the Ganges,


fliips

He

fays,

thofe
tide

that lay upon the /and, were fwept


xh.'Mjluck hi the

away by the fury of the

while thofe

mud, were

fet afloat

again without damage.

To

the generality of readers, no reafon will appear,


fliould

why

the circum-

ftances of the fliips

be

diflxrent,

in the

mud, and on the


and
;

fend
are

the fadt
;

is,

that

the bottoms of channels in great rivers,


:

muddy

while their fliallows are formed of fend


fliortefl
:

it

is

the nature of the bore, to take the

cut up a river

inllead
it

of following the windings of the channel


erofs the fend

confequently,
alfo

muth

banks

it

meets in
it

its

way

and will

prove mote
is afloat.

deflirudive to whatever

meets with aground, than what


;

* Tlie tide in the Indus is perceptible r.t about 65 miles above its ir.outh according o the information oT Mr. Callander, who refided a con.*iderablc time at Tatta, near the head of tlie and in thi river d- Ita of the Indu-i. In, the Ganges the tides :.\t perceptible at 3 j.o miles up
:

AinazoPb,

at

tco^
Ifr

XXV

It appears alfo

from Herodotus (Book

III.)

that the parts of

India bordering on the Indus, were fubjeded. to regular tribute,


if

not

totally

reduced,

under the Perfian Government

for in

enumerating the 20 Satrapies of Perfia (under Darius Hyflafpes)


India
is

reckoned as one of them, and


the proportion of

is

rated the higheft


talents

it

being

aiiefled in

4680 Eubean

of

filver,

out of

14,560, the whole annual revenue.

To

explain this, the author


j

informs us, that the Indians were very numerous


tribute charged

and that the


It is

upon them, was proportionably


this tribute

great.

wor-

thy of remark, that

was paid
filver.

in gold,

whereas that of
is

the other Satrapies was paid in


diis

Much

light

thrown on

circumflance,
;

by the intelligence furniihed by the


that

Avin
moun-

AcBAREE
tains,

namely,

the eaftern branches of the Indus, as

well as fome other flreams, that defcend from the northern


yield gold duft.

(Seepage 108 of the Memoir.)

We

are

told on

the fame occafion, by Herodotus, that gold was eftimated


at the value

about that time,

of

3 times its

weight in

filver.

Alexander's expedition furnifhed the Greeks with a more extenfive

knowledge of India

although he traverfed only the countries


:

mentioned by Herodotus

that

is,

the

tra<5t

watered by the Indus,

and

its

various branches, and adjun<ft rivers.

But the

fpirit

of en-

quiry was

now gone

forth

and the long refidence of Megafthenes,


at

the ambafiador of Seleucus,

PaUbotbra,

the

capital

of

the

Prasii,

furnifhed the Grecians with the principal

part

of the

accounts of India, that are to be found in Strabo, Pliny, and Arrian


:

for

Megallhenes kept a journal, and

alfo

wrote a very partiin

cular account of

what he had feen and heard, refpedling India


:

general, during feveral years refidence

which account

exifted in

Arrian's time.

His embafly was about 300 years before our sra.


land,

The communication by
India,

between the Syrian empire and

was dropt very early: for Ba6tria foon became independant was broken.

and by that means, the link of the chain that connefted India with
Syria,

The
6

Indian trade was about the

llinie

time
trans-

xxvi

transferred

from Tyre

to Alexandria in

Egypt, where

it

flouriflied

under the aufpices of the Ptolemies, until Egypt became a


province
;

Roman

and was continued on a more extenfive


:

fcale

under the

Remans

themfelves

nor did

it

forfiike Alexandria,

until the reI fhall take

dijcovery of the paflage

by the Cape of Good Hope.


fully concerning the particulars
hereafter.

occafion to fpeak

more

of the navi-

gation

from the Red


traffick

fea to India,

This

opened to the Egyptians and Romans a knowledge


j

of the coails and produdls of India


in

ab

we

find

by various

notices,

the abovementioned authors

and in Ptolemy in of the coafls was


Afiae)
it

particular.

But confidering how much the


him,
as is evident

detail

known

to

by his map (Tab. X.


it,

is

very extraordi-

nary that the general form of


for

fliould

be fo

far

from the truth form the


its

he makes the

coafts
;

between the Indus and Ganges, to projedt

only in a flight curve

whereas, they are

known

to

fides

of a triangle, whofe perpendicular almofl equals

bafe

Cape

Comorin, being the apex of


tional dimenfions

it.

Whoever compares

the propor-

of India, found in Diodorus Siculus, Pliny, and

Arrian, will find

them

tolerably juft

and will be inclined to think


India, has travelled

that the worft fet of ancient

maps of

down

to

us

and that Ptolemy, in conftrudling his

map

of that part, did

not exprefs the ideas of well informed people of his


that fubjedt.
rian about

own

time, on

Pliny was about 60 years before Ptolemy; and Arafter

20 years

Ptolemy

their accounts of the dimenfions

of India, were taken from Eratofihenes and Megnfihenes.

Diodorus

fays that

India

is
:

32,000
that
is,

ftadia

from north
is

to fouth,

and 28,000 from


of the length.

eaft to

wefl

the breadth

feven-eighths

Arrian gives the meafures


thenes
:

collcifled
is

by Eratofthenes and Megaf-

and fays that

" India

bounded on the weft by the


and on the
fouth.

Indus

on the north, bv a continuation of Mount Taurus, called


Paro-pamijus, Kmodus, and Hwnnis
;

in different parts,

xxvii

foutl>,

by the ocean, which

alfo fliuts

up the

eaftern

parts of it*.

Few

authors (fays he) have given us any account of the people,

that inhabit towards the mouths of the Ganges, ivhere


isjituated."

P.\libothra
mouth,
faid

From

the mountains at the head of the Indus, to


is

its

according to Eratoflhenes,

13,000 lladia;
the extejit
is

and from the


lefs
:

mountains, to the eaftern


a

fea,

fomewhat
fea

but as

huge

tradt
it

of land runs out 4,000 ftadia into the

(meaning the
to
is

peninfula)

may be reckoned

6,000

ftadia.

From. Palibothra

the weftern extreme of India, meafured along the great road,

10,000

fladia

and the whole length (that

is,

from

eaft to

weft)

is

20,000

ftadia.

Arrian likewife gives the meafures according to

Megallhenes,
fouth
;

who

reckoned India 22,300


eafl

ftadia

from north

to

and

16,000 broad, from

to

weft;

making

that the

breadth,

which Eratofthenes reckons the length.


is,

We may obferve,
trueft
:

that Megafthenes's proportion,

on the whole, the


circle,

for

India fcuth

is
;

about 28 degrees of a great

in length,

from north to
:

or from the Indian Caucafus, to

Cape Comorin

and about
:

20

in breadth,

from the Indus

to the

mouth of

the Ganges
it

and

if

we reckon from
22 degrees

the moft diflant

mouth of
as

each- river,

will be

in breadth.

This fhews that Arrian had


in'e

as jft

an idea
:

of the proportional dimenfions of India^


for

had, 40 years ago


at

we

then reckoned
It
is

it

narrower than the truth, by


tell

lead

two

degrees.
to exprefs

impoflible to
ftade,

what length Megafthenes nieant


be fo confiderable a variaat

by a

as there appears to

tion

in the length of this

itinerary

meafure,
ftades,

different times

but by proportioning the number of


grees, included in

to the

num.ber of de;.

the above meafures of India, by J^vlcgafthenes

* Here it would appear, that Arrian followed the geography of Alixander; who fuppofed India to be the moft caftern part of Afia ; and that the Ihore of the r/:ean, from the mouth ot the Ganges, took a quick turn to the north and northwe.l for he iuppofed the Cafpian lake to be a gulf of it. (Vide his fpecch on the banks of the Hvphafis.) But Ptolemy, as we are given to underftand, had, before the time of Arrian, defcribed Serica, and the borders of
:

iiiKJt.

that
;

is,

the countries bordering

Elvths

and part of Tartary,

to thelatitude

on the weft and N ijf China of 50 degrees north.

the country of the

there

xxvill

there fiiould be
ville has
it

800

ftades in a degree

of a great

circle.

M. D'AnI

at

different

times reckoned 1050, and 1100,

conceive

probable that Megafthenes gave the meafures according to the


dijiance,

road

from one extreme of the country


diftance,

to the other

and
and

not according to the horizontal breadth of the country.


length
of the ftade,

or adlual

length,

Part of the apparent differences, in the


arife

may

from

thefe different

methods of

reckoning diftances.
Pliny gives the meafures along the coafls between the mouth of
the Ganges, and Pattnla (or Tatta) in the

mouth of

the Indus, at

3320 miles (Roman miles


meafure of thefe
to the general
coafls,

fuppofe, of 1000 paces.)

The

true

rejecfting the finuofities,


it,

and attending only

form of
'jz^

is

40 degrees of

a great circle.

M.
rule,

D'Anville allows
the above

Roman
miles,

miles to a degree; and


v.'ill

by

this

number of

come out 44

degrees, inftead of
feet,

40, the true meafure.

But

if the

pace be reckoned at 4

10,02

inches, Englifli, there ought to be 'j%y

and by this calculation, the


within
^'-j.

Roman miles to a 3320 Roman miles, will be


knew

degree

42; or

part of the truth.


it

Whichfoever of the two calculations


nearly the form of the

may

be adopted,

is

clear that Pliny

^eninfuk; and that Ptolemy, who living


fi>ppofed to be in the

at

Alexandria, might be

way of obtaining

the beft information on the


it,

fub

^el,

was
fo

in truth, ignorant

of the general form of

although

he kn'^ew

much
than

concerning the particulars.


is

Arrii>'*-'s

Indian hiftory, which


it

extremely curious, and merits


fliews us
i

more

not/'-^

commonly meets with,

how
;

very

little

change, the' -Hindoos have undergone in about 2


ances being n

centuries, allow-

vde

for the effedl of foreign

conquers

which, how-

ever, have prodi'"iced fewer changes here, than they could have done,

any where

elfe

"for

cuftoms, which in every country, acquire a

degree of veneration^ ^re here rendered facred, by their connexion with religion the rii'^'' of which, are interwoven with the ordi:

nary occurrences of

life.

To

this,

and to the feclufion from the


reft

xxix

reft

of mankind,

inculcated by the braminical religion,

we

are

to afcribe the long duration of the

Hindoo

religion

and cuftoms

which

are

only to be extirpated, together with the very people,


they prevail
:

among whom

and which have been proof againft the

enthufiafm and cruelty of the

Mahomedan
from

conquerors
;

nay more,

have taught a leffon of moderation to thofe conquerors

who

at laft

faw no danger
profelytes.

arifing to the ftate,

a religion that admitted

no

We are

at'

the

firft

view furprifed to find that Arrian,

who

pro-

fefles to treat

of India, fhould confine himfelf to the defcription


;

of

a particular part only

while he had authors befora him,


It

who

had,
for,,

treated the f)jbje6l at large..

may, however, be accounted

in this manner, that he chofe to follow thofe only,

who had
it is

been

eye-witneifes to
clear that

what they wrote ; not compilers


is

and

pretty

his his

account of India,
hero..

meant

chiefly to

illuftrate

the

hiftory of

The
to

following particulars,
thofe

felec^ed

from

among

others, will

Ihew

who

are converfant

with India,
i.

how
3.

nearly the ancient inhabitants, refembled the prefent.

The
food..

flender

make of
in

their bodies.

2.

Their living on vegetable


:

Ditlribution,

into

fe<Sls

and

clafTes

and the perpetuation of


:

trades

families.

4.

Marriages

at

feven years of age


5.

and pro-

hibition of marriages between different clafies.

The men wearwith co-

ing ear-rings

parti-coloured flioes

and

veils,

covering the head,


their faces

and great part of the ihoulders.


lours.
7.
8.

6.

Daubing

Only the

principal people having umbrellas carried over


:

them.
9.

Two-handed fwords

and bows,

drawn by the

feet.

Manner of
ants:

taking elephants; the fame as in

the prsfent age..


11.

10. Manufa(flures of cotton, of extraordinary whitenefs.


ftrous

Mon-

by which the Termites, or white


(Herodotus Book
is

ants are

meant,-

though exaggerated.
ants: and his account

III,

alfo

mentions the
12.

more extravagant than


;

Arrian's.)

Wooden
removed,

houfes, on
as

the banks of large rivers


its

to

be occafionally
Ta/a
tree,

the river changed

courfe.

The
.

or
:

6 2

Tal

XXX

Tal

a kind of palm.

14.

The
on

Banian (or Burr

tree)

and the

Indian devotees fitting under them.

We

may

perceive, however,

a reference to

Arrian, that in

many of

the above particulars, he had either been indiftindlly inelfe,

formed, or

mif-informed

as in at

the cafe of the Tal tree


it)

the

white ants (which he

difcredits,

the time he relates

and the
houfes,

manner
are,

in

which the people daub

their faces.

The wooden
;

as far as I

know, peculiar
fo,

to

the fide of the Indus

and are

remarked

to

be

in the

Ayin Acbaree,

Arrian informs us, that

he took

his

account of India from Nearchus


it

and Megaflhenes.
perceived that he

In the account of the wooden houfes,

may be
elfe.

followed Nearchus

who

feeing

them on the

fide

of the Indus,

concluded they were in

ufe,

every where
far

As

to
j

Megafthenes,

Arrian thought he had not travelled


ther than Alexander's followers.
explain,

over India

although farferve partly to

This opinion may

why
it

Arrian did not preferve the journal of Megafthenes,


in his hi/lory of

by

inferting

Alexander; or in his account of

India.

His geography of India


thofe feen
rivers,

relates

chiefly to the northern parts, or

by Alexander and Megafthenes.


alfo

And
in

his catalogue

of

mofl of which are


trace

to

be found

Pliny, and

among
only
as

which we can
Ca/'nas,

many of

the modern

names,

contain
:

thofe that difcharge themfelves into the Ganges or Indus


the

fuch
;

Cane ;
;

Co//ocmz(s,

Cola, or Cofs

Sonus, Soane
;

Con-

dochates,

Gundlick

Sambm,

Sumbul, or Chumbul

Agoramls^

Gogra

Commenajes, Caramnafla, 6cc. &c.

Of

the different hiftories of Alexander that have travelled


;

down

to us, that by Arrian appears to be the moft confifi:ent


cially in

and efpe-

the geography of Alexander's marches, and voyage in the

Panjab

which country, by
is

the' nature

of

its rivers,

and by their

mode of confluence,
his progrefs.

particularly favourable to the tafk of tracing


to have had,

Diodorus and Curtius, had, or ought


:

the fame materials before them, as Arrian

that

is,

the journals or
relations

xxxi

relations

of Ptolemy and Ariftobulus

who

as friends

and compa-

nions of Alexander,

had opportunities of being well informed.


that there were

We

may conclude

alfo,

among
;

the followers of

Alexander, journalifts of a very different flamp


experience of our
that kind, to

and indeed, the

own
it

days, furniflies us

with examples enough of


alfo

make

probable

and there are


taftes

to

be found,
prefer

compilers,

who
as
;

according to their

and

difpofitions,

the relation of the marvellous, to thofe of the fober and rational


kind.

Such

thefe,

we may

conceive Diodorus and Quintius

Curtius to be
incident grows

the latter particularly, under whofe hand, every


into a miracle ur wonder.
as

Arrian too, relates his

wonders
as
if

but in fuch a manner,


to

not to

commit himfelf

or,

he meant rather not


to

withhold what he thought himfelf


as if

bound

communicate, than

he believed them himfelf, or

wiflied to inculcate a belief of them, in others.


It
is

to

be regretted that Arrian did not preferve the journal of


as well

Megafthenes,
or Biton's

as

that of Nearchus.

The

lofs

of Baton's,

book, which contained the geography of Alexander's


alfo to

marches,

is

be regretted.

It exifted

in the time of Pliny,


it,

who
he

quotes

him

but

think, if Arrian had feen

he would
;

have been more particular in his geography, in certain places


ordinarily, (ludies to be.
:

as

Certainly, Arrian had not read

Hero-

dotus attentively

otherwife he would not have pafied over in filence,

the voyage of Scylax,


as

down

the Indus

nor reprefented his hero,

being ignorant of
thofe

fo curious

a fadt as the tides

muff have aphad read

peared, to

who
is
j

read the

fame book.

But

that he

part of Herodotus,

evident by his quoting his opinion, refpeding

the delta of the Nile


that

and by an allufion to his account of the ants

dug up
is

gold,

in India, to

&c.
reli-

There

no rcafon

doubt that the Hindoo or Braminical

gion was univerfal over Hindooftan and the Deccan, before the time

of Alexander's conqueft,
rodotus and Arrian.

if

we

regard the notices afforded by

He-

Nor

is it

more extraordinary

that one religion

fhould

xxxii

(hould prevail over India, although compofed of diftind govern-

ments, than that the Chriflian rehgion fliould prevail over a larger
trad:

in

Europe

or the

Mahcmedan

over a

flill

larger tradl in

Europe, Afia, and Africa.


verfality

But although there might be an uni-

of religion, there were, as the learned well know,


:

many

diflinft languages

and

hiflory,

both ancient and modern, gives us

the mofl Dofitive affurances, that India was divided into a

number
to that

of kingdoms or of Acbar.
are pofitive,

ilates,

from the time of Herodotus, down

Not only Herodotus, Diodorus, Pliny, and Arrian, but even Abui Fazil, who compofed as to this point
;

a hiftory of the Indian provinces, in the reign of Acbar, in the

i6th century.

It

is

probable, that the almofl univerfality of reli-

gion, and the union of fo large a portion of this vaft region, under

the family of Tamerlane (particularly under Aurungzebe) has occafioned an idea,


empii-e,
fo called

though

very erroneous one, that the


(or

Mogul

from the Mogul

Mongul)

dynafty, or that of

Tamerlane, was always under one head.

But whatever kind of

divifion

may have

taken place in the

reft

of Hindooftan, there appears to have been, generally, a large


pire or

kingdom, which occupied the principal part of that


through which the Ganges takes
its

emim-

menfe

valley or plain,

courfe

the capital of
the limits
exift

which has fluduated between Delhi and Patna, as That fuch a one does not of the empire have varied.
is

at prefent,

probably ov/ing to the Bengal provinces being


:

in the hands of foreigners

but

if

we
is

confider the union of interefts

between Bengal and Oude, the

cafe

not effentially altered.

Leave

matters to their natural courfe, the whole valley will form one
ftate again.

The kingdom

fpeak of, was that of the Prasii and


:

Gangarid^,

in the times of Alexander and Megafthenes


as appears

and:

which was very powerful,

by the ftrength of
It
if

its

armies,

and the number of elephants trained to war.


tended weftward to the Panjab country
the
fite
:

feems to have exPaltbothra flood on

and

of Patna,

as late

accounts feem to render probable (fee page

50 of

xxxlii

]
it

50 of the Memoir) we may fuppofe that


of Bengal.
of
lefs

included at

leafl:,

part

In

effedl,

the

kingdom of
:

the Prafil could not well be


ftate

dimenfions than France

and the

of

It

(according to

Arrlan) was rich, the Inhabitants good hufbandmen, and excellent


foldiers
;

governed by nobility, and living peaceably


harfli,

their rulers
are

impofing nothing

or unjuft,

upon them.

Thofe who

fonder of contemplating the filent happinefs of a whole people,

than of tracing the fteps of a conqueror, will be gratified on


ing that Alexander ftopt
fliort,

refleft-

on the borders of the country

above defcribed.

The

trade

from the weftern world

to

India, \\'hich has ever en-

riched thofe

who

have carried

It

on, has often changed hands, and

been turned into different channels.


fadtures

pafTion for

Indian nianuIn

and produdts,

has adluated the people of every age.

lower Afia, as well

as in the civilized parts 'of

Europe

the delicate

and unrivalled,

as well as the

coarfer and

more

ufeful, fabricks

of

cotton, of that country, particularly fuiting the inhabitants of the

temperate regions, along the Mediterranean and Euxine


this trade,

feas.

To
;

the Perfian and Arabian gulfs, opened an eafy paflage


:

the latter particularly

as the

land carriage between the


fea

Red

fea

and the Nile

and between the Red


It
Is
it,

and the Mediterranean,

took up only a few days.

highly probable, and tradition in


that there

India, warrants the belief of

was from time Immeat


leafl,

morial, an Intercourfe between

Egypt and Hindooflan;

the maritime part of

it

fimllarity of

cuftoms in many Inflances

(as

related of the ancient

Egyptians, by Herodotus, and which can

hardly be referred to phyfical caufes) exifting In the

two

countries.
;

The

Intercourfe,

we may
it

conclude, was carried on, by fea

If

we

confider the nature of the Intervening countries, and the feat of the

manufadiures

and

might, moreover, be expected, that a nation


of Africa
(as

fo enterprifing as

to undertake the circumnavigation

there can

be no doubt, the Egyptians did, under the Pharaohs)


the coafls

would fcarcely leave unexplored,

of a

fea,

fo

mucn
nearer
;

xxxiv

nearer

and which, from the regularity of the periodical winds,


eafy of accefs.

was

lb

Whether Solomon's
are,
I believe,
it

profitable

traffick in-

cluded that of India, there

no means of determining
:

but

it

appears highly probable that

did

as alfo that the voyages

of
in

three years,
Cilicia)

made by the
to the
fadl,

iliips that

arrived at Tarjlnjh (Tarfus,

were
this

remote parts of Africa.

We

muft carry in our

minds,

that Solomon's fleets


fea,

were difpatched from the


:

ports of the

Red

as well as

from thole of the Mediterranean

David's conquefl: of Idumea (Edoni) giving


ports in the north-eaftern brancii of the

him Red fea

poffeiTion
:

of the

that

is,

Ezlona half,

gaber,

&c.

Tyre was founded about two centuries and


:

before this period

and from the very flourifhing


it

ftate

(lie

was

in,,

under Hiram, the cotemporary of Solomon,,

may be concluded
trade of the
eafl:

that her merchants poflofTed the greatefl part of the

known
reft,
it
is

world, at that time

and the trade of the

among

the

in all probability.

Commerce being
his

fo ready a

way

to riches,
fliould,

no wonder that

fo enlightened a Prince as

Solomon,

profit

by the example of

neighbours
ftate

and

avail

himfelf of his

fituation,

from the enlarged


to the

of his kingdom, which extended


;

from the Euphrates


(i

Red

fea
1

and

to the borders
ver.

of Egypt
13.)

Kings, chap. 4. ver. 24: and


to

Chron. chap. i8.

and

which opened
of the

him, two of the great avenues

to the eaft,

by way

Red

fea,

and the Perfian gulf.

M.

Volney's idea, refp'edling


pofiefTion

the objedt that Solomon had in view,

when he took
lefs

of

Tadmour,
ingenious
trade,
:

or Palmyra,

is,

in
it

my
as

opinion, no

probable, than,

namely, to ufe

an emporium of the Eaft India

by way of the Perfian

gulf,

and the courfe of the Euphrates..

This was about 1000

years before our xra.


:

Bat Solomon's

trade,

notwithftanding, was merely temporary


feeble efforts,

and reminds us of fome

made

in

our

own
;

days,

by an inland Prince, who

(in this refped:, like Solomon) poffeffes


fite

two

ports fituated in oppo-

ihores of the continent

and

who

is

conftrained to borrow the

mariners of the modern Tyre, as Solomon did thofe of the ancient.

Whether

XXXV

Wheriier the Indian trade was carried on


Tyrians and Egyptians,
as

at

the fame time, by the

well as by the Judeans, cannot


It

now
that,

be afcertained; but

think.

probable that

It

might
fea
;

and
as

both by
feen
It,

tlie

route of the Perfian gulf, and the

Red

we have
ftate

In

our days.

But whatever might be the mercantile

of Tyre, in the days of Solomon,


eftablifliing a

we
;

find

It

about a century

after,

colony

at

Carthage

and about three centuries after


I

that.

Its

greatnefs

was proverbial.
It.

mean,

about the date of

Ezeklel's prophecy concerning

When
poffefiion

Tyre

fell

into the hands of Alexander (Before Chrlft 332,

and about 260

after the

time of Ezeklel) that city was in full

of the Indian commerce.


fea

The

route of their trade from.


;

India,
deferts

was up the Red


frontiers
in

to

Eziongaber

and thence acrofs the

to Rhinocorura, a

common

town on the Mediterranean, and on the of Paleftine and Egypt both of which countries
:

were then

the hands of the Perfians.


fea

From

Rhinocorura, the

goods were carried by

to Tyre,

and circulated from thence.

The

deftrudion of Tyre by Alexander, and the confequent foun-

dation of Alexandria, turned the trade into a

new

channel

or ra-

ther perhaps, returned


lemies, into

it

into

its

ancient one, Egypt.

The

Pto-

whofe hands Egypt

fell,

on the

divlfion

of Alexander's

empire, beftowed a foftering care on the


alfo

new emporium, which


Ptolemy Phlladelphus
prefent Suez)
to

becam.e the capital of the kingdom.

conflru6ted a canal from Arfmoe (near the


Pelufiac branch of the Nile
:

the

and afterwards, poflibly becaufe of

the tedious and dangerous navigation of the upper part of the


fea,

Red
fea,

founded the city of Berenice on the weflern


Is,

fide

of that

and nearly under the tropic (that

450 miles below buez) from whence the merchandlfe was tranfported acrofs the defert of Thebais,
river,

to
to

Coptus on the Nile

and thence,

down
;

the ftream of that,

the neighbourhood of Alexandria

which thus became


;

the centre of trade between the eailern and weftern world


courfe, one of the moft opulent cities in either.
It

and, of

would appear,
that

XXXVl

that under the Ptolemies, the Egyptians extended their navigation


to the

extreme point of the Indian continent, and even

failed

up

the Ganges to Palibothra.

Alexandria held

its

rank
:

as

an emporium, even after Egypt beit

came

Roman

province

and preferved

in a confiderable degree,
eaft

during the various revolutions that happened in the


rc-dij'covery

until the

of the paffage round the fouth point of Africa, about

300 years ago, turned the bulk of the Indian trade into an entire new channel ; and from which it is not likely ever to be diverted.
Berenice continued to be the port of outfit for the
India trade in the time of Pliny (A.
fixth

Roman
in

Eaft
his

D. 79) who

details,

book, the account of the navigation to India; with


it
:

curious particulars relating to

and among other

many matters, we
that
it

may
coft

gather,

that

it

was

complaint even in his time, that the


its

trade to India, drained

Europe of

riches.
(at is.

Pliny
7,A\,

fays,

50 millions of
is

fefterces every year

3,275,0001.)

and yet the trade


of India.
I

not defcribed as being extended to every part

fliould

apprehend

a miftake in this

ftatement

as the

prime

coft

of the cargoes brought into England, from India and


little

China, in any one year, has been


included
:

above three millions, freight

and one would not expedl that the value of the goods
to that,

imported by the Romans, was equal

imported from China

and Hindooftan, into England.

From Red fea,


beft,
'

Berenice

it

was reckoned 30 days navigation, down the


juft

to Ocelis (Gella)

within the

ftrait

of Bab-el-mandel.

Another port was

Muza (Mocha)

but Ocelis was reckoned the

and moft commodious


the
firft

for departure.

From

thence to Miifail:

ziris,

port of merchandife in

India,

was 40 days

fo that, as they left Berenice about

midfummer, they might

arrive

in India in the latter end of Auguft,

when

the violence of the S

monfoon was abated; and the


*

coafting navigation, fafe and eafy.

The Venetian

trade to the eaft, was

by the channel of the Red

fea,

and Alev\andria.

Pliny

XXXV ii

Pliny does not forget to mention that they departed with the weji

wind

and thefe 40 days faiHng, would be about


ftyle

5 days rim, for


:

an European fhip, in the modern


1

of navigating

being about

750 marine

(the fame as geographical) miles,


firft

on

a llralght courfe.

We

are told that the

of thefe voyages were made by coafting

the Arabian fhore to the promontory Syagrus (Cape Rafalgate) and thence along the coafl of Perfia to the

mouth of

the Indus, &c.


:

In the next age, a fhorter and fafer courfe was difcovered

for frora

Cape Ralalgate, the fhips made


in

a direft courfe to Zizerus, a port

India

fituated,

as

would appear by circumftances, on

the

northern part of the Malabar coaft.

After this, a diredt courfe


fea to Muziris, as

was made from the


lated.
It
is

outlet of the
all,

Red

above re-

probable, after

that they coafted a great' part

of

the Arabian coaft, in order to reduce the length of that part of their
eourfe, that lay out of the fight of land
:

unlefs the habit of depend-

ing on the compafs,


fliaping a courfe

has, in

my

idea, increafed the difficulty of

without one

Muziris

is

faid

by Pliny

to

have been an incommodious place of


river's

merchandife, becaufe the fhallownefs of the port, or

mouth,

made

it

neceffary to difcharge or take in the cargo in fmall boats,

at a diflance

from the emporium

and befides, there was danger


port,

from the

pirates, at Nitria.

Another

more commodious and


(or Becare) in

better rtored with merchandife,

was named Barace


and
as the
it

the country of the Niconidians

pepper of Cottonara was

brought to

this

place in fmall

boats,

may be concluded

that

Barace was within,

or near to, the country of

Canara

which
After

produces the beft pepper in thofe parts, at the prefent day.

much

ftudy and inveftigation,

cannot apply to any particular fpot,


:

thefe ports of Muziris

and Barace

for the
:

Malabar

coaft

abounds
too,
all

with ports of the above defcription

and

it

muft be confidered,
traders,

that a fhallow port for one of the


probability,

Roman

which, in

were fmaller than ours, would be reckoned, in the

prefent times,

no port

at all.

The
f 2

circumftances of

tlie

pirate
coaft.

xxxviii

]
li-

coafl,

and pepper country, however, confine us within certain


for,

mits

in

the courfe to Muzlris, the traders pafled


;

near the

pirate's flations

and

as thefe,

by the hghts which

have received

from PHny and Ptolemy, were nearly the fame


is,

as the prefent (that

between Bombay and Goa)


fituated

conceive the trading ports meant

by Pliny, were
of the Indian
light

between Goa and Tellicherry.

The

Periple
faint

fea,

and the geography of Ptolemy, throw fome

on the

fubjeft.

Ptolemy's ideas are thefe:


N'ltria
;

Tyndis (going fouthward)


is
;

fucceeds

then Muziris

Becare (which

one of the readings of and then Comaria, or

Barace) Mekynda, or Nelcynda; Cottiara

Cape Comorin
Periple

whofe proper name


is

is

Komrin or Komry.

And

the

(my information
Tyndis,

from

M.

D'Anville) enumerates in the


:

fame order,

Muziris,

and Barace

allowing 500 fladia


appear more conve-

between each,
nient to this
pirate coaft

rcfpcdlivcly.

No

three places

relative

difpofition,

and

to

the circumftances of the

and pepper country,

than Goa,

Meerzaw

(vulgarly,
is

Merjee) and Barcelore, or Baffinore.


juft clear

The

firfl,

namely, Goa,

of the pirate coaft

having Newtya, poflibly the Nitrias


pirates cruifed
it.

of Pliny and Ptolemy (near which the


veflels in

on the

Roman
fecond

their

way

to

Muziris) on the north of

The

place,

Meerzaw,
;

or Merjee, has even


fituated

fome
at

affinity in found,

with

Muziris
fea.
is

and

is

on

a river,

and

fome diftance from the


poffibly be Barace,
:

And

Barcelore, or Baffinore,

which may
at

one of the principal pepper fadories, Nelcynda,


I

prefent

and therefore
:

anfwers fo far to Barace.

take to be Nelifuram

and

do not, with
cynda,

M.

D'Anville, fuppofe Barace to be the port of NelIt is

but a diftindl place.

faid

by Pliny,
is

to

be fituated

within the kingdom of Fandion ; which


to

pretty well underftood

be Madura

or to
:

be comprifed, at

leaft,

within the fouthern

part of the peninfula

and therefore, the farther fouth we go for


are likely to err.

Nelcynda, the

lefs

we

But even
:

all this is
is it

con-

jefture, as far as relates to particular pofitions

nor

of

much
confe-

xxxix

confequence

for

we

are clear that the ports of merchandife,

muft

be fituated, in or near to the country of Canara, the Cottonara, or

pepper country of Pliny


as before obferved.

that

is,

between Goa and Tellicherry

The
the

fliips

returned from the coaft of India, about the


:

month of

December, with the north-eaft monfoon

and when entered into


:

Red

fea,

they had a fouth, or fouth-wefl wind

fo fays Pliny.
:

The

voyage was made

much

within the compafs of a year


:

and the

profits are ftated to

be immenfe

but the particulars of the cargoes

are not recorded.

There
fula of

are

no notices

in Pliny (as far as

know) concerning any


clear

voyages of the Romans, to the gulf of Bengal, or to the penin-

Malay (the golden Cherfonefe) although

it

is

from

Strabo,
failed

who wrote

before Pliny, that the

Ganges had then been

up, as high as Palibothra.


years

Ptolemy's geography, faid to be


that

compofed about 60

after Pliny, contains evident proofs


:

both of the Indian peninfulas had been explored


tion of the pearl filhery, between Ceylon

fuch

is

the

men ;

and the continent


river;

the

diamonds found on the banks of the Sumbulpour


point from

and the
took

whence

fliips

that traded
to

to

the

Malay

coall,

their departure (fuppofed

be Point Gordeware:) befides

many
;

names, that can hardly be mifunderflood in the application of them


as Arcati,

the capital of the Sorez (or

Sora-mandalum, from whence

corruptly Choromandel) MefoUa, the

diftriifl

which contains Mafu&c.


defcribed in Ptolemv,

lipatam

the

river

Cauvery,

under the name of Chaborls,


is

The
as

peninfula beyond the Ganges


as

alfo

far

Cochin China, or perhaps,

to the borders

of China, or
L' Inde.)

iSzW.

(See

M.

D'Anville's Antiquite Geographique de

We

may

here obferve alfo, by the way, that the iflands fcattered

over the gulf of Bengal, in Ptolemy, and probably meant for the

Andaman and Nicobar


the modern navigators.

iflands

are

moil of them

laid

to

be in-

habited by Anthropophagi :

and

this idea has alfo


iflands,

beea adopted by
either
for

Other

which may be meant

xl

for certain parts of Sumatra, or for

fome of the

Iflands that lie ex-

tended along the weflern fide of


characfter
:

it,

are alfo branded


it is

with the fame


generally beI refer

and we find by Mr. Marfden, that


exift

lived, that man-eaters

in Sumatra, even at this day.

the

Boms

Fortimce ifland to the Great

niola,

to the northern

Nicobars

Andaman ; and the i o Mabeing juft the number of them


:

the 5 BaraJJce, and 3 Sindce illands, together with the


are the iflands
iflands near it.
I

3,

Saba-dibce

allude to, as being eiriier parts of Sumatra, or

Sketches of

the Hlftory of

Hindoostan, fnce

the

Commencement

of the

Mahomedan Conquests.
hifl;ory

There

is

no known

of Hindoofl:an (that
or
:

refls

on the

foundation of Hindoo
period of the

materials

records)

extant,

before the

Mahomedan
;

conqueftis

for either the

Hindoos kept

no regular

hiftories

or they were

all

deftroyed, or fecluded

from

common
by that

eyes by the Pundits.


exifl:ing,

We may

judge of their traditions,


:

concerning Alexander's expedition

which

is,

that he fought a great battle with the

Emperor of

Hindoofl:an, near

Delhi: and though vidlorious, retired to

P^rfia, acrofs the

northern
failing
al-

mountains

fo

that

the remarkable

circumftance of his
is

down

the Indus, in

which he employed many months,

funk
reft

together.

And

yet,

perhaps, few events of ancient times,

on

better foundations, than this part of the hiftory of Alexander (fee

Section III. of the


brated, not only

Memoir)

as appears

by

its

being fo highly cele-

by

his cotemporaries,

but by feveral of the moft

celebrated authors, for


tices

fome centuries following.


in Herodotus,

As

for the no-

above referred

to,

Pliny,

and Arrian, &c.


they

xli

they are rather tranfient views of the then

ftate
j

of Hindooftan,
than a hiflory.

with a general account of manners and cuftoms

Not but

that thefe accounts are infinitely

more
if it
:

pleafing and fatis-

fadtory, than a hiftory

would have been,

contained nothing
that
is,

more than
of
battles

that of the

Mahomedan
:

conquefts

an account

and maffacres

an account of the fubverfion of (appa-

rently) one of the

mildeft, and raofl regular governments in the

world, by the

vileft

and moil: unworthy of

all

conquerors

for
I'e-

fuch the Mahomedans undoubtedly were, confidered either in


fpedt
to
J

their

intolerant
;

principles

contempt of learning,

and

fcience
to

habitual floth
lot,

or their imperious treatment of


it

women:
form the

whofe

in

civilifed focieties,

chiefly falls,
;

to

minds of the

rifing generation

of both fexes

as far as early lelTons

of virtue and morality may be fuppofed to influence them.

The

travels

of Cofmas in the 6th century, and of the two


in

Ma:

homedan
and but

travellers
little

the 9th, afford few materials for hiftory

can be gleaned from Marco Paulo,

who

crofl'ed

the

peninfula, and
1

went up the weftern


Indeed,
laft
it
is

fide

of

it,

to Guzerat, in the

3th century.

exceeding difficult to refer any inci;

dent related in this

author, to any particular country


is

as the

geography of his

travels

an enigma, for the mod: part.

It is chiefly to Perfian

pens that

we

are indebted for that portion

of Indian

hiftory,

which we

pofi'efs.

The

celebrated

Mahomed
of Col.

Ferifhta, early in the 17th century,


flan,

compiled a hiftory of Hindooin the idea

from various materials

moft of which,

Dow
20

(who gave a

tranflation

of this hiftory to the world, about

years ago)

were collefted from Perfian authors.

The MahaI

barut, an hiftorical
ft:and,

poem of high
is

antiquity, and

which
original
title

imderSanfcrit

Mr. Wilkins
is
:

now

tranflating
it,

from the
under the

(as

he has already done an epifode of

of Bhagvat

Gceta)
matter

fuppofed to contain a large portion of interefting hiftorical

but if the father of Grecian poetry made fo


of Helen, in order to give a
full

total a

change

in the ftory

fcope to his imagination


i

;:

xlii

tion

what

fecurity have
;

we
is,

that another poet

may

not miflead us

in matters of fadt fidered as fuch


?

that

in all

that

is

valuable in hiftory, con-

Mr,

Dow

was

far

from fuppofing that the Hindoos

were

deftitute

of genuine hillories of their

own

country

he was

not indeed acquainted with the Sanfcrit language, in which they

muft be written,
tion of people

if at all

but founded his belief on the informaIf the fpecimens of early


are akin
I

on the

fpot.

Hindoo

hiftory given in the

Ayin Acbaree,
I

to thofe

which Mr.

Dow
them.
be

had in contemplation,

confefs

can place no dependance on

The
:

moll: valuable part


to

of

Feriflita's hiftory,

he allows to
about the

that,

poflerior

the

firft

Mahomedan
it is

conquefts,

year looo
notice,
in

and the following abftradt of


order to fix in
ftate

offered to the reader's

his

mind,

an idea of the fucceflive


;

changes in the

of the empire of Hindooftan

which from a
contiPerfia,

pure Hindoo government, became a

Mahomedan one ; and

nued

to be fo,

under various dynafties of Monarchs, from


;

Afghaniftan, and Tartary


tury
:

until the beginning of the prefent cen-

thefe

Princes, moreover, adding to the original country of


all

Hindooftan,

the other provinces fituated within the Ganges.

This unweildy

ftate

then dropping to pieces, anarchy fucceeded


it,
is

which

in

moft parts of

fcarcely

compofed

at

prefent

and

which had
Mahrattas
:

nearly given rife to a

new Hindoo

empire, under the


it.

but the intervention of foreign powers, prevented

Laftly, one of thofe foreign powers feizing

on the

faireft

provinces,
it,

and taking the lead

in

the empire, although removed from


!

the

diftance of an actual route of fifteen thoufand miles *

Even
Ghizni
ftan,

after the

commencement of
in
Feriflita, fave
;

the

Mahomedan

conquefts,

we

find little

more

the hiftories of the empire of

(or

Gazna) and Delhi

until the fubjedtion of all

Hindoo-

by the Patan Emperors

in the beginning of the 13th century

for Hindooftan continued to be divided into a

number of
by

feparate

No part of

the

Roman

empire, was diftant from

its

capital,

the moft circuitous route,

more than 2800

miles.

king-

xliii

kingdoms, each of which, required

a particular hiftory
as

and of

which we know only fuch

parts of

it,

were interwoven with the


of thefe old Hindoo
(or vice-

hiftory of the conquering country.

Many
the

kingdoms, bore the fame names


royalties)

as

prefent foubahs

do

and had, probably, nearly the fame limits.


is

The

hiftory of the Deccan,


ftan
:

yet

more obfcure than


later,

that of

Hindooconquefts

being brought into view


:

as

the

Mahomedan
it
it,

extended thither

and which began

to

encroach on

about the

year 1300, although the entire conqueft: of


late in the It

was not made until

17th century.
obferved that the
;

may be

firft

made any
ficulty in

eftablifliments

that

is,

Mahomedan conqueror who Mahmood, found little lefs diflatter

fubduing the country, than the

conquerors did
:

when
for

many kingdoms were united under the Patan Emperors thefe kingdoms, now become provinces, were too extenfive,
fo
:

and compofed of materials too difcordant to unite properly

not to

mention, that they were never long enough united, to produce the

happy

eftedts refulting

from

long period of intercourfe under one

common

head, and

which

affimilates the

whole into one mafs,

like

the French or

Britifli

provinces.

And

this mufl: ever be the cafe,

in very extenfive empires,

where

a delegation of great powers,

and

diftant fituation, prepares the

provinces for independency,

when-

ever the fupreme government happens to be placed in

weak hands.

Hence, Hindooftan, even under the Moguls, may be confidered


only as a colledion of tributary kingdoms
look no farther than to
ever in a ftate to rebel,
its
;

each accuftomed to

own particular Viceroy; and, of courfe, when the imbecility of the Emperor, and

the ambition of the Viceroy, formed a favourable conjuntSure.


this

To
;

muft be attributed the

little

reliftance

that

was made

to the
al-

arms of Tamerlane,

Baber,

Humaioon,

and Nadir Shah

though
Prince.

fo

many

provinces were at thofe times united, under one

The

xHv

The
ments

firft

Mahomedan
for

conquells that led to permanent eftablifh-

in Hindooftan,
:

were thofe of the beforementioned Mahmood,


I

Emperor of Ghizni
the
firft

make

diftindlion
j

between
left

thefey

and

irruptions of the
as

Mahomedans

which

fuch

flight
others,"

traces

behind them,

to

be fcarcely apparent.
firft

Among

was

that of the Caliph Valid in the

century of Mahomedanifm.
Abiftagi,

The empire of Ghizni was founded by Korafan (A. D. 960) who revolted from
whofe
anceflor. In his turn,

Governor of
;

the

King of Bucharia

had

arifen to

power, on the ruins of the

Caliphat empire, about 87 years before.

Ghizni

confifted chiefly
after the

of the trad, which compofed the kingdom of Badlria,


divifion of Alexander's empire
:

that

is,

the countries lying between


*.

Parthia and the Indus

and fouth of the Oxus


the

Ghizni (or
Indus,
capital

Gazna)
and not

city

placed

among

weftern fources of the

far

from the Indian Caucafiis, was the reputed


this

though Balk or Balich claimed

honour, likewife.
fucceffion

Mahmood (commonly
from Abiftagi
:

ftyled

Sultan) was the third in

and was himfelf the fon of Subuftagi,

who

appears

to have meditated the conqueft of the weftern part of India; and,


like Philip, left his projeds, as well as

his

kingdom,

to his

fon.

Subudagi had
Panjab
;

carried his

arms acrofs the Indus, and ravaged the


:

but made no eflablifliments

for

we

find,

that at the time


race,

of his fon
religion,
fide

Mahmood 's

invaflon, a Prince

of the Bramin

or
eaft

named

Jeipal, polfefled the

whole country, along the

of the Indus, to Caflimerej and that he had the Kings of


allies
:

Delhi, Agimere, Canoge, and Callinger, for

fo that

it

may

be concluded,

from the circumftance of the


;

frontier
ftate

provinces

being under a Hindoo government

and from the

of the Hin-,

doo
the

religion,

throughout the fcene of Mahmood's conquefts


whatever ravages they might have
time, had not, as
map
at

that

Mahomedans,

commit-

ted, previous

to this

we have

before obferved,
between

The reader is requefted to confult the the Indus and the Cafpian fea.

yage :o2,

for the countries lying

formed

/
[

xlv

formed any eftablifliment


try
It

in

Hindooilan
at
I

but that the whole coun-

was perfeftly Hindoo,


mufl: be

the

time of Mahmood's conqueft.


clafs

obferved, that

do not

the country of Cabul,

or any of the provinces on the weft of the Indus, as belonging to

Hindooftan proper.
Before

Mahmood

began his
after his

firft

expedition

into India,

which

was only three years

acceflion,

he extended his empire

northward, by reducing Bucharia; from whofe king, his anceflor

had revolted,
In A. D.
I

as has

been obferved above.


:

ooo, he entered Hindooftan

but in the courfe of

eight years, he

made no
tribe)

further progrefs than Moultan.

The
is,

peothe

ple of Moultan,

who were

the Malliy and Catheri (that

Kuttry or Rajpoot
ancient
fpirit,

of Alexander, muft have preferved their


for fo long a time, fuch formi-

to be able to oppofe,

dable armies, headed


find all the
river

by

fo furious

an enthufiaft.

In 1008,
to

we
the

Hindoo

Princes,

from the weft of the Ganges


for

Nerbudda, united againft him,


j

the

common

defence of

their religion
je6l equal
to

the extirpation of which, was to

Mahmood,
tlie

an obIt

that of the acquifition of territory, or fubjecfls.

may be doubted whether


end of conqueft,
querors
;

the acquifition of fubjed;s,


the

rational

ever enters into


this

minds of barbarous conor


at

fuch

as

Mahmood,
about
it,

Tamerlane,
;

Nadir Shah.
that they

One would
were
tions.
firfl:

rather

fuppofe the contrary

or,

leaft,^

totally indifferent

by

their maffacres
:

and extermina-

The

confederate Hindoos were defeated

and Mahmood's
religion,,

eflay

towards effeiling the downfall of their

was the

deftruftion of the

famous temple of Nagracut, in the mountains

bordering on the Panjab country.


fixth,

His next expedition, being the

was

in

o1

when

Tannafar, a more celebrated place of

Hindoo worfhip, on
with Nagracut
time.
;

the weft of Delhi,

experienced a like fate

and the city of Delhi

itfelf,

was taken

at the

lame

In 1018, he took Canoge, and alfo deftroyed the temples

of Matra, or Matura, (the Methora of Pliny) a city of high anti-

g 2

quity.

xlvi

qulty,

and no

lefs

an objedt of religious veneration, near Agra.

After this, turning his arms againd the Rajpoots of Agimere, he

found either them, or their country, which


and
faftneffes,

is

full

of mountains

too ftrong for him.


in

His twelfth expedition,


temple of Sumnaut,

1024, was

fatal

to

the celebrated

in the peninfula
fea coaft
j

of Guzerat, adjoining to the


far

town of Puttan, on the


Diu,

and not

from the

ifland

of

now

in

the hands of the Portuguefe.


citadel

His route was by

Moultan and Agimere, the


leave in

of which he was compelled to


:

the hands of the

enemy

and

in crofling the defert,


lofs

be-

tween

it

and Moultan, he hazarded the

of his army, for want


vi'ith

of water.

The

detlrucftion
to

of Hindoo temples,

their Priefts

and

votaries, appears

have afforded this monfter the higheft defeelings

light.

Nothing offends our


by

more, than the progrefs of


it

deftruftion urged

religious zeal: as

allows

men

to fuppofe

themfelves agents of the Divinity; thereby removing thofe checks

which
Such

interfere

with the perpetration of ordinary villiany


flie

and

thus makes confcience a party, where


alfo

was meant

to

be a judge.

was Tamerlane

but to the alleviation of the misfortunes

of the Hindoos, the enthufiafm of Mahomedanifm had loft its edge, Had this predominated in his before the invafion of Nadir Shah.
favage nature, the whole fcene of his conquefts, muft have remained
a folitary defert.

The

city

of Nehrwalla, the ancient capital of Guzerat, together


fell

v/ith that

whole peninfuli,

into the hands of

Mahmood

who
the

died four years afterwards (1020) polfefled of the eaftern, and by

much

the largeft part of Perfia; as well as, nominally, of

all

Indian provinces from the weftern part of the Ganges, to the peninfula of Guzerat
;

and from the Indus, ro the mountains of Agiit,


j

mere

but the Panjab was the only part of

that
as

was fubjeded

to

regular government, under the


nity of the

Mahomedans
As

being in the vici-

Ghiznian empire.

for the Rajpoots of Agimere,

they

ftill

preferved their independance,

among

their

rugged mountains.

xlvii

tains,

and clofe

vallies

and not only them, but


:

In a great meafure,

down
iive,

to the prefent time

being in refpedl of Flindooflan, what


is

the country of Switzerland,

to

Europe; but much more extento

and populous.

From Mahmood

Aurungzebe, the Indian

conquerors were contented with the nominal fubjecflion of thofe

hardy tribes

among whom,
is

military enthuliafm, grafted on relij

gious principles,
race
It
is

added to ftrength and agility of body

and

this

diffeminated over a tradt equal to half the extent of France.

goes under the general

name of Raj pootana


;

and

is

the original
at

country of the Mahrattas

who

about 30 years ago, afpired

univerfal empire in Hindooftan.

The Ghiznian
ded
:

empire, fubjedl to the fame caufes of decay, with

other unweildy flates of rapid growth, was in 115B, forcibly divithe weftern

and

largell part,

and which

flill

retained the

ancient

name of

the empire, being feized on by the family of the

Gaurides (fo denominated from Gaur, or Ghor, a province and


city,

lying beyond the Indian Caucafus) while the provinces contifliores

guous to both

of the Indus, remained to Chulero, or Cufroe,

who
in

fixed his relidence at

Lahore

*.

And

even his pofterity, were

118.1,

driven out of their kingdom, by the Gaurides.


to the

The

Mshomediins, thus become nearer neighbours


fixing their refidence at Lahore, extended, as
their empire eaflward;

Hindoos, by

might be expected,
had before done,

Mahomed

Gori, in

11 94, perpetrating, in

the city of Benares, the fame fcenes as


at

Mahmood

Nagracut and Sumnaut.

Benares was regarded as the principal


;

univerfity of Braminical learning

and we may conclude that about

this period, the Sanfcrit language,

which was before the current


its
;

lan-

guage of Hindooftan, began to decline in

purity,

by the admixlanguage of

ture of words from that of the conquerors

until the

Hindooftan became what

it

now

is

the original Sanfcrit, pre-

ferved in their ancient writings,

becoming a dead language.


is

Such

For the dates of the reigns of the Emperors of Hindooftan, the reader Chronological Table, at the end of the Incrodudion.

referred to a

muta-

xlviii

mutations have taken place in every country, where the conquerors

have been numerous enough to


at

effedl

it

the Saxon language was


the his

the fame period fuffering from the

Sanfcrit did

from the Ghiznian.

Norman conquefl, what Mahomed Gori alfo carried


to
:

arms

to
;

the fouth of the river Jumna, and took the fortrefs of

Gwalior

which then gave name

kingdom, that has fmce


alfo

compofed nearly the foubah of Agra


part of Agimere.

he

reduced the eaftern

The

death of this Emperor, in 1205, occafioned


Perfiari part

anew

divifion;

of the Ghiznian empire, the


the Indian
part to

remaining to Eldoze, and

Cuttub,

dynafty in Hindooflan.

who founded the Patan or Afghan The Afghans originally inhabited the

mountainous
Paropamifus.

tradl

lying between India and Perfia, or the ancient

Before the elevation of Cuttub, to the throne, he


his arms,

had carried
Guzerat.

under

Mahomed

Gori, into
:

Agimere and

Lahore was his

capital,

originally

but the neceflity of

fixing the imperial refidence, nearer to the centre of the


quefts, occafioned

new con

him
as

to

remove

to Delhi.

It

may be

obferved of

the capitals of

ftates, in general,

that fuch as are neither

emporiums
were)

of trade, nor meant


attrad:ed towards

citadels

in the

laft

refort, are (as it


is

the quarter, from whence hoftility

either in-

tended, or expelled.

The Emperor
1

Altumfli,

who

fucceeded to the Patan throne, in

o,

completed the conqueft of the greatefh part of Hindooftan

proper.
quefl:

He

appears to be the
;

firft

Mahomedan
fons.

that

made

a con-

of Bengal

the government of which was from this time


It

befl:owed on one of the reigning Emperor's


this reign

was during

(1221) that G^ngiz Cawn, among his extenfive conquefts


fo,

(perhaps the mofi;

of any conqueror in hiftory) accomplifhed that


;

of the empire of Ghizni

putting an end to the dynafl:y of Charafnij


:

which then occupied


to avoid his fury.

that throne

and driving before him, the un-

fortunate Gelali, fon of the reigning

Emperor j who fwam the Indus


left

Gengiz, however,

Hindooftan undifturbed.

About

xllx

About A. D. 1242, the Moguls,


Gengiz,

or

Munguls,

fucceilbrs

of

who

poffeffed, or

rather over-run, the countries

on the
it
:

north- well of Hindooftan, made feveral irruptions into

and

Turmechirin Khan,

is

reported by Sherefeddin

(the hiftorian of
;

Timur)

to have carried his

arms into the Dooab


Feriflita takes

but without

making any Moguls


though

eftablifhment.

no notice of the progrefs

of this defultory conqueror, but only defcribes the inroads of the


into
it

the Panjab
till

which now frequently happened


the

al-

was not

more than 150

years afterwards, that, under

Timur,

or Tamerlane,

they penetrated to

centre of India.

Feriflita defcribes alfo

an irruption of Moguls into Bengal, by


1

way

of Chitta and Thibet, in

244.

1 have before obferved, that the provinces of

Hindooftan were

held rather as tributary kingdoms, than- as provinces of the fame

empire

and that they feldom


In 1265,

failed

to revolt,

when
its

a favourable

opportunity offered.

Malwa
;

regained

entire indepen-

dance from the crown of Delhi


yoke, laid on
it

having gradually fliaken off the

by Cuttub,

in

1205

and the Rajpoots were


comparative
vicinity

on

every

occafion,

notwithftanding

their

to the capital, alTerting their independency likewife.

Of

the ftate

of the internal government of Hindooftan,

judgment may be

formed, by the punifliment inflicted on the Mewatti, or the Banditti tribe,

which inhabit the

hilly trad,

within 80 miles of Delhi.


to the

In 1265,

100,000 of thefe wretches, were put

fword; and

a line of forts
bellions,

was conftrufted, along the foot of

their hills.

Re-

malTacres, and barbarous conquefls,

make up

the hiftory

of this
to

fair

country,

which

to an ordinary obferver, feems deflined


;

be the paradife of the world

the immediate effedt of the

ambition of conquering more than can


the whole empire being portioned out to

mad be governed by one man rapacious Governors, who


:

domineering over the governed, until their


debafed
;

fpirits

were futHciently

were

at

lafl:

able to perfuade them, that their

common
dant

interell: lay

in taking

up arms,

to render thefe

Governor^ indepen-

dant

and indeed, had


permanent,

it

brought them nearer

to the point

of having
:

a regular,
fadt,
it

government, this might be true

but, in

only fubjedled thern to a


rebellion

new conqueror
It

or to the puniChns
if

ment of

from the former one.

wojld appear
of defpotifm

the

warm

climates,

and more efpeciaily the open cour tries,,


feats
foil
:

iituuted

within them, were deftined to be the

for that

the climate creating few wants, and the

being produdlive withit

out any great exertion


energies, that in

the inhabitants of

do not

poff.fs

thofe

a cooler climate

prompt mankind

to inveftigate
is

their natural rights,

and

to allert

them.
;

This, however,

a point

that I

fliall

not venture to decide on

although I believe

it is

a faft

not to be difputed, that throughout the


defpotifm prevails moft in the

known

parts of the world,

warm

climates.

The

Patau,

Mogul,

and Tartarian conquerors,


at
firff,

in

Hindooftan and China, however hardy

have in

courfe of ages, funk into the fame (late of effemi:

nacy with their fubjefts


received a

and,

in their turn, have,

with them,

new
it

mafler.

Let thofe

who

are in

the habit of

com-

plaining of the feverity of northern climates,


phyfical evils

reflect,

that whatever

may

produce,

it

matures the great qualities of the

mind j and

renders

its

inhabitants pre-eminent
a

among

their fpecies

while a flowery poet, or

more flowery

hiftorian, is the moll:

emi*

nent produdlion of the tropical regions.

While

the Kings of Delhi were profecuting their conquefts in

the eaft and fouth of Hindooflan, the provinces on the weft of the
Indus, were, of courfe,
quifhed.
as the
It

neglecfled^

although not avowedly relinthat fo excellent a barrier

might have been expected,

upper part of the Indus, and the deferts beyond Agimere,


to give up,
:

would have induced an Emperor of Hindooftan,


choice,
all

of
and

the provinces that lay on the weft of this frontier

the negledl of fo prudent a condud:, occafioned the peace of the

empire to be often difturbed


taken away at
laft,

and ended in their being forcibly


:

by the Moguls

who, not contented with


croflTed

their

new

acquifitions

on the weft of the Indus,

that river

and

invaded

li

invaded the Fanjab


that forne tribes of

and

fo

formidable did they appear to Ferofe


to
fettle

II.

them were permitted

ia

that country

(A. D. 1292.)
the

The

reader will not forget the iimilar condudl of

Roman Emperor
is

Valens, with refpecTt to the Goths,


fettle in

who were

permitted to crofs the Danube, and


litude

Thrace

and the fimi-

the more ftriking, in that the Hindooftan empire was afteraffiilance

wards conquered by the


guls.
Killige,

of the defcendants of thofe


tribe of

Mo-

This Ferofe

II.

was of the

ChilHgi or Killigi (from


is,

near the mountains of Gaur) but


:

neverthelefs, inclu-

ded in the Patan dynafty

the
all

name

Patan, or Pitan, being applied

rather in a loofe manner, to


frontiers of India,
Perfia,

the tribes bordering on the


Balk.
:

common
is,

and the province of

that

the

ancient province of Paropamifus.

In 1293

^^^'^

Emperor gave

into the

fcheme of attacking the


to

Deccan; which,
(or

at this period,

muft be underflood

mean the

country lying generally to the fouth of the Nerbudda and Mahanada


Cattack)
rivers
:

tradt

nearly equal in
;

extent to what

he

already
iliores

pollefled

in

Hindooflan

and which extended from the


;

of the Indus, to the mouth of the Ganges

and from the


:

northern mountains, to Cattack, Sirong, and Agimere


part of

the greatefl

Malwa, with Guzerat, and

Sindi,

being then independant.


thej

The

riches of the

King of Deogire (now Dowlatabad) one of

principalities

or ftates of the Deccan, gave birth to this projedl

and the projedlor was Alia,

Governor of Gurrah,, which nearly

bordered on the devoted country.


ror his

The

covetoufnefs of the

Empein
it,

made him embrace

a propofal,

which eventually involved

own

ruin

for Alia afterwards depofcd

him, by means of that

very plunder.
Alla's
firft

expedition was attended with the capture of Deogire


it,

(or

Deogur) and with


:

an incredible quantity of treafure and

jewels

with which, having increafed his army, he depofed and

murdered the Emperor.


tice

We

cannot help acknowledging the juirecoiled: the motives,

of this puniOiment

when we

on which
the

lii

I
:

the expedition to the Deccan, was undertaken


the

and that moreover,

Emperor had been bribed by


Alia (who was the

Alia, with part of the plunder, taken

in a former predatory expedition to Bilfah.

When

firft

of the name) had poffefllon of the

throne, in 1295, he began his plan of conqueft, by the redudlion

of Guzerat
local

which, while
a

it

continued independant, was, by

its

fituation,

ftrong obftacle to his defigns on the Deccan.

Next, he reduced Rantampour, and Cheitore, two of the ftrongefl


holds of the Rajpoots, in Agimere.

This was the

firft

time that

Cheitore had fallen to the Mahomedans.

In 1303, he alfo reduced

Warangole, the

capital

of Tellingana, another principality of the

Deccan
conda.

and comprehending nearly the prefent country of GolThis,


as

well as Cheitore, was a city and fortrefs of vaft

extent, and population.

But

in

the midft of thefe conquefts, and


reftlefs
j

probably the

effedl

of them, the watchful and

Moguls, from

the oppofite quarter, penetrated even to Delhi

and plundered the

fuburbs of

it.
:

In the following year, the remainder of Malwa, was conquered

and in

1306,

the conqueft of the Deccan was refumed, under


;

Cafoor, the General of Alia


try,

who

proceeded to the Deogur counin his

by the route of Baglana, which he reduced


Feriftita

way

and

which

* calls the country of the Mahrattas.

Cafoor not

only carried his arms into Deogur (Dowlatabad) and from thence
into Tellingana, but into the Carnatic likewife, in 13 10.

By

the

Carnatic,

is

here meant the peninfula in general, lying on the fouth


river.
It
is

of the Kiftna

not

known, how

far

he penetrated,

fouthward, but he was direded by Alia, to reduce

Maber, which
than otherwife;

we

underfland to comprehend the fouthern part of the peninfula.


to

His expedition appears

be rather predatory,

agreeable to the genius of his majler, Alia.

The

quantity of treafure

be regretted that Col. Dow, did not give a literal tranflation of Ferifhta, as a and add his own matter, or explanations, ia the form of notes. We Ihould then have been able to diftinguilh the one from the other.
*
It is to

text

amafled

liii

amafled, exceeds

all belief.

It
j

was

faid

that filver

was found too

cumberfome
hiftorian

for the foldiery

gold being in fuch plenty.


as

The

obferves on this occafion,

well as on the taking of

Deogur, that the Princes of the Deccan had been for a great number of ages, amaffing this treafure
:

fo that their country

had pro-

bably continued undifturbed

all

that time.

In 1312 Cafoor ravaged the northern part of the Deccan again,

and
tire

laid

Tellingana and the Carnatic under a tribute

but the en-

conquefl of thofe countries was not effedled until about three


afterwards,

centuries

under the

latter

Princes

of the houfe of

Timur.

Alia died in 1326.


in the

At

this period all

Hindooftan proper

was comprehended
in pofleflion

Patan empire (fo called from the dynafty


:

of the throne)

and the

interior policy
travel

is

faid

to

be"

lb well regulated, that ftrangers

might

throughout the empire,

in perfed: fecurity.

Rebellions breaking out in Tellingana, in 1322, and 1326,

it

was again fubjefted


fea.

and the whole Carnatic ravaged from

fea

to

But under

a fucceeding

Emperor, Mahomed

III. the

Princes

of the Deccan affiimed courage, and headed, by Belaldeo, King of


the Carnatic, they drove the
countries
;

Mahomedans

entirely out

of thofe

nothing remaining to them, fave the fortrefs of Dowla-

tabad (or Deogur).

About

the fame time (1344) the city of Biji-

nagur, corruptly called Bifnagar, was founded by the fame Belal-.


deo.

Mahomed, who
territory,
:

appears to have been a

weak Prince,

loft

much
Panjab

alfo,

by rebellions

in Bengal, Guzerat,

and the

mean

while, he was occupied in attempting the conqueft


It is

of China, but was repulfed. on the frontier.


circumftances,
alfo

probable, from

that

he went by way of AlTam.


and. attempted

This Emperor
feat
it

planned the abfurd fcheme of transferring the


:

of governtwice,

ment, from Delhi to Dowlatabad


without
fuccefs.

but

Ferofe III.

who

fucceeded in

1351, appeared more deiirous of


after the

improving the remains of the empire,


h.

defedion of Bengal
and:

Hv

J it,

and the Deccan, &c. than of extending

by arms.

Canals, and

public works, for the improvement of agriculture, and of the inland navigation, were his favourite objedis, during a reign of 37 (See the Memoir, page 72.) The Moguls made another years.
irruption in
ferious

1357, and the time

now

approached,

when

more
After

one was to take place under Timur, or Tamerlane.


1388, rebellion and
civil

the death of Ferofe, in

war, during a
:

courfe of feveral years, prepared the empire for foreign fubjeftion

and a minority, in the perfon of

Mahmood

III.

who

fucceeded in
atten-

1393, brought matters


dant on the
difficulty
rtate

to

crifis.

During the confufions

of a minority, in an empire which could with


the hiflorian re-

be held together, by a veteran defpot,


:

marks an unufual circumftance


other,
refiding within

two Emperors

in

arms
flate
all

againfl:

each

the fame capital.

In this

of things,
the weflern

Timur, who had

already extended his empire over

Afia and Tartary, turned his

arms towards Hindooftan in

1398.
to

In the preceding year, he had fent his grandfon Peer


reduce the Panjab, and Moultan
j

Mahomed,

and

in Ocftober,

crofled the In-

dus himfelf J

and joining his grandfon near Moultan, his army

proceeded in different divifions to Delhi, which fubmitted, without

what may be properly termed,

a battle.

This inhuman monfter,

who had
lities,

credit

enough with
ftage,
as

poet of the prefent century, to be

brought on the
obtained
:"

hero, poffefling great and amiable qua-

in

Hindooftan,

the
it,

title

of " the deftroying

Prince

and was truely worthy of

from the numerous maflacres

and exterminations executed under his immediate direction.


ftaid in

Timur

Delhi only

5 days

and then appears to have been on his

return to the feat of his empire,

when, hearing of
a former
it

fortrefs in the

Dooab,

that

had

refifted the

arms of

Mogul
it.

invader (Tur-

mecherin Khan) he marched towards

and took
iffues

From
in

thence

he proceeded
tains,

to the place

where the Ganges

out of the

and where the Hindoos


to

refort at certain feafons,


to,

mounvaft numfacred

bers,

p^y their adorations

and to purify themfelves in that

1'

facred ftream.
five

His objedt was the extermination of


and he partly fucceeded.

thefe inoffen-

people

to the north-weft, along the foot

From this place, turning of Mount Sewalick, he continued


until

his

maflacres,

though not without oppofition,

he arrived on
five

the frontiers of Cafhmere.

He

fpent

little

more than

months
as

between the time of his croffing and recrofTing the Indus: and appears
to have

paid more attention to feafons than Alexander did


fair feafon for his

Timur
was

chofe the

expedition, whereas Alexander

in the field in the Panjab,

during a whole rainy feafon (fee


faid rather to

Me-

moir page loi).

Timur, however, may be


:

over-run,

than to fubjed;, or conquer


fiiccefiion in

for
left

he did not difturb the order of

Hindooftan, but

Mahmood

on the throne

referv-

ing to himfelf the polTefiion of the Panjab country only; and this,
his fuccefTors did not retain

long.

His views were


j

at this

time,

diredled towards the TurkiOi empire

and this made him negleit


harveft of glory, as

India

which did not promife


During
his life,

fo plentiful an
in

the other.
for in the

which ended

1405, he was prayed


in his

mofques of Hindooftan, and the coin was ftruck


efted:

name
from

but this might be more the

of policy
It

in the

ufurpers

of Mahmood's throne, than the adl of Timur.


Feridita, any

does not appear


this

more than from Sherefeddin, that


of Hindooftan, with iiim.
at

Prince

carried

much
beyond

treafure, out

But Nadir
period,
is

Shah's acquifition of the precious metals,


great,
all

a later
:

was

ideas of accumulation,

in

Europe

and

only to

be accounted

for,

by the influx of thofe metals from America,

during that interval.

For the geography of Timur's marches, the


the third fedion of the
If Hindooftan was

reader

is

referred to

Memoir
in

and to the map.


it

confufion before this invafion,

may be
v/orfe.

expeded

that

on Timur's departure, matters became much

The

141 3; and with him ended the Patan dynady, founded by Cuttub in 1205. The throne was
in

death of

Mahmood happened
a Seid (.that

then

filled

by Chizer,

is,

one of the race of the prophe!:

hi

]
It,

phet

Mahomed) whofe

pofberity continued in
tribe of Lodi,

until

1450: when
it,

Belloli, an

Afghan of the

took pofleflion of
all

on
into

the

abdication of Alia II. under

whom
in

Hindooftan

fell

feparate

governments

and a potentate, ftyled King of the


Jionpour,

East,

whofe refidence was

at

the province of Allahabad,


:

became the

moll: formidable,

among them

while the King of

Delhi, had but the Ihadow of authority remaining to him.


fon of Belloli recovered a conladerable part of the empire
;

The
and in

1501, made Agra the royal refidence.


that the Portuguefe
firft
:

It

was during

this reign,

accompliflied the paflage to India, by the

Cape of Good Hope

but as their connexions were entirely witli


;

the maritime parts of the Deccan

and a part of

it

that
is

had ever
taken by

been independant of Delhi, no notice of


Ferifhta.

this event,

The empire
1516; and

fell

again into utter confufion, under Ibra-

him
giz

II. in

this

paved the way for the conqueft of Hina defcendant

dooflan,

by Sultan Baber,

of Tamerlane and of Gengenerally of the

Kan; who

rtigned over a

kingdom compofed

provinces fituated between the Indus and Samarcand.


pofleffed of the northern parts of his dominions,

Being dif-

by the Ufbecs, he
fitua-

determined to try his fortune in Hindooftan, whofe diftradted


tion flattered his hopes of conqueft.

His refidence
firft

at

this

time

was

at

Cabul, from whence he undertook his


After this, he

expedition acrofs
:

the Indus, in 15 18.


fifth

made four

others

and in the

(A. D. 1525) he defeated the Emperor of Delhi, and thus


It is faid that

put an end to the dynafty of Lodi.


Indus, this
Generals,
laft

Baber crolled the


;

time, with only 10,000 chofen horfe


furnifliing

the enemy's

by

their revolts,

him with

the reft of his

army.

In

this,

we have

a frefh inftance of the finall dependance


their Viceroys

that the Hindooftan

Emperors could have, on


five years

and

Generals.

Baber reigned only

in

Hindooftan; during
eaftern pro-

which, his chief employment was the reduction of the


vinces.

Nor

did he relinquifti his Perfian provinces, by crofting

the Indus.

His

fon,

Humaioon,

fucceeded

him

in

1530;

but
the

Ivii

the

fliort

reign of Baber, did not allow time


that had fo long prevailed
:

enough

to

compofe

the diftradtions

or to exterminate the

feeds of rebellion

for the intrigues of his brothers,

and the open

rebellion of Sheer

Kan, drove Humaioon, although a Prince of

confiderable abilities, and great virtues,

from

his empire, in 1541.

His

flight

towards the Indus, and his fojourn

among

the Rajpoot

Princes of Agimere, furniflies a ftrlking pidlure of royal diftrefs.

During

his ftay there, his


tlie

fon Acbar was

born,

whom we may
The Hudig-

reckon among

greateft

of the Sovereigns of Hindooftan.

provinces on the weft of the Indus were held by a brother of

maioon.
nity
;

The

ufurper Sheer, did not long furvive his


at the fiege

new

being killed

of Cheitore
;

in
in

545

and was burled

at Saferam In Bahar, his original eftate

magnificent maufolife

leum, which he had ordered

to

be conftruiH-ed, during his

time

and of which, a drawing has

lately

been exhibited in this country,


;

Kan was of Afghan origin foubahfhip of Bahar, when he rebelled and at his
by Mr. Hodges.
pire extended

Sheer

and held the

death, his

em-

from the Indus

to Bengal.

He
its

left his

throne to his

fon Selim, but fo very unfettled was the ftate of Hindooftan, that

no

lefs

than five Sovereigns appeared on


In effedl,
there could

throne, in the courfe of


in the

9 years.

not

exift

minds of the
:

people, any idea of regular government, or regular fucceffion


there had fcarcely ever been
i

for

2 years together,

during the

laft,

or

the prefent century, without furnifhing fome example of fuccefsful


rebellion.

This induced
;

ftrong party in Hindooftan, to invite

Humaioon back
with but
little

and accordingly, in 1554, he returned, and met


:

refiftance

but died in confequence of an accident,


for the mildnefs

the following year.

He
:

was celebrated

and bene-

volence of his nature

and his return, notwithftanding the fhortnefs


;

of his reign, was a public blefling


his fon

as

it

was the means of feating


he was driven from

Acbar quietly on the throne.

When
Shali

his empire,

by Sheer, he

refided with

Tamafp, of

Perfia,
svha

Iviii

who

aided

him

in the recovery

of

it

and in the early part of his

exile,

he recovered

pofTeflion
14,

of the provinces beyond the Indus.


his fither died, in 1555.

Acbar was about

when
the

The

reign

of this Prince has been celebrated by the pen of the famous Abul
Fazil, in a

book

called

Acbar-namma,

or hiilory of Acbar.

The

bufinefs of this fketch, being rather to give a fort of chronological

table of events,

than to aim at a circumftantial hiflory,

I lliall

not

attempt to particularize the great events of this long and bufy reign
of 5
Col.
I

years

but refer the reader to the hiftory of Hindooftan, by


in

Dow:

which, not only

a full

account of Acbai', but alfo

of his defcendants,

down

to

Aurungzebe, will be found.


firll

As

in

the perfon of Baber, the line of Tamerlane

mounted the throne


it

of Hindoollan be
faid

fo in that

of Acbar, the grandfon of Baber,

may

to

be edabliflied.

The

conqueft of their anceflor, about a


fliare

century and a half before, had no


fettlement.
naftyj and

in effeding the prefent

Baber, was in

reality the

founder of the
to

Mogul dy-

from

this event,

Hindooftan came

be called the

Mo-

gul, empire*.

The
great

firfl

years of Acbar's reign

were employed in the redudioa


j

of the revolted provinces, from Agimere to Bengal

in

which the

Byram, who had

a fliare in recovering the


aclor.

empire for

Hu:.

maioon, was a principal


a

Thefe conquefts were fecured in

manner very
is,

different

from

thofe, atchieved
;

by former Emperors
;

that

by

proper choice of Governors

by wife regulations
;

by

an unlimited toleration in religious matters


tion to the propenfities of the people
:

and by a proper attenwhich, a long and

to all

vigorous

reign,

was peculiarly favourable.


;

The Hindoos

flill

formed the bulk of the people

even ia thofe provinces, that, from

their vicinity to the country of the conquerors,

had been the moft

* Properly fpeaking, the


diate
fucccflbrs

reigned

transferred the

name

to

Mogul Empire was that, over which Tamerlane and his imroeand in which, India was not inclnded. Cuftom, however, has the empire held by the defcendants of Tamerlane^ in Hindooftan and
;

the Deccan.

frequently

lix

frequently over-run

and experience had taught the

Mahomcdan

conquerors, that the pafllve rehgion and temper of the Hindoos,

would,

if left to

themfelves, never difturb the eltablilhed govern-

ment.

But the

Deccan was
war

ftumbling block to the


it,

Mogul

Emperors.

In 1585, Acbar refolved on the attack of


into Berar, while another

and foon

after carried the

army was reducing

Cafhmere, in an oppofite corner of the empire.


pears at this time, to have been divided into the

The Deccan
kingdoms or

ap-

ftates

of Candcifli, Amednagur (or Dowlatabad) Golconda (or Bagnagur)


and Vifiapour.
Berar and the Carnatic, each of which included

feveral diftindl governments,, are

not fpecified by the hiftorian, as


it

members of

the

Deccan

by which
it.

would appear

that they

do

not, in ftri-flnefs, appertain to

In the popular language of the.


principalities in the

times,, there were reckoned to

be four

Deccan
not
;

that

is.

to iay, the four

firft

mentioned, above.

Moft,

if

all.

of

thefe,

were

at

this

time governed by, Mahomedan. Princes

al-

though we
medans.
grefs

are not. in polTeflion of

any hiflory of the conquefts or


to the

revolutions, that, transferred

them from the Hindoos

Maho*

At

the time of Acbar's death, in 1605,. no farther prcin the

was made

reduction of the Deccan, and the adjoining

countries,^ than the taking poiTeftion of the weftern part of Berar,.

Candeifh,. Tellingana (a divifion of Golconda) and. the northern part

of Amednagur; the capital of which, bearing the fame name, was


taken in
cefsful

1601,

after

a long and

bloody

fiege,

and an unfuc-

attempt to

relieve, it,

by the confederated. Princes of the

Deccan,

Acbar was the glory of the houfe of Timur.


had never,
at

Hindooftan proper*
conqueft, ex-

any period fmce the

firll

Mahomedan

perienced fo
reign
:

much

tranquillity^ as during the latter part

of his

but this tranquillity would hardly be deemed fuch^ in any


;

other quarter of the world

and muft therefore


.

be.

underftood to

mean

llate,

fliort

of aftual rebellion,

or. at

Itriii,

commotion.
Selim, the

Prjnce Danial, his eldefl fon, died juil befoie


i.

himj and

the next, In right of primogeniture, fucceeded under the

title

of

Jehanguire.

Jehanguire reigned about 22 years.

Under him, the conqueft


faintly piufued.

of the Deccan was not

loft

fight of,

though but

War

was made on the Rajpoots, and the Rana, or chief Prince,


to

brought

terms.

The

rebellions of the

Emperor's fon.
;

Shah

Jehan, embittered the


his
miftrefs
his

latter part

of his reign

and the influence of


weak, and conbeen

Noor Jehan, rendered


government.

his councils

flrained

However,

the provinces having

held together for near 70 years, the empire had acquired a degree

of confolidation
have been
events.
at

and was not

fo liable

to be fliaken, as

it

would
fimilar

fome former period?, under the operation of


was
in
this

It

reign,
firft

and

in

the year

1615, that Sir

Thomas Roe was


ror

fent as the

Englifli Ambaff.idor to the

Empe-

of Hindooflan.

The

Portuguefe, had by this time, acquired


;

confiderable fettlements in Bengal and Guzerat

but only thofe in

Guzerat, where they alfo pofleffed fome extent of territory, attradled


the notice of the court
:

and

it is

curious to obferve what the author

Speaking of the Ayin Acbaree fays of them, about the year 1560. of the lands of Guzerat, he fays, " By the negletl of the King's
Governors, feveral
Feriflita,
alfo,

of thefe

diftridls are in the


fite

hands of Europeans."

fpeaking of the
it

of an ancient Hindoo temple,

near Diu, fays that


to the

was

fituated in the di!lri6ts, that

were

fubje<fl

"

Idolaters of Europe."

Shah Jehan fucceeded

his father in 1627,


in

The

conqueft of the
:

Deccan was purfued with more vigour

this reign

and the
all

plunders and devaflations perpetrated there, occalioned moft, or

of

its

Princes, to

make

fubmiflion, and acknowledge the Emperor,


in part, adually taken pofleflion

lord paramount.

Golconda was

of

but Vifiapour and the Carnatic, together with the regions of

the Gauts, remained in the hands of their- ancient pofTeffors.

Candahar, a

fortrefs fituated

on the

common boundary

of Perfia,

and of the Mogul provinces beyond the Indus, was,

at this time,

a lub-

Ixi

a fubjed;

of contention, between the two Monarchs of Perfia and

Hindooftan.

The

fiiit

ferious

quarrel

between
this

the

Europeans

(Portuguefe) and

Moguls,

happened during

reign,

1633:
his

when
fons

the Portuguefe were expelled from Hoogly, in the Ganges.

In 1658, the civil wars


;

commenced between
:

the

Emperor and

as

well as between the fons themfelves

which ended

in the

elevation of
father,

Aurungzebe, the youngeft

after

he had depofcd his

and murdered or expelled his three brothers.

The

account

of thefe tranfadtions

may

be icen

at

large,

in Bernier

and

Dow

and

is

a very curious piece of hiftory.


title

In

660, Aurengzebe (who


iirll;

took the name or

of Allumgire and was the


of the throne
:

of that name)

was in peaceable
until

polfeffion

and from that period,

the year

1678,

there prevailed,

throughout Hindooftan in
perhaps,

general,

the moft profound peace that had ever,

been
;

known

but the remainder of the Deccan, was


to

ftill

a defuieratum

and Aurungzebe difdained


fouth, than the ocean.
part of the

have any other boundary,

on the

Accordingly, the conqueft of the remote


a very confiderable part
:

Deccan employed
latter part

of his leifure

during the

of his reign

when

the whole of that region,

together with the peninfula, a few mountainous and inacceflable


tra(5ls

only excepted, were either entirely fubjedled, or rendered

tri-

butary to the throne of Delhi.

What might

appear to

Aurung-

zebe to render this flep of fubduing the Deccan, necelTary, was,


the determined fpirit and growing power of Sevagee, the founder

of the Mahratta

ftate ^

who, by

his

conquefts in Vifiapour, ap-

peared almofl in the charader of a rival to Aurungzebe.

A rebellion

of the Patans beyond the Indus, in 1678, called for


:

the prefence of Aurungzebe, there

which was no fooner


ftirred
alfo,

quelled^
tribes

than his perfecution of the Hindoos


in

up the Rpjpoot
in

Agimere.

He

uodertook

this

war

perfon

but was

hemmed
Emprefs

in with his
herfelf,

whole army, between the mountains, and the


:

was taken prifoner

flie

was afterwards, however,


This did not
dif-

fcrmitted to efcape, as well as the Emperor.


i

courage-

Ixii

courage

him from carrying the war into the Rajpoot country again, in i68i when he took and deftroyed Cheitore, the famous capital of the Rana as well as all the objedls of Hindoo worfliip found
:

there.

The
:

fpirits

of thefe gallant people, were, however,

ftill

unfubdued
peace *.

and Aurungzebe was neceflitated to grant them a

Sevagee died in 1680, and


his fon Sambajee
;

left his

rifmg

ftate

of Mahrattas, to

who was

afterwards betrayed into the hands of


to

Aurungzebe, and barbaroufly put

death.

Still,
;

however, the

mountainous parts of Baglana were unfubdued

and although the

kingdom of Vifiapour was reduced


conquefls on the weft
as appears

in

1686, and Golconda, in the

following year; yet he found great difficulty in profecuting his


:

by his camp being fixed on the

Kiftna river, about 200 miles to the north-eaftward of Goa, in

1695:
of any

I fay,

appears: for

we have
1

at prefent,

no regular hiftory
:

later period,

than the

oth year of Aurungzebe


hiftory finiflies
:

that

is,

to

the year
that
It
r,re

1670

when Mr. Dow's

all

the events

fubfequent to this date, are from other authorities.


faid that

is

Aurungzebe was employed

in the

Deccan from the


field,

year 1678, to the time of his death, and was adlually in the

during the greateft part of the


reliclion of his

laft

5 years of his life.

This de30 years,

original empire and capital for nearly

occafioned various diforders in

them

and

laid

the foundation of

many more
Agimere
Jates, in
j

among

others, the fecond rebellion of the Rajpoots in


;

that of the Patans towards the Indus

and of the
firft

Jats, or

the province of Agra.

This was the


:

time that the

Jats appeared, otherwife than as banditti

fince

which, they grew

The reader may find in the 49th note to Mr. Orme's Hillorical Fragments of the Mogul empire, a letter written by Jefwont Sing, Rajah of Joudypour, to Aurungzebe, expollulating This letter with him on the unjull meafures he was purfuing, with refpeft to the Hindoos. togebreathes the mod perfeft fpirit of philanthropy, and of toleration in matters of religion ther with the moll determined refolution to oppofe the meditated attack on the civil and religious rights of the Hindoos. The elegant tranflation of this letter was made by Mr. Boughton
:

Roufe.

up

Ixili

to

be a confiderable

ftate

and

at

one time, were of feme confi*

deration, in the politics of upper Hindooftan.

Aurungzebe died

in 1707, in the
;

90th year of his age,


fixed

at

Amed*
its

nagur, in the Deccan

which he had

on for his refidence.


the empire attained

when
full

in winter quarters.

Under

his

reign,

meafure of extent.

His authority reached from the loth


5

to

the 35th degree of latitude

and nearly

a^

much

in

longitude: and
in a

his revenue exceeds 32 millions

of pounds

llerling,

country
as

where the produfts of the earth


England.

are about four times as

cheap

in

But

fo

weighty
:

a fceptre

could only be wielded by a


find,

hand

like

Aurungzebe's

and we accordingly

that in a courfe

of 50 years

after his death, a fucceffion

of v/eak Princes and wicked

Minifters, reduced this aftonifliing empire to nothing.

Aurungzebe obvioufly forefaw


tween his
that he
ever,
is

the contefts

that

would

arife

be-

Ions, for the

empire
of
it,

and

it

has therefore been afTerted,

made

a partition

among them.

This account, hownor by the bed

not warranted by th memoirs of a nobleman of Aurungj

zebe's Court, lately published, in this country *

living authorities that I have been able to confult.

Two

letters,

written by Aurungzebe to two of his fons, a few days before his


death, indicate no intention of dividing the empire; but exprefs in

doubtful terms, his apprehenfions of a

civil

war

-f.

He left

behind
title

him, four fons

Mauzum,

afterwards Emperor, under the

of

by Capt. J. Scott, 17S6. This vaof the revolutions that happened in the Mogul empire, from the death of Aurungzebe, in 1707, to the accefTion of Ferokfere, in 171 2. It contains much curious matter > and fully developes the political charafter of a Mogul cour
tranflaTed ffom'tTie Perfian

Memoirs of Eradut Khan^

luable fragment of

Mogul

hillory, contains an account

tier.

above wntk (page 8) and fi:rni(h this forget themfclves, during the tide of frofperity, a day of RtcoLi ection will inevitably come, fooner or later. Here we are prefented with the dying confeflion of an aged monarch, who made his way to the throne, by the murder of his brethren, and the imprifonment of his father and who, after beiui^ in peaceable pofleffion of it, perfecuted the fliolt inoffenfive part of his fubjefts, either throu2;li bigotry, or hypocrify. Here we behold him in the adt of rtligning t hat, to obtain poiTeliion ol which, he incurred his guilt and prefented to us, a mere fintul man, trembling on the vergt of eternity ; equally deploring the pall, and dreading the future. How awful muil his fitua tion appear to him, when he fays, " irhm^'cr I look, I fee notlfing but the divinity."

t Thefe

letters are preferved in


;

one of the notes

to the

ftrildng leflbn to frail mortality

that, lii.wever

men may

Bahader

; :

Ixiv

Bahader Shahj Azem, and Ivjum Bukfli,


the empire with
their elder

who

feverally contefted

brother

and Acbar,

who

30 years

before had been engaged in rebellion and fled to Perfia.

The

death

of their father, was the fignal of holiility between

Mauzum
(for

and

Azcm

the former approached from Cabul, and the latter


pofleflion of the

from the

Deccan, and difputed the

whole empire

Azem
men
title,

had propofed
each.

a partition
it

of

it)

with armies of about 300,000


a
battle,

Near Agra,
and

was decided by
took the
title

and the death of

Azem:
ftantly

Mauzum

of Bahader Shah.
;

His
is

before his acceflion, was Shah

Aulum

by which name he

con-

mentioned

in the

memoirs of Eradut KJian.


five years,

Bahader Shah reigned about


fiderable ability,
fions

and was
:

Prince of contiie

and great attention to buhnefs

but

convul-

with which his elevation had been attended (notwithflanding


eldeft

his pretenfions, as

fon

of the

late

Emperor) added

to the

various diforders that had taken root, during Aurungzebe's long

abfence in the Deccan, had reduced

tlie

government

to

fuch a

ftate

of weaknefs,

as required not

only the exertion of the beft talents,

but

alfo

much

time,

to

reftore.

The

rebellion of his

brother

Kaum
and

Bukfli, foon after his acceflion, called

him

into the

Deccan

this

being quelled by the death of

Kaum

Bukfli, and the total

difperfion of his followers, he wifely quitted this fcene of his father's miflaken

ambition

although the Deccan was

far

from being

in

a fettled flate.

Princes of
to

He had in contemplation to reduce the Rajpoot Agimere, who had formed a very flrong confederacy
to aft

which the long abfence of Aurungzebe had been too favourable


with

and they appeared


ever, an evil of a

much

confidence and fecurity.

How-

more

prefling nature,

drew the Emperor's atten-

tion to another quarter.

The

Seiks, a

new
;

fed:

of religionifts,

appeared in arms in the Lahore province

and ravaged the whole


river.

country from thence to the banks of the

Jumna

The
differ

Seiks

had

filently efl.abliflied

themfelves, along the foot of the eaftern

mountains, during the reign of Shah Jehan.

They

frona

moft

kv

mofl

religionills,

in

that,
;

like

the Hindoos,
a

they are pert'edly

tolerant in matters of faith


tain

and require only


but unlike
tlie

conformity in cer-

figns
;

and ceremonies

Hindoos, they admit

profelytes
leafl:

although thofe from among the Mahomedans, are the

efleemed.

They

are

now become one of

the mofl potent

ftates in

Hindooftan.
after

Thefe, the Emperor marched againfl in per-

fon,

and

Chief efcaped.

much trouble The Emperor

and delay, reduced them

but their

then took up his refidence at Lahore,


a very

and feems to have continued there

long time
;

probably, to
fettle

check the remnant of the party of the Seiks


affairs

and to

the

of the province,
in

in general.

Here he

died, after a

fliort

illnefs,

17 12: and,

it

would appear,

that he

never had an oo-

portunity of vifiting Agra, or Delhi, during his reign.

He alfo,

left

four fons
the fpot.

commenced on

among whom, a war for the fucccflion. The fecond fon, Azem Oofliawn, took
but was oppofed by his three brothers,

pofleffion of the treafures

who agreed to divide the Azem was killed, decided


drefs

empire among them.


matters in their f;wour

A, battle,
;

in

which

cliiefly

by the adre-

and bravery of the youngeft, Jehaun Shah

who feemed
;

folved to abide by the agreement, to divide the enipire

and

as a

proof of his intention, diredcd the treafures to be divided.


Zoolfecar Khan, an
intending to
raife to

But
it

Omrah

in

high

truft,

intrigued to prevent

the throne, Jehaunder Shah,

who was
to

the beft

fitted for his purpofes.

fecond battle was

fatal

Jehaun Shah;

and

left his
;

two remaining brothers

to difpute tlie empire,

by

third battle

which

left

Jehaunder,

who was

originally the eldeft.


:

in poffefTion.

He

did not long enjoy his dignity

for at the

end of

nine months, he was dethroned by Ferekfere, (or Furrockfere) fon

of the deceafed

Aurungzebe.

Azem Oofliawn The weaknefs and


;

and, of courfe, great grandfon of

meannefs of Jehaunder,
:

is

almofi:
to -the

without parallel, in the annals of Kings *


* His hifiory

and gave occafion

is

given in the aboVementioned Memoirs.

Syeds

Ixvi

Syeds (or Selds) Houffeln


thers,

AH

Khan, and Abdoolk Khan, two brofet

and Omrahs of great power, to

up Ferokfere

Having

been poffcfled of governments

in the eaftern provinces, their influence

enabled them to col left an army, with which they defeated that of

Jehaunder, near Agra, in the lame year, 171 2.

The

Seiks appeared again in arms, during


fo

the following year


it

and in 1716, they were grown


ceffary to
its

formidable, that

appeared neat

march the grand army


but

againll

them, with the Emperor


of the campaign.

head
It

we

are ignorant of the particulars

was

in this reign that the Englifli

Eall-India-Company, ob-

tained the

&mous Firman,

or grant, by

which

their

goods of ex;

port and import, were exenipted from duties, or cufloms


was regarded as the

and

this

Company's

Commfrcial Charter

in

India,
tlie

while they flood in need of proteftion, from the Princes of


country.

In the year
Seids
:

17 17* Ferokfere was depofed' and blinded by the

who

raifed to the throne Ruffieh-ul-Dirjat, a fon

of Bahader

Shah.

Both

this

Emperor and

his

brother,

Ruffieh-al-Dowlat,
j,

were, in the courfe of a year, raifed to the throne

and afterwards
the difpofal

depofed and put to death by the Seids

who had now


in
1 1

of the empire and

all

its

concerns.

Thus,

years

from the

death of Aurungzebe, five Princes of his line,


the throne, and fix others

who had mounted


for. it,

who had

been competitors

had

been difpofed of: and the degraded


this period,
all

ftate

of the regal authority, during

had introduced an incurable anarchy, and. a difpofition in

the Governors of provinces, to fhake off their dependency on the

head of the empire.

From

this time, affairs declined very rapidly

and the empire, which had acquired fome degree of confidency under the houfe of

Timur, was now about


it

to be difmembered,, in a
aera

degree beyond what

had experienced,, even before the

of the

Mahomedan

conquefts.

Mahomed

Shah, grandfon of Bahader Shah, was placed on the


J

throne by the Seids, in

71 8.

This Prince, warned by the

fate

of

his

Ixvii

his predecelTurs, and having very early in his reign acquired power
fufficient for the purpofe,

got rid of the Seids

but not without: a

rebeUion and a battle.

Nizam-al-Muluck, Viceroy of the Deccan, had


fifing into

for

fome time been

power; and the times being favourable, he meditated

independency.

He

had received fome

affronts

from the

Seids,

which furniihed him with an excufe


ment: from whence,
the poft of Vizier.
fuiting his
flead in
J

for witlidi-awing to his govern-

722, he was invited to Court, and offered


offer,

This

however,

he declined,

a^

not

projedls

which had
in

for their objedl, fovereignty, inleaft.

of miniflryj

the Deccan, at

whofe power had progreffively


ground againft
fo martial

increafed,

The Mahrattas too, and who even held their


as

and perfevering a Prince

Aurungzebe,

were, as might be expelled under a fucceliion of weak ones,


truely formidable to the
reft:

grown

of the empire

and their vicinity to

the Nizam, afforded

him

complete pretence for increafing his

army.

When

the Princes of the houfe of


it

Timur were

fo eagerly

purfuing the conquefl of the Deccan,


penetration, that this region,

feems to have efcaped their

which

poffeffed

ample refources with-

in

itfelf,

and innumerable

local advantages in point of fecurity


at

from

an enemy without, was alfo fituated


capital, as to

fuch a diffance from the

hold out to

its

Viceroy, the temptation of indepen-

dence, whenever a favourable opportunity might offer.


if the

Perhaps,

Deccan had been


flill

originally left to itfelf, the pofterity of

Timur might
V/hile the

have fwayed the fceptre of Hindooftan.


continued fo formidable in the fouth, the
attacks againft the

Nizam

Mahrattas
provinces.

direcfted

their

middle and northern

Malwa and

the open parts of

Agimere were over-run

by them
empire.

and their detachments infulted even the capital of the

The weak Mahomed, had


fatisfy

in the early part of his reign,

endeavoured to

their

demands,

by paying them

a tribute

amounting
vinces
:

to one fourth of tlie net revenue of the invaded prothis, as

but

might have been expei^ed, only

increafed
their

Ixviii

their Infolence,
felves.

and ended in their feizing on the provinces them-

In 1738, the Nizam, conhdent of his intereft with a powerfu]


f;i6lion

at Conrt,

came

tlaither,

attended by a large body of armed


in chief
;

followers.

Dowran, the commander

of the army of the

empire, was at the head of the Court party

which the Nizam

finding too ftrong, to be eafily difpoffeffed of their places, he invited Nadir Shah, the ufurper of the Perfian throne, and

who was
;

then engaged in the fiege of Candahar,

to

invade Hindooftan
;

hoping that he and his fadion might get


rate,

rid

of Dowran
it

or at any
occafion.
itfeif.

that they

might

profit

by the confufion

would

Many
ftan,

thought that the Nizam's views extended to the empire

Accordingly, in the following year, Nadir Shah entered Hindoo-

and advanced to the plains of Carnawl, where Dowran had


So

afiembled the army, but was foon after killed in a flcirmifh.

uncertain v/as the ftate of things, even at this time, that Nadir

Shah

offered to evacuate the

empire for

fifty

lacks of rupees (half a


his party, occafioned
invader,-

million).

But the

intrigues of the

Nizam and

the

weak Emperor

to

throw himfelf on the clemency of the

who

entered Delhi, and

demanded 30 millions
and
famine,

fterling,

by way of
refult
;

ranfom.

Tumults,

maflacres,

were

the

100,000 of the inhabitants were mailacred,


plunder, were faid to be colledled.

and 62 millions of
to a

Nadir married his fon

prand

daughter of Aurungzebe,

reftored

Mahomed Shah

to
all

his

throne, and returned to Perfia, after obtaining the ceflion of

the

countries fubjetfl to Hindooftan, lying

on the weft of the Indus.


whole remain-

His departure

left

the

Nizam
:

in polTeffion of the

ing power of the empire


\i\

and which he
eftabliflied,

facrificed to his

own

views

tlie

Deccan, where he

an independant kingdom for


in
1

himfelf.

1 he Mahratta invafions of the Carnatic

1741, and particularly the defeat

740 and and death of Doaft Ally (Nabob

of Arcot) by their arms, called the


his

Nizam home;
Gazi
o'dien.

after 4elegating

power

at

Court

to his cldeft fon

The

Ixlx

The Nizam, on his arrival, fettled the Carnatlc for the prefent, by placing Anwar o'dien, father of the prefent Mahomed Ally, in
the government, or Nabobfhip of Arcot
flood to
;

which was then underbefore this time

comprehend

neai'ly the prefent Carnatic.


little

Bengal became independant of Delhi a


.

(1738) under Aliverdy Cawn; and not long after, a vafl army of Mahrattas, both from Poonah and Berar (for they were now divided
into

two

ftates)

invaded
at

it,

under the fandlion of the Emperor's

name,

who
to

being

a lofs to fatisfy their repeated demands, fent

them

colledl for

themfelves, the arrears of revenue, fmce the

defedlion of Aliverdy.

About the fame time the


that lie
eaft

Rohillas, a tribe
Perfia,

from the mountains


independant
Delhi.
flate

between India and

eredted an

on the

of the Ganges, and within 80 miles of


univerfal dilTolution of the

Very ftrong fyrnptoms of the

empire, appeared, at this time.

Nadir Shah died in 1747: and in the confufion that followed, Abdalla, one of his Generals, feized on the eaftern part of Perfia,
and on the bordering provinces of India, that were ceded by Maho-

med Shah
at prefent

to

Nadir

and thefe he formed into


;

kingdom, known

by that of Candahar
It

or

more

familiarly

by

that of the

Abdalli.

comprifes nearly the ancient empire of Ghizni.


died the fame year, having reigned 29 years

Mahomed Shah
and the
dooflan.
flate

a long period, confidering the fate of his immediate predeceffors,

of anarchy that prevailed fo univerfally

in

HinIn his

Ahmed
reign,

Shah, fon of
lafled

Mahomed,

fucceeded his father.

which

about 6 years, the entire divifion of the remain:

der of the empire took place

nothing remaining to the houfe of


city

Timur,
itfelf

fave a fmall territory

round Delhi, together with the

(now no longer

a capital)

expofed to repeated depredations,

niaffacres,

and famines, by the contells of invaders.


imperial,
v\'as

The

lafh

army

that

might be reckoned
}

defeated 'by the Rohillas, in


eflabliflied

J749

by which

their

independency was firmly

in

the

eaftern

Ixx

caftern part of the province

of Delhi.

The

Jates,

or Jats, a

Hin-

doo
a

tribe

under Soorage-Mull,

eflabliflied themfelves,

and founded

ll:ate

in the province of Agra.

ah'eady feen, ufurped

by

their

The Deccan and Bengal we have Viceroys, the Nizam and AHverdy
:

Oude was
lah,

feized on

by

Seifdar
to

Jung

(father to the late Sujah

Dow-

and grandfather
:

Dowlah)
mindars

Nabob of Oude, Azuph Allahabad by Mahomed Kooli Malwa was divided bethe reigning
:

tween the Poonah Mahrattas, and


:

feveral

native Princes, and

Zethe

Agimere
:

reverted of courfe,

to its

ancient lords,

Rajpoot Princes

and the Mahrattas,

who had

of

late

been making

large ftrides towards univerfal plunder, if not to univerfal


pollefled, in addition
to their fhare
Orifili
;

empire

of Mahva, the greateft part of


their ancient

Guzerat, Berar, and

befides

domains

in the

Deccan
parties,

and were alternately courted and employed by different and were become the Swifs of India
j

with

this

deviation

from the cuftom of the European Swifs,

that they ufually paid

themfelves, inflead of being paid by their employers.

Abdalla, as

has juft been


in this

faid,

having

effabliflied

his

new kingdom

very early

reign, entered

Lahore and Moultan

(or the Panjab)

with a

view

to the conqueil:

of them.

The whole

country of Hindooftan
to

proper, was in

commotion from one extreme


at an

the other
j

each

party fearing the machinations or attacks of th^ other


regular

fo that all

government was

end, and viliiany was pradtifed in


it

every form.

Perhaps, in the annals of the world,

has

feldom

fiappened that the bonds of government were fo fuddenly dilTolved,

Qver a portion of country, containing at leafl 60. millions of inhabitants-.

The Nizam
liicceeded
eldefl

died, at a very

advanced age*, in 1748, and' was


in prejudice to the

by his fon Nazirjung,

rights

of

his-

fon,

Gazi, Vizier, to the nominal Emperor.


after,

The

contefts-

that
"*

followed foon
was 104 years
oJd.

between Nazirjang,
5

and his nephew^


Niza-

He

He

left

fons

G.izi

o'dien, Nafirjung, G^labidjung,

'.a:il!y

(the preient foubah.of the Deccan,.. and the only furvivor)

and Bazalet Jung,

Muz-

Ixxi

J
j

Muzzuffer Jung,
famihes of

for the throne

of the Deccan

and between

the'

Anwar
its

o'dicn and

Chunda Saheb,

for the

Naboblhip of

Arcot, one of

provinces

occafioned the French and EngHflr

to engage as auxiliaries in the wars that

happened

in
:

confequence
in

of.

them.

In the
;

firft,

the French alone interfered

the latter,

both nations

the

EngliHi efpoufmg the caufe of the family of

Anwar o'dien. Thefe wars laded till the year 1754; and ended,. after much bloodflied by battle and affaffination, in fixing Mahomed Ally, fecond fon of Anwar o'dien, in the government of
Arcot
;

and Salabidjung, fon of the


j

late

Nizam-al-Muluck,

iw

the foubahfliip of the Deccan


afiaffinated or killed

the original difputants being either

in battle.

By

this refult,

the Englifh gained

the point of eftablifliing their fecurity and^ their influence in the


Carnatic
:

and the French, in addition to the

folid advantage

of

getting pofTelTion of the northern cirears *, valued at half a million


flerling,

of annual revenue, gained the fplendid but uncertain pri-

vilege
his

of influencing the councils of the

Nizam, by attending
the celebrated

perfon with their army,

commanded by

M..

Buffy.

The Mogul empire was now become merely nominal


Emperors muil
otherwife than as their names and perfons were
different parties, to forward their

and the

in future be regarded as of no political confequence,

made
the

ufe of,

by

own

viewsi

That

name and

perfon of the

Emperor were of

ufe, as retaining a conliderable de-

gree of veneration

among

the bulk of the people in Hindoollan and

the Deccan,

is

evident,

from the application made

at

different

times, for grants of territory, forcibly acquired

by the grantee, but

which required the

finftion of the lord paramount, in order to

reconcile the tranfadion to the popular, or perhaps, vulgar opinion.

Thus

every ufurper has endeavoured to fandlify his ufurpation, by

either a real or pretended grant,

from the Emperor

and others, by

The

rwitfir/i)

to

geographical pofition of the cirears, and the origin of the application of the tenn them, will be found ia the latter part of this IntroduiUjn.

obtain-

Ixxii

obtaining poffeiTion of his perfon, have endeavoured to


adls pafs

make

their

for his.

Another remarkable inftance of the


Is,

effedt

of

popular opinion,

that the coin

throughout the whole


is

trad:,

known by
the In

the

name of
^^^

the

Mogul

empire,

to this day, ftruck in

name of
1753,

the nominal Emperor.

Emperor Ahmed was depofed by Gazi*,


to in reducing the Jats,

after

having reigned about 6 years.


tas

In the preceding year, the Mahrat-

had been called


of Agra,
:

in,

aflifi:

who were
to

in

poiTeflion

and become troublefome neighbours

the

Emperor

and

in the prefent year,

the Berar Mahrattas eftablifhed

themfelves in OrliTa, by ceffion from Aliverdy,

Nabob of Bengal
them
a tribute

who was

alfo

compelled, for a

fliort

time, to pay

for Bengal and Bahar,

amounting

to

one fourth of the clear revenue.

This, together with the Mogul's former permiffion to colleft the


arrears of revenue

due to him,

is

the foundation of their claims


relinquiflied,

on Bengal and Bahar;


although the times

and which they have never

may have been

unfavourable to their afferting

them,

Allumguire

11.

grandfon of Bahader Shah,

was placed on the


Abdalla of Canda-

nominal throne by Gazi, with the concurrence of Nidjib Dowlah,

a Rohilla Chief, and commander of the army.


har,

was

at this

time in poffelTion of Lahore, and threatened Delhi.


to get
rid

In

1756,
;

the Emperor,

of Gazi, invited Abdalla to

Delhi

who

accordingly came, and laid that unfortunate city under


;

heavy contributions

not even fparing the fepulchres of the dead

but being baffled in his attempt on Agra (held by the Jats) he


proceeded no farther ealcward,

but returned

towards Perfia,
to

in

1758.

The Emperor and

bis family
:

were now reduced

the

lowefl poflible ftate of royalty

alternately foliciting

the affiftance

* It

is

neceffary to cbferve, that the

Gazi o'dicn

in queflion,

is

not the perfon

whom we

have ieen before, in the capacity of Vi/.ier to Mahomed Shah ; but his fon. But this is the Gazi, who is fo famous, or rather infamous, for afiaffinations and crimes of almoil every other kind. The elder Gazi perifhcd in an attempt to recover the poffefficn of the Deccaa from his younger brother Salabidjung, in 1752.

of

Ixxiil
;

of Abdalla, and of the Mahrattas


allies,

and

as

much

in dread

of their

as

of their enemies.

In 1760,
fon, the

AUumgire was depofcd and murdered by Gazi. His prefent Emperor, who took the title of Shah Aulum, was
on the Mahrattas, Nidjib
;

then engaged in a fruitlefs attempt to reduce the Bengal provinces.

He

had fucceffively thrown himfclf,

Dowlah, and Sujah Dowlah,


without
fuccefs.
it

for prote<3:ion and afliilance

but

Mahomed

Kuli of Allahabad, however, received


furniflied

him

and

was by means of an army

by

that Chief,

and by Buhvantfing, Zemindar of Benares, that he was enabled to


enter the Bengal provinces, where he was joined hy fcn}e refradlory

Zemindars of Bahar,

and made up altogether a force of about


ill

60,000 men

but notwithflanding his numbers, they were fo

provided, that he ended his

expedition (in 1761) by furrendering


field as allies to the

himfelf to the

Britifti,

who

had taken the


at

Nabob
con-

of Bengal

and who, having

that time

no inducement

to

nedl their fortunes with his, he applied with

more

fuccefs to Sujah

Dowlah, who,
habad.

in

Mahomed

Kuli's abfence, had feized on Alla-

Abdalla, had vifited HindooRan no


late reign
;

lefs

than 6 times during the


influence in the
in

and appeared to have


had.

much more

em;

pire than

AUumgire

His

fixth vifit,

was

1759 and 1760

when Delhi was


millions of fouls.

again plundered and almoft depopulated, although


it

during the time of Aurungzcbe

was fuppofed

to

contain

two

The Mahrattas
politics

in the nndft

of thcfe confufions and revolutions,,

daily gathered flrength.

We

find

them engaged
;

in every fcene

of

and warfare from Guzerat to Bengal


Carnatic.
Pofiefied

and from Lahore


dortaains

to

the

of fuch
lefs

extenfive

and

vafl.

armies, they thought of nothing


relloring the

than driving out Abdalla, and,


the empire.

Hindoo government, throughout

Thus
;

the principal powers of Hindooftan were arranged in two parties


the Hindoos and

Mahomedans

for the Jats joined the Mahrattas;

and

Ixxiv

and

Sujali

Dowlah,
Icfs

with

the RohiUas,
:

and other Mahpmedan

Chiefs of
fcene

note, joined Abdalla

and a battle enfued in the old

of warfare, the plains of Carnawl and Panniput.


faid

There
This

were

to be

150,000 Maliomedans, and no

lefs

than 200,000

Mahrattas, whofe caufe the Jats deferted, before the battle.

was the mofl important ftruggle


contefts between

that

had taken place, fince the


in

Aurungzebe's
battle

fons,

1707.

Vi^Xoty declared

for Abdalla, after a

more

obftinate

and bloody than any

that the records of Hindooftan can probably

fhew

the carnage of

the day, and the


incredible
;

number of Mahratta
decifive

prifoners taken,

were almofl
fides.

and great deeds of valour were performed on both

This

battle

was

of the prctenfions of the Mahrattas, to

univerfal empire in

Hindooftan.

They

loft
;

the fiov/er of their

army, together with their beft Generals

and from that period

(1761) their power has been fenfibly on the decline. Abdalla's influence at Delhi, was now unlimited j and he invited

Shah Aulum thither (then engaged


mifing to
feat

in

Bahar, as abovefaid) pro-

him on

the throne of his anceftors.

He, however,
:

did not venture to truft himfelf in the hands of Abdalla


therefore, as his prefence

who

was required

in Lahore,

where the Seiks


fet

were on the point of overpowering his garrifons,


Bucht, the fon of Shah

up Jewan

Aulum *,
;

for

Emperor, under the tuition

and protection of Nidjib Dowlah


nual tribute.

from

whom

he exaded an an-

Thus,

in

fa(5l,

Abdalla became Emperor of Delhi


to eftablifh himfelf in

and

if his inclinations
it

had led him

Hindoofome

ftan,

is

probable that he might have began a


his

new

dynafty of
at

Emperors, in

own

perfon.

He

meant,

probably,

future time, to purfue his defigns, whatever they were, either for

himfelf or for the heir of the houfe of Timur, to which he had


allied

himfelf by a match with one of the Princeffes.


is

His fon and


He
was about
13

This

the perfon
tlie

who

vifited

Mr. Haflings
Delhi.

at

LucknoWj

in i;?^.

V^ars old at

time of Abdalla's

laft vifit to

fuccef-

Ixxv

fucceffor,

the prefent

Timuf Shah, married


it

another Princefs of

the fame line.

After the departure of Abdalla,

appears that

all

the territory

remaining to Nidjib Dovvlah, for himfelf and the young Emperor,

was the northern part of th province of Delhi.


year,

In the following

1762, both the Jats and Mahrattas preffed hard on Nidjib


either baffled them, or
life

Dowlah, but he
his

bought them

off;

and held

ground during his


is

time

and then tranfmitted his country,


to his

which

chiefly fituated

between the Ganges and Jumna,

fon Zabeta

Cawn,

the prefent polleffor.


legal

Shah Allum the

Emperor (whofe

fon

we have

jufb feen in

the charafter of his father's reprefentative) was without territory,

and without
his family
flation.
;

friends, fave only a

few Omrahs wlio were attached


difpoffelled

to

and were, Uke him,


expullion of the

of their property and

Nabob of Bengal, Coflim Ally, by the Englifh, in 1763, by drawing Sujah Dowlah into the quarrel, was the means, once more, of bringing the wandering Emperor
into notice.
Britifh arms,

The

But he had more

to

hope from the fuccefs of the

than thofc of his patron, Suiah

Dowlah

and the

uninterrupted fuccefs that attended

them

in

1763, 64, and 65, by

the difperfion of the armies of CofTim Ally, and of Sujah Dowlah,

and by the entire conqueil of Oude and Allahabad

left

both the

Emperor and Sujah Dowlah, no hopes, but from the moderation of the vi<S:ors. Lord Clive, who aflumed the government of Bengal,
in

1765, reftored to Sujah,

all

that

had been conquered from him,


;

except the provinces of Corah and Allahabad


part of an eftablilhment for the

which were kept

as

Emperor

at

the fame time he

obtained from the lame Emperor, a grant of the provinces of Bengal,

Bahar and Orifla, together with the northern circars

on con-

dition of paying the

Emperor 26

lacks of rupees (260,000}.) per

annum, by way of

tribute,

or quit rent.

The Corah
a provifion

provinces
for the

were valued at 30 lacks more.

Thus was
for
1

made

Emperor

and a good bargain flruck

the Englifh:

for Bengal
ajjd

IxKVl

and the

circars

might be eftimated

at u million

and a half net revenae,

after the

charges of the civil and military eftablifhments, were paid.


to refide at the city of Allahabad
j

The Emperor was


eltedV,

and was, in
he owed
all

under the proteilion of the Englilh, to

whom

that he poflcfled.

A
form

treaty offenfive

and defenfive was entered


:

into,

with Sujah Dawlah, Nabob of Oude


fituated fo as to

and his

territories

being

a barrier to ours, a
at

competent force ftationed


;

within them, ferved to guard both,

the fame time

and

it

was
as if

convenient to the pofTeffor of Oude, to pay the expence of


it

it,

had been retained


It

for his fervice only.

was, however, the misfortune of the Emperor, that he could

not accommodate his mind to the ibandard of his circumftances

although thefe were far more favourable now, than


period,

at

any other

of his

life.

But being the

lineal

defcendant of the houfe of


;

Timur, he

afpired to polTefs the capital city of his anceftors

and

in grafping at this fliadow,


pofleircd.

he

loft

the fubftance of what he already


at Allahabad,

For

after

about 6 years quiet relidence

he
feat

put himfelf into the hands of the Mahrattas,

who

promifed to

him on

tlie

throne of Delhi

thofe very

Mahrattas,
his family
;

who had
and whofe

v.reftcd the

faired of his provinces

from
:

objed: was to get


his perfon and
ceflion of the

poflefhon of the reft


as

and

who

intended to ufe
it.

name,

one of the means of accompliftiing

Corah provinces to the Mahrattas, was the immediate


:

confequence of this connexion


pofed,

and had not the Englifli intereftablidied

the Mahrattas

would have

themfelves in that

important angle of the Dooab, which commands the navigation of


the upper part of the river Ganges, and the

whole courfe of the


akrjoft clofe to

Jumna
dr)ors
:

and which would have brought them


befides

our

the evil of extending their influence and power ^


ftill

and of feeding their hopes of extending them


principle

further.

The
:

on which the

Britifti

Government

aifted,

was

this

they

confidered the Corah, &c. provinces,

which by
to

right of conqueft

were originally

theirs,

as

having reverted again

them, when they

were

Ixxvii

were alienated from the purpofes, for which they had been originally granted to the
,

Emperor; and applied

to the purpofo

of agallies.

grandizing a power, which was inimical to them and to their

They
tion.
fefllon

therefore took pofl'eflion of thofe provinces again, and

immepof-

diately ceded

them
it

to the

Nabob of Oude,

for a valuable confidera-

Indeed,

was a miflake

originally, not to reftore the

of them to Sujah Dowlah, in


:

common

with the

reft

of his

territories

and to
for

fettle

a certain ftipend in lieu

of them, to the

Emperor
and
Jats,

they, forming the frontier towards the Mahrattas

fhould have been placed in hands, that were better able

to defend them.

The Mogul,
ftate

however, went to Delhi


Britifli
j

thereby lollng

all

that he

had acquired from the


prifoner
:

and has ever fince been a kind of


a trifling

liv'ing

on the produce of
;

domain, which

he holds by a tenure of fufferance

allowed

him

partly out of vene-

ration for his anceflors, and partly for the ufe of his

name.

It

muft be allowed, that the Princes of Hindooftan, have generally


fliewn a due regard to the diflreffes of fallen royalty

(when

life

has
is

been fpared) by granting Jaghires, or penfions.


cafe in point.

Ragobah's,

mockery
ever,

to

The private diftrefles of Shah Allum (it is almofl call him the Great Mogul, or Emperor) were, howduring Mr. Haftings's
laft

fo prefTing,

journey to

Oude (1784)
Englifli.

that his fon

Jewan Bucht came

to folicit affiftance

from the

Since the peace of 1782, Madajee Sindia, a Mahratta Chief, and

the poflelfor of the principal part of Malwa, has taken the lead

at

Delhi

and has reduced

feveral

places fituated within the diftrifts

formerly polTeifed by the Jats,

NudjuffCawn, and

the Rajah of

Joinagur

and

it

may be concluded

that Sindia has in view to ex:

tend his conquells on the fide of Agimere


himfelf, a confiderable ftate, or kingdom.
It

and to efLabliih for

might be expected

that the Rajpoots of Agimere, &cc.

would
than

be

Icfs
.

averfe to receiving- a Sovereign

of their

own

religion,
:

they were to fubmit to the

Mahomedan Emperors
]

and, mo.'-eover.

Ixxviil

Qver, that

it

would be more

for the in terefl of their people, to


;

be

fubjedts, than tributaries, of the Mahrattas

thefe being

mild as

Governors, although the mofl: unfeeling,


or as enemies
:

as

colledlors of tribute,,

yet

it

appears, that they entertain the greateft jea;

loufy of Sindia's

defigns

the
a

accomplifiiinent of

which would

make

their Princes fink

into

date of greater infignificance, than

they are at prefent.

In a country
fee the

fo

fruitful

of revolutions,
;

it is

difficult to fore-

event of Sindia's prefent meafures

but they point ftrongly

towards raifing
or
to

that

him to the head of the weftern Mahratta ftate, of a new empire founded on its ruins. The prowhole neighbourhood,
are in

vinces of Agra and Delhi, and that

the moft wretched flate that can be conceived.


feat

Having been the


is

of continual wars for near 50 years, the country

almoft depo:

pulated,,

and moll of the lands, of courfe, are lying wafle


to

the

wretched inhabitants not daring

provide more than the bare

means of
whofe
foil,

fubfiftence,
is

for

fear

of attrafting the notice of thofe,


fertility

trade

pillage.

Nothing but the natural

of ths

and the mildnefs of the climate, could have kept up any de;

gree of population

and rendered the fovereignty of

it,

at this day,

worth contending

for.

So that a tta&i of country, which polTefles

every advantage that can be derived from nature, contains the mofl
miferable of inhabitants
:

fo dearly

do mankind pay for the ambition


their
In.

f their fuperiors
can govern
a,s

who, mif-calculating
as

powers, think they


the

much
it

they can conquer.

Mogul

empire^,

many
ment
:

parts of

were 1000 miles


its

diifant fronx the feat of governr-

and accordingly

hiftory

is

one continued leffon to Kings


;

not to grafp at too

much dominion

and

to

mankind,, to circum-

Icribe the undertakings of their rulers.


It
is

highly improbable that the houfe of

Timur

will ever rife


It

again, or be of aay confequenee in the politics of Hindooftan.


It

was

in

1525 that the dynally of Great Moguls, began:


it

fo

that

reckoning to the prefent time,


for that country.

has

lafted.

262 years

a long, period

Sketch

IkkIx

Sketch

of the

Mah ratt a
:

Hljlory,

WE
flcetch,

have frequently had occafion, in the courfe of the above


to

mention the
is

Mahrattas
;

and

as

the

rife

and progrefs-

of

tliat

Aate,

of

much

importance to the general hillory of the

decline of the

Mogul empire
its

and

fo

remarkable in

itfelf,

from the

fuddennefs of
hiflory of
it,

growth

it

may

not be improper to give a fhort


;

in an uninterrupted narrative

although fome part of

the foimer one

may

be repeated.

The origin and fignification of the word Mahratta (or Morattoe) has of late been very much the fubjedt of enquiry and
difcufiion,

in

India

and various fanciful conjedures have been,

made, concerning

it.

We

learn,

however, from Ferilhta*, that


the

Marhat

was the name of

a province in

Deccan

and that

it

comprehended Baglana

(or Eogilana)

and other didridls, which

at

This informatbn occurs not only in FeriiKta's hillory of Ilindooflnn, but in that of the Deccan, &:c. like-wife. The former we have before ipc/nen of, a^ bfring tranlluted by Coi. Dow but the latter has never yet made its appearance in any European language. ]t is typefted, houever, that the public will foou be in po/Teilion of it, from tii.- hands of Capt. Jonathan Scott, who has already exhibited a fpi'cinicn of one part of his intended work; uiid has engaged to complete it, on conditions, which the public, on their part, appear to have performed. Ferifhta lived in the Court of Ib.ahim Audil. Shah, I-iiiig of \'iii.apour who wa.-' cotemporary with Jelianguire in the beginning- of the lall century Ferifhta'.-. hillory of ihc Deccan, &.c. opens to our view, the knowledge of an empire that has fcarcelv been heard ol', in Europe. Its Emperors of the Bahmine.-vU dynafty (which commenced with Haifan Caco, A.D. 1347) appear to have exceeded in power and ipiendour, thofe of Delhi; even at the mod: flourifhing periods of their hillory. The feat of government wa.s at Galberga (fee Orme'i Hillorical Fragments p. cxx.xvi.) which was centrical to the great body of the empire and i^ at this day a confiderable city. Like other overerown empires,, it fell to piece; with its o-au weight and out ot it were formed four potent kingdums, under the names of V'ifiapour (properly Bejapour) Golconda, Berar, and Amednagur ; whofe p.ifticubr limits, and inferior members, we are not well informed of. Each of thefe fubfilled with a confiderable degree of power, until the Jylogul conquell and the two firll, as we have feen above, prcferved their independency until the time of Aurungvebe. It isworthy of remark,, that the four Monarchs ot thefe kingdoms, like the Cxfars .ind Ptolemies, h.id each of them a name, or title, common to the dynafty to which he belonged ; and which .were derived from the refpeyti\ e Thus, tlie Kings of Viliapour, were Iryled Audil (or .'\dil) Shah; thofe of Golfounders. conda, Cuttub Sliili; and. thofe of Berar aud /imedn.agur, ISizam Sh.ih, and Amu! Shah.
:

I-

pre lent

t
prercnt

"^"^^^

form

the moft central

part of the

Mahratta dominions.

The

origmal meaning of the term Marhat, like that of


is

mod

other

proper names,
queftion,
is

unknown

but that the name of the nation in


it,

a derivative

from

cannot be doubted

for the tefti-

mony

of Ferifhta

may

be received without the fmallefl fufpicion of


eilabliili a

error, or

of defign to

favourite opinion,

when

it is

con-

fidered that

he wrote,

at a period,

when

the inhabitants of the pro-

vince of

Marhat

did not exift as an independant nation; but were


Befides
*,

blended with the other fubjefted Hindoos of the Deccan.


the teftimony of Ferifhta, there
is

that alfo of
;

Nizam-ul-Deen

an author

who

wrote

at

an earlier period

and

who

relates,

in his

general hiftory of Hindooftan,

that one of the


info

Kings of Delhi,
the neighbouring

made an

excurfion from

Deogur (Dowlatabad)

province of
Sevajee

Ma r h at
may be

-j-

confidered as the founder of the


is

Mahratta
^

Empire.

His anceftry

not very clearly afcertained


is,

but the

moft commonly received opinion,


illegitimate fon of a

that his grandfather

was an

Ran a

of Oudipour, the chief of the Rajpoot

Princes
lemy.

the antiquity of

whofe houfe may be inferred from Pto-

(See the
is

Memoir, page 153.)


to

The mother

of this

illegiti-

mate fon

faid

have been an obfcure perfon, of a tribe named

Bonfola (fometlmes written Bouncello, and Boonfla)

which name
After the

was aflumed by her


his

fon,

and continued to be the family name of


and Berar.

defcendants,

the

Rajahs of Sattarah,

death of his
indignities

flither (the

Rana of Oudipour) he having


on the

fuffered

fome

from

his brothers,

fcore of his birth,

he

retired

in difguft to

the Deccan, and entered into the fervice of the

King

of Bejapour (vulgarly Viliapour).


added to his

The

reputation of his

family,
a diftin-

own

perfonal merit, foon obtained for

him

Nizam-ul-Deeii, was an officer in the court of Acbar and wrote a general hiftory of Hindoolhm, which he brought down to the 40th year of that Emperor. + This alfo occurs in Fcri(hta's hiKoiy of Hindoollan. It v/a^ in the reign of Alia 1. A.D. I312. Sec alfo page iii, of tlie Introdudion,
;

guifl}ed

Ixxxi

]
;

goiiflied

rank in the armies of the King of Vifiapour


his ion.

in

which he

was fucceeded by

But

his grandfon,

Sevajee,

who was

born in 1628, difdaining the condition of a fubjedt, embraced an


early opportunity

(which the

diftra6lions then exifling in the Viiia-

pour monarchy, afforded him) of becoming independant.

So rapid
to

was the progrefs of


the armies of the

his conquefts,

that he

was grown formidable

Mogul

empire, before Aurungzebe's accefhon to

power

having before that period, feized on the principal part of


;

the mountainous province of Baglana

and the low country of


fea.

Concan,

fituated

between

it

and the weflern

He

had

alio

acquired from the kingdom of Vifiapour, the important fortrefs of


Pannela, which

commanded an

entrance into the heart of

it,

from

the fide of Baglana; together with feveral other places of flrength.


In the Carnatic, he had poffeflion of Gingee, together with an extenfive dillrid:

round it*:

and

this

perhaps

may be

confidered

rather as an ufurpation of one of the Vifiapour conquefts, than as

an acquifition made from the original Sovereign of the Carnatic


for the

King of Vifiapour appears

to

have pofTefled the fouthern part

of the Carnatic,^ including Tanjore-j-,


Sevajee will

Great part of the hiftory of

be found in Mr. Orme's hillorical fragments of the


:

Mogul empire
death,

and

is

well worth the reader's attention.


in

At

his

which happened

1680, his domains extended from the

northern part of Baglana, near Surat, to the neighbourhood of the

Portuguefe diftrids of Goa, along the

fea coaft

but probably not

very far inland, beyond the foot of the Gauts, and other ranges of

mountains, which

may be

confidered as
field

branches of them

for

Aurungzebe's army kept the


neceffarily ftraitened

in Vifiapour,

at that period,
fide.

and

Sevajee's quarters

on that

Thefe con-

The French olit^ined the prant of Pondicherry in 1674, from a Rajah of Gingee, who acknowledged the King of Nurfinga as liib luperior but this latter, was at the iiim.; time, dependant on Vifiapour. Sevajee took pofleffion of Gingee, about the year 1677; and con;

Jirmed the above grait, in 1680. t I am ignorant of the period,

when
it.

the Mahratta Prince, whofe deRcndants

now

hold

Tanjore, came into the pofieffion of

que (Is

Ixxxii

qnefts were the fruits of hardy and perfevering valour

partly, ac-

quired in defpight of Aurungzebe, then in the zenith of his power.


Sevajee had alfo plundered Surat and

Golconda; and even attacked


at its height.

Goa, when the Purtuguefe power was


bajee,

His fon Samas

though

poflefled of confiderable ability


fell a

both

a {latefman

and

a foldier,

facrifice

to debauchery.

In one of his loofe

excurfions,

he was treacheroufly feized on, -and cruelly put to


This,
;

death,

by Aurungzebe, in 1689.

however,

produced no

fubmiflion on the part of the Mahrattas

power, though not


fcarcely a hardier
ihelter
to

fo

rapidly as before.
:

who ftill increafed in The Roman ftate had


are fituated
this

infancy

and the mountains of Gatte, which

from the ll:ormy Monfoon, the countries that


leeward of them,
afforded
alfo

the

flielter

to

rifing

flate.

Sahoo, or Sahojee (vulgarly, Saow or


father Sambajee, at a very early age
;

Sow Rajah)
as

fucceeded his
ability

and

he inherited the

and vigour of mind of his immediate anceftors, and reigned more


than 50 years; great part of
the aggrandizement of a
ther
J

it

at a feafon,

the

mod

favourable for

ftate,

that

was

to rife

on the ruins of ano-

the Mahratta
it

power grew up

to the

wonderful height that


dif-

we

have beheld

at.

For the confufions occafioned by the


adventurers

puted fucceflion among Aurungzebe's fons, and their defcendants,

opened a v/ide

field

to all

and particularly to

this

hiirdy and enterprifing people,

bred in the fchool of war and difci-

who had Ihewn themfelves able to contend even with Aurungzebe himfelf. The conquells atchieved under Sahoojee, are aflonifliing to thofe who do not know that Hindooftan is fo full
pline
;

and

of military adventurers, that an army


prifing Chief,

is

foon colleded by an enter-

who

holds out to his followers a profped: of plunder

which the then


ample means of
the whole trad

dillradled ftate

of the empire, afforded the moft


the time of Sahoojee's death,
ftate

realizing.

At

which
up

happened in 1740, the Mahratta

or empire had fwallowed


;

from the weftern

fea to Orilla

and from Agra to


the

Ixxxiii

the Carnatic

and almoft

all

the reft of Hindooftan, Bengal ex-

cepted, had been over-run and plundered.

They were engaged

in

almoft every fcene of war and politics throughout the whole country; although
it

does not appear that they took any part in the

conteft between Nadir

Shah and Mahomed,

in

1738-9

except by
to

availing themfelves of the ablence of

Nizam-al-Muluck,
the
arife

commit
dif-

depredations

on

his

territories

in

Deccan.
to

Probably they

thought that more advantage would


orders confequent

them, from the

on Nadir Shah's

invafion, than

by

their affifting

the

Emperor

in repelling

him

we

are alfo to confider the

advanced

age of Sahoojee, at that time.


It is

difficult

to

trace the progrefs of the

Mahratta conquefts,

according to the order of time, in which they were made.


find

We
1735,

them taking

part

in

the difputes between Aurungzebe's de-

fcendants at Delhi, as early as


that they found themfelves ftrong

1718: but

it

was not

till

enough to demand

a tribute

from
as

the Emperor,

Mahomed

Shah.

This demand terminated

we

have before obferved, in the acquifition of the greateft part of the


fine

province of

Malwa j and

in a grant

of a fourth part of the net

revenues of the other provinces in general.

This proportion being

named
future

in the language

of Hindooftan, a
to

Chout,

occafioned the
it
:

demands of the Mahrattas


are

be denominated from

al-

though they
cafes

by no means limited

to that proportion, except in


:

where an exprefs compa(l has taken place

as

in

fome in

ftances,

between the Berar Mahrattas and the prefent Nizam of the

Deccan.

They

alfo,

about the year 1736, took part in the difin the Carnatic
;

putes between the


diftridt,

Nabobs of Areot,
which

within which,

the principal European fettlements on the coaft of ChorO':

mandel, are fituated

difputes eventually engaged the

French

and EngliQi Eaft India Companies, in fcenes of


years, as has

hoftility for feveral

been before obferved.

The

fucceftbr of Sahoojee,
:

Ram

Rajah,

who

fucceeded in 1740,,
ftate, as irt
ali

was a weak Prince

and

it

happened in the Mahratta

[ all

Ixxxiv

defpotic flates of rapid growth, and recent formation, that great

part of

what was gained by the


Minifter,

ability

of one defpot, was

loft

by

the imbecility of another. the Paijlowah,


or

The two

principal officers of the ftate,

and the Bukp},

or

Commander
:

in

Chief,

agreed to divide the dominions of their mailer

Bajirow,

the Paifhwah, affuming to himfelf the government of the weftern


provinces
;

and Ragojee, the Bukflii, the eaftern provinces


at

the

former continuing
his refidence at

Poonah, the ancient capital; the other fixing


in Berar.
to

Nagpour
is

The
fortrefs

Paifliwah

faid

have confined the

Ram

Rajah to the

of Sattarah (about 50 miles from Poonah) and then admithe government in his name.
It is probable,

niftered

from other

accounts, that Sahoojce, during the latter part of his reign, had,

by

long and unrevoked delegation of power to the Paifliwah, pre;

pared the minds of the people for this meafure


hardly appeared to be a change
:

which,

to

them,

as

Sahoojee, in a manner, fliut

himfelf up in Sattarah, and feldom appeared in any

ad of governof the
palace,

ment.

There

is

fome degree of analogy between

this part

hiftory of the

Palfliwahs, and that of the

Mayors of the

in France.

So violent a partition of the empire by


as

its

Minifters, encouraged,

might be expedted, the ufurpations of


poffefi^ed

others, according to the

degree of power or opportunity,

by each

fo that

in the

courfe of a few years, the ftate became, from an abfolute monarchy,


a

mere confederacy of Chiefs


in the world.

and the

loofeft;

example of feudal

government,

The two

Chiefs of the divided empire

purfued each their plans of conqueft, or negociation, feparately;

on the general principle of refpeding each others


local fituation of the Berar Chief,

rights.

The

who was

lefs

powerful than the


;

other, led

him

to a clofe connexion

with the Nizam

though not

profeftedly in oppofition to the

Poonah Chief.

The

invafion of Bengal (of the caufes of

which we have fpoken


ilates in

in page Ixix)

was undertaken by both the Mahratta

1742,

and

Ixxxv
to

and 1743; with armies,

\id

contain 80,000 horfemen each.

The

leaders

of thefe armies appearing each to adl for himfelf, the

confequence was, that the wily Aliverdy found means to brihe one
party,

and to fow diflenfions between both


lefs

by which the confe-

quences were

dreadful to the Bengallers, than they otherwife


Still,

mufl have been.


ror
:

however, they are remembered with hor-

and

have myfelf beheld

many of

the objeds of their wanton


let

barbarity, mutilated
loofe,

and deficed.

As 160,000 horfemen were


j

over the level country on the weft of the Ganges

and the
was cut

capital,

Moorfhedabad, being
all

2 miles

from that

river,

it

off

from

fupplies of provifions and neceffaries *, until Aliverdy


:.

doubly intrenched the road leading from, the city to the Ganges and thus fupplies were conveyed
inclofed by another intrenchment,
in circumference. in fafety to the city,
,

which was
18 miles.

or rampart, of about

The

Mahrattas, did. not depart out of the proa vaft


:

vinces, until the year

1744; when they had, colledled

mafs

of plunder, and had eftablifhed the claim of the C/jouf

which,

however, was never regularly paid.

The

Berar Mahrattas having,

fome years afterward, obtained


partly

poffeflion

of the

Oriftli

province,

by conqweft, partly by

ceffion

from Aliverdy,

their proximity
river,

to Bengal,

from which they were


It was- not

feparated only

by a {hallow

afforded
vinces.

them frequent opportunities of plundering

its frontier,

pro-

And

till

the year 1761,

when Cofhm

Ally,

Nabob of

Bengal, ceded the provinces of

Burdwan and Midnapour,

to the Englifh,

that the Mahrattas ceafed to plunder- them.

The

demand of

the chout, however, although


,

made
.

occafionally, pre-

vious to the. ceffion of Bengal to the Englifli, had never been enforced:- and during the

war of 1780, when almoft

all

the powers
it

of HIndooftan were leagued together agalnft the Englifh,


very feebly, if
at- all,

was

infifted.on,

although the Berar Rajah had aa.

army

at Cattackx

The
is

branch

city of Moorfhedabad is fituated dn the wefternmoft branch of the Ganges navigable only during apart of the year. See Appendix, page 259.

which

The

Ixxxvl

The

adminiftratlon of Bajirow was as vigorous as could pofTibly

be expedled, confidering
flackened.

how

the reins of government


it

had been
:

To
ifland

the

Mahratta empire,

was glorious

for

he

wrerted out of the hands of the Portuguefe, the fortrefs of Bafleen,

and the

of

Salfette,

near

Bombay

places that ftood in the

next degree of importance, to Goa.


Paifliwafliip,

He

died in 1759, leaving the


as

which was now confidered

an hereditary

eflablifti-

ment,

to his fon Ballajee.


this

At

period the Mahrattas puflied their conquefts into the

Panjab, and even to the banks of the Indus.

But the time was


in

approaching,

when

this

fudden elevation

(which feems,

fome

inflances at leaft, to operate in flates as in individuals)

was

to ferve

only to make their downfall more confpicuous.

They and
battle

Abdalla,

had given each other mutual umbrage

and the wars that enfued


of Pannipnt,

between them, which ended with the famous


of which
cifive

we have

already given an account, in page Ixxiv, was deas

of the pretenfions of the Mahrattas


j

Hindoos,

to univerfal

empire in Plindooflan

which they

at

that time

(1761) found

themfelves ftrong enough to difpute with the Mahomedans.


Ballajee died

foon after.

a youth.

The

Mahrattas

To him fucceeded his (on Maderow, had now abated of their ardour for difwere chiefly with their neighthey by degrees, ftripped of a confidera-

tant expeditions,

and
;

their quarrels

bour, the

Nizam

whom

ble portion of his territories

on the north, and weft of Aurunga;

bad.
rain

Maderow died in 1772 Row, who was murdei'ed


J

and was fucceeded by his fon Na-

the following year, by Ragobah, his


firft

uncle

and fon of Bajirow, the

Paifliwah

who

affumed the
it

fovereignty.

The

atrocity of this crime,

made

the author of

(who had been


Ally,

a General of reputation in the

war again ft Hyder

and the Nizam) detefted by the body of the people, and


:

caballed againft by the chiefs


clearing his

he befides,
:

failed in

the objedl of

way

to the Pailhvyafliip

for the

widow of Narain proRagobah

duced a boy,

who was acknowledged

Heir.

Ixxxvii

Ragobah, who flood In need of

allies,

had engaged the Governa treaty,

ment of Bombay

in

his caufe

with

whom

very advan-

tageous to the Englifli, and indeed, embracing the principal ad-

vantages fo long defired by the Eafl India


into
:

Company, was entered

and the

fleet

and army belonging to the Prefidency of


in

BomHolli-

bay,

were accordingly put


;

motion, to fecond the views of Ragotreaty.

bah

and to fecure the advantages derived from the

lities

were commenced both by


feparated

fea

and land

and the

ifland of

Salfette,
fea,

from Bombay only by a narrow channel of the


of by the Englifh.
fettlement of

was taken

polfeflion
;

This was
polTeffed
it is

moft
terj

defireable acquifition
ritory,

as the

Bombay
fupplies

no

beyond the extent of the fmall

ifland in

which

fituated
its

and

confequently

depended on foreign

for

fub-

fiftence.

About
with

this

time, the Council General of Bengal was inverted

a controlling pov/er,

over the other fettlements in India

and

the Mahratta war not meeting their approbation. Col.


fent to

Upton was
the
reto

Poonah

in

1776,

to negociate

a peace (fmce

known by
life

name of

the treaty of Pooroondar) by

which Ragobah was


penfion for
:

nounce his pretenfions, and

to receive a

and the

Englifli were to retain pofleffion

of

Salfette.

But

in the

end of

1777, the

Bombay Government Bombay army


retired

again efpoufed the caufe of


in a

Rago-

bah

which meafure terminated


the

difgraceful

convention, by

which

to their fettlement;
race,

and Ragobah
his life

furrendered to his enemies.


fpared.

Being of Bramin

was

The war

that

followed between the Englifli and the Mahrattas,


latter,

was purely defenlive on the part of the

after the arrival


:

of

brigade of the Bengal army, under General

Goddard

and was at-

tended with the conquelt, on the part of the Englhli, of the fined
parts
trelTes

of Guzerat, and the Concan of Baffeen and Amedabad


to the river
;

including the important


fhort, of the

for-r

in
;.

whole country

from Amedabad

Penn

and inland,

to the foot of the

Caufs.

Ixxxviii

(jauts.

And on
diftrid:s,

the fide of Oude, the province of

Gohud, and
But

other

together with the celebrated fortrefs of Gwalior,

were reduced ; and the war carried into the heart of Malwa.
the ex'pences of a fuccefsful war,

may be

too grierous to be borne


in

and

as a

war with Hydcr Ally had broke out


it

1780, and

flill

con-

tinued,

was

juftly efteemed a
;

moft defirable advantage

to eifedt a

peace with the Mahrattas


ber of that
ftate,

after

detaching Sindia, the principal

mem-

from the confederacy. This peace was negociated in


;

1782 and 1783, by Mr., David Anderfon

whofe

fervices

on that

memorable

occaiion, claim, as

is

faid in

another place, the united


All the acquifitions

thanks of Great Britain and Hindooftan.

made

during the war, were given up, fave


fituated

Salfette,

and the fmalliflands


Salfette,

within

the gulf formed by

Bombay,

and the

continent.

The government
among
nority,
.1

at

Poonah, during the minority, was fhared


:

a junto of Minillers

and

it is

probable that fo long a mi^

may
fo

yet

make fome

eflential

changes in the conftitution of

ftate,

accuftomed to revolutions in the fuperlor departments of

its

government.

The

prefent Paifliwah,.

by name Madarow (fon of

Narain

Row,

as

beforementioned) was born in 1774.


State,

The
kept

eaftern

Mahratta
free

or that of Berar, under Ragojeej,.


quarrels,,

itfelf
its

more

from foreign

than the other

but

had

fhare of inteftine wars.

For Ragojee, dying,


Sabajee,

after a

long

reign, left four fons, Janojee,

Modajee,

and Bembajee.
1772, a

The
civil

firft

fucceeded his father:

but dying

childlefs,, in
:

war commenced between Sabajee and Modajee


fell,
;

the former of

whom

in

Berar, &c.

1774 j and the latter dill holds the government of and Bembajee adminifters thofe of Ruttunpour and
:

Sumbulpour, under him

though,

believe,

with

lefs

reflraint

from

his fuperior, than

is

ordinarily impofed

on Governors of pro-

vinces.

Ragojee, the father of the prefent Rajah of Berar, being a


flate,

defcendant of Sevajee, the original founder of the Mahratta


the prefent Rajah
is

therefore

by defcent, the lawful Sovereign of


the

Ixxxix

the whole Mahratta


it

ftate

the Poonah branch being extlnft *

but

appears that he wifely prefers the peaceable pofTcffion of his


to rifklng the lofs

own

territories,

of them, where the objedl

is

no more

than the nominal government of an empire, which even manifefls

iymptoms of fpeedy

dillblution.

It is not likely that either of the

Mahratta

ftates will

foon beeaftern

come formidable
ftate

to the other
it
:

powers of Hindooilan.
and
as for the weftern,
it

The

has not refources for


there, until
reft,

cannot well

happen

fome one of its Chiefs has gained fuch an afcenas to re-unite that divided

dancy over the

power, to which the


It

late confufions in their

government, gave birth.

requires

fome

length of time to reduce a feudal government to a iimple


narchical one
:

mo-

and

till

then, the weftern Mahratta ftate cannot be

formidable, to the
his conquefts to in

Britifti

power,

at Ieaft>

If Sindia proceeds with

the north and weft, and eftabliflies a


this

new empire
be ex-

Malwa, &c.

Mahratta

ftate

(th weftern) muft

tinguift>ed;

and fuch a new empire would, perhaps, prove more


interefts,
firft

formidable to Oude, and to the Brithh


than any power
Britifti

in

confequence,

we have beheld

fince the

eftablifliment of the

influence in India,

Some belkve
It
is

that a

Rajah of Sevajee's Kne

is

ftill

living

!hut

n^

in the foi-trefs

taratu

certain that the

new

Paiftiwahs

go

thither, to receive the inveftit-ure


:

of Satof their office ;

as they were accuftomed to do, in former times

whether fuch a Rajah be in exillence, or

otherwife,

is

of no importance to the

ftate,

as matters are

now

conftituted.

Con-

^c

Conquests

of

European Powers,

Jince

the

doivnfall

of the

Mogul Empire.

AMONG the
Mogul
empire,

new powers

that arofe on

the

downf^l of the

we mud
:

not forget to mention the French and


their

EngHfh.

As

for the Portuguefe,

power had

paft its meridian,

before this period


altogether to
tions
;

befides,

their views being (apparently) confined

traffick,

they wifely

made choice of
j

infular fitua-

fuch as Goa, Bombay, Salfette, Diu, &c.

and never apterritory,

pear to have poffeffed

any very confiderable extent of

although they kept on foot a large army of Europeans.

The

Dutch, fyfteni was nearly the fame


meafure,

and their profperity, in a great

grew out of the misfortunes of the Portuguefe; who having fallen under the dominion of Spain, became obnoxious as
well to the jealoufy of
landers.
rivalfliip,

as

to

the revenge of the

Hol-

The French power was but of


brilliant.
It

fliort

duration, but remarkably


at firil,

was a bright meteor, that dazzled


and
left

but which
in

foon burnt
darknefs.
at

itfelf out,
It

their Eaft India

Company
a

utter

commenced during

the government of

M. Dupleix
Soubah of

Pondicherry, in 1749.

The French

having

aflifted

the Deccan in mounting the throne, attended his future Heps with

an army, and eilablifhed an influence in his councils, that promifed


to

be permanent

but which vaniflied very early, by the mere


:

breath of Court intrigue

for while

M.

Bully, at the head of the

French army, was


fula (in

at

Sanore, in the weflern quarter of the penin-

1756)

a quarrel

with the Minifter of the Soubah, effedted

the difmiffion of the French..

They were

then compelled to retreat

through an enemy's country for near 300 miles, until they reached

Hydra-

xci

Hydrabad

where they

fortified themlelves,

and waited for


j

a rein-

forcement from Mafulipatam, their neareft fettlement

which was

upwards of 200 miles from Hydrabad.


by

Great abihty was difcovered


:

M.

Bufly, on this

memorable occafion

an account of which,

as well as

of

M.

Bufly's warfare and negociations in general, will be


in

found

at large,

Mr. Orme's invaluable


Britifli

hiflory of the military

tranfaftions of the

nation, in Hindoofhan.
:

At Hydrabad,
(

the quarrel was compromifed


part of the next,
Rajalis,

and the following year

1757) and

was fpent by

M.

Buffy, in reducing the refradtory


j

or Zemindars, in the northern circars


in

and

in affiiting the

Soubah

the execution of his

own

plans.

But

in

the midl^ of

thefe tranladions, he

was fuddenly

recalled into

the Carnatic, by

M.

Lally

who determined
:

to coUedl the

whole force of the French,


left

within that quarter


accede to
the

fo that the

Soubah was

at full, liberty to

propofals of the Englifh.

Lally was alfo juftly acBuffy.

cufed of being jealous of the fame of

M.

The

circars,

the fruits of

M.

Bully's wars and negociations

in

the Deccan (and which had been obtained in 1753) yet remained to
the French
:

but Colonel Clive,

who was

at this

time Governor of
fo

Bengal,

with that promptitude and decifion which


his charafter, feized on-

flrongly

marked
in

them, witli a force from Bengal,


a

1759; although they were defended by and the French were deprived of refources
the Carnatic.

much

fuperior one 1

to carry

on the war ia

So that Lally failed to accomplifli the purpofes for

which

the French intereft in the

Deccan had been


only
other

relinquifhed.j
:

namely, that of expelling the Englifli from the Carnatic


the contrary,
in

for,

on

the

French not
but in
every

loft

all

their

poUeflions

that

quarter,

part
to

of

India.

Thus,
1749
i,

their

political

exiftence

may

be

faid

begin,

in

and to end in 1761,


ment,
peaii

by the capture of

their

principal
firfl:

fettle-

Pondicherry.

They

appear to have been the

Euro^
difci--

power,

that trained

the natives

of India to regular

pliae*;.

xcii
fet

pline*; as well as the


torial pofleffions,

firil

who

the example of acquirhig terri:

of any great extent, in India


followed by the Englifli.

in

which thay have

been

fo fuccefsfully

THE
the
firft

expedition of the Britifli troops into Tanjore, in 1749, was

warfare in which they were engaged, againft the forces of


:

an Indian Prince

and

it

proved unfuccefsful,

as to its m:i'.i objedl;

which was,
Tanjore,

the reftoration of a depofed King, or rather Rajah, of


for afiillance to the
affiflance,

David.

who had applied The price of this


;

Governor of Fort

St.

was

to

be the fort and territory

of Devicottah

fitiiated at

the moutb. of the Coleroon, or principal


:

branch of the Tanjore

river

and this

fort,

notwithftanding their

want of

fuccefs in the caufe of the depofed Rajah, the

Company's

troops, aided
of,

by the

fleet

under Admiral Bofcawen, took poflenion

after a fliort fiege.

In the following year they were called on,


times, to take part in the difputed fuc:

by the circumftances of the


ceflion to the Nabobfliip

of Arcot, in oppofition to the French

who

(as

has been before obferved) had taken the lead, both in the

aftairs

of the Carnatic, and of the Deccan.

We have alfo

obferved,

that Nizam-al-Muluck, Soubah of the Deccan, had placed


o'dien in the Nabobfliip of Arcot,
(in

Anwar

1743): and that the death of

the fame

Nizam,

in

1748, had occalioned a coniiderable change in


;

the politics of the Deccan

in

which the French engaged


the expulfion of the
flep towards
it.

fo deeply.

Chunda

Saib was the perfon


:

whom
and

the French wiflied to raife to

the government of Arcot

family of
contefl:s,

Anwar

o'dien,

was

a neceffary

Thefe

which had been

carried
to,

on with great credit

to

the Britifli arms,


Ball;

were put an end


* I
Jiidia
:

by the interference of the two

India

am

far

from being well


in.

but by apafTage

infoi med concerning the early hiftory of the Portuguefe in Mr. Orme's Hi'iorical Fragments, page 17^, it would appear that

.th^y h.id rut, in 16S3, tr .lined the natives to regular difcipline. He fays, " The Viceroy of " Goa tooic the field (againft Sambajee) widi 1200 Europeans, and 25,000 natives of bis oivn " icnnoty." From the confined limits oi the Portuguefe territories, we may conclude that
thefe

were the ordinary inhabitats only.

Companies,

xciii

Companies,

in

Europe,

in

1754:

and

Mahomed

Ally,

fon of
left in

Anwar

o'dien,

(who had
to

fallen in the courfe


:

of the war,) was


it,

pofTeflion

of the Carnatic

or,

at leafb,

of that portion of

which

had been recovered


of thefe wars,
v/ill

him, by the Britifh arms.

The

particulars
thefirll.

be found in

Mr. Orme's

hillory,

volume

War
very

breaking out in Europe, in 1756, the truce was reduced to a


period.

fliort

The

firft

objeft of the Britifh Councils, was to


;

wrefl the northern circafs out of the hands of the French

as their

revenue furnifhed them with the means of paying their army.

The

fecond was to drive

M.

Bufly's force out of the Deccan,

by means

of an alliance with the Nizam, or Soubah.

Both of

thefe projefts

were

at this
:

time defeated

the

firil:

by the mifcarriage of difpatches


and which induced the necef-

to India

the fecond, by the capture of Calcutta, the chief Britifli


:

fettlement in Bengal, in June 1756


fity

of relinquilhing every plan of hoftility in the Deccan and Car;

natic
plifli

in order that a force

might be

fpared, fufficient

to

accom;

the recovery of fo important a fettlement as


trade to Bengal depended.

Calcutta

on

which the whole

Aliverdy Cawn,

Nabob of

Bengal, died in 1756, and was fuc-

ceeded by his grandfon Surajah Dowlah.

This young man either

was, or pretended to be, irritated at the-condu(ft of the Englifli,

within his dominions

and was probably, jealous of the

rifing

power of Europeans
mined

in general, in other parts of India.

He

deter-

to expel the Englilh (at leafl)


at Calcutta,

from Bengal

and accordingly

took their fort

and compelled thofe among them,


retire.

who

were not made prifoners, to

In the following year, an arClive,

mament from Madras, under Admiral Watfon and Colonel


not only recovered
the fettlement of Calcutta,

but brought the

Nabob

to

terms.

The

fword, however,

being thus drawn,


fide

no

permanent fecurity could be expedled on the


unlefs fupported

of the intruders,
a

by power
to

which could not be obtained, while

Nabob, inimical
the kingdom.

their interefts, pofleffed the

whole power of
a.

Sufpicions on both fides foon brought matters to

n 2

crifis

xciv

crifis

and

Jaffier

Ally Cawn, an

Omrah
;

in

high

truft

and favour

with the Nabob, was negociated with


afiifting

and, on condition of their

him

in

his views
;

towards the throne, engaged to be their


for,

future Ally and confederate

fo

much were

matters changed by

the late effay of their flrength, and by the genius and good fortune of Clive, that proteSlion would
the Britilh.
ill

exprefs the current expectation of

The famous
Jaffier

and

in

which,

of Plalley, fought in June 1757, aided the accomplifliment of their wifhes, by


battle

ftandii3g neuter, laid


Britifli nation,

the foundation of the future

power of the
time, they
;

in

Bengal and Hindooftan.

From

that

became the

arbiters of the fucceffion to

the Nabobfliip of Bengal

which

fpeedily led to the pofleflion

of the powers of government


in

for Coflim Ally,

who

had been placed

the

room of
all

Jaffier,

dif-

liking his fituation, refolved to hazard a change at


this

events

and

brought on
left

a war,

which ended

in

the expulfion of Coffim,

and

the Bengal provinces in the pofTeffion of the Engliffi,


the Nabobfliip.

who
a

reftored Jaffier to

He

had been depofed, on

charge of imbecility, in 1760, and was reftored in 1763.


retired to Sujah

Coffim
to

Dowlah, Nabob of Oude, and prevailed on him


and

efpoufe his caule.

Sujah had diftinguiffied himlelf in the celebrated

battle of Panniput, in

1761

is

reported to have had a conat

fiderable

Ihare in

turning the fortune of the day,


inclined
talents for

the

very

moment when
he over-rated
railer

vicftor}'^

towards the Mahrattas.

Whether
raffily

his

own

war; or miftook the military cbahowever, engaged too


a total defeat
:

and refources of the

Britifh, he,

in the

war: and the confequences were,

of his forces,

joined with Coffim Ally's, atBuxar, in 1764

and

this

was followed
follow-

by the

lofs

of

all

his

territories,

during that and the

ing year.

Thofe, whole belief has been ftaggered by the accounts of the


conquefls

made on

the Indians and Perlians, by the Grecian, Patan,


to

and Mogul armies, may reconcile their doubts by attending


events of their

the

own

days

in

which

handful of French troops,


effected

xcv
:

effected revolutions In the

Deccan

and another of Bdtiih, made


in little

an entire conqueft of Bengal, Bahar, and Oude,

more than

two campaigns.
modern,
of
in

Each of

thofe

conquerors,

both ancient and

after gaining certain advantages,

purfued them by means


;

levies raifed

the conquered countries themfelves


final

and thus

rendered the vanquiflied fubfervient to the

redudion of their

own

country.

This was even the


left

cafe of Alexander,

who

fet

out

with 35,000 men, and

India,

with 120,000.

Such meafures

could only be purfued in countries, where the habit of changing


their Governors,

had rendered the governed indifferent

to the choice
fide

of them.

Even the whole number of combatants on the


7000,
at

of the

Britiih, did not exceed


1

the battle of Buxar

and of thefe

200 might be Europeans.

an army of about
peans.

The battle of Plafiey was gained with of whom 900 only, were Euro3000 men
;

Lord

Clive,

who

reallumed the government of Bengal, in 1765,


flate I

found matters in the

have reprefented.

He

feized the oppor;

tunity of taking polTeffion of the


Jatlier

Bengal provinces

the

Nabob

Ally being juft dead

and obtained from the nominal Mogul,


his

Shah Aulum (who, together with


lah, had, as

nominal Vizier, Sujah Dovv-

before related,
a grant

thrown themfelves on the generofity of

the Britifli)

of the duanny, or adminiftration of the reveOrifi"a


;

nues of Bengal, Bahar, and

on condition of paying the


(260,000!.).

Mogul 26
after every

lacks of rupees per

annum

Thus
leafl

a terri-

tory producing at that time, at leall a

milUon

fterling,
at

per annum,
ten milfide

expence was defrayed, and containing

lions

of inhabitants, was gained to the Company, on the


:

of

Bengal

together with the northern circars, valued at near half a

million more, and for

which

grant was alfo obtained.

Sujah

Dowlah had

all his territories

reftored to

him, except the provinces

of Corah and Allahabad, which were retained for the


together with the fortrefs of Allahabad,
n<;

Mogul
him,

which was

afligned to

proper place of refidence.

Although

xcvi

Although the Englifh were thus firmly and peaceably


in

eflablifhed

Bengal, in
in

1765, yet within two years afterwards, they were


arduous
contefl:

engaged

a very

in

the peninlula, with

Hyder
to

Ally, the Sm-ereign of Myfore, leagued witli the

Nizam

or Sou-

bah of the Deccan.

Hyder's hiilory

is

now

fo well

kno^vn

the

generality of readers in Europe,

by means of the
it

feveral publica-

tions that have lately appeared *, that

will be unnecelTary to give

any thing more than

a (bort abllradl

of

it,

here.

Hyder Ally was

foldier

of fortune, and the fon of a perfon

who

ferved in quality of Killadar, or

Governor of
is
:

fmall fortrefs,

to one of the

Kings of Myfore.

He

faid

to

have acquired the

rudiments of war, in the French camps

and in the year J753,

diftinguiflied himfelf, as their auxiliary, in the plains of Tritchino-

poly.

About

ten years afterwards, being then at his Sovereign,

the head of the

Myfore army, he dethroned


title

and governed under the

of Regent.

Soon

after,
:

he extended his dominions on every


the fine province of Bednore (or Bid-

fide,

the Carnatic excepted

danore)
befides

and the Patan Nabobfliips of Cuddapah,

Canoul, &c.
;

fome Mahratta provinces towards the


ftates
;

river Kiftna

and the
coaft
;

country of the Nairs, and other fmall

on the Malabar
he was

were added
head of a

to his

original poffeflions

until at laft

at the

ftate,

in extent equal

to Great Britain,

and producing a
broils

grofs revenue of four millions flerling.


lutions in

The

civil

and revo-

the weftern Mahratta

ftate,

particularly in

latter times,

allowed Hyder to aggrandize himfelf


thelefs,

at its

expencej but he, neverquarter.

received
at

fome

fevere checks

from that

He

was

not arrived

the height of his power,


:

when

the war between

him

and the Englifh, broke out, in 1767


as to

but his power was fuch

alarm his neighbours, and a refolution was taken to attack

him.

The Mahrattas under Maderow,


fide

entered Hyder's country

on the

towards Vifiapour

and the Nizam, joined by a de-

Capt. Robfcn's, and

M. M.

L. D. T.'s Lives of Hyder Ally, &c. &c.

tachment

xcvli

moved from Hydrabad towards the frontier of Myfore, foon after. Hyder firft contrived to buy off the Mahrattas with a large fum of money, and the reftitution of feme
tachment of
Britlfli

troops,

of the places he had taken from them.

Next, he negociated with

the Nizam, and had the addrefs, not only to detach

him from

the

Englifh, but

to

draw him over

to

his party

(o that the Englifli

detachment was compelled by

neceffity

to retire

to

the Carnatic

on the

frontiers

of which, their grand army was

now

affembling.

Befides the whimfical charadber of the


ftances

Nizam,

feveral other

circumthe

might confpire towards the determining him


did.

to adt in

manner he

The

grant of the northern circars, and the eman-

cipation of the Carnatic from any dependance on the Deccan, both

of which were obtained from the Mogul, by the EngliHi


not but be very mortifying to the

could

Nizam

as

having the appearance


circars,

of a forcible partition of his

territories.

The

however,

came

into their hands (as

we have

feen)

by conquefl from the

French, to

whom
:

they were originally granted by a former Soubah

of the Deccan
minal
:

fo that the grant

from the Mogul was merely noprevailed on


to acquiefce in

befides,

the

Nizam had been

the meafure, by an offer on the part of the Englifli, of

five lacks

of rupees (50,0001.) per annum, by way of tribute or quit

rent.

As

to his

fuperiority in the Carnatic,

it

had ever been nominal


it,

yet Hyder,

who now
this
is

meditated the conquefl of


a grant, or
leafl,

was glad

to

obtain from the


it
:

Nizam,

Sunnud, for the Nabobfliip of

and from
It

time, at

he confidered

his rival.

proper to obferve, that in the

Mahomed Ally i:s days of Mahomed


im-

Ally's diflrefs,

when he
to cede

poflcfTed only a fmall part of the Carnatic,

he had engaged
portant pofl in

the fortrefs of Tritchinopoly, a mofl


it,

the fouthern divifion of

to the

King of Myfore,

for afliflance then afforded

him

but this engagement never being

performed, Hyder, as might be expected, adopted the claims and


refentments of the Prince, whole throne he had taken polfeflion

of; and never

loft fight

of his

title

to Tritchinopoly.

Had

the

engage-

xcviil

cngngcment been

fulfilled,

it

would have had the

efte^Tt

of fepuM-

ting for ever, from the Nabobfliip of the Carnatic, the provinces of

Tanjore, Madura, and the

reft

of the fouthern provinces.

The war
fliarp battles,

that

immediately followed,

was produ(flive of fonie


of the Carnatic and
Britifli

on the

common

frontiers

My-

fore

befides

which, a ftrong detachment of the

army

feized

on Hyder's province of Coimbettore, a

fertile diftridl

on the fouth
arms
;

of Myfore, and commanding the readieft way to Hyder's capital,


Seringapatam.

This was the

firft

war

in

which the

Britifli

had met with any fteady oppofition from


for in the affair
in the end,

a Prince

of the country

of Tanjore,

in 1749, their

arms were triumphant


objedl.

by the taking of Devicottah, their proper


fuccefs, during

The

war was continued with various

the years 1767,

1768, and part of 1769; when Hyder, with a ftrong detachment


cf chofen troops, chiefly horfc, giving the
Britifli

army the

flip,

came within

feven

miles of Madras, and diftated a peace to the

Government of
Britifli

that place.
:

This peace was difreputable

to the

Councils only

fince the

hands of the commander in chief

(General Jofeph Smith) were tied up, at the very moment, the

moft favourable

for ftriking a

blow

and when Hyder, fearing the

General's approach, could purchafe his fecurity no other

way than
com-

by intimidating Government

into the meafure of laying their


;

mands on

the General, not to advance

by which meafure he might


to pieces.

poflibly have cut

Hyder and
chiefly

his

detachment

The Nizam,
Hyder's alliance

very early in the war,


;

had been detached from


a de-

by the ftrong meafure of fending


;

tachment from Bengal, into the heart of Golconda

which made

him tremble for his capital, Hydrabad. The peace left matters much in the fame ftate as before the war and whatever credit Hyder might have gained by the conclufion of
it,

was done away by the

total defeat

which he

fuff'ered,

in

1771,
;

from the Mahratta army, within

few miles of

his

capital

into

which he efcaped with

great difficulty, with a fmall remnant of


his

, . , ,

xcix

his

army, and afterwards defied the attacks of his numerous ene-

mies,
for a

who
fiegc.

poflelTed

neither the fkill, nor the ordinary requifites


in

Hyder waited

patience, until the


it.

enemy by defo-

Idting the

country, were compelled to leave

few years of
but improved
j

peace not only reilored matters to their former

ftate,

both his revenues and his army, to

degree beyond probability


that

and

at

the lame time, the diftradlions

prevailed

among

the

Mahrattas, enabled

him

to extend his territories at

their expence.

Such
It

are the effefts of firmnefs, perfeverance,

and economy.
are reprefented as fo

may be
?

afked,

how

the Mahrattas,
to

who

inferior in

point of difcipline

Hyder's troops, came to defeat


vail

him

It

is

accounted

for,

by the

fuperiority in

numbers of

the Mahratta

army

(chiefly

horfe)

which furrounding Hyder's


them
to

troops, cut off their fupplies of provifions, and compelled


retire

towards their capital; through a


favourable to the
vaft
;

level,

open, country, the

raoft

attacks

of cavalry.

Hyder's army was


clofely furrounded

formed into one

hollow fquare, and marched,

by the Mahrattas
pufliing through

when

the advanced front of the fquare


;

making

too hafly a flep, feparated from the others the openings

and the Mahrattas,

thus made, threw Hyder's whole

army

into irreparable diforder.

We have

fpoken before concerning the treaty made with the


to

Na;

bob of Oude, and the mutual advantages derived


but particularly to the Britifh, from the
for

both

parties

mode of
to
ij'/i

defence adopted
ftates
:

Oudc

confidering

it

as a

common frontier

both
;

as alfo,

concerning the departure of the Mogul, in

which threw

the Corah, 6cc. provinces, into the hands of Sujah


It

Dowlah.

may be

fuppofed, that the oppofition

made

to the Mahrattas,

when

they attempted to take poffcffion of thofe provinces in 1772,


difimft.

muft have created fome

Indeed the

Britifli

Government

had long confidered the Mahrattas, in the general fcope of their


defigns, as inimical to its interefts.

In 1773, ^^^ Mahrattas croffcd

the Ganges

to invade

the Rohilla country.

brigade of the
Britilh

Britifli

army, inarched to the weftern frontier of that country, and


tlie

drove the Mahrattas acrofs

river.

For

this

protedlion,

the

Rohilla Chiefs had ftipulated to pay Sujah


rupees
:

(it

muft be obferved that the

Dowlah forty lacks of Britifli army moved, only as


was performed, the paytreaty led to the

his allies) but

when

this elTehtial fervice

ment of the money, was evaded.

This breach of

invafion and conqueft of the Rohilla country, the following year,

1774.

confiderable

tradl

of land in the Dooab was


;

alfo

con-

quered from the Jats, and other adventurers


dary of

by which the bounmiles of Agra;

Oude was advanced weftward within 25


and fouth- weft ward to the Jumna
tlie

north-weftward, to the upper part of the navigable courfe of the

Ganges

river.

In the follow-

ing year (1775) on

death of Sujah Dowlah, and the acceflion


Britifli

of his fon Azuph, a new treaty was made with the

Govern-

ment, by which the quantum of the fubfidy

for

the ufe of the

brigade, was increafed, and the province of Benares,

which pro-

duced a

clear revenue

of 240,0001. per annum, was ceded to the

Company.

The war with

the Poonah, or weftern Mahrattas, of


(in

which we
Surat in

have already fpoken

page Ixxxvii) occalioned the march of a

brigade acrols the continent to the fide of

Bombay and

1778-9.

This

is,

perhaps, the moft brilliant epoch of the Britifli


India.
all

military hiftory in

The

brigade,

which

confifted

of

lefs

than 7000 men,


officers
fea,
;
-

native

troops,

commanded by European
to the

marched from the banks of the Jumna,

weftern
traverfed

in

defpight of the Mahrattas,

whofe empire they


breaking out

almoft the whole way.

The French war

at this time,

and Hyder Ally expeding a


French, he, in the

communion of

interefts

with the

Autumn

of 1780, broke into the Carnatic with

100,000 troops

and thofe, both of foot and horfe, the very beft

of their kind that had ever been difciplined by a native of India.

His

fuccefs,

in cutting to pieces Col. Baillie's


;

detachment; and the

confequent retreat of the Carnatic army

occafioned the Britifli interefts

ci

terefls in that quarter,

to be given

up

for loft, in the opinion


Sir

of

moft people

in

Europe.
:

Happily,

Mr. Haftings and

Eyre

Coote thought otherwife


relief

and there was fent from Bengal,

to the

of the Carnatic, a brigade of about 7000


provifions.

men

together with

ample fupplies of money, and

Until the arrival of thefe

troops and fupplies, the Britifh poflefTed nothing


natic,

more

in

the Carfortrefl'es.

than the ground occupied by their camps and


Sir

Under

Eyre Coote, Hyder was fuccefsfully combatted during


at

two campaigns;
polTeffion

the end of

which (Odtober 1782) he found the


at fo great a diflance,

of his objedl, the Carnatic,

that

he

appeared to be fincerely defirous of peace.

So

vaft

an army as he
it,

brought into the

field,

could not long be fupported in


;

by the

revenues of Myfore alone

and the Carnatic was quite exhaufted.

Anticipation of revenue in Afiatic governments, has an immediate


deftrudive effed;
;

and cannot often be repeated.


of quitting his ambitious projedls

Hyder
;

therefore

faw the

neceffity

and probably

v/ould never have purfued them, had he not expeded a

more

early

and effedual co-operation on the


afilftance

fide

of the French; with whofe

he hoped

to effed our

expulfion, in a campaign or two.

But he became, perhaps, more jealous of the French than of the


Engliih
;

and had the peace of Paris

left

the Carnatic in his hands,

inftead of

Mahomed

Ally's, the

French would eventually have been:


are

on a worfe footing than they beyond that of merchants


European power can
in polTefTion of one.

now

likely to be

for he cerit,

tainly never intended that they fhould


;

affume any charader in

although their objed was the obtain-

ing of a territorial revenue; without which, they welb know, no


eafily efi'ed

any thing againft another, already

In this'difpofition-of mind, Hyder died foon *

o 2

after;

The character of the late Hyder Ally appearing tome to be but little underftood in this part of the world, I have ventured to attempt an outline of it. His military fuccefs, founded on the improvement oi ditcipline ; attention to merit of every kind ; conciliation of the difFerent tribes that lerved under his banners ; contempt of Hate and ceremony, exc?pt what naturally arofe from the dignity of his charaaer ; and his confequent economy in perfonal expences (the different habits of which, form the chief diftinftion of v/hat is called Charader among ordinary
Priaces)

cii

after

and was fucceeded by his fon Tippoo,


to

who

feemed deter-

mined

profecute the war.

It

was fuppofed that an attack of


India,

Tippoo's provinces,

on the weft of

would, by giving an

immediate entry into the moft valuable part of his dominions, draw

him from
its

the Carnatic

and although there could be


yet that part of the plan,
;

little

doubt of

producing

this effedt,

which regarded
does not appear

the retreat, or fecurity of the troops, afterwards


to have been fo well concerted.

The

deplorable end of this detachis

ment

*,

which was commanded by General Matthews,

too well

known.
berty to

At

laft,

Tippoo finding

that the Mahrattas, his natural


at li-

enemies, were at peace with the Englifh, and confequently

purfue their
left

ancient enmities
;

and moreover that the

French had

him

he condefcended,

though

relucflantly,

to

make
were

peace
in,

and matters were reftored nearly

to the condition they

before the

commencement of
at

hoftilities.

This peace was

figned in

March 1784,
appeared,

Mangalore,
Sir

During the whole courfe of


Ally,
it

Eyre Coote's warfare with Hyder

that

nothing decifive could be accompliflied,

while the

latter pollefled fo large a

body of excellent

cavalry, toge-

ther with draught cattle fo fuperior to ours, that his guns were

always drawn
beaten.

off,

and their retreat covered

although his army was

The

inconveniencies arifing from the want of a fufficient

body of

cavalry,

may, perhaps, be incurable

but witli early and

proper attention,
cattle.

we might

furely have

our choice of draught

Princes) together with his minute attention to matters of finance, and the regular payment of army ; all thefe together, raifed Hyder as far above the Princes ofHindooftan, as tiie great qualities of the late Pruflian Monarch raifed him above the generality of European Princes
his

and hence
ot

I
:

Hyder

have ever confidered Hyder as the Frederick of the Eaft. Cruelty was the vice but we are to confider that Hyder's ideas of mercy were regulated by an Afiatic

and it is not improbable that he might rate his own charafter for moderation and ; clemency, as far above thofe of Tamerlane, Nadir Shah, and Abdallah, as he rated his difcipline above theirs. Sir Eyre Coote furvived Hyder only about five months. It is a remarkable circumftance that the Commanders in Chief of two armies, opj)ofed to each other, fliould both die natural deaths, within fo fhort a fpace of time. In April 17S3.
ftandard

We

ci

We have

fllghtly

mentioned

a general

confederacy of the powers


or Soubah of the

of Hindooflan, againft the

Brltifli.

The Nizam

Deccan, having taken difgull

at

the condudl of the Madras Govern-

ment towards him,


This was no
lefs

in

1779, determined on a very deep revenge.


all

than to engage

the principal powers of

Hin-

dooflan and the Deccan to join in a confederacy to expel the Britifh.

The Poonah

Mahrattas were already engaged, and Hyder preparing


the

there remained

Nizam

himfelf,

and the Berar Mahratta*.

Each party was


Carnatic
the

to purfue a particular

fcheme of

attack,

fuited to

his local pofition


:

and means.

Hyder was of
:

courfe, to attack

the
to

Nizam, the

circars

the

Poonah Mahrattas were


;

keep the Guzerat army under Goddard, employed

and the Berar

Mahratta was to invade and lay wafte the Bengal and Bahar provinces.
It

has been the fate of moft of the grand confederacies


in hiftory,

that

we meet with

that

they have terminated rather in

mutual blame,

than mutual congratulation.

The

trutli

is,

that

they are feldom, if ever, purfued with the fame unity of action,

and energy, that are difplayed by fingle


deeply interefted than others
:

ftates.

Some

are

more
too

one
is

fears

that another will be

much
to his

aggrandized; and a third


wiflies.

compelled to take part, contrary


the

In the prefent

cafe,

Poonah Mahratta and


plans,

Hyder were each purfuing


no reference
jeftor (the
to

their proper, original

which had
:

the particular objetfl of the confederacy

the proall
:

Nizam) had probably no


march,

intention ever to aft at


adt

and the Berar Mahratta, appeared to

on compulfion

for alfliould

though the Berar army

dii^

it

was contrived that

it

never arrive at the projedled fcene of adlion.

Be

it

as

it

will,

it

was an awful moment for the Britifh


pacification

interefls in India.

The fpeedy

of the Nizam, and the money advanced to the Berar


(call it

army

at

Cattack

by what denomination we may, fubfidy, or


Cawn, who
in latter times erefted for liimfelf a principaJky

It has been faid, that NudjufF


in the

Soubah of Agra, made


informed,

a fifth party in this confederacy.

Of this

circumftance,

iuu not

CiJficiently

loan)

civ

loan) were

means very opportunely ufed by the Bengal Government.


as

Indeed the whole conduct of the war was fuch


higheft honour on that government
:

refledled the

and when

we

fucceffively

were made acquainted with the news of the capitulation of the

whole Bombay army


flower of the Madras

in

1779
in

of the total annihilation of the

army

17B0; the approach of the Berar


(which feemed
to preclude all pofli-

army towards Bengal


bility

in 1781

of relieving the Carnatic by a brigade from Bengal) together


:

with the grand confederacy


misfortunes,

fay,

when
lofs

the

news of

all

thefe

and threatening appearances reached Europe,


of fome capital

every
fettle-

one had made up his mind to the certain

ment, or to the mutiny of one of the grand armies, for want of


pay
:

and many perfons thought that they faw the


Britifl:!

total deftrudlion

of the

influence and

power

in

India.

How

then were

furprifed, ta find,

that notwithfl:anding all thefe mifcarriages,

we we
in

were

able,

foon after, not only to face, but to feek the


:

enemy

every quarter

and to hear of

vidlories gained

by the Britifh armies,

when we

exped:ed that even the very ground they fought on, had
!

been abandoned to our enemies

The

eftabliflmient of the Britifh


a

power

in

the

Mogul

empire,

has given

totally different afpe<ft to


it

the political face of that

country, from what


exifl:ed.

would have worn, had no fuch power ever


left

No

one can doubt that the Mahrattas, had they been

to purfue their plans

of conqueft, would have acquired Corah and


as

Allahabad in 1772,

well as the Rohilla country in

1773: and

afterwards they might have ov^cr-run, at their leifure, the province

of Oude, and
this.

its

dependencies.

The

Britifli

interference prevented
pofl"effion

On

the other hand,

Hyder might have kept


to aili

of the

Carnatic.

Some may be tempted

whether Hyder might not


;

be as good a Sovereign as

Mahomed

Ally

or the Mahrattas, as
to thefe queftions,

Azuph Dowlah
Hyder

Whatfoever may be the anfwers


;

they have no reference to the Britifh politics


or Tippoo, fhould not
poflTefs

which require

that

the Carnatic, in addition to

Myfore

cv

Myfore:

and

that

the Mahrattas

fhoiild

not poflefs Oude,

or

Rohilcund.
I believe there are

many who think

that the Britifti


:

might have

extended their pofleflions in Hindooftan, ad libitum

however, one

of the greateft of our Indian flatefmen. Lord CUve, thought that


the Bengal provinces and the circars,
traft

together with a moderate


Salfette,

of land round Madras *, and the ifland of

near

Bom-

bay

were fully equal

to

the meafure of good policy, and to our

powers of keeping
wife
:

polTefiion.

Nor have

his fuccellbrs fz^f^/ other-

for

our wars fince his time have not been wars of conqueil;
;

for ourfelves

though erroneouHy rcprefented

as

fuch.

The

late

war

in India

may

convince fuch perfons,

as

require convidtioa on

the fubjeft, that conquefts


tas,

made

either

on Tippoo, or the Mahratas

could not be preferved with luch an army

the revenues of

the conquered tradls would fupport.

We

got pofTeflion of Bengal


;

and the
as

circars,

under circumflanccs particularly favourable

fuch

may never occur again. The Bengal provinces which


is,

have been in our adtual pofieffion


to the prefent time)
fliare

near 23 years, (that

from the year 1765,

have, during that whole period, enjoyed a greater


lity,

of tranquil-

than any other part of India

or indeed, than thofe provinces had

ever experienced, fmce the days of Aurungzebe.

During the above


incurfion into

period of 23 years, no foreign

enemy has made any

any part of them, nor has any rebellion happened in any of the provinces (the very inconiiderable one of the
in

Zemindar of Jungleterry,

1774, excepted
invafions

-f-).

Previous to the eftablifhment of our in-

fluence,

were frequent, particularly by the Mahrattas


;

and one province or other was ever in rebellion

owing

to a

want

That

is,

the Carnatic being already the property of another.


for our

would be more
in thofe

of Mahomed But the Carnatic is our weak fide, in more reipeils than one. t The province of Benares, in which a Rebellion happened in 1781, is diftinfl from the Bengal pro^vinces. it was ceded to die Britilh, as has beenobferved above, in 1775.

No one can doubt but that it advantage to have the lar^eil part of the Carnatic in our own hands, than Ally ; although the whole revenue of it fnould be laid out in its deieace.

of

CTX
j

of energy in the ruling power

an

ill

paid,

and mutinous army ;


miferies

or an excefs of delegated power.


are

Thofe who know what


being the
feat

brought on a country by
to appreciate the value

its

of war, will

know
There
a

how
are,

of fuch a bleffing, as that of having the

horrors of war removed to a diflance from our habitations.


doubtlefs, evils that are infeparable

from the condition of

tributary ftate,

where the fupreme ruling power,


:

refides at the difI

tance of half the circumference of the globe

but thefe are


:

hope,
it is

amply ballanced by the advantages of military protedlion


a fadl not
to

and

be controverted, that the Bengal provinces have a

better government,

and are in a better

flate,

as to agriculture

and

manufactures, than any other of the Afiatic countries, China alone


excepted.

But

this ftate

is

doubtlefs very fufceptible of improve-

inent, even under a defpotic

government

though

it

unfortunately

happens that the grand objedl for which the Bengal provinces are
held, militates againft the eafe and happinefs of their inhabitants
for there can be

no inducement

to increafe a

national

income

for

the purpofe of finally enriching another nation.

The
of the
before

ftate into

which Hindooftan has


is

fallen

fince the downfall

Mogul
it

empire,

materially different

from what

it

was was

was united under the Mahomedan conquerors.

It

then parcelled out into feveral moderate kingdoms, which appear


to

have preferved a degree of balance

among

themfelves

but now,
principal

Hindooftan and the Deccan may be Hud to


ftates,

confift

of
all

fix

which hold
that the

as

tributaries,

or feudatories,

the inferior

ones
to

of which there are many.

The

reader will not be at a lofs

know

two Mahratta
are thofe I
a

ftates,

the
:

Nizam, Tippoo, the


difj

Seiks,

and the

Britifli,

mean

for whatever verbal


is at leaft

tinftions

may be made,

compulfive alliance

a dependant

if not in fadt, a tributary fituation.


I

have ran over the events of the

late

war

in India,

with

bre-

vity

which may probably be deemed


But

cenfurable, confidering their


that the accounts of thofe

importance and variety.

I refledted

events

cvii
;

events are in every body's hands


frefli

and that every day produces fome

matter, illuftrative of them.

The
;

hiftory of events that

hava

happened, and that have alfo been recorded, in our


be referred
to,
;

own
it

times,

may

by the

aid of

memory

their

connexion or depen:

dency traced

and their chronology afcertained

but

was necef-

fary to bring the events of a remoter period

more within the view


lefs

of the reader

the

pubHc

records of thofe times being


lefs interefling to

copious,

as the fcenes recorded,

were

public curiofity.

Geogra-

Cvi"

Geographical Division

o/"

H N DOOST A N,
I

hito

Provinces or States.

TH

following account

is

divided into

two

parts

the

firfl

of

which, contains the provincial divifion of the empire, under

the Moguls, fo far as the particulars have the other contains the prefent divifion of

come

to

my

knowledge

it,

into independant Hates,

of very unequal extent and power.

It will

not be expeifled that the


fliould be,

revenues or military force, of thofe well afcertained


j

itates,

in general,

or that the exadl relation in


to the

which many of the


in

inferior provinces fland,

more powerful ones


:

their neigh-

bourhood, fhould be correftly known


fite for

fmce the knowledge requi-

fuch a

detail,

can only be collefted from perfons

who

have

had opportunities either of making the proper enquiries on the


fpot, or of confulting fuch

documents,
it
j

as

have received the fanc-

tion of authority. to refort


to

In fome inftances,

has been found impoffible


as

authorities

of this kind

there are

large

trafts

within this widely extended country, which no European of charafter (as


far

as

have heard) has

vifited,

of

late years.

To

this

may be

added, that the changes are fo frequent, that the progrefs

of enquiry and information would fcarcely keep pace with them,


throughout the whole region.

Acbar's

cix

AcBA
I

'

Division

o/"

n d o o

t a

n.

SHALL

not attempt to trace the various fluftuations of


asra

Boun-

dary that took, place in this empire, fince the

of the

Mahome-

dan conquers, according

as

the feat of government was removed


as fuited the politics
I

from Ghizni

to

Lahore, to Delhi, or to Agra,


It
is

of the times.
imprefTed on the

fufRcient for

my

purpofe that

have already

mind of

the reader, an idea that the provinces of

Hindooflan proper have feldom continued under one head, during


a period

of twenty fucceflive years, from the

earlieil:

hiftory,

dowii

to the reign of

Acbar

in the i6th century

and that Malwa, Agi-

mcre, Guzerat, Bengal, Sec. were, in turn independent; and that


Ibmetiines
the

empire of Delhi was confined within the proper

fimits of the province of that name.

During the long reign of Acbar


regulation of the empire was
fet

in the

i6th century, the internal


to.

much

attended

Enquiries were
religion,,

on. foot,

by which the revenue, population, produce,


diftrift,

arts,

and commerce of each individual


its

w^ere afcertained, as

well as

extent and relative pofitioa.

Many

of thefe interefling
a
;

and ufeful particulars, were, by Abul Fazil,


called the

colle(5led into

book
and

Ayin Acbaref,

or

Institutes of Acbar
regifler

which, to

this day,

forms an authentic

of thefe matters.

Acbar began by dividing Hindoostan proper into eleven foubahs-jor

provinces,
It

fome of which were

in

extent

equal

to

large

with pleafure I inform the reader, that an EngHfh tranfki'ion of the whole Ayin has been made, and publillied in Bengal, by Mr. Gladwin; and was begun under the patronage of Mr. HatUngs ; to whofe munificence, and attention to ufefiil literatuie, tlie world will be indebted for the means of accefs to a moll valuable repofitory of intelligence
is

AcBAREE

refpefting the former Hate ol Hindoollan.


hiilory of

account of the contents of tlie Ayin Acbaree, will be found at the end of Mr. Frafer's Catalcgue of Oriental MSS. page 12. Nadir Shah. t It is probable that Acbar might have changed the boundaries of fome of tlve old foubahs, by adding or taking away certain circars, by way of rendering each province more compadl, and the provincial capital more centrical to the feveral parts of it.

An

p 2

Euro--

ex

European kingdoms.
ears,

The

foub.ihs

were ngain divided into drIf I

and thefe fub-divided into

piirgiwitabs.
I

was

to

apply

Englifli

names

to

theie divifions,

{hould ftyle them kingdoms

(or vice-royalties)

counties, and hundreds*.

The names
Bengal,

of the

eleven foubahs were Lahore, Moultan (including Sindy) Agimere,

Delhi,

Agra,

Oude,

Allahabad

-j-,

Bahar,
is,

Malwa,

and

Guzerat:}:.

12th foubah,

that

Cabul, was formed oaf of

the countries contiguous to the weflern fources of the Indus, and

included Candahar and Ghizni

and three
:

new

ones were eredled


Candeifli,

out of the conquefls

in

the Deccan

viz. Berar,

and

Amednagur

in all fifteen.

A
and

flight infped:ion

of the

map

will

afford

more information
other,
It

refpedling the relative pofitions of thefe


to the

foubahs to each
fheets

adjacent countries, than

whole

of writing.

may

be neceflary, however, to make a few remarks on the boun-

daries

of thofe foubahs that bordered on the Deccan, in order to

underfland the extent of the

new

conquefls.
it

Guzerat, then, extended fouthward to Damaun, where

touched

on the

dirtridt

of Baglana, a divifion of Amednagur.


;

Malwa
angle of

extended to the fouth of the Nerbudda river


it

and an

touched on Baglana and Candeifli on the fouth-wefl: and

fouth, and on Berar on the eaft.

The Nerbudda formed


alfo
||

the reft

of the fouthern boundary of Malwa, and

of Allahabad. and along the

The
river

government of Bengal extended

to Cattack

Mahanuddy
formed

but the foubah of OrilTa appears not to have been

at that time.

Of

the newly ereded foubahs in

the Deccan, Candeifli the

fmallefl:

of them, occupies the fpace between


eafl:,

Malwa on

the north,

Berar on the

and Amednagur on the weft and fouth.


extent than the largeil Englifh counties.
the

Few

clrcars are

of

lefs

Called alfo Illahabad.

J Guzerat is by feme of Vide Berar Rajah's letters.


II

Hindoos confidered

as l)'ing without the limits

of Hindooftan.

Called alfo Cuttack.

Named by

Acbar,

Dandeish,

in honour of Prince Danial

but at prefent

it

bears

its

old

name.

Berar,

Berar,

according to the prelent definition, has Allahabad and


the north
;

Malwa on

Candeifh and Amednagur on the weft


;

TelI

lingana and Golconda on the fouth

and Orilla on the

eaft.

apprehend that only the wePiern parts of Berar were reduced by


Acbar.

Amednagur*,
weft

the fouth
;

m oft

of Acbar's foubahs, had Candeifh

and Malwa on the north


;

the Gatte, or Balagat mountains on the


;

Bejapour (or Vifiapour) and Tellingana on the fouth


eaft.

and

Berar on the
defined in the

The

limits of this foubab


;

(Amednagur)
in the

are not

Ayin Acbaree

and
it

as

Acbar had wars

Deccan
limits

during almoft his whole reign,

may be fuppofed
is

that

its

were perpetually fluftuating.


Tellingana,

which
was the

in

the

Ayin Acbaree

called a

circar

of

Berar, was poffefied only in part by Acbar.

Tellingana, of
traft lying
:

which

Warangole

-f

capital,

comprehended the

between

the Kiftna and Godavery rivers, and eaft of Vifiapour


to the

(anfwering

modern province of Golconda) and was probably

in

more
is

early to
to

times, an extenfive

kingdom

as the

Tellinga language

faid

be in
Orifi!a,

ufe, at prefent,

from the
;

river

Pennar in the Carnatic,

along the coaft

and inland

to a very confiderable diftance.

Thus we have
ral,

a ftandard for the geographical divifion of


;

Hin-

dooftan proper, in the time of Acbar

but for the Deccan in gene-

no authority on record has ever come to

my
it,

knowledge.
as far

It

appears that Acbar reduced the wefiern fide of


the
I

down

as

Sth degree of north latitude: and under his


it,

fuccefi!brs,

the

remainder of
feen,

together with the peninfula, as

we have

already

was either entirely fubjefted,

or rendered tributary to the

throne of Delhi (the mountainous tradts held by the Mahrattas,


excepted) and formed into one government under the

name of

the

of this foubali being originally eftabli(hed at the city of Amednagur, it gave but the name of the fortrefs of Dovvlatabad has in turn fuperfcded it. In like manner the name of Tellingana has now given way to that ot Golconda. Called Arinkill by Ferifhta. The rampart of this place can lUU be traced, and (hews fthat it muft have Ij^en a pl.ice of vail extent.
capital

The

name

to the v/hole province,

Dec-

cxil
its

Deccan

which name,

in

moft extenfive

fignification,

in-

cludes the whole peninfula fouth of Hindooftan proper.


in its ordinary acceptation,
it

However,
fituated be-

means only the countries


;

tween Hindooftan proper, the Carnatic, and OrilTa

that

is,

the

provinces of Candeifh, Amednagur, Vifiapour, Golconda, and the

weftern part of Berar.


its

When

the

Mogul empire was extended


vaft province,
-f
:

to

utmoft limits, by the addition of this

its

anrxual

revenue exceeded 32 millions of pounds fterling


the reader to

and to enable
it is

make

a juft eftimation

of

its

abfolute value,

necef-

fary to repeat,
as

that the produdis of the earth are about four times


as in

cheap in Plindooflan,

England.

do not mean

to infinuate that the country in queflion

firj?

obtained

its

name of Dec-

can, under
and
its

the fuccertbrs of
It fignifies

Acbar

on
;

the contran,',

it

has

been

fo dillinguilhcd

earlieft times.

the

South

as

Poorud

does the East,

when

from the applied to Bengal

dependencies.
his Life

t Mr. Frafer> in
zcbe, as follows

of Nadir Shah, ftatesthe revenues of the provinces under AurengLacks

Delhi

Agra Agimere
Moultan
Sindy Lahore or Panjab

Oude
Allahabad Bengal Bahar

Total30

crores, 18 lacks of ficca rupees, or about 32 millions

of pounds

fterling.

* Bengal is rated in the Ayin Acbaree (towards the clofe of the 16th century) at 149!^ lacks; in Sujah Cawn's Nabobfhip, A.D. 1727, at i^^xj and in 1778, at 197 lacks, net revenue.

cxiii

Present Division

o/^

Hindoos tan.

HAVING
of India,
I

given this very general idea of the original divifion

fliall
it,

next endeavour to convey an idea of the prefent


far as refpedls

divifion of

as

the principal

ftates,

or the powers

that have appeared on

the political theatre, fince the eftablifliment

of the

Britifli influence.

The
becaufe

Britilh nation poflcfs,

in full fovereignty,
;

the whole foubah


part,

of Bengal, and the greateft part of Bahar


it

I f\y i/je greatejl

appears

that

there

are

feveral

purgunnahs
clalled

on the
as

fouth-wefl:

of

little

Nagpour,

that
in

were formerly

be-

longing to Bahar, but are


tas *.

now

the polTeflion of the Mahratdiilridls

In

Orilla,

they pofTefs

only the

of Midnapour,
tri-

the

reft

being entirely in the hands of the Mahrattas and their

butaries.

Thefe
;

pofTcflions contain

about 150,000 fquare Britifh


the diftridt of Benares, the
are contained

miles of land

to

which,
-f-;

if

we add
is,

whole
in

will be

162,000

that
:

30,000 more than

Great Britain and Ireland


This circumftance was afcertained by
is

and near eleven millions of inhalate

tlij

Colonel Camac.
in

t The following
fubjet to the Britifli

Government, and

an account of (nearly) the quantity of land contained to the Britifh Allies in Hindooilan.

the countries

British Possessions.
Bengal, Bahar, and part of On Benares, &c. . . Northern Circars Jaghire in the Cainatic

...
I

fa

...
. . -

149,217 12,761 17,508 2,436

Bombay and

Sall'ette

200

Square Britifh miles. 182,122

B-iiTisH Allies.

Oude, Allahabad and Corah Rohilcund, and Fyzoolah Cawn's


Doo-.'^b

33'7"o
1 1

,036
5,3.286

8,480
"

Carnatic in general

Tanjore

21,650 4>350 46,000

Total

281,408

bitants.

cxiv

] is

bitants.

The

total net revenue,


ficca rupees,

including Benares,

at prefent

about 287 lacks of

which may be reckoned equal

to
is

3.050.000,
included
;

In this calculation, every branch of the revenue,

fuch as the profits arifing from


:

fait

and opium, the

cuftoms, &c.

and the amount of the charges attending the coland the flipend
to

ledlion of the revenues,

the

Nabob of

Bengal,

&c.

are

dedudled

the whole

amount of the

grofs

revenue being
is

3.790.0001.

The

fubfidy {ron\ the

Nabob

of

Oude

not taken

into this acccount *.

The

The

following

is

nearly the ilate of the


:

Company's

receipts

and dilburfemeius
i

at the pre-

fent time,

reduced to fterling money

the Sicca rupee being valued at 24.

id.

Bengal.
Land Revenue of Bengal and
Bahar, 1786 Benares Reveniie, clear . _ Oude Subfidy Cufloms, Mint, &c. clear of charges

SaU Revenue,

Opium

....
-

...
-

ditto

z,Soo,o?o 380,000 420,000 i20,oro 430,000 60,000


40, coo

4,210,000
>
I

Dedudl charges of colleftion of the revenues of Bengal and Bahar, Nabob's ftipend, &c. Military charges on the Company's, and on the
account Civil Ellablilhment, Marine, and Fortifications
s

Nabob

390,000

Madras,
Land Revenue,
Tanjore ditto Cuftoms, &c.
the northern Circars included
. -

Carnatic Subfidy
-

.
, -

on the Company's, and 1 Nabob's account J Charges of collefling the revenues


Deduifl Military charges
Civil Ellablifhment, fortifications, &c.

...

Total net Revenue at Bengal and Madras

1,755,000

At Bombay

the difturfements exceed the receipts,

by about

300/300
^

And

at Bencoolen (on the ifland of Sumatra) the annual J charges are about )

350,000
Total of net Revenw
ii*

India

1,405,000
It

cxv
is

The
eafl: it

natural fituation

of Bengal

fingularly

happy with refpe^

to fecurlty

from the

attacks of foreign enemies.


;

On

the north and

has no warlike neighbours


rivers,

and has, moreover, a formidable


towards thofe
is

barrier of mountains,

or extenfive waftes,
ftart

quarters, fliould fuch an


coaft,

enemy

up.

On

the fouth

a fea-

guarded by Iliallows and impenetrable woods, and with only


difficult accefs) in

one port (and even that of


dred miles.
It
is

an extent of three hunis


-,

on the weft only, that any enemy


is

to

be appreits

hended, and even there the natural barrier

ftrong

and with

population and relburces, aided by the ufual proportion of

Britifli

troops * in addition to the fepoy eftablifhment, Bengal might bid


defiance to
all

that

part of Hindooftan,
its

which might

find itfelf

inclined to

become

enemy.

Even

in cafe of invafions,

the

country beyond the Ganges would be exempt from the ravages of


war, and furnifh fupplies for the general defence. But, with the
will probably be

whole revenue
left to

in our pofleffion, the feat of

war

our

own

choice.
pofTelled,
at the

The late Nabob of Oude, Sujah Dowlah, when he firft became an Ally of the Eaft
whole foubah of Oude, and the
which,
till

time
the
;

India

Company,

greateft

part of Allahabad

to

in

774, were added the eaftern parts of Delhi and Agra,

that time poffeiTed

by a

tribe

of Afghan Rohillas, and by the


alfo

Jats.

The Zemindary

of Benares, which includes

the circars

of Gazypour and Chunar, conftituted a part of the dominions of


It appears that the aggregate fum of the territorial revenue of the Eafl India Company, togethLT with the culloms, fait, &c. is equal to 4,640,000!. per annum. The fublidici from the Nabobs of Oude, and the Carnatic ; and the Rajah ofTanjore; are, ofcourfe, not included in this fum. The Company's military eftablidiment in India, in time of peace, is about 10,000 Europeans, and ;z, 000 regular fepoy infantry. It appears alfo, that the fum

of the fales of Eaft India and China raerchandife, imported into this kingdom in one year, has amounted to tive millions and a quarter ilerling. Confidering the magnitude of the fums, in the above ftatement, one is led to iuppofe that fuch an im/tiinm in im/ifrro, as the Englilh liall India Company, never before exilled or, at leall, never was created, without much greater afTillance from the cclleiftive llt^ength and refources of the llate, in which it was coniprifcJ, than this Company has ever received. * It mav appear parado.vical to fome perfons, but I am really of opinion that it is poffible to have loo great a proportion of European troops, to fepoys, in our Indian iettletotal
:

ments.

Oude

cxvi
its

Oude

until the year 1775,

when

tribute or quit rent of twenty-

four lacks (fince increafed to forty) was transferred to the Englilh,

This Zemindar}^ which was


only a

lately in

the hands of Cheet Sing,

occupies the principal part of the fpace between Bahar and Oude,
fo

that

fniall

part of the

territory

of the

latter,

touches

Bahar on the north-wefl.

The dominions
all

of

Oude

lie

on both

fides

of the Ganges, occudiftrift

pying (with the exception of Fizoola Cawn's


the
flat

of Rampour)

country between that river and the northern mountains,


the principal part of that fertile tradt lying between the
*, to

as well as

Ganges and Jumna, known by the name of Dcoab


forty miles of the city of Delhi.

within

In fhort,

the Britiih nation,

with

their allies

and

tributaries,
its

occupy the whole navigable courfe


j

of the Ganges, from


its

entry on the plains, to the fea


Britifh miles.

which, by

winding courfe,

is

more than 1350

The
360

dimenfions of

Oude and
from
is

its

dependencies

may

be reckoned

Britifh miles in length


to

eaft to weft, and. in

breadth from

150
162.

180

and their area


;

about one third part of that of the

Bengal provinces

being to each other in the proportion of 53 to


the whole territory
is

Generally fpeaking,
;

one continued

plain

and

is

a continuation of that extenfive level valley, through


its

which the Ganges and


the Prasii.

branches,,

take

their

courfe.

It

is,

moreover, the central part of the ancient kingdom or empire of

The

capital city

is

Lucknow,

fituated

on the

river

Goomty

and about 650 miles from

Calcutta..

The
father,
tifli

prefent
Suj ah

Nabob of Oude, Azuph Dowlah,.


in

fucceeded his

Dowlah,

1775.

He

is

in alliance
is

with the Bri-

power; and a brigade of the Bengal army


:

conftantly ftationed

on his weflern frontier

thereby anfwering the purpofes of covering


y

Oude

as well as

Bengal

and of keeping the weftern

ftates

in awe.

* Dooab or Doabali fignifies a traft of land formed by the approx'niation and ianclion of two riveri: tint formed by the Ganges and Jumaa rivers is called by way of eminence The

DoOAB.
It

cxvii

It is

advanced about ioo miles beyond Lucknow.


it

The whole
a ftipulated

ex-

pence of

is

paid by the

Nabob of Oude, by
Oude

fum,

under the name of a fubfidy.

(See note page cxiv.)


are

The

grofs revenues of the dominions of


:

reckoned to be

about tw^o milhons and a half fterling


tions of
tlian

of which the new acquifi-

Rohilcundj Corah, and other parts of the Dooab, are more

one million.

The

military

eftablilhment,
is

including

the

troops employed in the colle<fbion of the revenues,

from 50

to

60

thoufand men: but very few indeed of thefe, deferve the name of
regular troops.

Fizoola Cawn,

a Rohilla Chief, poffefles the diftrift of


:

Ram-

pour, fituated at the foot of the northern mountains

and although

included in Rohilcund, yet this territory was fecured to him, by It is valued at 30 lacks of rupees ^ the treaty of Loldong, in 1774.
per

annum

but he

is

in effedt

tributary to Oude,.

by being bound

to furnifh his

quota towards an eftabliflmient for the

common

defence.

Contiguous

to the wcftern

bank of the Ganges, and furrounded


is

by the dominions of Oude,


of the Patan Rohilla
capital
tribe.
:

a fmall diftridt
It
is

belonging to a Chief
its

generally denominated from


little

town, Furruckabad

and

is

more than 30 miles


feparated

in

extent.

On

the fouth-weft fide of the

Jumna, and

from

it

by
or

a narrow tradl of low country,

is

the territory

named Bundela

Bundelcund, inhabited by a
to

tribe

of Rajpoots, but deemed inferior


is

their

brethren of Agimere.

Bundelcund

furrounded by the
:

dominions of Oude, Benares, and the Mahrattas


.nierly fubjeft to a

and was
:

for-

Rajah of the name of Hindooput


his fons, or their defcendants.
:

but

is

now
tlie

chiefly divided

among

It is a

moun-

tainous tradl, of

more than joo miles fquare

and contains

The

rc-ader

may

with eafe reduc: aiy {ura in nipe?^, to fcrling, by calculating roandly,


jupv.*;.'.s

at the

r.iic

of a

lacli ot"

to ten liiojlaiid pound.-^.

ccle-

cxviii

celebrated

diamond mines of Panna


;

* or Purnu,
is
;

together with Tome


It
is-

ftrong fortrefles
fubje(ft to the

among which,

Callinger

the principal.

depredations of the Mahrattas


;

and has of

late years

been attempted by Madaiee Sindia

who, however could not make


j

himfelf mafter of the principl fortreffes

and

in

confequence aban-

doned the open country.

The
river.

ancient limits of Bundelcund were


;

much more
towards
capital.

extenfive than

the prefent

extending
is

much

further

the

Nerbuddah

Chatterpour,

reckoned

the

The

territories
;

of Adjidfmg are contiguous to Bundelcund,

ort
to-

the weft

to the

Mahrattas on the foutb, and fouth-weft


eaft.

and

the Benares territory on the

Their whole extent, including


fouth-eaft,

fome tributary Zemindars on the


Bundelcund
:

may be about

equal to

and, like that, fubjeft to

the occafional depredations


is

of the Mahrattas.
lies

Rewah, or Rooah,

reckoned the capital

and

on the great road between Benares and Nagpour.


little
:

We

know

but
tradt

concerning the geography of the remote parts of this

nor arc the boundaries well defined.


it,

The

river

Soane flows

through

in its courfe to the

Bahar province.

Shah Alum, the nominal Emperor, or Great Mogul, of

whom
is

we have fully fpoken, now a mere penfioner

in the hiftorical part of this Introdudtion,


in

the hands of Madajee Sindia


a refidence at Delhi.

who, not-

vvithftanding, appoints

him

The

Jats, Jates,

or Jetes, were a tribe of Hindoos,

who

long

fince the death of

Aurungzebe, eredled

a ftate

in

the provinces of
at

Agra and Delhi. Agra


fides
J

They
to
river,

at

laft

fixed

their capital
tradl

the city of

and appear

have polTefled a

of country, along both

of the

Jumna
in

from the neighbourhood of Gwalior, to


160 miles, and 50 broad.
Col.

that of Delhi;

length about

Dow,
^00

in

1770, eftimated their revenue (perhaps extravagantly) at


;

lacks of rupees

and their force

at

60

or 70,000

men.

This

Ptolemy's PanaJ/a, fcems to be meant

for

Panna.

nation

cxix

nation

is

traced

by P. Wendell from the countries lying between


of Moultan,
a

the S

confines

and Gohud.

It

is

certain

tlrat

Tamerlane made war on


Batnir to Scmanah.
felled the JatS

people called the Getes in his march from

Nudjuff Cawn, about 14 years ago, difpofcountry, fave the very confined territory
has,
;

of

all their

of Bhartpour.

Madajee Sindia,

in

turn,
are

ilripped

Nudjuff
worth

Cawn's

fucceffors of thefe conquefls

which

now

fcarcely

polTefiing,

although 20 or 21 years ago, under Soorage Mull, they


the mofl: flouriHiing provinces of Hindooftan.
exift,
as^

ranked

among

It will

be perceived that the Jats no longer

a nation

all

that
fort

re-

mains to Runjet Sing, the fon of Soorage Mull, being the

of

Bhartpour or Burratpour, fituated about 45 miles on the weft of


Agra, with a fmall territory of 4 or 5 lacks of rupees.

The Rajah

of

Gohud is of the Jat tribe, but unconnedled with Runjet Sing. The late Nudjuff Cawn, whom we have juft mentioned, is an inftance, among others, of the very fudden rife and fall of the modern ftates of Hindooftan. From the condition of a minor Jaghiredar, and the Commander in Chief of the imperial army,
of the prefent Mogul,
8 years,

after the return

to Delhi,
tlie

in

1771

he be-

came, in the courfe of 7 or

poffeffor

of a domain,
eftablifli-

yielding 150 lacks of rupees annually; and kept

up an

ment of

So, 000 troops of

all

denominations

in wiiich,

were in-

cluded 23 regular battalions of fepoys.


Jats,
laft

His conquefts were on the

the Rajah of Jyenagur, and the Rajah of Maeherry (which


in

had reduced a confiderable part of the Mewat) and


poffeffed

1774, he

became

of the city of Agra.


paft.

Nq veftige of this
in a
it,

greatnefs has

remained for feveral years

His empire,
poffeffcs

manner, died
at

with him

and Madajee Sindia

moft of

this

time.

This brings us

to the fubjedl: of

Mewat, which

is

the hilly and


;

woody
river,

tradl lying

on the S

W of Delhi,
flip,

and on the weft of Agra

confining the low country along the weftern fide of the


to
a

Jumna

(comparatively) narrov/

and extending wellwards,


it

about 130 B. miles.

In length from north to fouth,

may be 90
miles.

cxx

miles.

This

tradt is remarkable,

in that,
;

although
is,

it is

iltuated

ift

the heart of the empire of Hindooftan


its

that

within 25 miles of
been charac-

former capital, Delhi,

its

inhabitants have ever


:

terized as the moft favage.ijf^d brutal

and their chief employment,

robbery and plundering.


feverities pradlifed

We
in

have mentioned in page xlix, the


the 13th century.
for thieves

on them

At the

prefent

time, Mew^at
parties

is

fo

famous a nurfery

and robbers, that

of Mewatti zre taken into pay by the Chiefs of upper Hin-

dooftan, for the purpofe of diflrefllng the countries v/hich are

made
of

the

feat

of warfare.

In Acbar's divilion, this tradl


:

made

a part
it

each of the foubahs of Delhi and Agra


cluded in the
latter.

but moft of

was in-

ileep, or inacceflible

Mcwat contains fome ftrong hills among which, is Alwar,


;

fortreffes,

on

or Alvar, the

citadel

of the Macherry Rajah.


its

It

has changed mafters very often,

during the contefts between


the
Jats,

native Rajahs (or

Kanzadeh) and
and Madajee

the Rajah of Joinagur,

Nudjuif Cawn,

Sindia; and between thefe powers, fucceflively.


a conliderable progrefs in the redudtion of
.

Sindia has

made

it.

Bordering on the north of Mewat, and approaching with


limit within

its

eailern

24 miles of Delhi,

is

a tradt

80 or 90 miles
:

from 30 to 40 broad, named Little Ballogiftan its Within the prefent century, ancient Hindoo name was Nardeck.
in length, and

and moft probably fmce the rapid decline of the Mogul empire,
this territory

was feized on by the Balloges, or Balloches

whofe

proper country adjoins to the weftern bank of the Indus, oppofite


to

Moultan.
are

Some

tribes

of them are

alfo

found in Makran.
;

They
to
full

reprefented as a

moft favage and crutl race

and appear
territory
:

be veiy proper neighbours for the Mewatti.


of ravines, andofcourfe,
fate
difficult
its

Their

is

of accefs to invadprs

it

has,

however, undergone the

of

neighbours, and been fucceffively


;

tributary to the Rohilla Chief,

Nidjib Dowlah

to

the Jats, and

NudjuffCawn.

Weftward,
I

it

borders on the Seiks.

The

GXXi

The
Rohilla

territory polTelTed originally

by Nidjib Dowlab, an Afghan


as

(whom we

have formerly noticed,


fetting up, in

guardian to the young


is,

Emperor of
pofTeflion

Abdalla's

1761*)

in

part,

in

the

of his grandfon

Golam Cawdir;

his fon

Zabeta

Cawn

dying

in the

end of 1784, or beginning of 1785.

This

territory

occupies the head of the Dooab, or that part which borders on the

Sewahck mountains.
B. miles
in length,

It

compofed

chiefly the circar of


;

Sehaurun-

pour, in Acbar's divifion of the empire

and does not exceed 100

ginal poflefiions

The oriby 75 in breadth. of Nidjib Dowlah comprehended alfo the country


from
eaft to weft,

of Sirhind,
tri(fls

on the weft of the Jumna river;


city of

and

alfo the

dif-

round the

Delhi

but the Seiks have not only en-

croached on the weft, and

poiTefl*ed that fhore

of the Jumna, but

commit

depredations in Sehaurunpour, and even to the banks of


Sindia having alfo encroached on the
this

the Ganges.

fouth,

it

is

highly probable that


principality.

trad will not long form a diftindt

ftate or

The
ilan
;

Seiks

may be reckoned
on the
eaft

the moft weftern nation of


poflefles

Hindoo-

for the

King of Candahar

but an inconfiderable ex-

tent of territory,

of the Indus.

Their progrefs
:

as

a.

nation, has been {lightly

mentioned in pages Ixiv and Ixvi

and lince

the complete downfall of the


very extenfive domains.

Mogul
their

empire, they have acquired,


to

But

power ought not

be

efti-

mated, in the exadt proportion to the extent of their pofTeffions,


fince they do' not

form one

entire ftate

but a number of fmall ones,

independant of each other,

in their internal

govennment, and only


their territories

connedled by a federal union.

They have extended

on the
of
late

fouth-eaft, that

is,

into the' province of Delhi, very rapidly

years; and perhaps, the Zemindars of that country


it

may have
thfe

found

convenient to place themfelves under the protedion of

Seiks, in order to avoid the


NJdjib-

more" opprefTive government of

their

Dowlah, who was an

c/t-v

177a.

...

cf the famous Gazi o'dien Cawn, died in the year

former

: :

cxxli
is

former mafters.
Siiik's

Certain

it

that the eaflern

boundary of the

dominions, has been advanced to the banks of the above Delhi


jufi;
;

river,

and to the neighbourhood of that

Jumna city we
:

have
is

obferved, that the adjoining territory of Sehaurunpour,

fubjeft to their depredations, if not adlually tributary to


tliat

them

and

they

make

excurfions to the very fide of the Ganges.

On

the fouth, tliey are bounded by the northern extreme of the fandy
defert of Regiftan
,

and on the S

their

boundary meets that of


the Indus.

Sindy, or Tatta, at the city of Behker, or Bhakor, on

On

the weft, the Indus


;

is

their general boundary, as

high up

as

the city of Attock

near to

which begin the


is

territories

of the King

of Candahar
tains that lie

and their northern boundary

the chain of

mouncafe,

towards Thibet, and Caflimere.

This being the

they will be found to polTefs the whole foubah or province of Lahore, the principal part of Moultan, and the weflern part of Delhi

the dimenfions of
to S

which
to

trad;,

are about

400 B. miles from

NW
We
mode
Their

and from 150

200 broad,
Behker (that

in general:
is,

although in the

part between Attock and

along the Indus) the exis

tent cannot be lefs than 320.

Their
flate

capital city

Lahore.

know but
tics
:

little

concerning the
is

of their government and poliIn their

but the former

reprefented as being mild.

of making war they are unqueftionably favage and cruel.

army
the

confifts almoft entirely

of horfe, of which they are faid to be


It
is

able to bring at leafl 100,000 into the field.

fortunate that

Oude dominions have


this

the Ganges for a

barrier

between them
to pafs

and

army of plunderers. Abdalla was accuftomed

through

the country of the Seiks, during his vifus to Delhi, as late as the
years

1760 and 1761


it

and indeed meditated the conqueft of

it:

but

is

probable, that with the prefent flrength of the Seiks,


will

no King of Candahar
other.
It

again attempt either the one or the


that

was

lately reported

the Seiks were in amity with


to allow his

Timur Shah of Candahar, and meant


through their
territories.

army

a pafTage

This, however, appears highly improbable


:

cxxiii

bable

the progrefs of an Indian


it

army

effe(ling nearly

an equal dehoftility,

gree of defolation, whether or of amity.

enters a country

on terms of

Timur Shah
har, Korafan,
ftan,

(the fucceflbr of Ahmed Abdalla, late

King of Canda-

&c. who died about the year 1773) polTelTes in Hindoonothing more than the country of Caflimere and fome incon-

fiderable diflrifts contiguous to tlie eaftern

bank of the Indus, above

the city of Attock.

We
1
1

have fpoken of the extent of the kingdom

of Candahar, in page

2 of the

Memoir

and

it

may

be proper to

add, in this place, that the founder of that kingdom, the above-

mentioned

Ahmed

Abdalla, was originally the Prince, or Chief,


arki

of an Afghan tribe named Abdul (whence the term Abdalli)


that he

was Gripped of his country by Nadir Shah, and compelled

to join the Perfian

army

in 1739.

On

the death of Nadir, he fud{liort

denly appeared
erecfled for

among

his

former fubjefts, and. in a

time,

himfelf a conliderable kingdom in the eaftern part of


it,

Perfia

adding to
to

moll of the Indian provinces ceded by the


It

Mogul
arifen

Nadir Shah.
a

has been afTerted,


in the Perfian

that Abdalla
that,

had

to

high

command

army; and

his de-

partment, of ccurfe, occafioning a large

fum of money

to centre

with him

he, on the death of Nadir Shah, availed himfelf of the

ufe of thefe treafures, to carry oft a part of the army.


bliflied his capital at

He
who
The

efta-

Cabul near the hither foot of the Indian Cau-

cafus

and

it

appears by the accounts of

Mr.

Forfter,

tralive,

verfed the country of

Timur Shah
:

in

1783, that his fubjeds

under an eafy government

that

is,

for an Afiatic one.

reve-

nues and military force of Candahaj-, have not


ledge.

come

to

my know-

The
:

military eftablifhment has been given at 200,000 men.


regular infantry,

Ahmed
fepoys

Abdalla had

cloathed like the Britifh.


for.

and, at one time,


:

made

ufe of the Britifh manufadlures

that purpofe

the trade went by Sindy, and up the Indus and

its

branches, to Cabul.

This

trade has long been at an end.


r.

The

cxxiv

The
is

province of Sindy, or that lying on both fides of the lower


is

part of the river Indus *,


tributary to the

fubjedl to a
;

King of Candahar

it

Mahomedan Prince, who being among the provinces


Although
it it

ceded to Nadir Shah, by

Mahomed
it

Shah, in 1739.
fo detached
in

properly belongs to Hindooftan,


great fandy defert, that
it

is

from

by the

takes

no part

its politics.

This pro-

vince

is

defcribed in page 285,

to v^hich the reader is referred.

The
of their

province of Cutch, on the S

fide

of Sindy,

as well as

the

weflern parts of the peninfula of Guzerat, are governed by Rajahs

own

and do not appear

to

have undergone

much

change,

by the

late

revolutions in Hindooftan.
its

Cutch

is

not only a barren

country, but in

nature too ftrong to be eafily attacked.


is

And

the weflern part of Guzerat


bited

mountainous and woody

and inha-

by

a wild, hardy,

race: and therefore on both accounts, un-

favourable to the progrefs of a Mahratta army.

The
eallern.

Mahrattas, as has been obferved before, form two


;

diftincft

empires, or dates

that of Poonah, or the weflern

and Berar, the

Thefe

ftates colledtively,
;

occupy

all

the fouthern part of

Hindooftan proper
can.

together with a large proportion of the

Dec-

Malwa,

Oriffa,

Candeilh,

and Vifiapourj
;

the

principal

parts of Berar,

Guzerat, and Agimere

and a fmall part of

Dowof
the

latabad, Agra, and Allahabad, are comprifed within their exteniive

empire

which extends from


;

fea

to fea, acrofs the wideft part


to

the peninfula

and from the confines of Agra northward,

Kiftna fouthward; forming a tra6t of about


long, by

1000

Britilh

miles

700 wide.
flate
is

The
Princes,

weflern

divided
to the

among

number of Chiefs or
is,

whofe obedience
Sir

Paifhwah, or Head,

like that

of

" "

William Jones very ingenioufly remarks, that " it is ufual with the fame names to the countries which lie on both lides of any confiderable river." Thus the province of Sindy is divided by the Indus Bengal by the Ganges and Pegu by the Irabatty. Egypt, in like mi iner, is divided by the Nile. Probably, the facility ofaccefs to either lide, by means of a navigable river and an occafional inundation, fubjcfted each of the divifions, formed by the courfe of the river, to the conftant depredations of its oppofite neighbour ; till neceffity produced a conipromil'e, which ended in joining theiii in one community.

* The celebrated

Afiatics to give the

the

cxxv

the

German

Princes to the Emperor, merely nominal at any time

and, in fome cafes, an oppofition of interefts begets war?, not only

between the members of the empire themfelves, but

alfo

between the

members and
their

the head.

In fadl, they are feldom confederated but on


ftates
;

occafions that

would unite the mofl difcordant


:

that

is,

for

mutual defence

for

few occafions of foreign conquefts or plunto

der, are of

magnitude enough
inclined, I

induce them to unite their armies.


to particularize

Was
and
I
fliall

want

ability,

the pofleffions

fituations

of

all

the Chiefs that compofe this Mahratta flate.

therefore attempt only to mention the principal ones,


ftyled faghiredars, or holders of Jaghires
pofieflions,

com-

monly
their

their titles to

being nominally during their

life

time only

although they have long fince become hereditary.

The

Paifhwah, or nominal head of the weftern empire,


i*

refides at

Poonah, which

fituated at the fouth-weft

extreme of the empire,


are three principal
:

and about loo miles from Bombay.


Jaghiredars on the north of
firfl

There

Poonah

and two on the fouth

the

are,
;

Madajee Sindia, Tuckajee Holkar, and Futty Sing Gwilatter,

cuar

and the

Purferam Bow, and Raflah,

commonly
having
queft of
it,

ftyled the

Meritch Wallah (or

who is more Meritch Man) from his


con-

eftabliftied his

capital at that city \, previous to the

by Hyder Ally.

Before

proceed to particularize the


but

* Jaghu-e, means a grant of land from a Sovereign to a fubjeiS, revokable at pleafure generally, or almoft always, for a life rent.

po;ition of this important fortreis and city, is not afcertained ; but with great reafon fuppofcd to be the fame with Mirje cr Mirdji, of Iviandenoe's route, drawn by P. du Val wlii^jh is fituated near the north bank of the Kiftna river, about 70 road ni'les S from Vifiapour ; ar.d 130 from Poo^iah. It is alfo, moll unquelHonably, the fame place with Merrick; a place of confequence, in Aurungzebe's wars with Sambajee. In the Seleft Committee's reports, it is named indifferently, Merrick and Meritz. It may be collefted from thofe reports, and from Mr. Orme's hillorical fragments, that this place is fituated on the north bank of the Kiftnah ; on the of Saaore-Bancapour, and on the S of Vifiapour; and its diftance from the former, ought to be very confiderable ; for part of the Circars of Nourgal, Azimabad, and Raibaug, intervene between thole of Bancapour and Meritz. And this is the cafe with Mirje on the map, which is about ic8 G. miles from BancaThere is alfo a fortrefs of great note in Aurengzebe's, and in Hyder Ally's wars, named pour. Darwar, or Danwar. This appears to be comprehended in the Circar of Bancapour, and about but both 30 cofles on the S E of Meritz. I have not ventured to place Darwar in the map the pofition of it, and of Hubely, make it appear ftill more probable that Mirje is the fame with JVIeritz, Meritch, or Merrick.
it is

t The exaft geographical

NW

r 2

differ*

cxxvi

diiFerent

partners or fharers, in the feveral provinces,

it

will be

neceffary to
places,

obferve that the Mahratta dominions

have in fome
after

been portioned out


that appears the

among

the different Chiefs,

method

mofl: confufed

and

intricate,

imaginable.

For not oniy the Purgannabs, or grand


divided in fome inftances,

divifions of provinces, are


;

among

three different powers


are divided in like

but even the


;

revenues of particular villages,

manner

and in

confequence, diftindl officers are appointed, for the purpofe of colledting the refpedive /hares *.

The

province or foubah of

Malwa

(to

which

this

account par-

ticularly applies)

one of the mofl extenfive, and the mofl; elevated,


Hindooflan,
:

and highly

diverfified in

is

divided

among

the PaifliCandeifl-),

wah,

Sindia,

and Holkar
it,

as is alfo the fmall


j

foubah of

adjoining to

on the fouth

and which contains the


of Sindia.

fine city

of Burhanpour,

in the poffeffion

The
is

province of Agimere, has only in part been poffeffed by the


is

Mahrattas, and that part

now

entirely in Sindia's hands.

What
its

here expreffed, relates only to what


;

may be termed Agimere


fmce the three great
as well as

proper

and not to the whole foubah of that name, according to


:

geographical definition in the Ayin Acbaree

Rajpoot

principalities,

Oudipour, Joodpour, and Joinagur,


it.

Rantampour,
(of which

are there, included in

Thefe Rajpoots

principalities

more will be
;

faid hereafter)

have long been held tributary to

the Mahrattas

and now, by the afcendancy of Sindia, andby virtue of

his local fituation, he converts the

whole of the tribute


of Guzerat,

to his
is

own ufe.

The
latter

largeft,

as

well as the

finefl part

divided be-

tween the Paifhwah,

and Futty Sing Gwicuar (or Gwicker) the


it.

holds his fhare chiefly, in the northern part of

The
little
is

provinces on the fouth of Poonah, are divided between the

Paifliwah, and the yaghiredars^ Purferam

Bow, and Raflah.

So

known

in

Europe concerning the Geography of

this part

It is probable that tliis irregular divifion, arofe from fome accidental circumftanccs at the time when the coiiqueil vs.;-: made ; and which cannot now be traced : but as it has the appearance o! an evped-LL'nt, c::l. ulated to check and reftrain the power of the different Jaghiredars, it is gener&ll/ fuppoied to be the effeft of policy aiid defign. A.

of

cxxvil

of the country, that the

map

of

it,

no means
ratta

certain

where

to place the

am by common boundary of the Mahis

almoft a blank.

and Tippoo's countries, in

this quarter.

Hyder took

poflef-

fion

of Meritch (Meritz or Mirje) on the north bank of the Kiftna,


;

in

1778

and,

apprehend, never relinquiilied


or his
reprefentatives,
eaft,

it.

The

Paifhwah,

poiTefs

alfo

many

other

diflrids in the
territories,

N E,
:

and

parts of

Mahva, &c.

for the

Poonah

or thofe of

its

Jaghiredars, clofe on

the river Jiyiina,

oppofite to Calpy

and

alfo

extend along the northern bank of the


fource
;

Nerbudda
S

river,

almoft to

its

and encroach deeply on the


its

iide

of Bundelcund, according to

ancient limits.
in
this

The

diflricfts

of Sagur,

and Mundella,

are

lituated

quarter.

Thus

it

appears, that the territories fubjedt to Poonah, are lepainfulated,


in

rated, or rather

an extraordinary manner;

and

this

circumflance alone, muft influence the domeftic as well as the foreign politics
^afily
it to

of this

ftate

fince

any confiderable Jaghiredar

may

withhold the government's


his

fliare

of the revenues, and convert

own

ufe.

From what

has been faid,

it

will appear impoflible to

difcrimi-

nate the pofTeflions

of the Paifhwah, any more than thofe of his


All
in

Jaghiredars, on the map.

that can be done,

is,

to

mark the

body of each
lar

trad:

of land,

which the Paifhwah and the particuunderftood that the Paiihwah pof-

Jaghiredars participate.
fhare,

It is

fefles a larger

in tlie wcPcern part


is

of the Deccan, than


ftrong,

elfe-

where.
weft
fide

This trad
towards

naturally very
fea,

particularly

on the

the
rifcs

where

a ftupendous wall

of mountains,

called the Gauts,

abruptly from the low country, called the


fupporting,
in

Concan

(or

Cockun)
of
to
fertile

the

nature of a

terrace,

vaft extent

and populous plains,


air

which

are

fo

much

elevated,

as

render the

cool and pleafant.


tradl,
is

(See

Memoir,

pages 179 and 213.)

This elevated
territories,

continued not only

through the Mahratta


fula,

but extends through the penin;

to the fouthern

extreme of

My fore

and

is

named Balla-Gaut,
through-

cxxviii
.

]
literally,

throughout
tipper

its

whole extent

meaning
it is
:

the

higher, or

Gauts *,

In the peninfula,

applied in contr^diftinftion
it

to Payen-Gaut, or the lower Gaiits


to

but in the Deccan,

appears
:

be ufed only as a proper name, and not as a correlative

we

having never heard of the Deccan, Payen-Gaut.

Nor
ftate,
it is

is it lefs

difficult to afcertain the

fum of
befl:

the revenue of this

than to particularize the extent of the

diftridts,

from whence

collefted.

The moft
One

intelligent

and

informed perfons that

have confulted on the occafion, will not venture to give an opiit.

nion an
at
1

perfon (a native of India) has ftated the revenue


fterling
:

2 crores

of rupees, or 12 millions
at five

and the net

receipts,

Jaghires deducted,

crores.
field,

The fame
to be
garrifon.

account makes the


troops, foot and

military eftablifhment in the

200,000

horfej befides an equal

number

in

Another account of

the revenue, by an European gentleman, reckons 7 crores for the


net revenue.
If the provinces poffeired by this
as
ftate,

were to be

rated in the fame proportion

in

the time of Aurungzebe, the


or 8 millions

net revenue
fterling.

would be about

crores of rupees,

Sindia
this ftate
j

is

unqueftionably the moft powerful Jaghiredar within


to

and ought

be regarded as a fovereign Prince.

Since

the Mahratta Peace (1783) he has extended his frontier from

Malftiates

wa

towards the

Jumna

fwallovving
:

up moft of the petty

that heretofore exifted

there

and in particular, that of Gohud,

including the celebrated fortrefs of Gwalior (fee page 157 of the

Memoir).
and

He

has alfo carried his arms northward to Delhi, and

into the provinces of


treffes,

Mewat and Jyenagur


Jats,

reducing

many
In

for-

a confiderable tradl

of country, which were heretofore

fucceffively poflefled
polTefles the perfon

by the

and Nudjuff Cawn.

fine,

he

of the nominal Great Mogul, and

all

that can

* Gaut, or Ghaut, fignifies either a pafs through mountains, or a landing-place on the bank of a river. In the former fenfe, the term has been applied to the Carnatic, which is divided by ridges of mountains, abounding with paffes and dehles.

be

cxxix

be accomplirtied by virtue of his name.


dia's

It

would appear

that Sin-

plans embrace too great a variety of obje<Ss at one and the


:

fame time

for,

not long ago, his troops were compelled to retire


in

from Bundelcund,
try,

which they

poffefled

the fruits of a very recent conqueft.

mod of the open counHe feems bent on ex:

tending his conquefts on the north and

v/eft

but time alone can

difcover whether he will fucceed in eftablifliing a permanent empire,

on
in

that fide.

The

revenue of his paternal, or original dominions,


at

Malwa, &c. has been eftimated


It is difficult to afcertain

one crore of rupees per anhis

num.
hi,

what the value of


:

new
to

acqui-

fitions are,

in their prefent

ftate

for thofe portions of Agra,


fo

Del-

&c. which he holds, having been

long

fubjecfl

the de-

predations of contending armies,

little benefit

can be derived from


is

them,
at

at prefent *.

Gohud, one of
annum.
his lliare of

thefe acquifitions,
is

eftimated

20 or 30

lacks per in

Holkar

fuppofed to

pofi"efs

80
is

lacks per

annum,

Malwa.

Sindia's capital city

Ougein, near the ancient city of Mundu, the capital of the Chilligi

Kings of Malwa

and Holkar's

capital

is

Indore,

fituated

about 30 miles on the weft of Ougein.

The

Berar or

Nagpour Rajah, Moodajee Boonllah


remainder of Berar

(or Borifola)

poflefi*es

the principal part of Berar, together with the province of

Orifl^a f'.

The

is

held by the Nizam, or Soubah


its

of the Deccan,

who

pays a chout, or fourth part of

clear reve-

nues to Moodajee.

On

the v/eft and fouth,

the Berar dominions

border on, or are intermixed with, thofe of the

Nizam

on the

NW
tri-

and north, are the provinces of Bopal, Gurry-Mundella, &c.


butaries of

Poonah
the

together with

the territories of Adjid Sing.

On

the

eaft,

Nagpour

territories thruft themfelves

between the
circars,

Britifli

poflMions

in Bengal,

and thofe in the northern

fo

territories have formerly yielded 3 or 4 crores per annum but they are now in a of defolation, which it is impoiTiblc to form any idea of, without having alu:illy beheld them. A. [This note is by a gentleman, who has been on the fpot.] Sse alio pag Ix.xviii. t Orilfa, is nominally one of the Britiih proviuce'., but we hue obferved in another place, diat Duly a very fciall part of it, is fubjefl to the Bengal government.
*

Thefe

ftate

as

cxxx

"as to

occupy near

80 miles of the country adjacent to the

fea

and,
fea

of courfe, to break the continuity of their pofTeffions on the


coaft.

Moodajees
eaft

dominions are very extenfive, being

in length

from

to weft

550

Britifli miles,

and
all

in

fome places 200 from


in full fovereignty
;

north to fouth.
for

He

does not poiTefs

this

Ruttunpour and Sumbulpour

are little

more

than tributary,

and are governed by his brother Bembajee.


interior parts of Berar, than of

We

know

lefs

of the
;

moft other countries in Hindooftan

but, by

what we do know,
(See

it

does not appear to be either popu-

lous or rich.
pital,

Memoir

page 144.)
;

Nagpouris the prefcnt cait

and the refidence of Moodajce

and

is

fituated about

mid-

way between Bengal and Bombay.


Cattack, or Cuttack,
the capital of Orifla,
is

a poft

of confe-

quence on the

river

Mahanuddy,
;

as it lies in the

only road between


this city

Bengal and the northern circars


its

and the poifeffion of

and

dependencies, gives the Berar Rajah more confequence in the

eyes of the Bengal government, than even his extenfive domain,

and centrical pofition in Hindooftan.

Moodajee has been recognifed (pagelxxxviii)

as a defcendant

of the

original founder of the Mahratta empire, Sevajee.

The fum
:

of his re-

venue,

is

variouflyftated.

Some have reckoned


at

his part of Berar, at

84

lacks of rupees, per

annum ; and Cattack

24

while others have


it at

allowed only 60, for his whole revenue.


calculation,

If

we

take

the higheft

108 lacks, he ought not to be confidered in a formida-

ble light, by the Britifh power.

But placing the

ad:ual

fum of his
Cattack
is

income out of the queftion,


in proportion to their value,

his
to

dominions are too widely extended,

form

a powerful ftate.
It

no

lefs

than 480 miles, from the capital Nagpour.

has been

well obferved, that the ordinary caufe of jealoufy between neighbour-

ing

ftates,

is

done away,

in the cafe of Bengal

and Berar, by the

nature of that part of the Berar dominions,


gal
i

which borders on Ben:

it

being generally, woody and uninhabited

fo that the virtual

bouu6

cxxxl

] a

boundaries of both countries are removed to


other.

diflance

from each

Thefe

are the principal of the countries reduced into the


:

form of

governments, by the Mahratta Chiefs

but fo habituated are they to

rapine and plunder, that few of the neighbouring ftates, but have,
at

one period or other,

felt

and acknowledged their power.

Bengal
;

and Bahar were, for a

fliort

time, fubjedled to a regular tribute

and the Carnatic, Myfore, the Nizam's provinces, the Dooab, Bundelcund, and the fouthern parts of Delhi, have
over-run.

been frequently

Their predatory excurfions fometimes carried them 1200

miles from their capital.

But the

lofs

of the battle of Panniput in


:

1761, induced a degree of caution in their military enterprizes

and

from

that period, their

power appears

to have

been on the

decline..

Shut out of Bengal, Oude, and the Carnatic, by the Britifh arms,
and out of Myfore by Hyder's, their
circumfcribed
their
I
;

field

of adlion has been much,


Britifli

and the
all

late

war with the

power, difcovered

weaknefs to

Hindooftan.

am

not fufficiently informed on the fubjedt, to be able to par-

ticularize all the different provinces, or diftrifts, that are tributary to

the Mahratta

ftates.

Some have been already mentioned ; and among


Soubah of Agimere
:

others, the Rajpoot principalities of the

and

which, from
politics

their

former importance and weight, in the internal


empire, deferve particular notice.

of the

Mogul

In the early part of the prefent century, thefe flates, collectively,,

appeared fo formidable to the fucceffor of Aurungzebe, that he was


eonftrained to leave

them

in quiet pofTeflion of their independency

during the fedition of the Seiks, in Lahore (See page Ixiv).

Vaft

have been the changes fince that time

for

what the

difciplined.

armies of Aurungzebe and his fons, could not accomplirti, has been;
eifedted

by the Mahratta freebooters

fo
it.

country, than to

make

a conquefl of
is

much eafier is it to ruin a The hiftory of the decline


work
:

of the Rajpoot principalities,

foreign to the prefent

it

is

Sufficient to obferve, that they are reduced to their prefent


s

low

ftate^

merely

cxxxii

merely by the depredations of Mahratta detachments

which being
innumerable

compofed of
fmall parties

light horfe,
;

and accuftomcd

to divide into

they by their rapid and defultory movements, at once

fpread defolation, and elude the attacks of the inhabitants.

This
:

muft be underftood

to relate

only to the open parts of Rajpootana

the mountainous parts being yet free from their incurfions.

Rajpootana
better
alfo

w^as divided into three great principalities,

under

the names of Oudipour, Joodpour, and Ambeer, (or Amere)

now

known by

that of Joinagur, or Jyenagur.

Oudipour was
In Acas

named Meywar,

or

Midwar; and Joodpour, Marwar.


is

bar's divifion

of the empire, thefe principalities were clafled

be-

longing to the foubah of Agimere, which


war.
It is

fometimes called Mar-

not an eafy tafk, by means of the geographical matter

extant, to aflign the precife limits and dimenfions of thefe principalities


;

which occupy the

fpace between
;

the vveftern confines of

Agra, and the


fert (or

NE

part of Guzerat

and between the fandy deBritifli

Regillan) and
to S

Malwa

that

is

an extent of 330

miles
re-

from

NE
J

and 200 broad, in the wideft

part.

Their

lative fituations,

and comparative dimenfions,

may

be feen in the

map
eaft
;

where Jyenagur or Jyepour, will be found

to lie to the north-

Oudipour

to the S

and Joodpour to the


Pere Wendell's

N W,

bordering,

angularly, on the other two.


ftates,

MS. account of thefe


the above particulars,

from whence

have extra(3;ed

many of

ftates

the revenues of Oudipour at 10 lacks of rupees,


at 40,

Marwar

at

40, and Jyenagur

per

annum,

in the year

1779

The two
:

former are very mountainous, with a fandy


latter is the mofi:
fertile,

foil, in

the valleys
this

the

and was, about the middle of

cen-

tury, in a

high

ftate

of improvement, under the government of the


or Jeffing
;

celebrated Rajah Jyefing,

who founded

the

new

capital

of Jyepour, which has had the

eiFed: (not

unufual in Hindooflan)

Ths whole revenue of the foubah of Agimere, in the time of Acbar, appears to have been only about 75 lacks. Aurnngzebe is faid to have doubled the land-tax on the Rajpoots aud *, Agimere is accordingly ftatedin Mr. Frafer's account, at 163 lucks of rupees.
:

of

cx'xxiii

of changing the
P.

name of

the province

to

that

of the capital.

Wendel
in
I

reprefents Jyepour as a place of great wealth and

com-

merce

779, being the entrepot of the principal part of the goods, The Rajah built alfo that are brought from every quarter of India.
it,

an obfervatory in his capital, and invited Pere Boudier to

in

1734.
in
this

It is

feared that

the confufions that have fo long prevailed

province, muft have greatly reduced the wealth and im-

portance of the capital.

We

have mentioned before, that Sindia

receives the tribute of all the three


it

Rajpoot provinces, and converts-

to his

own

ufe

and that he had made fome confiderable conquefts

in them, particularly in Jyenagur.


It is

probable that in early times, the whole Rajpootana confti-

tuted one entire kingdom, or empire, under the

Rana or Prince of

Oudipour,
his hiflory,

who

has in

all

times, fince
as

we had any knowledge of


ftates.

been confidered

the head of the Rajpoot


a

long

eftabliflied

cuflom of homage to

temporal Prince, from thofe,

who do

not acknowledge his fuperiority in any other way, feems to

prove the exigence of real pov/er in the hands of his anceflors.

In

modern times
fomewhat
in Greece.

the

Rana of Oudipour feems

to have been confidered

in the fam.e light as the general

of the Amphy(ftions was

Cheitore was the ancient capital of the Rana, a place

much

celebrated for its flrength, riches, and antiquity,


i

when

it

was

taken and defpoiled by Acbar in


capital.

567

Oudipour

is

the prefent

The
tioaed,
tribes

Raipoots are not confined entirely to the trad: abovemenor t.xtn to

the

foubah of Agimere
in

lince
in

fome

inferior

of them are fettled

Bundelcund, and

Gurry-Mundella.
j

Others, according to Thevenot, are fettled in Moultan

and indeed

he reprefents Moultan

as the original

country of the Kuttries, from

whom

the Rajpoots fprung.

(See page 93 of the

Memoir.)

Of the

countries of Nagore, Bickaneer, JalTelmere, and thofe bor-

dering on the lower part of the courfe of the river Puddar, and on
the fandy defert,

we know

little

at

prefent, except that they


s

form

a nunir-

cxxxlv
j

number of

petty Ra[ahfliips

and are uqderftood to be moflly in-

habited by Rajpoots.

The

Rajpoots are ordinarily divided into two tribes or

claffes

thofe of

Rathore, and Chohan,


Agimere,
is

or

Seesodya.

Marwar, or the

NW

divifion of

the proper country of the former


latter.

and Meywar, or Oudipour, of the


to obferve,

The

reader will be pleafed

that Cheitore

is

alfo

fynonimous with Oudipour, or

Meywar,
the two.

The Rathore
It

tribe

were originally the moft numerous of


afferted,

has often

been

and by the

late Col.

Dow,

among
the
it,

others, that the


:

Mahratta Chiefs had their origin from the


this opinion,

Rathore tribe

and to countenance

the etymology of
;

name Mahratta, has been drawn from Rathore

prefixing to

Maha,
is
:

or Great.

We have

feen,

however,

in

page Ixxix, that


hiftoric re-

the fa6t
cords

very different, and

refts

on the foundation of

the term Mahratta being derived from Marhat, or Marheyt,


the province in

the

name of
:

which

Sevajee

firft

eftabliflied

his in-

dependency

and

this

etymology appears

to

be perfedlly natural.

And by
as

the fame rule, Sevajee muft have been of the Seefodya tribe,
;

drawing his lineage from Oudipour

and not of the Rathore

tribe, as erroneoufly reprefented.

Of the
in the

five

northern circars, Cicacole, Rajamundry, Ellore, and


is

Condapilly *, are in the poffeflion of the Englifla / and Guntoor

hands of the Nizam.

The

four

firil

occupy the

fea coaft:

from the Chilka lake on the confines of Cattack, bank of the Kiftna
flip

to the northern

river

forming, comparatively, a long, narrow

The of country, 350 miles long, and from 20 to 75 wide. nature of the country is fuch, as to be eafily defenfible againfl an
Indian enemy,
it

having a barrier of mountains and extenfive


fea

forefts

on one
open.

fide,

and the

on the other

the extremities only being

Its greateft defe<a: is

in point of relative fituation to Bengal

Thefe
to

circars, or provinces,

Madras, on which they depend


Englifti in general.

were originally denominated from and the term iwiihern cinun has
:

their pofition in rdfped at length

been adopted

by the

and

cxxxv

and Madras,

it
;

being 350 Bntifli miles from the


fo that

firfir,

and 250
it,

from the

latter

the troops deftined to prote(ft

cannot

be reckoned on, for any preffing fervice that


prefidency.

may
and

arife at either

The

circars,

in point

of

ftridlnefs,
j

appertain partly to
are held of the

Golconda (or the Deccan) and partly

to Orifla

Nizam on

condition of paying

him

a ftipulated quit rent.

When

the French took poffeffion of the five circars, in 1753, they were

valued at about 43 lacks of rupees per annum.


poffeffed

The

EngliHi never

Guntoor, which was eftimated

at near

7 lacks of the above

fum

fo that

36 lacks (360,000!.) fhould be taken for the true


In 1784, they were
that the
for the

value of the Englifh pofieffions in the circars.

reckoned to produce about that fum.

It

would appear

Nizam, by
pejhcii/l:

retaining Guntoor, has

more than an equivalent

or tribute,

which

is

5 lacks per

annum.
(a

The

pofTeffions of the

Nizam, or Soubah of the Deccan


a]

younger

fon of the famous

Nizam

Muluck) comprife the province of

Golconda, that
fituated

is,

the ancient province of Tellingana, or Tilling,

between the lower parts of the courfes of the Kiftnaand Goda;

very rivers, and the principal part of Dowlatabad

together with the

weftern part of Berar, fubjedl

(as

has been faid before) to a tribute

of a chout, or fourth part of

its

net revenue, to the Berar Mahratta.

The Nizam
circars

has the Paifliwah, or Poonah Mahratta on the wefl


;

and north-weft

the Befar Mahratta on the north


;

the northern

on the

eaft

and the Carnatic, and Hyder Ally on the fouth.

am

not perfedly clear in

my

idea of his weftern boundary,

which,

during his wars with the Mahrattas,


fludluation
:

was fubjedt
it

to

continual

but

underftand generally that


city of

extends more than


;

40 miles beyond the

Aurungabad, weftwards
:

and comes

within 80 miles of the city of Poonah

and that on the S

it

goes confiderably beyond the river Beemah, and to the borders of

Sanore-Bancapour.
ted

His
river,

capital is

Hyderabad, or Bagnagur,

fitua-

on the Mouffi

near the famous fortrefs of Golconda.

The

cxxxvi

The
Bazalet
i,n

dirtrids of

Adoni and Rachore, which were

in the

hands of

Jung (brother to the Nizam) during his life time, are now the hands of the Nizam. The Sourapour, or Sollapour Rajah,
river,

on the weft of the Beemah


are his tributaries.
^,,

together with fome other Rajahs,

Probably the Nizam's dominions, including his tributaries and

feudatories, are

no

lefs

than 430 miles in length, from

N VV

to

S E,

by 300 wide.

Till he took pofleiTion of the

Guntoor

circar

in 1780, his dominions

no where touched on the


(called
alio

fea coaft.

The Guntoor
circars,
fea coaft

circar

Mortizanagur and Condavir)

occupies the fpace between Condapilly, the fouthmoft of our four

and the northern part of the Carnatic

extending along the

of the bay of Bengal more than 30 miles.


the Englifli,

The

pofTeffion
eligible,

of
as

this diftrift to

would have been extremely

well for the purpofe of ftiutting out the French nation from the
as to

Deccan,
ciirs,

keep open a communication with the northern cirof.

and to preferve the continuity

our poffeflions, 'and thofe of


flat

our

allies.

Although the maritime


it

parts of this circar are

and

open, yet the interior part of

contains fome very firong fortrelTes,


it

and

pofts.

The Nizam
not been in

took poffeftion of
ftill

on the death of his

brother Bazalet Jung, and


It has

holds

it.

my

power

to obtain, .even a tolerably exaft

account of the fum of the Nizam's revenue; or of his military


eftabliftiment
:

the latter, however,


difcipline.
;

is

far

from being rcfpedable,

on the fcore of
generally

The former

has been ever varying, and

diminiftiing

by reafon of the encroachments of the


:

Poonah Mahrattas, and the Myforeans


fo

it

is

faid

to

he reduced
this

low

as

130 lacks of rupees, annually.


it

But befides

fum of

aftual

revenue,

muft be taken into the account, that he has

depending on him,

many

Jaghiredars,

who

hold their lands, on

the tenure of military fervice.

The dominions

of

Mahomed

an Ally of the Eaft India

Nabob of the Company, commence on


Ally,

Carnatic,

and

the fouth of

the

cxxxvii

the Guntoor circar, and extend along the whole coafl of


del to

Coromantd
;

Cape Comorin.

It

muft be undcrnood that

mean here

include Tanjorc, Marawar, Trltchinopoly, Madura, and Tinevelly


all

being appendages of the Carnatic.


is

Under

this defcription,

the

Carnatic

not

lefs

than 1570

Britifli

miles in length from north to

fouth, but no where

more than 120 wide, and commonly no more


narrow, tradl of country, bordered by an
territories
are,

than 75.
aftive

Such

a long,

and powerful enemy, whofe


his force

moreover, of a

compadl form, and


be fubjedt to have
or if
it

more

readily colledled,

muft always
afliftance
f

its

diilant provinces cut off

from

its

divides

its

force,

for their feparate defence,

the fafety of the

whole will be endangered.

The
coafl:

Carnatic anciently comprifed

all

that part of the peninfula


rivers,

that lies fouth of the

Gondcgama and Tungebadra


eafl;vvard,

from the

of Coromandel

to

the

Gaut mountains weftward,

and was divided into Balla-Gaut and Payen-Gaut, or the upper and
lower Gauts *
the
the
difl:ridls
j

the former being the weflern part, and containing


j

which now compofe the country of Tippoo


its

and

latter,

the eaflern part, or the Carnatic according to

prefent

definition.

The
to

revenue of the

Nabob

is

ftated at

about a million and

half

fterling,

annum:
Eafl:

out of which, he pays a fubfidy of i6o,oool.

the

India

eftablifliment.

Company towards the expence of their military The evils attendant on the improvident condu(ft of
felt,

the Nabob, were fcverely

during the

late

war, and ought to

be cautioufly guarded

againfl:,

in future.

The
the

Britifli pofleflions

in

the Carnatic are confined, chiefly, to

tracfl

called the Jaghire,

which extends along the

coafl,

about

io8 B. miles, and 47 inland, in the wideft part. Its revenue is reckoned i 50,0001. Befides the Jaghire, there are lands dependant

on Cuddalore,

but the amount

is

not confiderable.

The whole

Sec the term Gaut, explaired

in

page

cxxviii.

amount

cxxxviii

amount of the land revenue dependant on Madras, including the


circars, has

been

ftated,

in page cxiv, at 725,000!. per

annum.

The dominions

of Tippoo Sultan,
"weft

who

ftyles

himfelf Regent of

Myfore, begin on the

of the ridge of mountains beyond Dal;

macherry, Sautgud, and Attore


core and

and extend fouthward to Travan-

Madura

northv/ard to Soonda and Vifiapour (inveloping


late

Adoni, the territory of the

Bazalet Jung) north-eaftward to


to the fea.

Guntoor and Ongole


Canara and Pindigul

and weilward

They compreconquefts to the

hend, generally, the provinces of Myfore, Bednore, Coimbettore,


;

befides his

late

father's

northward, which are Meritch, or Meritz, Soonda, Chitteldroog


Harponelly,

Sanore-Bancapour,

Roydroog,

Gooty,

Condanore,

Canoul, and Cuddapah.


Tippoo's prefent territory exceeds very confiderably, both in extent and revenue, that of his rival

the

Nabob of Arcot

but pro-

bably

it

will, for

fome time

at leaft,

require a Prince of confiderable


parts,

talents,

to prevent a flate,
pieces.

compofed of fuch difcordant

from

falling to

defcendant of the Hindoo King of Myfore,


is

whom

Hyder dethroned,

living

and kept a Hate prifoner


is

at

Seringapatam, Tippoo's capital.

He

occalionally

ihewn

to

the
is

populace

and the circumftance of his being permitted to

live,

ftrong proof

how much

the popular prejudices prevail, in favour of


It

the family of their ancient Kings.

was part of the plan of opera-

tions of the fouthern army, under Colonel Fullarton, in 1783, to

march from Coimbettore


allegiance

to Seringapatam,

in order to liberate

this

Prince, and encourage the people of Myfore to throw off their

from Tippoo
it

and

it

was the opinion of many fober perif

fons that

might have fucceeded,


it.

circumftances had permitted

Col. Fullarton to undertake


is

The
;

general character of Tippoo,


abilities for

that of a

man

of high ambition

with great

war and

finance; cruel, to an extreme degree; and obftinately attached to


his

: ;

cxxxix

his fchemes.

He

is

unquefljonably, the moft powerful of


;

all

the

native Princes of Hindooftan


is

but the utter deteftation in which he


renders
it

held by his

own

fubjeits,

improbable that his reign


;

will be long.

His dominions

are very extenfive

and altliough the

imperfeil
kila,

ftate

of the geography of the wellern part of the penin-

does
it

not permit

me
that

to
it

mark

their

northern

boundary,

yet

is

pretty certain

touches the river Kiftnah, on the


:

fouth

of

the

city

of Vifiapour

and therefore,

the

extent of

Tippoo's territory, or kingdom, from the valley of Ootampalianx

on the fouth,
not be
lefs

to the Kiftnah

on the north (or rather


In breadth,
it is

N N W)

can-

than 550 Britifh miles.


that
is,

very unequal

in the widefl: place,

in the northern part of the peninfula,,


;

the breadth

is

at leart
;

330 miles

but

lefs

than 150 in the parallel


it

of Tritchinopoly
page xcvi,
its

and further fouth ward,

ends in a point.

la

area

has been compared to that of Great Britain


Britifli
i

which

is

taken at 96,400 fquare


is

miles

and the country


;

of Tippoo
parallel

fuppofed to contain 2

fquare degrees

v/hich in the
the peace of
:

of 14, produce about 97,650 B. miles.


all,

By
I

1782, Hyder was to relinquifll


far his fucceffor has fulfilled the

\)\xt\v\%

ancient pojjejjions

how

terms of the treaty,

am

not in-

formed

but the term, ancient pofejions, was too general, or rathet

too vague, to be underflood in any particular fenfe.

or

The revenue of Tippoo, has been as many millions fterling. His


being no
lefs

ftated at four crores

of rupees,
is

military eftablilhment

very

great;,

than 72,800 regulars, including 740 Euro-

peans under the

command
to

of French

-officers

befide troops in the

frontier garrifons,

the

amount of 49,000.
fo

The

remainder of

his force, confifts of irregulars of various defcriptions,


to

and amountais

33,000 and upwards

that the

whole force of Tippoo,


clafs

reckoned 155,000; of which, near 73,000, are of a

much;

fuperior to any troops that have ever been raifed and difciplined

by

a native

<-xl

a native of India*.

His

defire

of extending his kingdom, will keep

him

at perpetual variance
;

with the Poonah Mahrattas, or the Nifide,

zam, or both

a? it is

only on their

that any acquifitions can

be made, without quarreling v/ith the Englirti.

Hyder long meTip-

ditated the conquefl of the Travancore territory, fituated at the ex-

treme of the peninfula; but was prevented by the Englilh.


poo,
is

faid to

have intentions of the fame kind.

eafily colledl,

from a curfory view of the


a

The reader may map, how hurtful to the


would prove
:

intereft

of the Carnatic, fuch

revolution

fince

it

implies alfo the transfer of the Cochin territories, and

all

the tradl

lying on the weft of the Gauts.

ellabliniment

have been favoured with the following particulars, relating to Tippoo Sultan's military ; and wliich may be depended on.

Regulars.

Cavalry Sepoy Infantry, Hindoos and Mahomedans Topafles (or Hatmeu) that is, the defcendants of Portugucfe and other J ~ Europeans, Infantry i Europeans, Cavalry 200 Foot 540
Artillery Corps, confifting of Europeans, Topafles, &c.

......
-

27,4.00

36,000

...
1

740
-

'>39<^

72,830

Guns

attached to the Battallions

10
2 1 ,000

Garrifons on the Frontiers.

Horfe Foot

28,000

49,000
Irregulars,
Aa.xiliaries

armed

in various

ways

7,000

from the Raj.ihs of Rydroog, Darwar, Harponelly, Sanore, &c. HoHe 10,300 Peons (Irregulars) 13,000
26, ,o

Recapitulation.
Regulars
Garrifons
Irregulars
Auxiliuries
-

72,830 4^ 300 7,000 26,300


11:5,

Total

'30

Chro-

Chronological Table
in

of

Emperors, who

have reigned

HiNDOOSTAN,

fince the

Gkiznian Conquest.
Began hi Reign A.D.

Ghiznian Emperors.
Began his Reign A.D.

Mahomed

IV,

Mahmood I Mahomed I.
*

lOOO
1028

Abu-Bicker

1
III.

1389
^393

t Mahmood

Mufaood

I.
1

Modood
Mufaood
Ali Refchid
II.

Dynafty of the Seids.

04
Chizer

1414
II.

1051

Mubarick
Alia
II.

Mahomed V.
1052

Feroch-Zaad Ibrahim I.
MiiHiood
Arfilla
III.

1421 ^^33 1447

1056 1098
1

Dynafty of LoDi.
Beloli

15

Byram

I.

Chufero Chufero

I.

1118 I 152
I

Secunder I. Ibrahim 11.

1450 1488 1516


Emperors.
1525
i5i<5"

II.

'59

Mogul orMuNGUL
Baber
-

Ghorian

or

Gaurian Emperor.
or

Mahomed
Ghori

II,

Maliomed?
1 1

Humaloon
84
Second
Shere Selim
-

Patan

Dynafty.
1

Patan
Cuttufa

or

Afghan E mperors.
1205

542 545

Eldoze

Mahomed
1210
Ibrahim

VI.

Aram
Altiimfh or Iltiimfh Ferole I. Sultana Rizia, Emprefs

III.

}
Dynafty
reftored.

^55^

]
123b

Mogul
Humaioon
Acbar
Jehanguire

Byram II. Mufaood IV.

Mahmood
Balin

II.

Keikobad
Ferofe Alia I.
II.

1239 1242 1245 1265 1286 1289


1316

Shah Jehan Aurungzebe, or Allumguire Bahadcr Shah Jehaunder Shah


Ferokfere
Ruffieh-ul-Dirjat

554 ^555 1605 1628 1659 1707 1712 1713


1717 1718 1748 1753 1760

Omar
Mubarick Tuglick
I.

Ruffieh-ul-Dowlah

1321
III.

Mahomed
Ferofe
III.

J Mahomed Shah Ahmed Shah


Allumguire II. Shah Aulum

Tuglick

II.

1388
his reign in

He

began

Ghizni, A. D. 977.
;

t Tamerhine's

Invafion happened in thii reign


in this reign.

X And Nadir Shah's

MEMOIR
OF
A

MAP

OF

HINDOOSTAN,

^c.

M
O
F

O
A

MAP
O
became

OF

H NDOO
I
is is

TA

N, ^c.

great an extent of countiy

contained in this map, and the


that
it

quality of the materials

fo various in different parts,

neceffary, in order to prevent confufion, to divide the acits

count of

conftruiSion into feparate fed:ions, agreeable to the na-

tural divifion

of the country
It is

and, in fome meafure, to the nature


;

of the materials.

accordingly divided into feven feftions

The The

firft

contains the fea coafts and illands.


;

fecond, the furveyed trad; on the fide of Bengal


its

or that

occupied by the Ganges and


the city of Agra,

principal branches, as far weft as

The The

third,

the trail occupied by the Indus and

its

branches.

fourth contains the trad: between the Kiftna river and the

countries traverfed

by the Ganges and Indus

that

is

to fay, the

middle parts of India.

The The
Siam
:

fifth

contains the peninfula fouth of the Kiftna. the countries fituated between Hindooftan and China;

fixth,

namely, Thibet, Bootan, Aftam, Pegu, Aracan, Ava, and part of

and
feventh, and
laft,

The

contains Tables of diftances between the

principal cities, &c.

But, before

proceed to the particulars of the conftrudion of the

map,

it

will be neccflary to explain the itinerary meafure adopted

ill

in places
this
at

where no furveys have been taken.


is

The

ufual meafure of

kind in Hindooftan,

the
I

cofs,

or crores,

commonly

eftimated

two

Britilh flatute miles.

have not been able to get the true


j

length of the cofs, as fixed by Acbar, and other Emperors

and,

even if

had,

it

would be of no
itineraries

ufe in the prefent enquiry, as all


in

my

Hindooftanny

and tables are

computed

cofTes.

It

may

reafonably be expedled, that in a country of half the ex-

tent of Europe,

the eftimated length of the itinerary meafures, alin different parts

though of the fime denomination, mufl vary


It is

of

it.

no more than what happens

in different provinces

of the fame

kingdom, in Europe.

But

as fir as

we have any

data for

making

a jult comparifon, the cofs does not vary fo

much

as one-fixth part

over the v/hole country

and betv/een the northern and fouthern


in an extent

extreme of India, (that


difference
is

is,

of about 1700 miles) the

not more than one-fixteenth part.


in their proportions,

The

miles vary

much more

in the different parts

of Europe.

Taking the medium of the


cle

cofs

throughout Hindooftan, and the

Deccan, there will be about 40 of them to a degree of a great cir-

on the globe
half.

that
is

is,

each cofs

is

about a geographical mile


in

and

But

this

to be underftood of horizontal meafure;

which the windings and inflexions of the


'any other rule.

roads are allowed

for the

eftimated routes could not be applied to geographical purpofes, by

The
;

cofs,

in road meafure,

is

about one ftatute

mile and nine-tenths


coffes
;

or at the rate of 190 Britifla miles to 100

one part in feven, being allowed for winding, when the


is

line

of diftance

extenfive.
fix

Or, feven miles of road meafure, are

allowed to produce
In

miles horizontally, or in a diredl line.


coffes are larger than

Malwa and
elfe,

its

neighbourhood, the

any

where
gree.
fliort,

And
that

and are about 1,7 geographical miles, or 35 to a deon the road from Baglana to Mafulipatam, they are fo

46

are required to

make

a degree.

But having only one


it.

example

for the latter proportion, I fhall

found no rule on

The

proportions that I have adopted for Hindooftan, Malwa, and the


Carnatic,

Carnatic, from a great

number of examples,

are refpedively i,'j;


;

1,71

and 1,6 of geographical miles to a horizontal cofs

or 42,

The cofs of Hindooftan 35, and 37i to a degree of a great circle. proper, is therefore fhorter than any other, and prevails throughout
the greateft extent cf country.
cient

There

is

again in

Nagpour

(the anall

Goondwaneh)
I

a Goondy cofs,
is

which by the medium of

the

accounts

could get,
;

about 2,76 geographical miles, reduced to

horizontal diftance
pears to be in ufe

or 21,9, or 22 to a degree.
natives,

This meafure ap-

by the

throughout Mundilla and Bogglloccafions great confu:

cund, as well

as in

Nagpour ; and fometimes

fion in the reports of the cojjids, or couriers

however, they have

a computation of Hindcoflanny colles alfo, in the lame country;

and the proportions agree


and Hydrabad.

in general

remarkably well with that


;

fcale,

between the Bengal Provinces and Aurungabad


dilla

and between

Mun-

Having mentioned the windings of the


proper to give the refult of
nefit

roads,

it

may

not be im-

my
is

enquiries on this head, for the be-

of thofe

who may
One

have

itineraries,

kept in eftimated diftances,

to

work up.

in feven

allowed

as

above

and

is

what

v/ill

be found to take place

in large dillances,
:

in fuch countries as are

interfered by deep rivers, or watercourfes


artificial

or

in

fuch

as

have no

roads

and where thofe on the natural

level,

have obltacles

to furmount.
tries,
is,

The

degree of winding of roads, in different coun-

(cceteris

paribus) according to the ftate of improvement, In India, the roads are at beft,
rivers,
little

in

which the

roads are.

bet-

ter than paths,

and whenever deep

(which

in that

country

are frequent,

and without bridges) moraflcs, chains of mountains,


dire(fi;ion
;

or other obllacles, oppofe themfelves to the line of


road,
it is

of the

carried round, fo as to

efi'eiil

the

eafieft paflage

and for
bearc

this reafon the roads there, have a degree

of crookednefs,

much

yond what we meet with


levelled, or

in

European countries, where bridges


and where

laid over every confiderable watercourfe,

hills are either

reduced to a convenient degree of acclivity; and after


all.

[
:all,

expences faved in

many

cafes,

by the

difference of labour

be-

tween the fmoothing of the

diredt road,

and the forming of

a road

on the

natural level.
;

But the proportions, muft of courfe vary with


in ten, in a dry, open, country,
:

circumftances

and may be only one

and one that has a tolerably even furface


Tarely to found any general rule on.
creafes, a greater

but this happens too

As

the line of dillance inj

degree of winding will take place

or,
:

a (liort
for in
at

diftance will always be on a firraighter line than a long one

countries where the

management of

the roads

is

not arrived

high degree of perfedion, the road through a kingdom will be

made up of
one
city,

portions, confiding of the particular roads leading

from
lie

or principal town, to another, although they


;

may

not

in the general line of diredion

and then there will be a general


:

winding, added to the particular one


1

and the above proportion of

in 7, is applied to this

compound winding.
fea

And, added

to this,

in very long diftances, feme natural obftacle, will, very probably,

oppofe
morafs
;

itfclf

an

arm of the

a river

of
;

difficult paflage

or an impaffable ridge of mountains


:

and change

totally

the diredion of the road


fcacle,

whilO: the parts, on each fide of the ob:

might have but an ordinary degree of winding


Probably
in 8 *

and

it

is

feldom, but that one or other of thefe, occurs in the fpace of 100,
or 150 miles.
i

may be
what
is

a pretty

juil:
is,

general pro8

portion for diftances of about a 100 miles:

that

miles by
h'rd-

the road, will be feven dired


jiigbt
:

or

commonly termed
300
miles,
i

and where the extent


diftances in

is

from 200

to

in 7.
Vv'here,

Meafured
at the

Hindooftan, do not often occur,


is

fame time, the true horizontal diftance


:

given, except in

Bengal

and rhat

is

a country too full of deep rivers, lakes,

and

moraffes, to ferve as a general ftandard.

In the Carnatic, a dryer

country, the
is
I

in 9.

medium of winding, in diihmces of about 100 miles, In England, as far as we can truft the maps (which may
D'Aiiville's idea, p. 45 and

* This

is

M.

46 of

his

ConfaUraUons Gcogrr.phiques.

be done, where the diftance confifts chiefly of


1

difference

of latitude)

in II

is tlie

proportion, in diflances of about loo miles; and ia


i

very great diftances, fuch as Edinburgh,


It

in 7.
lie

may happen

that the dired: route


;

may

through

a defert or

aa

ill-governed country

in

which

cafe,

travellers will avoid the

way*

in whicli famine, or robbery, threatens them,

and by thefe means


it is

be carried out of the true line of direilion

but

obvious that

no

rule can be given for fuch cafes.


far as

Upon

the whole, the degree

of winding, as

depends on natural caufes, mufl: be eftimated


of the length of the line of diftance, and
as to evennefs,
it

by the compound

ratio

of the nature of the country,

drynefs, and opennefs.


will be required, in or-

And

of courfe, fome local knowledge of

der to correct the diftances in a juft degree*.

The

term cofs

is

of high

antiquity;

and that of

cofiid,

or

courier, appears to be derived

from

it.

It

feems that the meafure

of the cofs,

eftabliflied

by the

dift'erent
;

Emperors of Hindooftan,
and has always been lon-

has varied confiderably at different times ger than the computed one.
l:>een

That

fixed

by Acbar appears
But of
this,

to have:
I

about 2 Eritifh miles, and a fixteenth.

have
dif-

y\o

farther proof, than

what

refults

from the comparifon of the


;

ferent meafures of the road

between Patna and Moorfliedabad

be-

ing

portion of the great road from Delhi to Bengal, meafured by

order of one of the Emperors.

M.
it

D'Anville concludes his eiiquiryf- into the length of the cof^,


in a degree,

by determining the number

on

medium,
liiies

to

be 37

but

muft be cbferved, that he had no meafured

w^ith

which he
tlie

could compare his eftimated diftances.

On

the other hand, in


as

refptdlive diftances of Candahar, Cabul,

and Attock,.

defcribcLl

by

iiim, each degree contains

47 of Tavernier's codes.

* Thofe
their

who wiih for a genersl rule for chanp^iag horizontal diftance into road dillancc, \\ common references to maps mav break tnc line of diftance, (if very long) into portions
;

of not nidre than loo or 15c mile5 ; and then add to the whole fiim of the diftances, fo obtained, one cigllth part. Thefe portions fl.ould be contrived, fo as feverally to include the fpaccs, betvvccii the points, tliat diverge inoft from the general line of direction of the wliole road. Uy thi.') means, the errors arifing from th: compoand winding, will be avoided.
\
Eclairciil'eirier.s, p.
i.]..

SECT.

SECTION
'The

I.

Sea Coasts
the point I

a7td

Islands.

CALCUTTA
titude, as

is

fliall

fet

out from, as well from

its

being determined by feveral obfervations of longitude and la-

from

its
it

having a meafured line of confiderable extent

ftretching from

both

to the eaft

and weft.
the Indus
;

fliall firft

purfue

the route weftward to the

mouth of

and then return to

Balafore, and go eaftward to the entrance of the ftrait of Malacca.

Calcutta, the capital of the Britifh poffeflions in India, as being

the refidence of the General Council, has

its

citadel

placed in

lati-

tude 22 33' north

and

in longitude,

by

medium

of the obferva*.

tions of four different gentlemen,

88 28' eaft from

Greenwich

Balafore, fituated about 101 geographical miles


is

-f-

from Calcutta,

the extreme point of the Bengal furvey on the S

or on the

quarter towards Madras.


after

Col. Pearfe's return from the Carnatic,

the termination of the late war, afforded an opportunity of

carrying a meafured line from Madras to Balafore,

which had long


points on

been a dejideratum

as the exaft pofitions

of the intermediate ftations

of Mafulipatam,

Vifagapatam,

Ganjam, and Cattack,


:

which many others eventually depended, were wanted


there

and although

might be no great reafon

to

fuppofe that Mafulipatam and

* All the ktitudcs mentioned in this work, being north of the Equator, and all the longitudes eaft of the meridian of Greenwich, I lli.til in future mention only iha terms latitude and longitude, lenving the fpecies of each, to be underllood,

\
tries.

conltrudlion of the

have made ufe of Geographic miles, or thofe cf 60 to a degree, in the account of tlie mnp and of Britilh llatute miles in giving the comparative extent of counThey are diiiinguiihed by G. miles, and B. miles.
;

Vifa-

Vilagapatam were

much

out of place, in the former map, yet Gan-

jam and Cattack v/ere doubtful. Col. Pearfe's induftry and attention have amply fupplied what was wanting, within this line.

He
by

direded the whole to be meafured with


leaf!:,

perambulator, and

corre6ted each day's work, or at

every confiderable interval,


little

obfervations of the latitude


3

and the general courfe being

more than

points from the meridian, the differences of latitude,

were applicable to the corredlion of the diftance thro' each particular interval
:

and for a check on the whole,

we had

already in our

poffeffion,

obfervations of longitude repeatedly taken at Calcutta

and Madras.
road diflance,
labour.

The whole

extent of Col. Pearfe's meafured line, in


Britiflj

was near 900

miles

work of no

fmall

The

longitude of Fort William,

the

citadel

of Calcutta,

as
;

abovefaid, taken at 88 27' 45'' *,

from the medium of 4 obfervers


from the medium of

and that of Madras 80 24' 40"

-f-,

3 obfervers,
It

gives a difference of meridians of 8 degrees, 3 minutes.

remain^

then, to compare with this, the difference of longitude found by

Col. Pearfe's meafured route, as communicated by


the

Mr. Pringle

in

map drawn by him, and


in 87"
i'

fent to the Eafl India

Houfe.

Balafore,

by the furvey, isi


30'.

26'

30" weft of Fort William, and


it i'
i

muft therefore be
weflerly
lat.
;

Col. Pearfe reckons

5"

more
in

but

adhere to the furvey.

From

Balafore to

Ganjam,
i

19 22', Col. Pearfe reckons


;

95 miles of wefling, or
5 2

41' 26"

difference of longitude

which brings Ganjam

in Ion. 85 20' 4" J.

And from Ganjam


*

to

Madras he made
-

18" weft: whence the

To

83 33" 8i 28 ' " ,, ,. 88 27 45 Medmm no 88 2+ f Capt. Ritchie 88 26 J which may be added the French obll-rvation at Ghyretty, which place h
-

Hon. Thomas Howe Rev. Mr. Smith Mr. M.gee

Calcutta

--

i' eaft

from

8S29
-

t Mr.

Kowe

80 29' 1

Mr. Dalrymple Mr. Topping

80 80

40" 24 [ Medium 80" 24'


21
17'

J Mr. Mears's obfervation was 85"

by

at^d

1)>

>770>

longi-

10

longitude of Madras, would be 80 17' 44".


cefs

Here

is

found an ex-

of about 7 minutes difference of longitude, more than the ob-

fervations give.

But

in

examining the map abovementioned,

it

ap-

pears that the difference of latitude betv/een

Ganjam and Madras


j

by account, exceeded
be imputed
cefs

that

by obfervation (which

8'

30"

and

if this is to

to excefs of diftance
alfo

is

highly probable) an ex;

of longitude mufl
to

have taken place


or

and

this

error will

amount
This

about

6'

48";

nearly

the difference in queflion.

trifling error

of 7 minutes in a difference of meridians of 6


it

degrees and a half, to whatever

may be owing ; whether


compafs
;

to over-

meafurement by the wheel


the inflruments
;

variation of the

defedis In
;

or errors in the obfervations of longitude


;

or

partly to all thefe caufes

is

very immaterial, to general geography.


confider the difference of meridians

The

refult fliews,

that

we may
as

between the two places,

determined near enough for the pur-

pofes of navigation, or general Geography.


I

mufl not omit to mention that Capt. John Ritchie, by diredlion


and his

of the Bengal Government, in 1770 and 1771, took the bearings

and diflances in a general way, from Madras to Balafore


refult

came within one minute of the longitude by


his intervals were not well proportioned.
1'

obfervation.

But fome of

His

pofition
j

of Mafulipatam, indeed came out only

to the eaft

of Col. Pearfe's

but Vifigapatam was

7',

and Ganjam 22' more wefterly.

Although Col.
places,

Pearfe's route ferves to fix


coafl,

mofl of the principal


deviated confiderably,

on or near the

yet oftentirnes
coafl
;

it

and

for a length of fpace,

from the

as

between Balafore and

Jagarnautj and between Vifagapatam and Ongole,


are fupplied

Thefe blanks

from the materials of Capt. Ritchie, Major Stevens,

Major

Polier,

Mr. Cotsford, and


Balafore,
feries

others.

Firfl,

from

to Point Palmiras.

This was done by

Capt. Ritchie, by a
veffels
}

of triangles, formed by three furveying


latitude.
:

and corredled by obfervations of

The
is,

refult,

placed Point Palmiras, diredly fouth of Balafore

that

in Ion.

87"

"

8?

i' 3'^"

>

^^^"

20' 44'.

From

Point Palmiras to Jagarnaut Pa;

goda, the coaft was traced in a more cxirfory manner

and accordis

ingly, the bearing and diftance between Balafore and Jagarnaut

very differently given by Col. Pearfe and Capt. Ritchie: the ac-

count of the former being only 54' 30" difference of longitude

and that of the


is

latter,

16'.

This very confiderable difference


;

too flriking, not to be particularly noticed


lliould be

and requires that


to afcertain

fome obfervations

made with time-keepers,

the relative pofitions of Jagarnaut, Point Palmiras, and Balafore.

Wherever the miilake may


redified
:

lie,

it is

of great importance to have

it

for if Col. Pearfe's bearing be true (and there appears


it)

no

reafon to doubt

there muft be a very confiderable error in the

courfe between Jagarnaut,


chart.

and Balafore road, in Capt. Ritchie's

Tlie longitude of Cattack


in the

is

fcarcely altered
it

from what

it

v/as

former

map of

India

where

was placed on the authority

of Capt. Campbell,

in Ion. 86.

It is

now

in 86*

i'3o"; and

its

latitude flands as before.

From
bell's.

Jagarnaut to Ganjam, the particulars of the


Pearfe's

coafl:,

are

from Col.

map,

collated with thofe of Ritchie's


to

and Camp-

From Ganjam
diftrid:
;

Poondy,

is

taken from the


it,

Itchapour

and Col. Pearfe's route on


to Bindi (near

map of the which may be

traced from

Ganjam

Poondy) furnifhes the means of

correcting the compafs of that map,


confiderable degree.

which was

faulty in a very

Bindi ferves as a conneding point for the


a little farther to the S

two maps
coafl

as

Nauparah or Nowparah,

W.

does for Pearfe's, and Cridland's


betv/een

map of
Poller's
is

the Tickley
is

diftri<l.

The
MSS.

Poondy and Bimlepatam


from Major
to

Sketched from Lieut.

Cridland's map,

journal,

and other
j

From Bimlepatam

Vifigapatam

from Col. Pearfe

and from

thence to Coringa from a

MS, map, compiled during


j

Col. Forde's

expedition to Mafulipatam, in 1759

collated with Capt. Ritchie's

map.

As

12

As

there have been

fome obfervations taken


it is

at

Vifagapatam to

afcertain the longitude,

proper to take notice of them, and to

coinpare the refult with the longitude deduced from Calcutta and

Ganjt^m, by Col. Pearfe's


ing, or
1

line.

This gives 107,1 miles of weft-

52' 54" difference of longitude,


if

from Ganjam

to

Vifagapa-

tam ; from which

we dedudt

the proportion of the error in the dif1

tance (fee page 10) the true differenceof longitude will be

50' 39";
leaves

which taken from

85 20' 4", the longitude of

Ganjam,

83 29' 25" for that of Vifagapatam.

But Col.

Pearfe's obfervation
Its

was 84 23' 30" and Mr.


1742'.

Ruffel's

83 21' 30"".

latitude

is

From Coringa
Major Stevens,

to

Mafulipatam, the figure of the coafl


Pearfe's route goes far inland,

is

from

as

Col.

by way of
coaft

Rajamundry, Ellore, &c. and does not again approach the


near enough to determine
its

pofition,

till it

comes

to

Vantipollam,
Pearfe's
;

near Ongole.

Thefe maps of Major Stevens's and of Col. Thefe 2 maps

join at the points

of Siccacollum, on the bank of the Kiftnah


at

at

Rajamundry, and
in the extent

Samulcota.

differ coniidcrably

between Siccacollum and Samulcota; Major Steven's


lefs

giving 61 miles
I

than the other (error of diffance allowed) but,


diftance

believe.

Major

Stevens's

was meafured,

only between

Siccacollum and Narfapour.

Mafulipatam has

its

pofition very fatisfadlorily determined,


a place in

by
Col.

Major

Stevens's

meafurement from Siccacollum,


It is

Pearfe's

map.

17,4

G. miles
eaff

comes out 48' of longitude,


page 10) 47';
its

and 3,3 fouth of it; and of Madras, -or corredied (fee again-,
eaft
;

longitude being 8i' 12';


to Madras,

lat.

16 8' 30".
is

From Mafulipatam
rally

the figure of the coaft,


in certain points
latter

gene-

from Capt. Ritchie,

correcfted

by the land
the coaft;

furvey, of Col. Pearfe.


at

For

as the

came

clofe to
it

Vantipollam,

Carwaree,

and

Rameeapatam,

appeared, that

Capt. Ritchie's chart required corredion in the great bay between

the

latter place

and Point Divy.

found

it

neceffary alfo to reduce

the

^3

the point nt the

mouth of

the Pennar river, and

make

it lefs

pro-

minent

as the difhance

from Nellore
too great *.
flat,

to the neareil: fea coaft,

would

otherwife have been

much

Indeed,

it

was not expedled

that a vefTel, failing along a

ftraight coaft,

without land-marks,

could afcertain every fmall bending of the coaft.


It
is

proper to remark, that the whole difference of longitude


in

between Calcutta and Madras,

M.

D'Anville's and D'Apres'


as

maps, comes within a few miles of the truth,


fellion

they were in pof:

of the obfervations taken

at

Ghyretty and Pondicherry

but

their

maps

are exceeding faulty in the detail.

The

longitude of Madras, or Fort St. George, as was laid before,


is

(page 9)

taken at 80" 25'i

and

its

latitude

is

13

5'.

Pondi-

cherry, by a feries of triangles obtained by means of the Jaghire

map, Wandiwafli
of
latitude,
I

Hill, Perniaccil, the red hills, and the difference


to

make

be z^' of longitude, weft of Madras; fo that


juft.

Pondicherry will be in 80
fervations taken there,
is

The medium
Mr.

of the different obPringle,

79 55' 40"-]-.

who mea-

fured the routes of Sir Eyre Coote's army, during the late war,

makes the

difference of meridians the fame as

do, to a fraction.

Its latitude is ii" 56'.

Cuddalore, in

lat.

11 41',

and Ion. 79 45' 45",

is

the moft
:

fouthern point, determined by

Mr.

Pringle's meafured routes

but

the fame gentleman furnin:ies us, with the bearing of Portonovo

from
place

that place;
it,

which, with

its

latitude

11 30', allows us to

almoft to a certainty, in Ion. 79 53' 30".

The
fented.

pofation of

Chillumbrum Pagoda,
obje(ffc

in

refpecH;
is

of Portonovo,

although fo confpicuous an-

to the fight,

varioully repreto

By

the

medium of what

appeared to

me

be the beft

authorities, I have placed

them South-v/eft ji G. miles from PorC. miles


to the eaft

* I have allowed Point Pennar to be i6

of Nellore

moft of the

MS.

maps make

it

Ids.

f Con. de Temps
Gentil
_
-

Topping

79 79

53

yMedium
[

79" 55'

4d"

57 3

tonovo.

14

tonovo.
vicotta,

Mr. Barker determined


by
a

their pofition

with

refpcifl to

De-

meafured
to the

bafe,

to

be

W.

i6 45'

N.

G. miles;
55' for
21'.

which added

former

line

from Portonovo, gives 79


latitude

the longitude of Devicotta.

Its

appears to be

if

Moft maps allow


Devicotta, than

much
arifes

greater dill:ance

between Portonovo and


is

what
a S S

from the above conPiru6tion; which


:

G. miles on

E. bearing

and the foundation of the

error,

appears to

me

to

be the giving the bearing of Devicotta from Chil-

lambrum, too

great a degree of fouthing.

From Devicotta, fouthv/ard to Negapatam, my authorities are feme MS. maps among which, is one, drawn by M. D'Anville,
j

containing the principal pofitions between Madras and Tanjorej

and fcems intended for the

bafis

of a

map of

the fouth Carnatic.


I

Had M.
but
it

D'Anville's differed from the others,

fliould

have been

inclined to give the preference to the rcfult of his inveftigations

happens that

all

the different

maps

have confulted,

differ fo

little

among

themfelves, that none

make

the difference of longitude


i'

between Devicotta and Negapatam more than

^j"

and the me-

dium of the whole


at 79 56'

is

i'

15" eaft

fo that

Negapatam may be taken

35"

Ion.

and latitude 10

46'.

Thus Negapatam
28' 25'' from Madras
chiefly

appears to be 3' 2^" weft of Pondicherry, or


;

and whatever error there may be, muft

arife

between Devicotta and Negapatam.


and map-makers have

If there be any, the


all fallen

different geographers

into the

lame

kind of

error.

obferve that the different

maps made of
taken
but,

late years,

in India, have confidered

Negapatam

as

being in Ion. 79 53' to


is
;

79 54'.

know
is

not

whence
but

the idea

whether

founded or not,

it differs

little

from mine.
on the
eaftern fide of the
;

Negapatam
peninfula,

the fouthmoft point,

whofe

pofition can be reckoned tolerably exadl

unlefs

we except Point Calymere, whofe bearing being pretty well known from Negapatam, and its latitude determined with precifion may be confidered as being nearly as well afcertained as
;

Nega-

15

Ncgapatam, on which
longitude 79 54' 30
'.

it

depends.

Its

latitude

is

io2o'; and

No

connedled meafured line that can be depended on, has yet

been carried acrofs the peninfukj Col. Fullarton's marches, meafured by

Col. Kelly,

extending
coaft:

only to Palicaudchery

that

is,

not within 50 G. miles of the

of Malabar

and thofe extended


at

fouthward, through Madura and Tinevclly, ending


rin.

Cape Como-

Fortunately, however,

we

have a

feries

of longitudes by a

time-keeper, deduced from

Bombay,

by Capt. Huddart, and ex;

tended

at intervals,

along the whole coaft, to Anjenga

of which,

more

will be faid hereafter.

Col. Fullarton's
natic, gave

march

into the fouthern countries

of the Car-

an opportunity of meafuring the diftances, and afcer-

taining the relative pofitions of Tanjore, Tritchinopoly, Madura,

Coimbettore, Palicaudcherry, Sec. in refpedl of Negapatam, v/here


the
to

march commenced.

The

plan of thefe marches communicated

me from
is

the Eaft India Houfe, bears the

name of

Col. Kelly

and

declared to be adlually meafured, through the points above-

mentioned.

We

have to regret that the lame attention was not


;

beflowed in the march from Calicut to Palicaudcherry


tended point of junction of the
Col, Fullarton
:

the inthat of

Bombay detachment, with

for,

in that cafe, the exaft

width of the peninfula,

had been no longer a matter of enquiry.


Tritchinopoly comes out, by the above
be
i

map of
;

Col. Kelly's, to

o'

of longitude wefl from Negapatam

which taken from

75 5^' 35'' leaves 78 46' 35^' for the longitude of Tritchinopoly *.

The

latitude

is

10 49'.
is

Madura, by the fame authority,


weft from Tritchinopoly;
that
is,

34' difference of longitude

in Ion. 78 12' 35".

Here

it

muft be noted,

that great dilcordance arifes

between the

different

* A map, drawn by Baron Wefebe (of the Hanoverian corps) nccords in this particular, and indeed, in every other material one, with iliut of Col. Kelly : but I have no knowledge how Baron W. procured his materials.

accounts

16

'

Accounts of the bearing and diftancc between Tritchinopoly and

Madura,
former

as
differ

given by Kelly,
j,6

Montrcfor,
in

and others.
j

The two

G. miles only,

diftance

but Col. Kelly's

bearing, gives

And

a third

12,30. miles, more of wefting, than Montrefor's. map, communicated by Mr. John Sulivan, has the
it,

fame bearing with Kelly's, but exceeds


tance; thereby, increafmg the wefting 1,3

3,7 G. miles, in difcourfe,

G. miles; and of
1

exceeding Montrefor's 13,6 G. miles, or 14'

5' of longitude.
Col. Call's

The
places

latitude of
in 9" 52'

Madura,

have not yet learnt.

map

it

30"; and Col. Kelly's difference of latitude from


gives

Tritchinopoly, 53' 12",

955'48'^

The

authority for the remainder of this line, through Palam.cotta


to

(or Tinevelly)

Poolytopu on the

fea coaft,

weftward of Cape

Comorin,

is

from the map of Madura and Tinevelly, made under


together with the latitudes of
I

the direction of Col. Call (then Chief Engineer at Madras) and

from Mr. Pringle's road

diftances

Palamcotta and Poolytopu.


1 9' 30'' difference

Firft,
S.

find

in

Col. Call's

map,
8

of latitude

between Madura and Palamcotta;


latter in

and

18'

of longitude^ weft.
us,

This would place the


that
its

43'

(Mr. Pringle informs


77 54'

latitude

is

8' 44')

and in Ion.

35*

Then, from Palamcotta

to Cotate or Cotaur,

on the

weft of the Gauts, Mr. Call's

map

gives 29' 12" difference of latito

tudes.; and

22' difference of longitude weft;

which,

if

we add

the dedudion from


5'

Mr.

Pringle's meafured diftance to Poolytopu,


S.
;

30" difference of latitude

and

6' difference

of longitude weft *

the whole difference of latitude will be 34' 42'' S. and difference of

longitude 28' weft; giving for the pofition of Poolytopu,


18'
;

lat.

8 9'

Ion. yy'' 26' 35".


fea coaft,

Poolytopu village appears to be iituated on the

E N E.

4G.
*

miles from Cadiapatam Point;


bearing between Cotate and Poolytopu,
is

which

point,

by Mr. Howe,
MS. maps
of no great
in

The

inferred frcm feme

?uthority, to be about

SVV

W.

The whole

dillancc being only S

G. miles

the diJierence of

longitude would be but birring.

little afFeiS^ed,

by any crrer that might reafonably be expefted

tha

is

17

] 1'

is

reckoned in
it,

lat. 8'

and Poolytopu being about


8'

30' to the

N. of
is

(liould

be in 8
It

30", according very nearly with the


I

above calculation. nothing in

muft,

think, be acknowledged, that there


that appears forced.

this deducflion,
I

Poolytopu, by

the beil account


colledlion)
is
1

can get,

(a

French MS. map


42' 35".

in

Mr. Dalrymple's
;

6'

of longitude weft of Cape Comorin


yj''

which Cape,

by

this

account will be in Ion.

We

have fome further light thrown on this fubjedl by the

iiiea-

furement of the road, by Mr. Pringle, from Tanjore to Poolytopu. His whole road dillance is 2514 B. miles ; and allowing i in 9 *
for the

winding of the road, the horizontal diftance will be 223IB.

miles, or 193

G. miles

which, on the fame bearing

as the

above

dedudion
2 41'
J

is

founded on, (S 3 3 40'


in
its

W)

gives difference of latitude

8"; and wefling


is

107,4, or difference of longitude i49'.

As Tanjore
8
5'

10 46' 30", the latitude of Poolytopu comes out


Ion.

12",

and

jy^ 23' 15" (the longitude of Tanjore, by

Col. Kelly's meafurement, being 79 12' 15", deduced from

Nega-

patam) and
rin

16'
1

added to
or
3'

it,

gives for the longitude of

Cape Comowinding of
-^

77 39'

5",

20"

to the
i

wed
it

of the

firfl;

calculation.

Again,

if the

proportion of

in 8 be adopted for the

the road, (a more

common

one)

produces

90 G. miles
its

of

diftance; and the latitude of Poolytopu will be 8 8'; and

Ion.

yj 20' 50'

and that of Cape Comorin yj 36' 50".


the fatisfadion that
I

This

is all

have been able to obtain, con-

cerning the longitude of Cape Comorin, as deduced from the eaftern


fide

of the peninfula.

Something depends on the truth of the


;

af-

fumption, refpecfling the pofition of Negapatam

and

ftill

more on

The

road from Madras to Tritchinopoly had a winding of Tritchinopoly to Velore

Madras

to

Tanjore

...

Wandiwa/h
Carongoly
Arcot to Wandiwalh

in

^ . r' ^

Medium

in

8;;

t The

diftance arifing on the lines of Kelly

and Call

is

86,25 G. miles,

the

i8

the accuracy of the

map
:

of Tinevelly, the hiftory of which,


I

am
Mr.
in
It

unacquainted with

but,

think,
it

the near coincidence of

Pringle's meafurement, with

(for I

reckon

3'

20" but a

trifle

general geography)
is

is

prefumptive proof of
is

its

general truth.

underftood that there

from

to 2 degrees
:

of wefterly variation,
be allowed,
it,

between Negapatam and Cape Comorin

if this

it

will

remove the Cape

4'

30" further to the weft; and place

according

to Kelly's and Call's lines In

jf

38' 5".

Let us

now

turn to the other coaft,

and obferve

how

Capt.

Huddart's and Capt. Dundas's, deductions of longitude, from the


weft to Anjenga,
interval

accord with the reputed fpace, contained in the


;

between Cape Comorin and Anjenga

which

fpace,

by

Mr. Dalrymple's
by
his

obfervation of the difference of longitude ftiewn


in

time-keeper,

1777,

was 52' 30".

This, taken from

35'' for the longitude of Anjenga. li^ 38' 5", leaves 76 45' Capt. Huddart's longitude of Anjenga, deduced by time-keeper

from Bombay, reckoned


Capt. Dundas's

in 72 40' is
D -

76 39'

76
76

30
38
at

Mr. Dalrymple's

As Capt. Huddart's
in
lat.

feries

of longitudes commenced
lat.

Bombay

18 58^, and were continued to Anjenga in

8 39', and

then back again to

Bombay ; by which

the error of his time-keeper

was

afcertained,

and which was only


;

as

much
:

as

amounted
fatisfied

to 2^

minutes of longitude

we have

every reafon to be

with

this feries, as far as refpedls general politions

and indeed, geogra-

phy
that

is

greatly indebted to the labours of this gentleman,

who

has

prefented us with the longitudes of 16 places on this coaft, and

by

means given the true general

figure of

it,

which
it,

exhibits, to

thofe

who

have been in the habit of contemplating

a very differ-

ent form, from


I

what

it

ever did before.

am

of opinion that more dependance

may be

placed on Capt.

Huddart's ^longitude of Anjenga,

deduced from Bombay, in the


:

manner abovementioned,

than on any other account

but

at

the

fame

19

iame time

have adopted Mr. Howe's obfervation of longitude at


it

Bombay,

as

appears the moft confiftent with other accounts.


this,

do not mean by
obfervations (of
it

to determine

on the merits of the

different

which

indeed,

am

incapable) but rather bccaufe

accords with the obfervation taken at Goa, and with the routes

acrofs

from Negapatam

to

Tanore^ and,
to

as

fcir

as

may be judged,
It is true,
it

with the deduftion from Negapatam


that if Montrefor's pofition of

Cape Comorin.
is

Madura
to

admitted,

will place

Cape Comorin

12' farther eaftwardj

and

if the variation
;

be not

allowed, there will be 4' 30"

more

be added

in all 16' 30'', or

the full difference between Capt. Howe's, and Capt. Fluddart's obfervations
It
J

the one being 72 38', the other 72 54'.

now
I

remains, after this inveftigation,

to

be ftiewn, in what
;

manner

have compounded the above differences

that

no

diftorI

tion of the intermediate parts fl^ould take place.

Anjenga,

have

placed in 76 40', being the

medium of

all

the different accounts,

by obfervation
ple's difference

and by dedudlion from Negapatam.


of Ion. 52'
30'' to

Mr. Dalrymis

Cape Comorin,
30''.

then adopted,
is

which
9*^52',

places the

Cape

in

77 32'

Madura,
its

placed in
is

the latitude,

given by Call;

and

longitude

deter-

mined by Col.

Kelly's diuance
to it;

from Tritchinopoly, with the adin Ion. 78 11';

dition of 3 miles

that

is,

and Palamcotta

in

lat.

8^ 42', and Ion.

yy 49' 15"; according to the proportions

furniflied

bv Call and Pringle, between Madura and Poolytopu.


of the coaft between Madras and Cape Comorin,
authorities.
is

The form
from various

The

furvey of the Company's lands

(or

Jaghire) extends beyond Alemparve.


is

From

thence to Negapatam,
pofi-

from

French MS. map, collated with D'Anville's map of


and
feveral particulars

tions (above fpoken of)

between Pondicherry
marches.

and Portonovo, from Mr. Pringle's map of the

The

mouth of
gapatam

the Coleroone

is

from an Englifti MS. map. from Major


Stevens's,
Ifland,

to

Tondi,
:

is

chiefly

From Neand my own


Stevens's

obfervations

from Tondi

to

Good- water

Major

alone

20

alone

from thence

to Tutacorin,

Capt. Delafield's curfory furvey


is

and the remainder


Tinevelly
;

to

Cape Comorin,

from Col.

Call's

map of
by

corredled occafionally
It
is

by

a printed chart, publifhed

Mr. Dalrymple.
yond Cuddalore,

not pretended that any of thefe points be-

are afcertained

with precifion

but
its

it

is

highly

probable that Point Calymere cannot be out in


minutes.

longitude,

Tondi has the bearing and


its

difference of latitude
;

4 from
of

Point Calymere to corredt

pofition

and there was


fixed

alfo

a line

drawn from two


lines,

it

to Tanjore.

Ramanad
;

is

by the

interfe6tion

from Madura and Tondi


dependant on Tondi.
I

and therefore muft partake of

the errors incident to Tondi, and Point Calymere.

The

Point of Ra-

miferam

is

alfo

When

conftrufted the

map
and

of India, in 17S2,

concluded that the refpeilive diftances between

Tondi,
that I

Tritchinopoly,
fure

and Devicotta, had been meafured,


:

worked on

ground

but

have fmce been convinced of

the contrary.

From Cape Comorin


pear to be either
little

to

Anjenga the particulars of the


to us, or very
ill

coaft,

ap-

known

defcribedj as the

reports of it are various and contradidlory.

Between Cape Comorin

and Ruttera Point,


the fcale of

took the particulars from a French


to

MS.

chart,

which appears

be faulty

for

it

gives only 35
;

G.
and

miles of diftance between Cape Comorin and Point Ruttera


the difference of latitude only
3'
1

48", by which the latter would

be in 8 14'j whereas,
to

it

cannot well be under 8 20', according


:

Mr. Howe's
is

obfervation

and Mr. Dalrymple obferves that Rutthat of Cadiapatam,

rera Point
is

nearly 29

G. miles from

which

about

19

from Cape Comorin.

On
ftill

thefe ideas,

I have ex-

tended the diftance to 46-^ miles; and

Ruttera

is

only28' from

Cadiapatam.

M.

D'Apres' account of the bearings and diftances

between Cape Comorin and Anjenga, gives 42' difference of longitude


;

but then his chart contradidls that account, and gives 444

befides an abfolute difcordance in particulars.

Mr. Pringle meaAnjengaj

A-red only 49-1-6. miles of road diflance, between Poolytopu and.

21

Anjenga, which cannot be more than 3S G. miles of horizontal


diftance- and falls fliort of

my

expedlations,

more than 9

miles.

All that

could do, was to give the coaft fuch a form, as


it,

my mind
:

had conceived of
fame time,
I

by perufing thefe

different accounts
:

at

the

confefs,

none of them appear conclufive

and until

we know the exad: pofition of Poolytopu, in tefpeO. of Cape Comorin, we cannot allow Mr. Pringle's meafurement, to difcredit in the leaft, Mr. Dalrymple's difference of longitude. We may
here obferve, by the way, that coafls of fuch rotundity of figure,
a& the termination of this great peninfula, are feldom fo well deter-

mined,

as thofe that
is

embay, and where the fame point remains long

in view, and

of eafy difcrimination.

Here the projedting points

fucceed each other too rapidly to allow a fufficient degree of precifion in calculating either the bearing, or the diflance.

The

latitude-

of Cape Comorin

have taken
a

at 8 degrees.
fa<ftory

Coylan or Quilon,

Dutch
is

about 14 G. miles to the


is

NN W or N W of Anjenga,
noted by Capt. Huddart
differing only a
;

the next place, whofe longitude


it

but as

cannot be expedted that places


other, can be

few minutes of longitude from each


this
1

determined with precifion by


another

means
5',

I fhall pafs

on

to Porca,

Dutch

factory,
I

in lat. 9

and longitude by Capt.

Hud-

dart 76 10'.

can by no means reconcile this longitude with the


this

Dutch MS. maps of


ing ought to be S
order not to do too

coaff; for as the difference of longitude


is

between Cochin and Porca by Capt. Huddart

only
it is

8',

the bear-

ioE; whereas

in the

map,

S 25 E.
lia\'e

In

much

violence to either report, I

allowed

16' difference of longitude, inftead of the 8' of Capt, Huddart's,

and the 10' of Capt. Dundas.


tains
lat.

The Dutch MS.


lat,

in queilion conto

the whole coaft from Coylan in


J

5,1',

Cranganore in

10 23'

together with that vafl affemblage of lakes, that ex-

tend in fome places ^o miles inland; and are the repofitories of


the waters that fpring fi-om the wefl fide of the Gauts
j

the whole

country hereabouts being very

flat,

marfliy, and

unwholfome.

This

MS.

22

MS. map, which


mofl: valuable

is

alfo in

Mr. Dalrymple's

collecflion,

contains a

addition to the geography of this part of the pe-

ninfula.

Cochin, the principal fettlement of the Dutch, on


the

this coaft,
:

is

next place in

Capt. Huddart's table of longitudes


lat.

and

is

reckoned by

him, in 76 2';

9 58'.

Capt. Dundas makes


3'.

it

75 58' J and

M.

D'Apres, in his wtvf Neptime Orientale, 76

Capt. Huddart has not noted the longitude of any place between

Cochin and Tellicherry,


of

in

lat.

1 48'

and there being only a

iingle obfervation at the latter, I


fideration
it
;

am

inclined to pafs over the con-

and proceed to the next point of obfervation.

Mount
Dilla
is

Dilla (or Delly) where 3 obfervations were taken.


a remarkable

Mount
'j

promontory fituatedin

lat.

12

Ion.

^2

or 1 weft

of Cochin. of the bearings of the coaft between thefe

We have two accounts


places
;

the one from

M.

D'Apres, the other has

its

particulars
j

from
it

different authorities.
is

Neither of the two,


carefully, as

differ elTentially

and

neceflary to

examine them

the refult

is

to be ufed

in comparing the longitudes of Paniany and Tanore, deduced

from

Capt. Huddart's obfervations

w^ith that

deduced from the marches


acrofs the peninfula.

of the Colonels Fullarton and Humberftone

M.

D'Apres account

is

as follows

CranganOre

12

of

Mount
by

Dilla
;

from Mahe, appears

to

be

NW
whofe

W ^f

ij'

N. *

or nearly
is un,30'''

and the diftance on


is

De Funck's
miles.

plan (which

derftood to be meafured)

28,40.

This

gives. 24'

difference of longitude, or 75 26' 30'' for the longitude of


latitude
is
i

Mahe
1

45'

18^'.

And

Tellicherry being by the fame


1 48'.

plan 3' 30" weft of

Mahe,

will be in 75 23' Ion. and lat.

Capt. Huddart's Table gives only 16' difference of longitude be-

tween

Mount
I

Dilla and Tellicherry, although ftated above to be


fort

21'; but

have before obferved that thefe

of obfervations are

more

to

be depended on, in great differences of longitude than in


:

fmall ones

not to mention that in the calculation of thefe differis, is

ences, the aftual place of obfervation (that

on board the

fliip at

anchor in a road, or coafting along


place

fliore)

often adjufted to the

whofe longitude

is

to be recorded,
;

and which

may be

ftyled

the nominal place of obfervation

by eftimated

diftances.

Deducing the longitude back again from Mount Dilla


a difference of
2'

to Tanore,
feries

muft of courfe be expefted,


;

as the

two

of

bearings give that difference in the longitude


courfe be y^ 51', or 2'

and Tan.ore, will of

more

eafterly

than the dedudllon from

Cochin

in the laft page.


it

And now

will be proper

to

examine

how

far

the lines of

bearing and diftance, drawn by Col. Kelly, ana Lieut. D'Auvergne,


acrofs the peninfula, in the parallels of Tritchlnopoly

and Tanore,

agree wdth the refults drawn from Capt. Huddart's obfervations.


Cpl. Kelly's furvey of Col. Fullarton's

march
it,

to Falicatidcherry, in the Eait India

was, according to the paper accompanying

Houfe, meafured the whole way.


*

The

refult,

according

to.

the

^ W, nt i of a mile off fliore the other, {iud to be 2' o(F reference to a plan of the road, it appears that the latter llation could have been only i'~ off (hore, as the depth of water, was no more than 5 \ fathoms. may obferve that Motint Dilla fliould have bore more wefterly from the obferver that was nearcft the iliore, than the one farthell; off: bvit there is feldom much nicety obferved in taking bearings on fliipboard, although fo much depends on it. By calculation, the difference of the
of thefe bearings was
fhore,

One

was

NW

NW

by

W.

By

We

sngle between an obferver at ^' off


that at

fliore,

W j6'

i off fliore,
;

3 30'.

So

Is-

.and by the fccond,

that

and another at Mahe, would have been 3 11;'; and Mount Dilla would bear from Mahe by the firft compafs 33'' 15' N. 30 30' N. Uie medium of which, is
:

map.

25

map, gives 184,25 G. miles of wefting from Negapatam, or 3 7' 48"' difference of longitude placing Palicaud in 76 48' 47"; and;

in lat. 10 51';

that

is,

5'

north of Negapatam.
I

Of

the route of
lefs

Col. Humberftone from Tanore to Palicaud,

have feen no

than 5 different plans


is,

fome of them

differing 6' in longitude (that

where the whole fpace did not exceed 57 miles. One alone among thefe had the author's name to it, and therefore demanded the preference It was by Lieut. D'Auvergne. I am
in diflance)
:

yet to learn, whether the diilance was meafured or not; but I


lliould

hope and expeft

it

was, or a great part of

it

for one of the

and which appears to have been tranfmitted during the march, diftinguiflies between the meafured and eftimated parts * j
copies,

the former feeming to be the part marched over, and the


the part the detachment had yet to march.
gives

latter,

D'Auvergne's plan

58'

56I G. miles of wefling between Tanore and Palicaud, or 5" difference of longitude; thereby placing Tanore in Ion.

75 50' 32", according to the abovementioned longitude of Palicaud, deduced from Negapatam.
in the

The

copies of this route, inferted

maps of Col. Kelly and of Baron Wefebe,


Sulivan) and

give only 50!

G.

miles,

or 61 lefs of wefling than D'Auvergne's.


J.

Another map
this

(communicated by Mr.

probably in

part,

copied from D'Auver'2;ne's, gives

^j miles ; and a fifth, tranfmitted by an Officer in Col. Fullarton's army, precifely the fame as
D'Auvergne's; that
If
is

56^-.

we

adopt D'Auvergne's diflance,


-

the longitude of Tanore,


at

deduced from Negapatam, will be

75 50' 32"

Deduced from Capt. Huddart's obfervations

Mount

Dilla

7 ^

'^^

^^

And from

the fame at Cochin

75 49
all

Medium
adual

of

y^ 50 10'

It IhoulJ be a rule obfen-ed in all plan?, to note how the fcale was obtained ; whether by irurement ; cifl'erence of latitude ; or cftimation of diftances to which may be added, that the meridian line or parallel fhould be drawn acrofs the whole ipace in the plan, to prevent errors in iiicafuring the angles of bearing.

Scarce

26

Scarce any difcuffion of the fort could be attended with a


fatisfadlory refult
:

more
from

and

think,

it

affords the ftrongeft prefumptive


at

proofs of the truth of Capt.

Howe's obfervations

Bombay

which, the longitudes {liewn by Capt. Huddart's time-keeper, are


deduced.

With

refpedl to

my

former ideas of the breadth of the peninfula,

ahhough the extent


mains nearly
the fouth of
as

in longitude between
;

Bombay and Madras,

re-

befoi-e

yet by the fwelling out of the coaft,


I

on

Bombay,

reckoned
;

it

too narrow by about 30


in that

G.

miles in the parallel of Madras


I

and 27

of Pondicherry.

have

now concluded

the difcuflion of the longitudes acrofs,.


;

and round the fouthern part of the peninfula


of their application to the

and

alfo

an account

map

for a rigid adherence to difference

of longitude even by obfervations of the above kind, between places


not far removed from each other, would in fome cafes, diftort the
relative parts

of the

map beyond
to

probability

and therefore,
differences,

it

was

neceifary,

in

fome meafure,

accommodate the

when

the exifting authorities appeared to carry more weight than the obfervations
:

which,

as

we

have obferved before, are fubjeit to er:.

pr, even in the application

and they

are

no

lefs fo,

from

a cafual

variation in the rate of the time-keeper.

feries

of obfervations, be re-

fuch

as

we have been
as decifive
j

coniidering,
it

muft

in a general view,
t;oo

garded

but

would be hazarding

much

to adopt

each particular longitude,


thority.

when

it

was contrary to every other au-

Much
is

lefs

can any abfolute dependance be placed on lines

of bearing and diftance taken from maps, whofe hiflory and conftruftion

not before us.

And where more


;

authorities than
it

one
left

may
for

occur,'

and thofe not agreeing

in

fuch cafes,

muft be

the judgment- to determine,

which

appears the moft probable.

Now,

although there are ftrong prefumptive proofs of the general

truth of the relative pofitions of the principal points between


dalore and Anjenga, yet they do not reft
tions, as the pofitions in the north part

Cud-

on the fame

folid
:

founda-

of the peninfula

and therefore,

27

fore,

Cape Comorin
the
eaftcrn

is

placed

more with

relation

to

Anjenp-",

than to

coaft.

Again,

the refpedive

diftl;rencv.s

of

longitude between Anjenga, Porca, and Cochin, do not well accord

with other authorities


tude are very fmall,
ter authority for
I

and therefore

as

thefe differences of longi-

thought the Dutch

MS. map, might

be

bet-i

them, than the


is

difl'erences

fliewn by the time-

keeper.

Another particular

to be noted, concerning the longi-

tudes on the fouth of the parallels of Cuddalore and


that thefe will be found

fomewhat
the

different in the

Mihe map from


:'

(viz.)

the a-

bove account
felTiOn

for

when

map was

conflrudled,

was not

in pof-

of fome papers which throw an additional light on the iub-

je6t

but thefe differences are very


;

trifling.

Some few
it is

errors alfo

crept into the conftrudlion

fo

that

upon the whole,


than what

this
:

account

contains rather
pollibly,

what the map ought


I

to be,

though^
they

the errors

am

pointing out
all

may be
3' to

fo fmall,

that

would have efcaped the


Tanore and Cochin
affigned longitude

notice of
are

but profefled geographers.


the eallward of the
i'

both placed
;

(page 23)

and Negapatam

to the

weftward

of what
is

is

given in page 14; by which double error the peninfula

made

to be 4'

narrower than was intended, in that


that there

parallel.

was ignorant

at that time,

was
it

a plan
;

of Humberftone's

march, which had the author's name to


the

and therefore had taken


the fubjed; of

medium of

all

the others.

We will

now refume

the conflruflion.

The
ping
:

latitude of Calicut I have taken at 11 i8^


firffc

This

city

is

remarkable for being the


that
is,

Indian port vifited by European (hip-

by the Portuguefe, who landed there under Vafco de


It

Gama

in 1498.

was then the mofl


or Ernperor

flourifhing place on the


it

Ma-

labar coaft, the

Zamorin

making

the capital of a very

extenfive flate.
after
;

It appears

to have fallen in its conlequence foon

the

new power of

the Portuguefe occafioning a revolution

throughout the maritime parts of the peninfula.

The form

of the coaft between CaHcut and Mahe,


Chitv/a
is

is

taken from
lat.

a fkctch of Major Abingdon's.

faid to

be in

10 38',

by

^8

by Capt.
parallel
;

Dfummondj
as it

but

cannot reconcile

its

Htuation to that
I

cannot well be fo near to Paniany.

have placed

it

in

io33'i5^
Mangalore
is

the next place to


its

Mount
is

Dilla,
j

in

Capt.

HudFor
coaft

dart's table,

and

longitude given

74 44'

lat.

J2 50'.

about
is

54-

leagues to the

N W of Mount
map
in

Dilla, the

form of the
;

taken from a French

Mr. Dalrymple's

collection

the reft

of the coaft, to Mangalore, and from thence to Coondapour (or Baffelore) in lat.

13

36',. is

little

knovi^n as

to particulars.

large
falls

river

named Cangerecora, whofe


4 miles to the north of
is

courfe

is

from the north-eaft,


;

in about
its

Mount

Dilla

previous to which,
1 1

courfe

parallel

with the

fea coaft for

about

miles, being fe-

parated only by a fpit of fand.

The

forts

of Nelifuram, Ramdilly,
is

and Matteloy
other
rivers,,

are fituated

on

this river,

which

joined by feveral

or ftreams, that defcend from the

Gaut Mountains
coaft.

which,

in this part,

approach within 22 miles of the


tliis

can-

not help confidering


miles up the
river,, as

Nelifuram, which

is

fituated

about 12

the place meant by Nelcynda and Melcynda,


vifited

by Pliny and Ptolemy; a place


hips.

by the Egyptian and

Roman

We
of a

have been lately brought acquainted with the particulars of

the coaft, between Barcelore and

Meerzaw

(or Merjee)

by means

map drawn by

Lieut. Reyaolds, during the war


Biitifti

which termiThis map

nated fo unfortunately for the

arms in 1783, in the Bednore


is

country; to which

this- part

of the

coaft, is oppofite.

drawn
coaft;

in a

moft mafterly

ftyle,

and contains near 60 G. miles of the

and extends inland to the foot of the Gauts, which here,


fea,

approach in fome places, within 6 miles of the

and are never


Bednore and

more than 20 from


tah on the coaft.

it.

It includes the pofitions of


;.

Bilghey within the Gauts

and

alfo,

Onore, Batcole, and

Coomthis

We are furniflied
reft,

with the means of joining

portion of geography, to the


Ifland determined

by having the longitude of Pigeon


;

by Capt. Huddart

and by the pofition of

it

in

refpedi

29

refpedl of Fortified liland, near Onore.

Pigeon ifland

is

very fmall,

and
is

lies

about 8 G. miles from the


1'.

coaft,

and 15 from Onore *, and

in lat. 14

Its

longitude

is

74 6' 30".

From Meerzaw, to Cape Ramas In the neighbourhood of Goa, we are but ill informed concerning the particulars of the coafl. Be-^
tween
thefe,

are fituated the port

of Carv/ar, and the


to

iflands

of An-

gedive,

both of them better

known

the Englifh in the early

period of their India trade,

and before they were in pofTeffion of

Bombay.

Capt. Huddart fixed the longitude of Oiiter


alfo that

Rock

in the
caflle,

mouth of Carwar Bay, and


on the north
fide

of the Aguada Point and

of the entrance of
it

Goa

Bay, or road.

This he
and con-

makes

to

be in jz 34' 30"; and

is

worthy of obfervation, that


to the eaflward,

the city of Goa,

which

is

11' 15"

more

fequently in 72 45' 45" by the fiime account, was placed in the

fame pofition within


the
I
CoJt. de

a fradion of a minute,

by the obfervation in

Temps ; and which, for want of being better informed,

formerly difregarded.

The

pofitions of

Cape Ramas, Angedive,


of Aguada, by a
fet

and Carwar Points,

are corredled in

refpecfi:

of

obfervations and bearings of the late Capt.


to marine fcience,
praftical

Howe, whofe

attention

was equal

to his gallantry,
I

and knowledge of the

part of his profeflion.


aids I

have had occafion repeatedly to

acknowledge the

have been furniflied with, by means of his

colledlion of Obfervations

and Remarks, in the

pofi"efiion

of Mr,

Dalrymple.

The
The
feat

figure of the Ifland of Goa, and


is

its

environs, to the foot of

the Gauts,

taken from aPortuguefe

MS. map of Mr.


is

Dalrymple's.

latitude of

Goa, and of the Aguada Caftle,

15 28' 20".

Goa, the

capital of the Portugucfe fettlements in India,


is

and the
taken,

of a Viceroy,

a very confiderable city.

It

was

firft

pofi"eflion

of by Albuquerque in 15 10, and from a Prince of Saracen

extraftion, according to Jarric.

When

Fortified Ifland bore

liLxnd S S E.

Hog Ifland

E^ diftant 2} miles, Pigeon Ifland bore S \ bears from Pigeon Ifland E ^ S dillani about 7 miles.

W,

and

Hog

The

30

] is little it

The coaft between Goa and Bombay, near 220 G. miles,

known
known,
tudes.

to

us in detail, nor indeed was the general bearing of

until Capt.

Huddart furnifhed us with


it

his feries of longi^

By

his account

appears, that this coaft, although in the


flation

neighbourhood of our principal marine

and

arfenal in India,

was defcribed

in the charts,

with an error of very near a whole


Indeed the whole weflern coaft

point of the compafs, in bearing.

of India has far too great an obliquity from the north towards the
weft, in
all

the former charts

my own
it,

not excepted.

Mr. Dalrym-

ple accounted very rationally for

by bringing to our recolledlion


and which
that
;

the great quantity of wefterly variation of the needle, that prevailed


here, during the time of our
firft

voyagers
well

is

now

re-

duced

to lefs than 2 degrees.

It is

known

it

was

a longorito.

time before the true north was difcriminated in charts


ginal idea of the diredlion of this coaft,

and the

was tranfmitted down

our days.

Perhaps there are few coafts

fo

much broken
ports,

into fmall bays anci

harbours, and that at the fame time have fo ftraight a general outline.

This multitude of fmall


and elevated

uninterrupted view along


diftant
vifion,

ihore,
this

coaft, favourable to

have

fitted

coaft for the feat

of piracy; and the alternate land and

fea

breezes that prevail during a great part of the year, oblige veflels to
navigate very near the Ihore.
notice

No
a

wonder then, that Pliny fhould

them

in his time as
;

committing depredations on the

Roman
expedl

Eaft India trade

and although

temporary check has been given


fleets,

them, in the deftrudlion of Angria's

&:c. yet

we may
lafts.

that they will continue the praftice while conmierce


are protected

They

by the iliallownefs of

their ports,

and the ftrength of

the country within.

As

pirates,

they have greater natural advan-

tages than thofe of Barbary,

who
may

being compelled to roam far from.


;

their coafts, have expenfive outfets

here the prizes

come

to their

own
is

doors

and the

cruifers

lie

fecure in port, until the prey

difcoveied.

The

31

The
lie

Vingorla Rocks in

lat.

15 52' 30'' Capt.

Huddart took the


Thefe rocks
parti-

longitude of, next to Goa, and

made

it

73 16' 30".

about 6 or 7 miles off ihore, of which we


it
is

know but few


piratical

culars, farther than that

poffelled

by a

tribe

named

Malwaans.

The

principal ports hereabouts are

Melundy
by

or Sunder-

doo, a fortified ifland about 10 miles to the

NE
in

N
:

of Vingorla
alfo Rairee,.
is

Rocks, and reduced by Commodore James


Vingorla, and

1765

Newtya

which

laft

cannot help thinking,

the

Nitrias of Pliny, near


fliips.

which the

pirates cruifed for the

Roman,

Dutch MS.

chart affilled

me

in

drawing the coaft between

MeThis
i

lundy and Antigherrya,


chart was

an extent of about 70 G. miles.


Sir

procured

by

Jofeph
it,

Ranks for Mr. Dalrymple


contains the ports of
alfo

and the

tradt

comprifed within

Dewgur,

Tamanah, Rajapour, Rampa, Antigherrya, and


the capital and principal port of Angria.

Gheriah, late

This place was found by


its

Capt. Huddart to be in Ion. 73 8'; and

latitude

is

16 37'.

Between Antigherrya and Bombay,

are

the ports and iflands

of

Zivagee, Dabul, Severndroog, Fort Victoria (or Bancoote) Suffer-

dam, Danda-Rajapour, Choule and Coolabba.


longitude was found to be 72 54'
:

At

Vidloria,

the
lati-

latitude

17 59'.

The
fettle

tudes alone of feveral of thefe places,


pofitions,
as the coafl
is

helped
;

me
I

to

their

nearly meridional
in fixing fuch a
fo

but

hardly expedl
places,

to be free

from miftakes,

number of

with-

in fo confined a fpace,

and with

few

aids.

Bombay, the
quarter,
is

principal port and fettlement of the Englifh in this


1

fituated in lat.
I

8 58',
it

longitude by Mr. Howe's obfer-

vation 17 38.'

have placed

in 17 40', or 2

minutes farther to

the

eaft,

which was occafioned


coft too

originally

by

a miftake,

and which
it.

would have

much

time to

redlify,

had

attempted
in length,

Bombay
city,

is

a fmall iiland, fcarcely

more than 7 miles


arfenal.

and

very narrow, containing a very ftrong and capacious fortrefs, a large

and a dock-yard, and marine

It

was ceded

to the

Englifh

32

Englifli In 1662,

by the Portuguefe,
II.

as
it

part of the
is
1

dower of the
by
a

Queen of Charles
flrait,

On

the

NE
1773.

feparated

narrow

from

Salfette,

a fine ifland

of about

5 miles fquare, and an


Salfette,

acquifition

from the Marattas

in

Bombay,

and the

neighbouring fhores of the Continent, form

a large found, in

which

are feveral other illands, particularly Caranjah


latter

and Elephanta, the

famous

for its fubterraneous temple,

and both of them acqui-

fitions

from the Marattas.


its

Salfette alfo has

fubterraneous temples, cut out of the live

rock

all

of which appear to be the monuments of a fuperftition

anterior to that of the

Hindoos

*.
is

Bafieen, a city and fortrefs of note,

fituated

on the point of

the Continent oppofite to the north end of Salfette.

This place

fell

into the hands of the Englifli, after a fmart fiege in 1780, but was
reftored to the Marattas,

together with

all

the other conquefts


Salfette

made

on

that fide of India, at the peace

of 17H3,
lat.

and the fmall and under the


ifland

iflands excepted.

Baflcen

is

fituated in

9
1 1

9',

fame meridian
Salfette.

as

Bombay,

as appears

by the maps of that

and

From
9,
5

Baffeen to Surat,

the furveyor with General Goddard's

army, drew a meafured

line (as I
i

am

informed) and the refult gave

G. miles

ot eafting, or
;

o'

of longitude, for the difference between


latter

Bafieen and Surat

by which the

Ihould be in Ion. 72 50'.

The
in 2

difference of latitude

from

Baffeen,

was found
of Surat.

to

be

52',

which added
1

off/ 10 30
default,

to 19 19', gives 21" 11' for that


.

It is

placed

It is a great

misfortune to geography that no one obfervation

of longitude fhould have been taken, on the wefl of

Bombay

by

which

we

are precluded

from correcting an extent of 7 de-

grees of longitude, along a coafl that winds in fuch a variety of

At Elora near Dowlr.tabad, more than 2Co miles to the eaft of Salfette, are other temples For an account of thcfe, fee Tkcvenot and for the former, Anque.il du perron.

of the fame kind.

direc-

33
is

direilions,

and vvhofe geography


that
it

compofed of materials of

fa

mifcellaneous a kind,
fleer clear
is

can hardly be expeded


it.

we

fhould

of error in the conflruiftion of

The

pofition of Surat

indeed checked by the meafared line of General Goddard's marcli


;

from Burhanpour
longitude.
bearings on

where Mr. Smith had an obfervation of the


have
alfo a

And we
fliore,

meafared line profelTedly taken with

as far as
is as

Amedabad.

But compafles often

differ^

and the variation

often neglefted.
is

Mr?
taken
its

Smith's longitude of Burhanpour


in

76 22', (but

have

it

my map

at 76 19',
it

the reafon of

which

fliall

fliew in

proper place) and

is

taken notice of now, only with a view


is

to

fhew

how

far Surat, as it

placed here, agrees with

tlie

obfer-

vation

made on

the eafl of

it.

By
3" 30'

the furvcy of Goddard's

march from Burhanpour


22', leaves 72 51'
its

to

Surat

the difference of longitude between the two places appears to be


45''',

which taken from 76'


I
is

15" for the

longitude of Surat.

have before obferved, that


72" 50'
:

longitude deat
I

duced from Bombay


76
19',

but having taken Burhanpour


is

Surat will be in 72' 48' 15", and that


it
;

the longitude

have adopted for

altering at the
8'

fame time Goddard's difference

of longitude from Baffeen, to

15", inflead of 10'.


altered

And

as

Mr.

Howe's longitude of Bombay was


it

from 72" 38'

to 72" 40',

appears that Surat flands as

it

would do by Mr. Howe's

original

obfervation, and with Goddard's original difference, of longitude.

The
coafl

materials

under different authorities, for the form of the

between Baffeen and Surat, do by no means accord together;


I

nor have

the means of determining

which

to prefer.
tlie

From

Baf-

feen to Arnaul, a fortified ifland,

commanding
I

entrance of the

Angafsyah,

or

Mandavee

river,
I

take

from General Goddard's

march, the only authority

can find.

From Arnaul
is

to

Nonfary
chart by

or Noffary, a few miles Ihort of Surat river, there


Lieut. Ringrofe
river
j

and

alfo a
:

chart from St. John's Point, to Surat

by Lieut. Skynner

by which means, we have about 50 miles o F

34

of the fpace contained in Skynner's chart, inchided


grofe's
;

alfo

in

Rin-

and an opportunity
as

is

given of comparing their bearings

and diftances,

well as
to

Goddard's,

which includes

nearly the

fame fpace.

Here,

our utter aflonifliment,


differ
1 1

we

find

two

charts,

profeffedly taken

by authority,
!

degrees in bearing in an

extent of 60 miles

for fo

much more

eaflwardly from the norths

does

Mr. Skynner make the bearing of Surat from Omergong, than

Goddard's

map

does.

As
St.

to the

comparifon between Ringrofe and

Skynner's charts, from


the bearing

John's Point to Noifary, Ringrofe* makes

2'

W,
his

and Skynner

10

E.

Goddard's route comSt.

ing clofe to the fea in the neighbourhood of

John's, fhews, if

we may

rely

on

map,

that the truth lay

between Ringrofe and


to
it.

Skynner ; but that Ringrofe came the neareft

Having taken Goddard's


adapted^the other charts to
it,

line for

the general bearing,

have

in the beft

manner

could

prefervas in

ing

all

their particulars, in

which they do not


as

differ fo

much

generals.

Such excellent furveying marks


and Poneira
;

Tarrapour and Valeneafily afford data

tine's Peaks,

Caftle,

&c.

offer,

might

for a feries of triangles


coaft-,

and of courfe, for a general furvey of

this

in fkilful

hands

and take away from us the reproach of re-

maining ignorant of the true courfes between two of our principal


fadVories,

Bombay and

Surat.

St.

John's Point does not appear to

projedl far

from the general

line of the coafl:, either

by Goddard's
all

or Ringrofe's accounts, though defcribed in that manner in

for-

mer
I

charts.

The
at

fliallownefs of the water near

it,

has probably

kept navigators

too great a diflance to be informed of the truth.


hill

apprehend that the


is

called

Segwah,

in General

Goddard's

route,

what

is

called .Valentine's

Peak by navigators.
city of Broach, tliere
is

From

Surat to

Amedabad, through the

a route of General Goddard's profelfed to be meafured, and taken

mathematically.

We had previouflv
river

maps or furveys of the country


to Brodera,

between Surat, and the

Myhie. extending inland

Dubhoi, and Zinnore, on the Nerbuddaj but none of them went


beyond

35

]
is

beyond the Myhie.

The

following

the

comparifon between
as

the bearings and diflances of the different maps as far

they go.

From

Surat to Brodera,

by Goddard
Turner

N N

18 55'

20

HimmingNiS
Medium
*

28

E E E

69,95 G. miles.
68,

68,85

19 24

69,07

The
pafTes

differences here, are not great, confidering

and meafures often

differ

how much, comamong themfelves. The medium


in any refpecft,
rell

of the 3 accounts
that

differs fo little,

from Goddard's,

we need
is

not hefitate to adopt the

of his line to Amedabad,

which

fomething more than 50 miles to the north- weft ward

of Brodera.

The mofl remarkable

difference

in

this

quarter,

is

between Mr. Skynner's and others bearings and diftances betweea


Surat and

Cambay.
is

Mr. Skynner's Mr. Taylor's

N 22 W N 9" 5'
N
10 30

83,2 G. miles.

Mr. Himming's

W W
it

67,7
68,3
is

And
towards

it

is

remarkable that the deviation here,


;

from the north,

towards the weft


the

on the former occafion,

was from the fouth^


Goddard's,

weft.

As

Taylor's,

Himming's, and

agree fo nearly between Surat and Brodera, one cannot help giving

the preference to their lines

or at leaft to the

medium of
lat.

both,

between Surat and Cambay


Ion. 72 32' 45''.

which

is

placed in

22 16' 45",

Having
it

altered the bearing of the eaft fide

of the gulf of Cambay

,^

became

neceffary, in order to preferve a proper

width

to the gulf,

to give the weft fide a direftion

more oblique

to the meridian, than


it

appears in the original.

At

the fame time, as

appeared but rea-

fonable that Groapnaught Point, fhould preferve the parallel of lati-

tude

'

36 3^
;

rude affigned

it,

ia the original

the length of the weilern coall,

muft

neceffarlly be

augmented,

which

it

is,

by

miles.

The

width of the gulf, in the


is

original,
it

from Swalley
48 1 only.

to

Groapnaught,

52! G. miles.
It

have allowed

may be

obferved however that both D'Anvllle and D'Apres


direftion to this coail than
I

\give even a

more oblique

have done

at the fame time, that they give nearly the fame direftion to the

eaftern coafl,

that

Mr. Skynner does

and by

this

means, bring
pl.ices

the head of the gulf, ahnoft to a point.

D'Anville

Cambay

33' of longitude weft of Bombay, and D'Apres 25'.

have allowed

only 7' 15".


is

And Groapnaught
which
is

Point, placed as above defcribed,


4'

in Ion. 71 42' 30'';

30" more eaftwardly, than

it

would have been,

had Mr. Skynner been followed throughout.


one
is left
j

It is unpleafant to refleft tliat

in a ftate of uncertainty

on

a matter of confiderable importance

for fuch,

the true bearing of


:

the oppoilte coafts of a deep and dangerous gulf, muft be regarded

and here we find

whole point

in difpute.

From Groapnaught

Point, to

Diu Head,

have followed Ml.


i"'

Skynner's original bearing and diftance; which gives

50' 15" dif-

ference of longitude weft; placing the weftmoft part of the Point,


in Ion. 69 52' 15'.

The

latitude

is

20 43'.

From Diu

Point to Cape Monze, beyond the


tlie

mouth

:f the Indus,

or Sinde river,

bearing and diftance

is

taken from a

medium of
to

three charts furnifhed

by Mr. Dalrymple, and appears


taken at 25

be

41

2o'Wj

and the diftance, correfted by the latitudes of Point Diu,


latter
5',

and Cape Monze, the


of longitude;
places this

gives 3 58' difference

placing Cape
a degree

Monze
more
4^

in 65 54'.
;

M.

D'Anville

Cape near
it

to the eaftward

and makes the

longitude between
in

and Bombay

^y\

inftead of 6 44', as given

my map:

and

this

makes a

great alteration in the figure of the


:

c: aft

between Surat and the mouth of the Sinde, or Indus

the pe-

nintula of Guzerat being

much

larger than

was formerly fuppofed,


the

^7

the gulf of Sinde (or Cutch) nuich fmaller

and the Delta of the

Indus projefting into the

Tea,

inllead of receding

from

it.

The
zerat,

feveral charts

of the weftern coaft of the peninfula of


differ in a variety

Gu-

and of the coail of Sinde,

of particulars

and would make a minute difcuflion of them, too tedious, even for
this

Memoir; and

befides,

nothing appears in either of them, to

claim a preference.

In the general bearing above given, the three


1

among themfelves, than 2 5', in bearing but the charts of the mouth of the Sinde and the gulph of Cutch, differed fo much that Mr. Dalrymple thought proper to
charts differed no more,
;

publifh

them

all

feparately, in order that every perfon

might be endifferent
is

abled to judge for himfelf.

On

collating the

names of the
;

mouths of the Sinde, one


difficult to identify

finds great contradidlions

and

it

very

them
the

in the feveral charts.

The

fiatnefs

and

want

of

variety in

appearance of

the

coaft,

added to the

fand-banks which keep navigators

at a diftance,

and prevent their

difcriminating any minute obied:s that


jniflakes.

may

occur, occafion thefe

The tombs
of Ritchel

alone .ippear to be the marks for the coaft.


I

The

latitude

have taken

at 24

21

and that of Ca-

ranchy or Crotchey,
All

at 25.

the particulars of the v/eftern coafl of Gu^crat,

and the

mouth
coaft

of

*^he

Sinde, are copied

from the abovanentioned MS.


:

and printed charts of Mr. Dalrymple's

and confequently the whole


is

from

St.

John's Point to Cape

Monze,

defcribed from

new

materials.
I

now From

return to Balafore.
Balafore, eallward to Chittigong,

the diflance has been

determined by the inland furvey; and the figure of the coafts and
inlets

by Capt. Ritchie's

fea furvey.

The

difference

of longi-

tude between the towns of Balafore and Chittigong (or Iflamabad)


is

4^ j3'eaft;

and,

it

is

worthy of remark, that the diftance by


with the meafurem.ent on

Capt. Ritchie's marine furvey, agreed


Hiore, to within ^^vo miles

and a

half.

The

93308

38

The

charts as late as the year

1752, reprefented the difference


;

of longitude between thefe two places, to be only 3 48'


1 5' lefs

that

is,

than the truth.

And

this

diminution of the longitude,


fea coaft

while the difference of latitude continued right, gave the

between the mouths of the Ganges, a direction of two points, or

22i degrees more northwardly than the truth


cafioned the lofs of

which doubtlefs oc-

many

(hips,

who

trufted to the information.

From

Iflamabad, in longitude 91 55', latitude 22 20', the coafts

of Aracan and Pegu take a S S

courfe to
j

Cape Negrais,

the
is

extreme point of Pegu to the fouth-weft

the latitude of

which

under 16 degrees, and diilance from Iflamabad about 420 G. miles.

The

outline of this

whole

coafh has been traced

by Capt. Ritchie,
as the coafts

under the fame

direiflion,

and in the fame manner,

on

the v/eft fide of the bay.


2 32'
eaft

He made

the difference of longitude

from Iflamabad;

placing Cape Negrais in 94 27"*.

Mr. Dalrymple, who

has taken

uncommon

pains to afcertain the

bearing of this coaft, from journals, and a variety of fketches and

remarks, makes the difference of longitude 2' 34^ or only


ferent

2' dif-

from Mr. Ritchie

The

refult

of this laborious enquiry,


>

corrected
flrongefl:

by a nicely difcrlminating judgment,


manner, Capt. Ritchie's calculation
;

orroborates, i, the
affords a degree

and

of fatisfaftion next to that of an adtual obfervation.


I

mean
is

to have
to

it

underftood that Capt. Ritchie's chart of this


as a

coafl:,

be taken only as a general outline, being imperfeifl

coafting chart.

Many

particulars

on

this coaft are taken

from Mr.
the

Dalrymple's colleftion, both printed and


river of Aracan,
it

MS.

particularly,

the eaft fide of Cheduba, and the paffage between


a variety

and the main; and

of particulars on the

co,ift

of Ava.

Some of
Ritchie.

the names of places

were

alfo

mifconceived by Capt.

The

longitude of this

Cape was reckoned by M. D'Anville only

93"*

16"

fo that the

New Map

increafes the dillance between the raouth of the Sinde (or Indus)

and Cape Negrais,

2 degrees and 7 minutes of longitude.

Capt.

39

Capt. Ritchie's latitude of Cape Negrais,

or Pagoda Point,
at,

is
i

more fouthwardly than

it

is

commonly

taken

by

o minutes

which

cannot account
I

for,

as his obfervations

of latitude are geI

nerally exadt.

have placed this Cape (by which

mean

the fouth
dif-

extremity of the coafl of Ava) in 15" 57', by the


ferent accounts, varying

medium of 6

from 15"

51',

to

16

4'.

Capt. Ritchie's

was

15 52' 30'".
this point,

At

my materials

for afcertaining the intermediate longifail

tudes of places on the eaftern fide of the bay,

me

and

have

been under the necefiity, in a great meafure, of fubftituting judg-

ment

for fadt,

between Cape Negrais and the next place of obfer:

vation,

Mergui

which

place, as
is

it is

given by

M.

D'Apres in his

tiew Neptime Orientale,

in 98 20' eafl longitude, or 3 53' eafl


;

from Cape Negrais.

M.

D'Anville allows 4 degrees


;

which comes

within 7 minutes of mine


aggregate,

but although

we

agree nearly in the

we differ widely in point of particulars. The MS. charts that I have coniulted, make the difference of longitude in qnellion, 4 30' on a medium; which is 37' more than I make it. And M. D'xApres makes it 4 1 9'. The diiligreemcT^<- in particulars between M. D'Anville's account
and mine,
arifes

in the part

between Cape Negrais, and the coafl


lies in

of Martaban.

It

happens that this coafl


at the

a dired;ion fo far

from meridional, and


feveral

fame time the

tides

and currents of the


fallify

mouths of the Ava

river,

do

fo diflurb

and

the

fliip's

reckonings, that the true diflance can never be afcertaincd that -wzy,
in the ordinary courfe of navigation.

Plans of the Perfaim and

Syrian rivers, as high

up

as

the

cities

of thofe names refpedlively,

have been already publiflied in Mr. Daliymple's colledlion'j and,


fortunately, I have been able to obtain tracings of the continuations of thofe rivers

(which

are the

two extreme branches of the


from the main,
river,
at

Ava

river) to the place

where they
fea.

feparate

about 150 G. miles from the

The
6

bearings of the two branches

interfed each other at an angle of about

60 degrees; and, therefore.

40

fore,

by the help of the

latitude,

may be

ufed, In correding the

length of the coaft between Negrais and Syrian.


or Negrais

The

Perfaim,

branch, was traced by that accurate


his '^vay to

obferver,

Capt.

George Baker, in
to learn

Ava

in

1755.

have not been able


j

by

whom

the Syrian branch was traced


in the

but by the orthoto

graphy of the words


a

map, the author appears

have been

Dutchman.

The

refult

of thefe bearings, corredled by the latitude,

as

fet

forth in the Syrian

map,

gives difference of longitude

from Negrais
is

Point, to the
10' lefs than

month of

the Syrian river, 2 21' eaft;


21'' lefs
ftill

which

about

Some of
i/lands,

the

M. D'Apres makes it, and MS. charts make the difference


of the
x'\va river,

than

M.

D'Anville.

more.

The mouths
like

which form an affemblage of low


from
feveral

thofe of the Ganges, are defcribed


collated w^ith

MS.

charts of

Mr. Dalrymple's,
the

M.

D'Apres'

new

chart.

From

mouth of

the Syrian river to the coaft of Martaban, in

latitude 15 I have copied

from the new chart of

M.

D'Apres, pub-

lilhed a very Ihort time before, his death.


is

The

figure of the coaft

quite new.

Between the
very imperfect
;

aforefaid latitude

and Tavai Point, our

chartr, are

but generally agree in giving the coaft a diredlioa


little

of fouth, a very

eaftwardly.
to

From

Tavai Point

Mergui, the

coaft is taken

from

MS.

chart compiled

by the

late

Mr. Howe.

Mergui

is
:

placed, as I have faid before, according to


that
is,

M.

D'Apres*

obfervation

in longitude 98" 20'; latitude 12 9'.

All the remainder of the coaft, to Junkfeilon;. and the whole:

Mergui Archipelago^

is

from

M.

D'Apres.

NEXT

41

NEXT

proceed to the chain of iflands that extend from Cape


;

Negrais to Sumatra

and

are

known by

the names of the Preparis,,

Cocos, Andaman, and Nicobar iflands.


Capt. Ritchie, after leaving Negrais, proceeded agreeably to his
inftrudions, to defcribe the fituation and extent of the iilands that

compofe

this chain.

None of them
fo that

more than 84 G. miles diftant from each others he needed never to be more than 42 miles from land and
are
:

that but once during the voyage

that

is

to fay,

betw^een the Little

Andaman and

the Nicobar iflands.


is

In other places, the diftance


lefs
:

between the lands

commonly much

fo that the meridional

diredtion of the courfe, and other circumftances, render this line

of

much
felves,

ufe in correcfling the longitudes, not only of the iflands

them-

but of Sumatra

alfo

and, had

it

been continued as was in-

tended, to Acheen, would have anfwered the purpofe completely.


Pafling the Preparis and Cocos iflands, Capt. Ritchie proceededto

Narcondam,

to fix its pofition

then back again to Cocos


to

dowa
a

the eaflfide of the Great

Andaman, (wh.ch he found

be

almofl:

degree of latitude longer than was before fnppofed) then up the weft
iide of
it,

almoft to the latitude of 12":

when
fatal

finding the attempt


to the

to circumnavigate the ifland,


his

might prove

remainder of

work, he proceeded fouthwardj defcribing the extent, figure


till

and pofitions of the Little Andaman and the Nicobars,


to the fouth point of the great'(or fouthmoft) Nicobar.

he came

Here the

wind fuddenly changed


determining
tiie

to

the fouth,

and prevented him from

refpeftive pofitions
is

of the fouthern Nicobar and.


as

Acheen

which

the

more mortifying,
to

one day's

fair

wind

would have enabled him

accomplifh

it.

The
firom

refult of this
is

line

of bearing

is,

that the fouth end of the


is,

Great Nicobar,

in longitude 94 23' 30''^ that

only

3'

30" weft

Gape Negrais,
G.

The:

A^

The

pofition of

Acheen Head, or King's Point (the


its

NW

point

of Sumatra) has hitherto beea deduced from

bearing and diftance


;

from Malacca, the

neareft place of obfervation


is

and

its

longitude

according to this dedudlion,

95 30' according to

M.

D'Apres.

Now

the bearing of

Acheen from Malacca, being

in a direftion

of more than 60 degrees from the meridian, and the diftance 450

G. miles;

little reliance

could be placed on the refult of

it,

if it

did not happen that the refpeftive pofition s of the fouthern Nicobar, and of Pouloo

Ronde

(an ifland near Acheen) the one de-

duced from Negrais Point,


of two

and the other from Malacca,

agreed

nearly with their reputed bearing and diflance

from each other.

For,

MS.

charts

which

have examined, the one makes

1 i\ the other
thefe being laid

1 2' difference

of longitude between them; and

down

apparently without any attempt to fupport

a fyflem,

may be

fuppofed to be agreeable to experiment.

The

bearings and diftances in thefe

In one S 56

And

in the other S

And

according to the
is

bearing and diflance

72 G. 75 56 deduced 56 E 76
E E

MS.

charts are
miles.

longitudes abovemeptioned, the

So that there cannot be any great


as laid

error in the longitude of

Acheen,
of coin-

down

in

M.

D'Apres', and in

my map,
:

if this fort

cidence can be reckoned a proof of accuracy


miles, in the diflance of 8 degrees, being

a difference

of a few

expeded
S ^j 30'
22'

in

fuch a

feries

of dedudlions.

much lefs than could be M. D'Apres makes the


Ronde
that
is,

bearing and diflance between the fouth Nicobar and Pouloo

97 G. miles

or difference of longitude
charts.
It

1 22',

more than the MS.

mufl be obferved,

that he

reckons the fouth end of this Nicobar, 9 miles farther to the north
than the truth
little in
;

occafioned by his
for the north

making the
is

ifland fo

extent

end

in its

true

much too Had latitude.

the fouth point of the ifland been in

its

true latitude, the bearing

of Pouloo Ronde would have been more eailwardly, and the diflance
only

43
if,

only 93, inftead of 97


his diftance

and

on the contrary, he has enlarged

on the

original bearing, to

make

it

anfwer to the

lati-

tude, the original diftance could have been only 85 miles.


I

have faid before that Capt. Ritchie went no higher up the weft

fide

of the Great Andaman, than about the latitude of


as well as

12.

The
Dal-

remainder of that coaft,


at the

the paflage through the iflands


lent

north end of
;

it,

is

from a MS. chart


with
it

me by Mr.

rymple

and which

carries

the greateft appearance of truth,

on a comparifon of the fouth and fouth-weft parts of the Great

Andaman
Ritchie.

in this chart,

with the fame parts

in the chart

of Capt.

Barren Ifland, and the rock on the

eaft

of Duncan's Paflage, are

from the remarks of Capt. Juftice in 1771.

ni

MiT'iirmr

ISLAND
IT
from Ceylon, and the
coaft of

OF

CEYLON.
to

happens that the ordinary tracks of Britifh fbips,

and

Coromandel,

are not calculated for

determining the relative pofitions of Point Pedro and Point Calymere,


the approximating points of Ceylon and the continent of India.

Hence
ations
rallel

it is,

that

we

are fo

ill

informed, not only of their true fitu-

with

refpeil to

each other, but alfo with refpeft to the pais

of latitude under which Point Pedro


obfervations. Point
lies

lituated.

By my

Calymere (the fouthern extreme of


by inference from Madras,
places
it

Coromandel)
in longitude

in 10 20' latitude, and


54.'

79
;

30".

M. D'Apres

6 minutes more-

northwardly
Point Pedro,
I have taken

and D'Anville 7 further fouth.


is alfo

The

latitude

of.
:

varioufly reprefented

by the above geographers

it,

at 9 52'.

z-

44
-

In
mere

M.

D'Apres

I find

the bearing and dlflance from Point Caiy-

to Point Pedro, to

be
-

S 37
S 39
-

In D'Anville
In a
I

E E

41 G. miles.

38

MS.

chart,

no name

S 46 30'

E 40
it

had an opportunity In 1764, of determining the pofition of


Ifland

Cow

from Tondi, nery nearly

made

10 G. miles weft

of Point Calymere, and 39 eaft of Tondi. Between Cow Ifland and Point Pedro, Van Keulen reckons 41T, and D'Apres and
D'Anville,
3 It
eaft

42 miles,

of eafting.
j

This will place Point Pedro


in longitude 80 27',
;

of Point Calymere

or

and in
diftant.
it

bearing from Point Calymere


I have placed
liable to
it

43 20' S

42^.
j

G. miles
thinking

in this fituation accordingly

as

not

any great objedlion.

The
ferent

figure of the ifland of

Ceylon

is

varioufly reprefented
it

by
in

dif-

geographers.
:

Van Keulen makes


is,

too narrow,
;

the

fwelling part

that

between Batacola and Columbo

as is pretty

evident from the longitudes fliewn by the time-keepers of fome of

the commanders of the Eaft India fhips, and others.

D'Anville
better

and D'Apres

in their

maps of the

ifland,

agree

much
fide

with

thefe obfervations.

Between the meridians of Calitoor and the


in lat. 7 40',

eaft

of Ceylon

Van Keulen reckons


-

the difference

of longitude

only

1 46'

M. D'Anville M. D'Apres And by the time-keepers

it is

28
212
by time-keepers
ifland,

21

However,
are

until

a regular feries of obfervations

made by the fame

perfon,
it,

all

round the
its

we muft
from
;

defpair

of feeing the true figure of


cafual obfervations

unlefs

coafts

were furveyed.

The

which we

are in pofleflion of,


it

different

hands, will only

afllft

us in fixing certain points of

which being

done, the general figure of the ifland muft be colleded in the beft

inanner

it

can be done, from the charts exifting.

The

45

The

following are the obfervations of longitude taken on the

fouth fide of Ceylon.

Point deGalle by Capt. Huddart

80

i'

30''*

Dun das
Weft
-

80 80

i7t

The medium

of thefe

accounts

is

80

830
to

Dundrahead by Mr. Topping's obfervatlon (worked


cherry in Ion. So)
is

Pondi-

in Ion. 80 39'

reckon Point de Galle 28'

weft from Dundrahead,


in 80
1

therefore

it

ftiould be

by

this

account

1'.

Mr. Topping obferved but did Capt. Dundas


:

the longitude of the Great Baflas alfo


as

fo

we

are not well

informed concerning

the exadt difference of meridians between them, and they being at


leaft

22' diftant,

nothing in thefe obfervations will apply to

Point de Galle.

There
80
8'

is

certainly too

much

difcordance between the three longi;

tudes of Point de Galle given above


30".

the

medium of which

is

As Anjenga and Cape Comorin were

placed 3' farther

to the eaftward, than Capt. Huddart's obfervation warranted, in order

to accommodate the differences between the two calculations, Point

de Galle fhould be reckoned

in

80

1' 30''.

Mr. Dalrymple's
(fee

time- keeper gave the difference of longitude between Anjenga and

Point de Galle 3 29' 30", which added to 76 40'


gives 80 9' 30".

page 19)

If

we

confider the refpedlive pofitions of Point Pedro and Poin^:

de Galle by the different geographers,


refult

we

fhall

have the following

* Deduced from Bombay, which is reckoned in 73 46'. + Capt. Weft reckoned rrom Sadras, which I pliice in 80 24', and of courfe, Point de Galle in 80 22'.

He

re-ckor.ed

it

So" 19'

Van

46

Van Keulen

places Point de Galle weft

of Point Pedro

^345
lo
3

M. M.

D'Apres
D'Anville

Medium And

of the three

8'

^^" or

9'

the longitude of Point Pedro being taken at 80 27', Point


18'.

de Galle by this rule will be in 80

On

an occafion like

this,

where we

are not likely to


to fay,

come
it

exadlly

at the truth,

fmce no one can pretend


1'

whether the longitude


I

of Point de Galle be 80

30" or 80 18';

thought

better to to

enfure a certain good, at the hazard of a fmall


facrifice tliat advantage,

mi (lake, than
in itfelf

by adhering

to a refult,
it

which

was

problematical.
general

In other words, I judged


ifland,

better to preferve the

form of the

and confequently the refpeftive portions


it,

of the north and fouth points of

as

given by
refult
it
;

DApres; and

which appear

to

me

to agree bed:

with the
fides

of the obfervations

f longitude, taken on ditferent


relative pofitions,

of

than to change thofe

which mufl have been done, had Capt. Huddart's


I

obfervation at Point de Galle been adopted.

have therefore placed

Point de Galle
that
is,

o'

weft of Point Pedro (according to

D Apres)

in Ion. 80 17'.

Had
it

adhered to the obfervations, in re11' 30".

fpeft of

Cape Comorin,

would have been 80


is

The
30'''.

medium of all the The obfervations


of

obfervation^ and dedudions,


difter

about 80 14'

among themfelvcs
3.

14' 30".

The

latitude

this Point is 6 degrees

and of Dundrahead, the fouthmoft point

of the whole ifland 5 51'.

The

obfervations at Dundrahead, were, by

Mr. Topping 80

39',

and by Capt. Huddart 80 23'.

The

Great Baflas, by Mr. Topping

8i4i''; by Capt. Dundas 81 30'.


tudes, ftiew that a feries of

The

variation in thefe longi-

them by the fame

perfon, and the fame

time-keeper,

is

by

much

the moft defireable.

The

By

48

SECTION
The furveyed TraSi
ofi

II.
or that occupied

the fide

o/"

Bengal,

by the Courfe of the

Ganges,

a?td its principal BrancheSy

as far weft as the City of

Agk a,

THIS

which comprizes the foubahs of Bengal, Bahar, Allahabad, and Oude ; a large portion of Agra and
extenfive trad,
is

Delhi, and a fmall part of Oriffa,

bounded on the
fouth-eaft,

eaft,

by Affam,
gulf,

and the dominions of Ava


bay of Bengal
j

on the

by the
line
j

or

on the fouth-weft by an imaginary

drawn from
on the weft
city

the port of Balafore in Orifla, to the city of

Narwah
firft

by another fuch

line

drawn from Narwah, through the

of

Agra

to

Hurdwar, the place where the Ganges


j

enters the plains

of Hindooftan

and on the north, by the


It is in

firft

ridge of mountains

towards Bootan.
ern confines

length from the city of Agra, to the eaftBritifli

of Bengal, upwards of 900

miles

and in

breadth from 360 to 240.

With

refpedl to the particulars of this furvey,

which was exe-

cuted between the years 1763 and

1777,

it

is

unneceflary to fay

more than

that the diftances were meafured, and that they accorded


:

with the obfervations of latitude and longitude


minutely, and with the
latter fo nearly,

with the former

that

it

was unneceflary to

make any

corre<5tion.

Agra, by Claud Boudier's obfervation,


Calcutta, by the

is

in

78 29'
88

medium

of four obfervations
-

28

Difference of longitude by obfervation

59
58
4!

By

furvey

And Calpyon the river Jumnah, ftands in the furvey in Ion. 80 80 And by the Revd. Mr. Smiths oblervaiions

o
Agra^

49
niofi:

Agra, then, appears to be the thefurvey; and ferves


ns

weftern point determined by


point of union between the

common

furveys on the eaft, and the routes furnilhed

by various MS. maps,

and

itineraries,

on the north, fouth, and weft.


points are afcertained,
vv^eft
:

By means of
which
and fouth

the

furvey alfo, a

number of

ferve tofet
:

off curfory furveys of roads both to the

fuch as

Hurdwar and Ramgaut, on


As

the north of Agra

and Gohud, Calpy,

Chatterpour, Revvan, Burwa, and Balafore on the fouth.


this trad contains the fite
as well as thofe

of the famous city of Palibothra (or


it

Palimbothra)

of Canoge (or Kinnoge) and Gour,


:

may
leflcr

not be amifs
note,
:

to take
as

fome notice of ihem

as alfo

of fome of

fuch
all

Punduah, Tanda, Satgong,

(or Satagong)

and

Sonergong

of which,

(Palibothra excepted) are


in Feriflita.

mentioned

either in the

Ayin Acbaree. or

Pliny

is

the only one

among

the ancients (as far as I


fite

know)

that

afligns a particular fpot

for the
fttuation,

of Palibothra
as it appears

the reft only

Ipeaking generally of

its

and

by

a difcuffion
it

of particulars, contradiiling one another.

All are agreed that


(that
it.

was
and

fituated
at

on the right bank of the Ganges

is,

intra

Gangcm)
river

the confluence of a large river with


to Arrian

This
his

was

named Erranoboas according

(who had

intelligence

from Megafthenes's journal) and was of the third degree of magnitude among the Indum rivers ; and inferior to none but the Gano-es
and Indus.
river.

cannot apply the name Erranoboas to aay particular

Pliny certainly fays that the Jomanes (Jumnah) entered the


Clifobara *
;

Ganges by Palibothra, between Methora and


Ganges and Jomanes, and
bothra
is

but

it is

equally true, that in another place, he mentions the conflux of the


in the very next article fays that Pali-

425 miles below that very point of Strabo does not give the name of the adjundl river.
fituated

conflux..

Palibothra,

was the

capital
;

of the

Prafii,

by the account of

Megafthenes,

who

refided there

and was of very great dimenfions,


and
Cyri/ohorca.

The

different readings are Caryfobova,

being

50

being 80
fures
to

fladia in

length and 15 broad.


in

If

we reckon

thefe niea-

produce io miles

length,

and near two in width*,


built,

which

for a
;

European
it

city,

compaftly

would be reckoned

enormous
capital

yet

does not exceed the dimenfions of fome of the

cities

of the Indian foubr.hs or vice-royalties.


are

The

ruins

of Gour

in Bengal,

more

extenfive

that of ancient Delhi

much

more

fo.

The

plans of the Indian cities contain a vaft proportion

of gardens and refervoirs of water ; and the houfes of the


people confift of one floor only
:

common

of courfe, fewer people can be acas in

commodated
city
;

in the

fame compafs of ground,


for the

an European
Afiatie

and

this

may account

enormous dimenfions of

cities.

As

Pliny's

Indian itinerary (in

Book VI.) enumerates


of Palibothra

the parti-

culars of the

whole diilance between the Indus and the mouth of


fite
;

the Ganges

and particularizes the

it

could hardly

be doubted that fome very large city ftood in the pofition afligned
to
it
:

but
-f-

had always

doubt of

its

being the capital of the

Prafii

vifited

by Megafthenes.

Late enquiries made on the fpot,

have, however, brought out this very interefting difcovery, that a

very large city, which anciently ftood on or very near the


Patna, was

fite

of

named Patelpoot-her
that the

(or Pataliputra, according to Sir

William Jones) and


the Ganges
is

river Soane,

whofe confluence with


it

now

at

Moneah, 22 miles above Patna, once joined


This name agrees
fo nearly

under the walls of Patelpoot-her.

with

Palibothra, and the intelligence altogether furniflies fuch pofitive

kind of proof; that


all fall to

my former
;

conjedlures refpedling Canoge, muft

the ground

notwithftanding that Canoge was unquefl:ion-

ably the capital of a large

kingdom from very

early times.

I confider the above information as too clear

and pofltive

to re-

quire any proofs from ancient authors

and therefore the following

* The Olympic ftade can hardly be taken at a furlong, but probably at 200 yards. Then the dimenfions will be about 9 B. miles in length, and j in width. t The empire of the Pnifii feems to have included molt of the traft through which the
i

Gauges

flowi, after

it

eaters the plains of Hiiidooftan.

exami-

51
is

examination of Pliny's itinerary,


great accuracy in geographical

intended rather to fliew his


than as
a

fubjedls,

proof of the

above pofition

although

it

may

ferve that purpofe alfo.

To
is

ufe

the words of a celebrated

author, "

Pliny's natural hiilory

one

" of the greatefl monuments of univerfal knowledge, and unwearied " application, now extant in the world *." That part of the itinerary, applicable to

my purpofe,

is as

follows

From
Attock)
miles.

Taxila or Tapila, on the Indus (probably near the


-f-

fite

of

to the river

Hydafpes (the modern Chelum)

20

Roman

To the Hyphafis (5^(7y6) To the Hefudrus, probably the Setlege river To the Jomanes (yw;/Zi7(2) ~ To the Ganges ^ To Rhodopa ^ To Calinapaxa (a city) To the conflux X of the Jomanes (Jumna) _ and Ganges To Palibothra 'To the mouth of the Ganges
.

390 Roman
168

miles,.

168
112

119
1

67

..

225

425
638'

It

muft

firft

be obferved, of this itinerary, that


dijlance

it

fumifhes no-

means of comparing the whole

between the Indus and the

mouth of

the Ganges, as Ihewn here, with that on the

map
is

be-

caufe the fecond article, namely, the diftance

from the Hydafpes to


very

the Hyphafis,
obfcure)
is

is

obvioufly wrong, even if the text (which


at

to

be taken

390

for

it

cannot be more than 220 of

Pliny's miles,

unlefs the furveyor of Alexander's marches

threw

Blackwall. f Taxila or Tapila, and the Indus, are mentioned as one and the fame place by Pliny Adjiumen Indum ct oppidum Taxila. Book VI. J Here we may remark, by the way, that if any capital city had flood at the conilux of thffe riverSj it is likely that Pliny would have taken notice of it.

iL z

into

52

into the account, the circuitous route to the city of Sangala, Sec.
after the Catheri

or Cathei.
dirtance,
is

So that the account,


vitiated
;

as far as

it

re-

gards the

lo/jo/e

and we muft therefore have

recourfe to parfs.
river
is

Taking

therefore for granted, that the


(or rather Hypafis) as I

Beyah

meant by the Hyphafis

hope to
;

prove, fatisfadiorily in

my

obfervations on Alexander's

march

and

meafuring on the map, along the line of the great road from the
Panjab country to the mouth of the Ganges, the diftance will be

about 1140 G. miles:

ai-rd

as

the itinerary in queftion gives the

length of the fame interval at 2022

Roman

miles, the proportion

of one of Pliny's miles to


in horizontal diflance
;

geographic mile, will be as 56 to 100,


-^

or about

of a Britifh mile in road diftance.

This

is

certainly too

fliort

for the
cafe,

Roman
is

mile of 1000 paces*;

but the queftion in the prefent

not the actual diftance, but

the proportions of the intermediate parts of the road.

The

conflux

of the Ganges and Jumna, on the map,

is

990 of

Pliny's miles

from the Beyah, and 1032 above the mouth of the Ganges: and
the itinerary makes the length of the
firft

interval

959, the other

1063

that

is,

Pliny's account places

the conflux too far

down by

31 of his miles, or about 17 G. miles.


all to

Nor
:

is

this difference at

be regarded in the general queftion

for our ideas of the dif-

tance were

much

wider of the truth, 20 years ago.

Palibothra, he places

425

miles, or fo

many

parts in

1063, of
the

the diftance from the conflux of the

Jumna

to the

mourh of
and

Ganges
is

and

this

is

the point

we

are to attend to.

Patna indeed,
;

only 345 of Pliny's miles below the prefent conflux

this

difference of

80 of

Pliny's, or

about 44 G. miles, however confider-

able

it

may

appear to thofe
;

who

expedt nice coincidences in fuch


idea, lefl'en the general authority

matters as thefe

does not, in

my

of the itinerary

becaufe if

we admit

only what

is

literally

proved,

D'Anville is of opinion that Pliny turned the Greek ftades into miles, at the rate of and thus accounts for their fliortnefs. M. D'Anville, who has gone deeply into ; the fubjeft, thinks that it requires 1050 itinerary ftades (of horizontal meafure, I apprehend) See his Eclaircilltmens, page 5 ;. to make a degree of a great circle.
8 to a mile

M.

Pali.

53

Palibothra mufi;

flill

have been fituated within 44 miles of Patna.

And
there

as the

people there have a tradition that Patna flands on, or


it

near, the fite of Patelpoot-her,


is

rather proves to

me
;

either that

an error crept into the copies of the itinerary

which not;

withflanding, proves in generals as


the point of conflux of the a change.

much

as

is

required

or that

Jumna with
ought
to

the Ganges, has undergone


is

For although the point of conflux


it

not found in the

very pofition in which


is

be by the itinerary, yet Patna


It

nearer to

the pofition afligned to Palibothra.

may
it

appear to
is

fome, a violent way of reconciling difagreements, but

no new

thing for the rivers of India to change their courfe and place of
confluence.
I

have in another place * taken occafion to obferve


its

that the Cofa river changed

place of confluence with the Ganges,


it

which
ter
fite

is

now 45
its

miles higher up, than


courfe
ftill

was.
to

The Burrampoonearer to the

has varied

more.

And

come

of Patna, the change in the conflux of the Soane, juft


It

now
were

remarked.

would be unneceflary

to enter fo far into a difcuHlon


difliances

of thefe differences, had not Pliny aflured us that the meafured


;

and that by order of

Seleuciis Nicator.

We

may

obferve that Arrian does not mention the

name 'Romanes
if

in his book, although he does that of Sonus.

And

we had no

other authority than that


the Jomanes, a river

paflTage in Pliny,

which

exprefsly fays that

which

pafles

by Methora (probably Matura)

runs into the Ganges by Palibothra,


this city

we mufl have

fuppofed that

was feated
that

at the

conflux of the two rivers.

But the
this

iti-

nerary fays

Palibothra was

425 miles below


river,

conflux.

Pliny mufl: therefore have meant another

different

from the

Jomanes.
Strabo gives the diftance of Palibothra above the

mouth of the
fl:ades

Ganges
of the

at

6000

fladia

and though we cannot

fix

the exat length

ftade,

we

can colledt enough to underffand that 6000

Philofophical Tranfaftion.s

^'oI. K'xi,

page 99,
laid.

54

}
faf,

kid off from the mouth of the Ganges would not reach
all,

if at

beyond Patna

*.

Nor muft we

forget

the paffage of Arrian

(in Indicis) in

which Palibothra, the chief


faid to lie

city of the Indians

upon

the Ganges,

is

towards the mouths of that river.

But we

ought not to omit, on the other hand, that Arrian quotes from
Eratofthenes, the diftance of Palibothra from the weftern extreme

of India, which

is

faid to be
j

10,000

ftades,

only: and that Pto-

lemy gives
to

its

latitude at 27 to Patna.

both which particulars apply better

Canoge than

It is poffible that

both places may have

been occafionally ufcd

as capitals

of the

Prafii, as

we

have

known

both Agra and Delhi to have been of Hindooftan in general, during


the two
lall

centuries.
is

Pliny's Palibothra, however,


that Strabo

clearly

Patna

and

it

is

probable

meant the fame place, by the diftance from the mouth

of the Ganges.

Canoge

-f-,.

the ruins of

which

are at
asra,

prefent of great extent,

was, in an early part of the chriftian


ftan
;

the capital of

HindooIt is

or rather, of the principal

kingdom along the Ganges.


It is fituated

now
right

reduced to the fize of a middling town.

on the
river

bank of the Ganges, near the place where the Calini


it
;

(or Callynuddi) joins

and
to
is

is

poflibly the place

meant by Pliny

for Calinipaxa.

It is faid
:

have been built more than a 1000


Feriflita

years before our asra

and

mentioned in

^s the capital

of

all

Hindooftan, under the predeceffor of Phoor, or Porus,

who

fought againft Alexander.

In point of extent and magnificence,,,


to the defcription given of Palibothra;
it

Canoge anfwers perfedly


and
in

fome

refpetfts to

the local pofition of

given by Ptolemy
it

and Eratofthenes, did not the above authorities aflign


tive

in a pofi-

manner

to Patna.

The

Indian hiftories are full of the accounts

of

its

grandeur and populoufnefs.

In the fixth century

it

was

faid-

* See page 52 where 1050 to a degree is the proportion fixed on by Latitude 27 3', Longitude 80 13'.

M.

D'Anville.

X Before Chrift 326 years.

to

55

to contain 30,000 fliops, in

which betduut was

fold

(which the

Indians, almofl univerially, chew, as

feme Europeans do tobacco).


at

In A. D. 1018,

it

was
its

feized on,

by the Gaznian Emperors:

which time,
capital.

it

gave

name

to the

kingdom, of which

it

was the

Gour, called

alfo

Lucknouti, the ancient capital of Bengal, and


left

fuppofed to be the Gangia regia of Ptolemy, flood on the

bank

of the Ganges, about 25 miles below Rajemal *.


pital

It v/as the ca-

of Bengal 730 years before Chrift

-f,

and was repaired and

beautified

by Acbar

%,

who

gave

it

the
it

name of Jennuteabad
was
fituated,
ftill

-,

which name, a
According
occafioned
to
it

part of the circar in


Feriflita's

which

bears.
air,

account, the unwholefomenefs of


;

its

to be deferted foon after to

and the

feat

of government
river.

was removed

Tanda, or Tanrah, a few miles higher up the


fite

No part

of the

of ancient

Gour

is

nearer to the prefent

bank
it,

of the Ganges than four miles and a half; and fome parts of

which were
it.

originally waflied

by that

river,

are

now

2 miles

from

However,
runs by
its

a fmall flream that

communicates with the Ganges,

now

well

fide,

and

is

navigable during the rainy feafon.


it

On

the call fide, and in fome places within two miles,


river
;

has the

Mahanada

which

is

always navigable, and communicates alfo

with the Ganges.

Taking the extent of the


calculation,
it is

ruins of
1

Gour

at

the moil reafonable

not

lefs

than

5 miles in length (extending along


Several

the old bank of the Ganges) and from 2 to 3 in breadth.


villages

fiand

on part of

its

fite

the remainder

is

either covered
5

with thick
or

forefis,

the habitations of tygers and other beafls of prey

become

arable land,

whofe

foil is chiefly

compofed of brick-dufl.

The

principal ruins are a

mofque

lined with black marble, elabocitadel,

rately

wrought

and two gates of the


longitude 88 14'. account ; but Ibrne of

which

are flrikingly

Latitude
I'his
is

24. 53',

f Dow
its

ift.

6.

J A. D. 1575.

Feriflita's

prefeiu inhabitants told

me that it was

deferted

in confequcnce of a pellilence.

grand

56

grand and

lofty.

Thefe fabricks and fome few

others, appear to
lefs

owe

their duration to the nature

of their materials, which are

marketable, and more difficult to feparate, than thofe of the ordi-

nary brick buildings


article

which have been, and continue


;

to

be, an

of merchandize

and

are

tranfported

to

Moorfhedabad,

Mauldah, and other

places, for

the purpoie of building.


I

Thefe

bricks are of the moft folid texture of any


preferved the iliarpnefs
furfaces,

ever faw

and have

of their edges, of ages.

and fmoothnefs of their


fituation

through a

feries

The

of Gour was
as

highly convenient for the capital of Bengal and Bahar,

united

under one governm.ent

being nearly centrical with refpeft to the

populous parts of thofe provinces; and near the jundlion of the


principal rivers that compofe that extraordinary inland navigation,
for

which

thofe provinces are frmed


rivers,

and moreover, fecured by the

Ganges and other

on the only quarter from which Bengal


fometimes Chawafpour Tanda, from

has any caufe for apprehenfion.

Tandah, or Tanrah,
the original
Ihort time

(called

name of

the diftrid in

which

it

was

fituated)

was for a

the reign of Shere Shaw, in about 1540, the capital

of Bengal, and became the eflablifhed capital under Acbar in about

1580.

It is fituated
it

very near to the

fite

of Gour, on the road

leading from

to Rajemal.
;

There

is little

remaining of this place,

lave the rampart

nor do

we know

for certain

In 1659,

it

was

the. capital
:

of Bengal,

when it was deferted. when that foubah was recapital, after

duced under Aurungzebe

and Rajemal, Dacca, and Moorflieda-

bad, appear to have fucceilively

become the

Tanda.
Bengal>

Pundua, or Purruah, mentioned


in the year

as a royal refidence in
to

1353
the

*,

is

about 7 miles

the north of Mauldah, and

lo from the
particularly

neareft part of

Gour.

Many

of

its

ruins yet remain;


a very

Addeenah mofque, and the pavement of


lies in

long

ftreet,

which

the line of the road leading from

Mauldah

to Dinagepour.

Dow

I ft.

340,

Satgong^,

57

Satgong, or Satagong,
creek of the

now

an inconfiderable viflage on a fmall


to

Hoogly
in

river,

about 4 miles
later,

the north-weft of

Hoogly, was,

J566, and probably


traders

a large trading city, in

which the European

had

their facftories in Bengal.


velfels
j

At

that

time Satgong river was capable of bearing fmall


pe(3:,

and,

I fuf-

that

its

then courfe, after palTing Satgong,

was by way of
river

Adaumpour, Omptah,

and Tamlook
its

and that the

called

the old Ganges, v/as a part of

courfe, and received that


frefli in

name,

while the circnmtlance of the change was


the people.

the

memory of

The

appearance of the country between Satgong and

Ta.mlook, countenances fuch an opinion.

Sonergong, or Sunncrgaum, was a large


capital

city,

and the provincial

of the eaftern divifion of Bengal, before Dacca was built


is

but

it

now dwindled
a

to a village.
1

It is

utuatcd on one of the

branches of the Burrampootcr, about


ca
i

3 miles fouth-eaft

from Dac-

and was famous for

manufadure of

fine cotton cloths.

In fome ancient maps, and books of travels,


city nan\ed Bengalla-^
iij

but no traces of fuch a

we meet with place now exift.


the Ganges
:

a
It I

defcribed as being near the eallern


iitc

mouth of

and
:

conceive that the


in

of

it

has been carried away by the river

as

my

remembrance

a vaft

tra(ft

of land has difappeared thereabouts.

Bengallah, appears to have been in exigence during the early part

of the
It

lail

century.
fall

does not

within the compafs of

my

defign to defcribe all


a

the principal cities of Hindooftan,

which alone would require


feveral

krgc volume
pofitions,

but

it

may

not be

artiifs

to point out their general

and the relation in which they fland to the

pro-

vinces or fcates, in

which they

are fituated.

Mofl of the
laft

capital
"

cities are already defcribed as

they were in the

century, in the
la

books of

travels

of Thevenot, Bernier, Tavernier, P. de

Valle,

&c. which

are in every body's hands.

Moft of

thefe cities, have,


^

I believe, very confiderably declined fince that

time

owing

to the

almolt continual wars and revolutions, that have taken place, fince
I

the

r
the death of Aurengzebej and

5^

}
fufficient to defolate any;

which were

country that did not produce almofl fpontaneoufly

and of courfe^

where the deficiency of population

is

quickly replaced.

Within the
cities

tradt difcuffed in

the prefent feftion, the principal


Patna,.

are,

Calcutta,

Moorihedabad,

Dacca, Coffimbazar,
:

Mauldah,
within the

and Hoogly, within the Bengal provinces


diftridl

Benares,

of the fame name, under the

Britifli

fovereignty
Bereilly,

and Lucknov/,

Fyzabad,
to

Oude,

Jionpour,

Allahabad,
:

and Corah,
late

fubje<5l

the

Nabob of Oude, our Ally


is

and Agra^

in the poiTeffion

of Nudjuff Cawn.

Generally fpeaking, the


all
;

defcription of one Indian city,


all

a defcription of

they being

built
;

on one plan, with exceeding narrow, confined, and crooked


with an incredible number of
gardens, interfperfed.
refervoirs

flreets

and ponds, and a


flreets are

great

many

few of the
:

paved
others
:

with brick.

The
a

houfes are varioufly built


flill

fome of

brick,

with mud, and

greater proportion with

bamboos and mats

and thefe different kinds of fabricks ftanding intermixed with each


other,

form

motley appearance

thofe of the latter kinds are inva-

riably of one ftory,

and covered with thatch.


and have
flat,

Thofe of brick^

feldom exceed two


former
claffes

floors,

terraced roofs.

The twa
meet

far

outnumber the

laft,

which

are often fo thinly

fcattered,

that fires,

which

often happen,-^ do not, fometimes,


flreet.

with the obftru6lion of a brick houfe through a whole


Calcutta,
is

in part,

an exception to this rule of building; for

there, the quarter inhabited

by the Englifh,

is

compofed entirely
the appearance of
city,

of brick buildings,

many of which have more


:

palaces than of private houfes

but the remainder of the


I

and

by much the

greatefl: part,

is

built as

have defcribed the


years,

cities

in general to be.

Within

thefe

20 or 25

Calcutta has been

wonderfully improved both in appearance, and in the falubrity bf


its

air

for the ftreets have


;

been properly drained, and the ponds

filled

up

thereby removing a vaft furface of .flagnant water, the

exhalations from

which were

particularly hurtful.

Calcutta

is

well

known

59

]
tlie feat

known io be
fuppofed
at

the

emporium of Bengal, and


It is

of the Governor
city,

General of India.

a very extenfive

and populous

being
Its

prefent to contain at leaft


is

500,000 inhabitants.
has fome extenfive
It
i^

local fjtuation

not fortunate
foreft,

for to
it.

it

muddy

Jakes,

and

vaft

clofc

remarkable, that the

EngUfli have been more inattentive than other European nations, to


the natural advantages of fituation,
Calcutta
is

in

their foreign

fettlements.
at

fjtuated

on the weflcrn arm of the Ganges,


;

about 100

miles from the fea the largeil

and the

river is navigable
It is a

up

to the town, for

fliips that vifit India.

modern

city,

having rifen
It

on the

fite

of the village of Govjn.dpour, about 90 years ago.


poi4it,

has a citadel, fuperior in every


corre<5tncfs of defign, to

as

it
:

regards (irength, and

any

fortrefs in India

but on too extenfive

a fcale to anfwcr the ufeful purpofe intended, that of holding a

port in cafe of extremity


a proper garrifon for
it,

fince the

number of
field.

troops required for

could keep the

It

was begun immeto the Britiih, an

diately after the vi^^ory at PlalTey,

which infured
by fecuring

unlimited influence in Bengal


render
all
it

and the intention of Clive was to


a tenable port at
vafl

as

permanent

as

poiTible,

times.

Clive, however,
it,

had no foiefight of the


to

expence

attending
fterUng.

which perhaps may have been equal


a fmall, but ancient city

two millions
river as Calit.

Hoogly
cutta,

is

on the fame

though on the oppoiite fidej and about 26 miles above


it

In the time of the Pvlohamedan government,

was the Bunder or


Danes,
this part

Port of the weflern arm of the Ganges

where the cufloms or duties


French,

on merchandife,

were colleded.

The

Dutch,

and Portuguefe, have each of them a town and fadlory on


of the
river,

and between Koogly and Calcutta


along the
river.

and

all

within the

extent of 10 miles,

The French

fettlement of

Chandernagore, and the Dutch one of Chinfura, are both very neat

and pretty large towns


Calcutta.

and each of them on a better

fite

than

Moor^

6o

Moorfhedabad, iituated

alfo

on the weftern arm of the Ganges


is

which

is

there very
It

low

in the dry feafon,


capital

about

20 miles above

Calcutta.

was the

of the Bengal provinces until the


:

eftablifliment of the Britifli


feat

power

and even long


;

after,

it

was the

of the Colledlor general of the revenues


It is

being a more centriill

cal fituation than Calcutta.


its

very large, but

built; and in

plan fo very irregular, that


it

it is

difficult to eftimate the quantity


city,

of ground

ftands on.

It is

modern

and does not contain


private
:

any magnificent buildings,


ever fortified except

either public or

nor was

it
it,

by an

occafional rampart

thrown up round

on the Mahratta invafion

in

1742

*.

This

city is

now

decaying,

efpecially fince the removal of the in 1771.

Board of Revenue to Calcutta,

Coflimbazar

is

a fmall city,

nearly adjacent to Moorfliedabad,

and was
fadlors
;

at all

times the place of refidence of the different European

this being the centre of their trade.


is

Mauldah

a pretty neat city, not far

removed from the north


communicates with
its
it.

bank of the Ganges, and on


It arofe out of the ruins

a river that

of Gour, which are in


it

neighbourhood.

In point of general fituation,

is

about 70 miles to the north of


is

Moorfhedabad.

This,

as

well as Coffimbazar,

a place of trade,

and

in particular produces
lies

much

filk

Rajemal

on the weft bank of the Ganges nearly


it
3

in the parallel

of Mauldah, and about 20 miles from of


hills

at the foot

of the chain

which

projcdls into the

river,

at

Siclygully and Terria-

gully.

It is in a
I

ruinous

ftate,

although the refidence of the Vice-

roy not

30

j'ears

ago

and has hardly the population of an ordinary


Its fituation
is

market town,
fant
:

at prefent.

romantic, but not plea-

for in

Hindooftan, the

hills

and eminences being always co-

vered with wood, that beautiful fwelling of the ground,


fo juftly

which

is
is

admired in European landfcapes,


See Introduftion.

is

loft;

and the fancy

prefented

6i

prefented at bcft with nothing beyond a wild fcene

which can only

be reliihed by being contrafted with foft and beautiful ones,

M.

D'Anville confidered Rajemal as being feated at the head of the


Delta of the Ganges
:

but

it is

more than 30 miles above

it.

Dacca

is

fituated in the eaflern quarter

of Bengal, and beyond the

principal ftream of the Ganges, although a very capital branch of


it

runs under

it.

Few

fituations are better calculated for an inland


;

emporium of
with
all

trade, than this

as

the
j

Dacca

river

communicates

the other inland navigations


:

and that not by a circuitous,


feen

but by a diredl communication


environs, in the Bengal Atlas.
yincial capital of this quarter;

as It

may be
is

by the plan of

its

fucceeded Sonergong, as the prothe -third city of Bengal, in


;

and
It

point of extent and population.

has a vaft trade in muflins

and

manufa<ftures the moft delicate ones,

among
is

thofe that are fo

much
:

fought after in Europe


province.

and the cotton

produced within the

Dacca has

in its turn

been the capital of Bengal

and

that within the prefent century.

There

are the remains

of a very
it,

ftrong fortrefs in it; and within thefe few years there was near

cannon of extraordinary weight and dimenfions *


fallen into the river,

but

it

has fince

together with the bank on

which

it

refted.

Dacca

is

fituated about

100 miles above the mouth of the Ganges,

and 180 by the road from Calcutta.

The

country round

it

lying

low, and being always covered with verdure during the dry months,
As it may gratify the curiofity of fome of mv readers, I have here inferted the dimenfions and weight of this gun. I took the meafures very carefully throughout, and calculated each part feparately. It was made of hammered iron it being an immenfe tube formed of 14 bars, v.'ith rings of 2 or 3 inches wide driven over them, and hammered down into a imooth furface fo that its appearance was equal to that of the bell executed piece of brafs ordnance, although its proportions were faulty.
; ;

Whole length
Diameter
'

at the

breech

foot

the
' '

from the muzzle muzzle -

""33
-

22

feet

lOx
10

inches..

2 2
i

Zt
3^

The gun

of the bore

contained 234,413 cubic inches of wrought iron: and confequently weighed 64,814 pounds avoirdupoize ; or about the weight of eleven 32 pounders. Weight of an iron ihot for the gun 465 pounds.

It

62

it Is

not fubjed to fuch violent heats as Moorlhedabad, Patna^ and

other places.

Patna
pulous

is

the chief city of Bahar, and


built along the fouthern

is

a very extenfive

and po-

city,

bank of the Ganges, about

400 miles from Calcutta, and 500 from the mouth of the river. Having been often the feat of war, it is fortified in the Indian manner with a wall and a fmall citadel.
able trade.
It is a place

of very confider-

Moft of the

faltpetre

imported by the Eaft India

Comvery

pany,

is

manufadured within the province of Bahar.


i

It is a

ancient city

and probably

its
}

modern name may be derived from

Pataliputra, or Patelpoot-her

which we have fuppofed above

to

be the ancient Palibothra.


Benares
is

the chief city of the diftrid


confifts

commonly known by

that

name (and which

of the circars of Benares,


is

Jionpour,

Chunar, and Gazypour) but

more celebrated

as the ancient feat


j

of Braminical learning, than on any other account

although

it

be

a fine city, and very rich and populous, and the moft
built of any.
is

compadly
Its ancient
it,

It is built

along the north bank of the Ganges, and


road, about

diftant

from Calcutta, by the


Kafi
;

460

miles.

name was

but there are no notices concerning


I

in the

works of the ancient geographers.

think, if

it

had exiftcd during


it,

the time of the Syrian Arabaffadors, Pliny would have noticed


as

he has done Methora (Matura) and Chfobara, which lay near the
river.
is

Jumna
rivers

Allahabad

feated at the point

of confluence of the two great


to Piyaug.
as a place

Ganges and Jumna, and fucceeded


city,

Acbar foundof arms, as


its

ed the prefent
fituation
is

which he intended
it

very important both as

refpeds the navigation of the


it.

two

rivers,

and the country of the Doab, behind

Allahabad

is

about 820 miles above the mouth of the Ganges, and 5^0 by land

from Calcutta.

It

belongs to the
refill:

Nabob of Oude, but

its

fortifi-

cations will hardly

the battering of a field piece.

Luck-

Lucknow
late capital

Is

the prefent capital of Oude, having fuperfeded the

Fyzabad, on the occafion of the Rohilla and other conleft


i*

quefts

which

rather in a corner of the

kingdom,

as it

is

now

conftituted, and in that corner the fartheft rennoved


It
is

from the

fcene of bufinefs.
tenfive
:

a very ancient city,

and moderately ex-

but after the

fliort

account given above of the nature of

the ordinary buildings, a city


its

may
:

very fuddenly be augmented on

becoming a

royal

refidence

and Fyzabad of courfe may have

declined.

fmall river,

named the Goomty, runs under Luck;

now, and communicates with the Ganges


leaft
ij;

but this

laft river is at

With refpedt to Calcutta, of Lucknow. 43 miles to the S is diftant by the neareft road, 650 miles; and about 280 from
All
is

Delhi.

one

vaft plain

from Lucknow

to the

mouth of

the

Ganges.

Fyzabad
and
is

lies

on the

river

Gogra, a very large river from Thibet,

fituated

about 80 miles to the eaftward of Lucknow, and 560


It is a

from Calcutta.
is

very large city, and nearly adjoining to

it,

the very ancient city of

Oude
till

or Ajudiah.

Fyzabad was the


;

capital

of the Nabob of Oude,


lituation,

within thefe few years

but

it

was an inconvenient
Jionpour
the
is

even before the Rohilla conqueft.


river,

a fmall city

on the Goomty

N W of Benares,
between the two

about 40 miles to

and in the road from that city to Fyzabad.


is

Corah, or Corah- Jehenabad


try

a fmall city in the

Doab
Both

or counthis city

rivers

Ganges and Jumnah.

and Jionpour, are within the Nabob of Oude's dominions.


Bereilly
is

the capital of Rohilcund,

which was added


It is

to the

do-

minions of Oude, in the year 1774.


fituated about half

but a fmall city and

way between Lucknow and Delhi,


as
I

The

city of

Agra*,

have faid before,

is
;

fituated

at the

weftern extremity of the

tracft

under difcuffion
is

and on the fouth

bank of the Jumna


r

river,

which

very feldom fordable.

This

* Latitude 27

5',

longitude 78 29' by Claud Boudier

78" 28' in

tlte

map.

city

64

city appears to have been during the late century,

and in the begin-

ning of the prefent, the


at this

mofl; fpiendid

of

all

the Indian cities y and

time exhibits the moft magnificent


its

r'jins^

About the

year

1566, the Emperor Acbar, liking


tal,

fituation,
it i|

made

it

his capi-

and gave his name to


It vs^as

it

fmce which,
-,

often
it

named Acbar-

abad.

then a fmall fortified town


v^^ell

but

foon fprung up

to an extenfive

built city, regularly fortified according to the

Indian method, and w^ith a fine citadel of red free-fbone.


it

Perhaps

has feldom happened, that a city of fuch great extent and


If Ptolemy, by Agara,
j

magmeant

nificence has declined fo rapidly.

Agra,

it

is

certainly a place of great antiquity

but he has ot

placed Agara in

the fituation where

we

Ihould look for Agra


it,

Biana or Baniana feems to have immediately preceded


capital of the province

as the

now

called Agra, and

which was

originally

included in the kingdom of Canogc.

SECTION

SECTION
its

III.

The TraSi occupied by the Courfe of the River Indus and


principal Branches
:

with the adjacent Countries on


as the Cities of h.Q'^h^

the South

and
;

Eaji^ as
the

far

and

Agimere

and

River

V\iT>T)A.'9i,

THIS
in width.

part comprehends in general the foubahs or provinces


;

of Lahore, Moaltan, and Sindy


Agimere, and the weftern parts
tff

with the northern parts of


:

Agra and Delhi


to

and

is

about

700 B. miles
It

in length
is

from

NE

SWj

bounded on the

eaft

and from 550 to 350 by Mount Sewalic, and by


;

an imaginary line drawn from Hurdwar to Agra

on the fouth by
and on the

the great road leading from Agra to Agimere, and by the river

Puddar

on the weft by the Arabian

fea,

and Perfia

north by Cabul and Cafhmere.


Delhi,
the nominal capital of Hindooftan at prefent, and the

aftual capital during the greateft part of the time fance the

Mohalati-

medan conqueft, has


tude and longitude
-,

its

pofitlon determined

by obfervationS of from the

which

obfervations accord both with the maps,


its

and with the popular eftimation of

diilance,

nearefl

points in the furveyed traft, mentioned in the

laft feftion.

We
year
1

firft

hear of Delhi, as the capital of Hindooftan, about the


It is reported to
;

200.

have been founded by Delu *, about


i believe
:

300 years before our sera


,fi
.i--\?-

and

fhould properly be written


name of Delhi, was
Inderput.

:'.(!?

hv.&

?^t!ui;:oii

feriihta.

The Ayin Acbaree

fays that the ancient

Dehly.

X
Dehfy.
it

66

Although
fo

more extenfive and populous

city than Agra,

was not

well built.

Shah Jehan, grandfon of Acbar and father


it

of Aurengzebe, made this city his refidence, and diredted


called Shahjehanabad
;

to

be

and by

this

kind of vanity,

it

happens, that
:

moft of the Indian


fions great confufion,

cities

have a plurality of names


it

which occaany event

when

becomes neceflary

to trace

to a high period of antiquity.

Delhi, which

is

now

fituated

on the right, or weftern bank of the


It is difficult to afcertain

Jumna, anciently ftood on the oppoiite bank.


the true meafure of extent of this city,
ring the latter part of the
It is certain,
laft

which was

faid to contain,

du-

century,

two millions of inhabitants.

that the account given

by Bernier,

who

had good op-

portunities of being informed, and

who

deferves the greateft credit


its

for veracity, does not juflify fo high a calculation of

inhabitants.

His account was indeed written


acceflion of

in 1663, only four years after the

Aurengzebe

and

it is

well

known

that under his reign,

both the empire and


fay, eftimated

capital

were greatly augmented.

Bernier, I

the circumference of Delhi, at three leagues only,


fortifications
;

reckoning what was within the

befides

which, he

defcribes feveral fuburbs, but altogether,


for a capital city in India.
larger.
to,

no extraordinary extent
as being confiderably
it

He

defcribes

Agra

After the plunders and maflacres that

has been fubjeil

fince the decline


it

and downfall of the Mogul empire,

we may

exped:

to be reduced very

low

and accordingly,
;

it

is

fpoken of

by

late travellers as a city

of moderate extent

and even for an Indian

city,

very

ill

built.

Claud Boudier found the


longitude 77 40'.

latitude

of Delhi

to

be 28 37'i and

its

MS. map communicated by Mr.


gives 5
in
1

Haftings,

and which includes fome principal roads in the Dooab, between


Furruckabad, Matura, Anopefheer, and Delhi
}

G. miles
furvey
t-he

of wefting from Anopeflieer,


to

the

nearefl

point

the

Delhi; and 16 of northing: and

this agrees perfedlly

with

obfervation of longitude, and comes within one minute of the latitude.

Delhi

is

alfo

40 computed

coffes

from Ramgaut, another


point

6;

]
it

point in the furvey


eaft

but this would place


It is placed

4 miles further

to the

than the obfervation.

according to the obfervation,

and the diilance from Anopefheer.


are

Beyond Delhi, weftwards, there


except the computed dif-

no points determined mathematically, by which the length and


;

direction of the route can be afcertained

tances

between places; and fome latitudes and longitudes, taken


if

with

little precifion,

we may judge by

a comparifon of fome of

the obiervations from the fame catalogue, with thofe taken by


peans.

Eu-

For
to

inftance, the latitude

of Jionpour' and Burhanpour are

from 21
35 too
little

25 miles too

far north, in the

Ayin Acbaree;

Oude,

far

north; and Delhi, 22 too far fouth.

We have therefore
much
nearer the
fide the error lies.

reafon to fuppofe that any of the others are


;

truth

nor

is

there any rule to guefs on


ftill

which

The

longitudes are

more vague

as for inftance

By theA. A.

By

the

Mag.

The

difference of longitude be- 7


is

00/

tween Delhi and Oude Delhi and Jionpour -

428

The
fedtioh^

conftru6tion of the geography of the


'tiifhs

tracfl

fpoken of in this
or points
;

chiefly

on eight primary
:

Jiations,

and

^^h1ch will be difcufted in order


tan,

they are^ Lahore, Sirhind,

Moul-

Attock, Toulomba, Batnir,


firft

Jummdo, and
I

Bullaufpour.

The

point beyond Delhi that


is

have any kind of data for

fixing the pofition of,

Lahore, a capital city in the Panjab *, and


I

formerly a royal refidence.

have feveral

itineraries
)

and memoran-

dums

-of the road

between th two places

bat fomc are defedive


fol-

through omiflions, and others too obfcure to be underftood or


lowed.
Tavernier, for inftance, omits a whole ftage of
; 1

5 cofles,

between Furridabad and Sultanpour

which added

to his original

number 191, make 206


reckons only 189
the account
is
:

coffes.

John
I

Steel in his itinerary

(1614)
it,

but though

cannot trace any omiflions in


;

confufed and obfcure

and therefore

have given

it

up.

map of

the Panjab, obligingly

communicated by Colonel
gives the

John Murray, Commiflary General to the army in Bengal, diftance atjaoj coffes, or 293 G. miles.
;

ioiT_ fcnr; if!:^

<'[

Tavernier's account correfted

206

Thevenot's

>

Murray's

-"
at

200 '"205
to a degree,

The medium of which


291 G. miles.
I

is

203^3

or,

42

coffes
its

have allowed 290, and taken

latitude at 31;

fo that its longitude will

be 72 47', or 4 53' weft of Delhi.


_

The

Ayin Acbairee makes


tude
is

the longitude 5 16', or 23' more.


:

Its lati-

varioufly reprefented
j j

by the Ayin Acbaree 31 50'; by


j

Thevenot, the fame

in an Indian table 31

by

MS.

itinerary

-|-

(dated 1662) 30 30'


"'

and by Col. Murray's

map

'31 15'.

'* PanJTib, or the country of i!K five ri-vers, is a natural divilion of th&K;ountry contained between thp 5 eaftern branches of the Indus.. .. f This itinerary was obligingly communicated by the late Mr. Gecrge Perrji, and- appears' to have been kept by a miffionary who travelled from Delhi to Ferfia, by way of, the Panjab and Sindy. It fliould be obfervcd, that all the latitudes in it arc too far fouth-. The latitude of Agra is fet down at 26 45', though its true latitude is 27" 15'. And Moultan in 29 32',' and Tatta in 24 20' j which places are commonly taken at 29 52', and 24 40'.

Lahore

69

Lahore

is

a very important point in this conilrudion, as

it

regu-

lates the pofitions

of

all

the places between Delhi and the Indus

and therefore we have reafon to regret that we have no better authority for fixing
it.

Lahore
firft

is

a place of

high antiquity, and was the refidence of the


efta-its

Mahomedan

conquerors of Hindoollan, before they had


It

blifhed themfelves in the central parts of the country.

owed

modern improvements, however,


bar,

to

Huinaioon, the father of Ac-

who made

it

his refidence during a part of his


fays that, including the fuburbs, it
:

troublefomc

reign.

Thevenot

was 3 leagues

in length at that period

and,

when he

fawit, about the year 1665,

the city

itfelf

was above a league in extent.

Jehanguire, fon of
;

Acbar, allowed the Portuguefe to build a church there

and fome

of

its

furniture remained at the time of Thevenot's


(the ancient Hydraotes) on
its its

vilit.
is

The Rauvee
noble river
j

which

it

fituated,

is

and by
all

navigable courfe, has a communication with

the Indus, and


is

branches.

The

province, of

which Lahore'
;

the capital,

is

oftuer

named Panjab, than Lahore


is

however,
applicable

Panjab being applied to a natural divilion of country,


alfo,
tile
i

to part

of Moultan.

It is

very ex ten five, and remarkably fer-

affording, in addition to all the necefiaries of life, wine, fugars,J

and cotton wool


the province.

the

laft

of which fupplied the manufactories of


trad;

There

are alfo in the


fait

between the Indus and


;

Chelum,
&c.

(or Behut)

mines, wonderfully produftive


fait,

and afvef--

fording fragments of rock


els,

hard enough to

be-

formed into

Gold (according
its rivers
;

to the

Ayin Acbaree) was found


is

in the

channels of

and the fame

related

of thofe of Kemaoon,
Ice
is

which proceed
year.

frora the fame ridge of mountains.


to Lahore,
trees,

brought
all

from the northern mountains,

and fold there


fo

the

The famous

avenue of fliady

much

fpoken

of,

by

the early Indian travellers, began at Lahore, and extended to Agra,


near 500 Englifla miles.

Lahore

is

now

{he capital of the Seiks,

new

70

new power, whofe'name, evenasafeft, was


Sirhind
is

hardly known, until

the rapid decline of the Mogul's empire, in the prefent century.


a city of great antiquity, and lies about

midway becofles

tween Delhi and Lahore.


Delhi
;

Tavernier reckons
have placed
it

it

105

from

and

Steel,

99.

in its

proportion of the
is

whole diflance between Delhi and Lahore, which


about 147 G. miles.
Col. Murray's

103

cofles,

or

map

gives

108

cofles.
its

Not
left

having the latitude of Sirhind, and the line on which

parallel

depends being near 300 miles in length,


chance, as to
its

much muft

be

to

accuracy.

It

happens, however, that no obflacles

prefent themfelves between Delhi and Lahore, to give any confi-

derable elbow or bend, to any part of the road (fee page 6)


is

which

therefore, generally fpeaking, very ftraight

and only makirrg a

fmall bend northwards, in the neighbourhood of the

Jumna

river.

Sirhind flands in the map, in


I

lat.

29 ^^'t Ion.

yf

15'.

find

by Condamine's

travels in Italy,

that the art of

weaving

filk

was brought back to Conftantinople

in the fixteenth century (or Serinde according to

by the monks who returned from Sirhind


him).

For although the

art
it

was brought into weftern Europe,


had again been
lofl:

under the

Roman Emperors,

during the con-

fufions that attended the fubverfion of the weftern


It is

empire
of

worthy of remark,

alfo, that

Procopius takes notice, that


in India, in the time
is

filk

was brought from Serinda, a country

Juftinian (in the flxth century).

The
it,

reader
is;

apprized, that filk,

together with the Latin

name of
(a

underflood to have been

brought from Seres or Serica


the
1

N W of the
not.

country of upper Afia, bordering on

Chinefe wall).

This was
takes
calls it

Pliny's idea:

how jufl:,

know

The Ayin Acbaree


:

no notice of any manufac


a famous city (in the fix-

tures of filk at Sirhind

it

only

teenth century).

Between Delhi and Sirhind

are very extenfive plains,

within

which

are fituated the

towns of Panniput, and Carnawl, famous

for great battles, both in ancient

and modern times.

The

reafon

71

]
it

of
for

it,

is

obvioufly, the nature of the country, between


a vaft plain, fituated at the

and Delhi

it is

mouth of

a pafs

for fuch the

country immediately on the weft of Delhi may be confidered to be,


fhut up by the mountainous and clofe country of

Mewat and Agi:

mere on the one hand, and by the Jumna


road to

river

on the other
this

and

whether Delhi, Agra, or Canoge, was the


it

capital,

was the

from Tartary and

Perlia,

the original countries of the

conquerors of Hindooftan.
is

The

courfe of the

Jumna, above Delhi,


reference
to

determined in the

map by
river

the direction of the road to Sirhind;

Kungipara,

near that river,

being placed in

Car-

nawl

from whence the

bends (according to the

towards the
croffed
it

NE

to

Sehauranpour and Nen.


to

MS. maps) Mr. Forfter, who


eftimated the difcofles, in a

in his

way from Loldong

Jummoo,
about 40

tance between the Ganges and


wefterly diredlion.

Jumna

at

northare

The
it

place of the fource of the


to be remote, even

Jumna, we

ignorant of; but

would appear

from the place


it

where he
river.

croJTed it within the

mountains; for he found

a large

The upper

part of the
rivers,

Doab
its

*,

or tra6t of land between


feveral

the

Ganges and Jumna


by

has
are

geography from

MS. maps

and a few of the pofitions


lane,
tranilated

from Sherefeddin's hiftory of Tamerfound

M.

de

la

Croix.
are
in

Between Carnawl and Sirhind,

thefe

MS. maps,
of them are

three ftreams or rivers, croffing the great road.

Two

the Caggar (or Kenker) and the Surfooty (or Serefwatty) and the
third has

no name in the maps.


as

The

firft is

taken notice of in the

Ayin Acbaree,
and
as pafling

one of the

lefler

ftreams in the foubah of Delhi,


a celebrated place

on the weft of Tannafar,

of Hindoo

worfliip.

The

fecond pafles between Umballa and Sirhind;

and

the third between the


ftances,

two

others.

It is

probable, from circum-

that there

may be

others, although

deemed too

infignificant

Sfe an explanation of the term Pooab,

in the Introdaftion.

[
,to

72

merit notice.

All thefe ftreams run to the fouth, or fouth-weft


:

and probably mix either with the Indus, or Puddar


,merly fuppofed

though
I

I for?alfo,

them
half

to run to the S

E into the

Jumna.

had

with
Pliny,

M.

D'Anville,

fuppofed the Caggar to be the Hefudriu of

fituated

way between

the Hypha/is and Jomanes

but

having

now

difcovered the Beyah to be the river

meant by the

ancient Hyphafis, there can be no difficulty in pronouncing the


Setlege or Suttuluz, to be the Hefudrus, as
it

anfwers in point of

proportional diftance.
I

cannot find what river


Ferilhta, unlefs
it

is

meant by the Jidger, often mentioned


j

by

be a branch of the Caggar


its

which

river,

as

well as the Surfooty, has

fource in the Sewalic mountains, beits

tween Delhi and Sirhind; taking

courfe

by Semanah and Sunafter pafling

nam.

The
to
is

Surfooty,

we

learn

by the MS. maps,

by

Tannafar, Surfa or Surfutti, &c. joins the Caggar.

Near
worfhip,

Tannafar and the lake Koorkhet,


the
fite

places of

Hindoo

of the ancient city of Huflnapour, and of the


lately tranflated

war of theMAHABARUT (anepifode of which has been from the


.

original

Sanfcrit,

by Mr. Wilkins)

fo that this

ground,

which
war
the

is

not far from Carnawl and Panniput, has been the fcene of
;

in all ages

poetically, as well as hiftorically.

The

countries,

between Delhi, and the Panjab, being fcantily fupplied with water,

Emperor Ferofe
it

III.

undertook the noble


at

as

well as ufeful

taflc

of fupplying

better,

and

the fame time meant to apply the

water fo furnillied to the purpofes of navigation.


p.

Dow,

(Vol.

ift.

327)

tranflates

Feriflita

thus:

"In

the year

1355,

Ferofe

"marched
,"

to

Debalpour, where he made a canal 100 miles in


to the Jidger.

" length, from the Suttuluz


between the
hills

In the following year,

of Mendouli and Sirmore, he cut a channel from

." the

Jumna, which he divided into {Q\tr\ ftreams ; one of which " he brought to Haffi, and from thence to Beraifen, whe^ he built
a ftrong caftle, calling a canal
it

" "

by

his

own name.

He drew

foon after,

from the Caggar, pafling by the walls of

Sirfutti,
**

and

joined

[
*'

73

joined
after

it

to the river of

Kera; upon which he built a

city,

named

"

him, Ferofeabad.

Tliis city he watered with another canal

" from the Jumna. Thefe pubUc works were of prodigious advantage *' to the adjacent countries, by fupplying them with water for theic "
lands,

and with a commodious water-carriage from place

to place."

We

learn alfo

from the Ayin Acbaree, (Vol.

II. p.

107 Englifli
alfo HifTar-

tranflation) that Ferofe

founded the city of HllHir, (called

Feroozeh) and dug a canal from the


moreover,
that

the canal from the

Jumna Jumna
is

to

it.

And we

find,

at

Kungiparah,

to

Delhi, was the

work of

Ferofe

and
I

probably one of the feven

channels mentioned by Fcrilhta.

apprehend then, that Hiffar,


is

or Hiflar-Feroozeh, of the Ayin Acbaree, rofabad of Feriflita.

the fame with the

Fe-

But

poflibly,

Ferofe might only embellifli

and increafe the


it;

fortifications

of Hiflar, and then give his name to

a pracftice very
hiftoric records,

common
and no

in Hindooftan, to the utter confufion


lefs injuftice

of

to

the original founders.

The town

of Surfutti, by the authority of the


I

MS. maps and


wefi:
ftill

other

circumftances,

place on the river of that


;

name between Tannafar


or S

and Kythil
Kythil.

(or Kuteil)

and Hafli or Hanfi, on the

W of

HiiTar, or Ferofeabad, will


;

occupy

a place

further to

the S

and in

this pofition,

will be about
;

in a weft,

or weft-northwardly diredion

75 cofles from Delhi, and about 100 miles


of Debalpour, from
rivulet

from the Setlege or Suttuluz,

at the neareft part

whence the
cannot

canal was faid to be drawn.

The
:

of Kerah,
it

trace,

any more than the Jidger


as to myfelf,

but

think

will appear

as clear to the reader,

when

the text, and the different

pofitions in the
for their

map,

are confidered,

that thefe different canals

had

immediate object, the jund:ion of the Setlege and Jumna


and remotely, that of the Indus and Ganges;

rivers;

although

they do not allow us to comprehend the whole fcope of Ferofe's


plan of inland navigation.

By

a flight infpedtion of the

map,

it

will appear that this proicfl would, if the

ground admitted of

its

being fuccefsfully put into execution, be one of the greateft under-

takings

74

I
;

takings of the kind that ever was projedled

that of cutting througtt


Iliould then

the ifthmus of Sutz, only excepted.

We

have feen

two

capital

rivers,

which

traverfe a large part of the continent

of

Afia; which enter the fea at


flretch out their
fo as

1500 B. miles afunder


to

and which
art,

arms

as it were,

meet each other

united by

to
i

form an uninterrupted inland navigation from Cabul to


I

AfTam

take

it

for granted that this canal


it,

was never completed,

otherwife

we

fhould have heard more of

as

we have of

the canals

leading from the Jumna.

The
is

diftance

between the navigable parts

of the

Jumna and

Setlege,

not 120 B. miles, diredl.


ift

Again, (in page 329 of Dow's

volume)

it

is faid

that Ferofe
Setlege,

turned the courfe of a large rivulet which

fell

into the

from Hirdar

in the province of Sirhind, into the Selima, a fmaller

rivulet that ran

fouthwards towards Sunnam

(a place

14 G. miles

W of Semanah).

Improvements of

this

kind, occur fo feldom

in the hillory of Hindooftan,


cres, are the principal fubjedt,

where barbarous conqudls and malTathat they are dwelt

on with

pleafure,

whenever they appear

and

we

have only to regret on the prefent

occafion, that the defcription of

them
its

is

fo obfcure.

Semanah
at

(or

Sammanah) has
;

diftance given
its

from Panniput,
is

52

coffes,

in Sherefeddin line

but

diflance

from Sirhind

in-

ferred
I

from the
it

of Tamerlane's march from Batnir to Panniput.


in a S

had placed
it

43 1 G. miles

by

E ^E

diredlion

from Sirhind

and find but on


a

in Col. Murray's

map
It is

S by

nearly the fame diftance (44 miles)

bearing.

included in the circar of Sirhind


to

and the

circar of Hiflar,

lies

immediately

the fcuth of

it.

On

the weft and S

of Hiflar and Semanah, our knowledge, both


is

geographical and political,

very

much
is

confined.

Timur's (or
river,

Tamerlane's) route from Batnir, the courfe of the Caggar

and

the road from Agimere to Jefl"elmere,


filling

all

that

we have towards
;

up

fo large a void.

The

firft is

from Sherefeddin

the others

from Mr. Haftings's, and Col. Popham's MS. maps.

The

7^

The common
enough on

boundaries of Agimere, Delhi, and


:

Moulun,

\ve

have no means of afcertaining


this fubjedl,

nor

is

the Ayin Acbaree particukj'

to lend

any

affiftance

towards

it.

Mewat,
tween the

or

the hilly trad: lying on the weft of the Jumna, be-

parallels

of Agra and Delhi,


are

as

well as the northern and


alio,

eaftern parts of

Agimere, which
the

mountainous

have their

geography
Hallings,
fubjedt of

much improved by
and Col. Popham.
tlie

MS. maps communicated by Mr.


is

There

little

to be faid

on the
is

conilru(5lion

of thefe

parts.
parallel

Agimere, which
and
to
fc^le

the

primary point that determines the


parts, will

of the wellern
it

be

difcufl'ed

in the next fedlion,

which

properly

belongs

the pofitions on the north and eaft of


jufl mentioned.

it,

are taken chiefly

from the MSS.

Jaepour or Jaynagur, the capital of one of the Rajpoot Princes In


the eaflern quarter of Aghiiere, has
its

longitude given by Claud

Boudier,

at

76

9',

or

19'

weft

from

the
it

city

of Asrra.
:

All the
and,

MS. maps

that I have confulted, place

very dift'erently

I find,

I cannot allow a greater difference than 1 55',


all

without

rejedling the fcales of

the

MS. maps

which,

as

they are formed

from the

difference of latitude,
in

would be

abfurd.
:

Perhaps the
D'Anville has

numbers

Claud Boudier's
5'

table, are not right

M.
is

them

at

76

in the Eclairciffemens,

which

flill

wider from

probability.
It appears

by

M.

D'Anville, that the Rajah of Jaepour (by

name

Jeffing)
tal

had eredled two obfervatories, one in his newly built capiis

of Jaepour (which

about a league from

Umbeer

or

Ambccr,

the ancient capital)

the other in one


at

of the fuburbs of Delhi.

Father Claud Boudier,

the Rajah's requeft vifited the former of


the year 1732
:

thefe obfervatories about

and

think

it

probable

that

wc

are indebted to the Rajah's affiftance for

fome others of the

obfervationa

made by Claud Boudier

particularly thofe at Acrra

and Delhi.

The

latitude of Jaepour

is

26 56' 3 and

M.

D'Anville
in

76
it

In his Antiquite de

VInde reckons

50 leagues from Delhi, which


between them.
as

accords well with

my

idea of the dillance


I

The MS. maps which

have fo repeatedly mentioned

being

communicated by Mr. Haftings and Col. Popham, together with


others formerly in the poffefllon of Col. Muir, and fince his death *,

obligingly communicated by

my

friend

Mr.

Benfley, lof the Eaft

India Direction, are correfled in bearing and fcale by the primary


points of Agra, Delhi, and
ration

Agimere

but only a very

trifling alte-

was required.

It

may be

obferved, in refpedl of the

new

matter contained in thefe communications, that a great number of


places appear, that were familiar to us, as well in

the hiftory of
;

former times,

as in

the account of recent tranfacftions

but which

we

could not, heretofore, refer even to any general fituation in a


Still

map.

however,

much

is

wanting, to render in any degree


in queftion,
:

perfedl, the

geography of the

traft

both

as to

mathe-

matical exadlnefs, and to relative defcription

in particular the lati-

tudes and longitudes of Lahore, Sirhind, Attock, Moultan, Batnir,

Agimere, Caflimere, Jununoo, Sehaurunpour, &c.

together with

the intermediate roads and particulars of the face of the country,

and the courfe of the

river Indus.
in ignorance
;

Until thefe are procured,

we muft

be content to remain

concerning

many

curious parti-

culars of Indian geography

and

fatisfy ourfelves

with having the

fituations of places that are the

mofl
as

interefting, either

from having

been the fubjedls of hiftory, or

being connefted with the politics

of the prefent times.

The
is

next place in point of confequence to the conftruftion of

this part of the

map,

as it regulates

many of
eaft

the northern pofitions,

Attock, a city and fortrefs on the

bank of the Indus, and


have occafion to fpeak

built

by Acbar inthe year 1581.


its hiftorical

We

fhall

on the fubjedl of
* It
is

importance, hereafter.

The

pofition

the

probable that the fevere indirpofition to which Col. Muir was conftantly fubjeft, from his arrival, to the time of his death, left him no leifure to recollect that fuch materials were in his pofTeffion. I'his excellent officer, and moft worthy charaftcr, died

moment of

in J786.

of

17

of this place,

geograpliicii.lly,

can only be reguiated by the apparent

bearings from Lahore and Moultan, in a Perfian

map of

the Panjab,

together with the diftances colled:ed from the different accounts in

the fame

map

in itineraries

and in the Ayin Acbaree.

The
to

lat-

ter gives for

the breadth of the Panjab, from

Ludhana

Attock,

reckonino: from river to river, on the line of the roads between

them 185

colfes

and

as

two of

thefe roads

make

a confiderable

angle with each other, I allow the diftance on a ftraight line to be

only 180 cofles; or 259 G. miles.

Som.e accounts that

have feen

of the number of
on, or noticed
;

cofles,

are too
rely

much

exaggerated, to be depended
to

and

on the Ayin Acbaree, in preference

them.
cofTes,

The MS. map communicated by


or
fo

Col. Murray, gives i8i


:

2604 G. miles,
very near to

for the

whole

diilance

but although
it

it

comes

my

calculation in the general account,

dif-

fers in the

meafure of each particular Doabah, or fpace, between two

adjoining rivers.

Attock

is

placed accordingly, 259 G. miles from


as nearly as it

Ludhana, on the bearing from Lahore,


lefted

could be colits

from the Perfian map


36'.

and thefe data give

latitude at

32 27'*; Ion. 70

Col. Murray's

map

places

it

in lat.

32 25'.
to

Moultan,

fuppofed,

with great appearance of reafon,

be
the

the modern capital of the country,


hiflorians of Alexander,

which was dcligned by


is

under the name of Malll,


to

90

coifes

from

Lahore (fouth-weilward) according


cording to Thevenot's account;

the Perfian

map;

120 ac-

and iio in Col. Murray's map.

The Ayin

Acbaree takes no notice of the diflance between them

but gives the latitude and longitude of both.

The

latitude

is

alfo

given by Thevenot, and by the MifTionary's itinerary; and

when
among

allowance

is

made

for the latter, in the

fame proportion

as it differed

from the true

latitude at Agra, the three obfervations differ

themfelves 22 minutes.

That

is,

the Ayin Acbaree gives 29 52',

Thevenot 29

40',

and the itinerary 29 32', which with the addiwhich


I fuppofe to

* Ptolemy's latitude of Tc.\i!a,

be nearly on the

fite

of Attock,

i-^

32 20'.

tion

[
tioil

78

]
2' .

of 30'

(fee note,

page 68) gives 30"

have placed

it

in

29 52'; which, on the aforefaid diftance of 90 coffes from Laliore,


gives 70 40' for
its

longitude
:

or 7 weft

from Delhi.

The Ayin
90
cofles

Acbaree makes
in the Perfian
in

it

"f 3'

which

agrees very nearly with the

map.

This
60'' to

diftance alfo accords


(lands

with the bearings


little

the fame

map

where Moultan

S a very

from

Attock, and about


Col. Murray's

the weft ward of S

from Lahore.

And
may
and

map

has nearly the fame bearings.

Thefe three pri-

mary

points of Lahore, Attock, and Moultan, vaguely as they


fcale,

appear to be afcertained, are the foundation on which the


relative parts

of the whole Panjab country depend.


defcribes

Thevenot
capital

Movdtan

as

a city

of fmall extent for the

of a viceroyalty, but ftrongly


celebi-ity.

fortified,

and having a Hindoo


reprefents
it,

pagoda of great

The Ayin Acbaree


;

as

one

ofthemoft
cotton

ancient cities of Hindooftan.


cloths

It has,

or had, a great

manufadure of cotton
i

the province itfelf producing


galls,

the

as well as fugar,
tlie river
its

opium,

brimftone, &c.
as

Thevenot

defcribes

that led to

Moultan,

being partly choaked up,

or fpoilcd, in
greatly leilened

channel, in his time (about 1665) and this had


trade.

its

He

alfo takes notice


fiys,

of a particular fedl
is

of Hindoos there, called Catry; and


per country.
\n another place,
or warriors
;

that this

their

proto

he explains the Catry


is,

tribe,

mean

Rajpoots,

that

the Kuttry tribe, properly.

We

fliall

take notice hereafter, that thefe Catries were the Cathcri


;

of Diodorus, and the Cathei of i^rrian


warred, on the borders of the Malli.
Seiks,

with

whom

Alexander
to the

Moultan belongs now

though the

poffeffion

of

it,

as well as

Lahore, has been often

difputed by the Abdalli.


I

have not extended the large

map

of India further to the north,

than Attock and Jummoo, becaufe


bly to the width of
intercfting
to
it,

it

would have added


fubje<fl,

confidera-

without furnifliing any


:

particularly
are

modern enquiries

and the materials

no of

quality or quantity proper to corredl the geography of that part,

on

an extended

fcale.

have therefore added a

map on

a fmaller fcale,

in

; ;

79

in

which
a

the trad between the Panjab, Bochara,


it

&c.

is

defcribed

and

feparate account of

will be given

in the courfe of the

Memoir.

The

river called

by Europeans Indus, and by the


is

natives gene-

rally Sinde * (or Sindeh)

formed of about ioprincip.il ftreams

which defcend from the

Perfian and Tartarian mountauis, on the

north-eaft, and north-weft.


as

The Ayin Acbaree


;

defcribes
it

its

fource

being in Cafhgur and Caflimere

by v/hich

appears that the

people of Hindooftan confider the north-eaft branch as the true

Sinde

'j^.

From

the city of Attock, in about

lat.

32 27'

down-

wards
it is

to

Moultan, or to the conflux of the Jenaub, or Chunaub,


the river of Attock,
:

commonly named

which

in the

Hindoo-

ftan language, imports forbidden

probably from the circumftance

of

its

being the original boundary of Hindooftan on the north-weft


it

and which

was unlawful

for the fubjefts

of Plindooftan to pafs
city

over, without fpecial permiffion %.

Below the
it

of Moultan,

it is

often

named

Soor, or Shoor, until


;

divides itfelf into a

number of

channels near Tatta

where the principal branch


however,

takes the

name of

Mehran.

The

river,

Sinde, although particular parts

when fpoken of generally, is called of it are known by different names.


its

The courfe of M. D'Anville


niy placing
rfpedl
its

the Indus below Moultan, has


;

particulars fromis

but the general diredlion of


it.

its

courfe,
is

confidera-

bly more to the weft, than he defcribes


embouchure fo
(fee

This

occafioned by

much
I

flirther

weft than ufual, in re-

of

Bombay
as
it

page36) while the pofition of Moultan reobferve that moft of the old
as I

mains nearly

formerly was.

maps of India give the Indus much the fame courfe


* The name Sinde was not unknown
to the

have done.
Pliny,

Romans

Indus Incolh Sindus npfcUatia,

Book VI.
t The ancients reckoned otherwife tlie fame Pliny continues to i'i.y, in jugo Caucaji monlis, quod ixcatur Pciropamifus, adverjus Solis ortu."4 effusus. X Superftition gave birtli to this law, among the Hindoos a precept nearly allied to that, which forbids their citing any feed drelTsd on board a boat or vefftl. Ferifhta calls the river on which Attock is built, Nu.ab ; nnglkc, the blue river. There is fo much confufion in the Indian hiltories, refpe^ting the names of the branches of the Indus, that I cannot refer the name Nilab to any particular river, unlefs it be another name for the Indus or Sbide.
: :

The

So

The
many
trefs

Miffionary's itinerary beforementioned, gives the

names of
the foris

places,

and fome

latitudes,

on the Indus.

It places

and city of Bhakor,

which the Ayin Acbaree

fays,

the

ancient

Manfurah (though D'Anville


J

fays the contrary) in latitude

27 12'

Tatta in 24 20'; and Bunder Lawry (called alfo Bunder


All thefe,
I

Laheri) in 24 10'.
too far fouth.

take to be from 20 to 30 minutes

Moultan
that
is,

is

about the fame diftance from the

fea,

as

Allahabad

about 800 B. miles by the courfe of the river; and our


1

down with months of Odlober and November when the


author was 2
days in dropping
:

the ftream,

in

the

llrength of the land

floods

were abated.
boundaries of the provinces of Moultan and Sindy on the

The
is to

weft, extend a confiderable


fiy,

way beyond
fea

the

bank of the
is

river

that

from 50

to

100 miles.
;

The
is

country

in general flat
itfelf

and open from Moultan to the


(the

and the province of Tatta


faid to

Fatah or Fatala of Alexander)


flatnefs
;

refemble Bengal, not


foil,

only in the
inundations
rice

of

its

furface,

richnefs of
its

and periodical

but

alfo in the
fite

food of

inhabitants,
capital,

which

is

chiefly
is

and

fifli.

The

of the ancient

Braminabad,

near Tatta

and, in

the time of Acbar, fome confiderable ruins


:

of

it

were remaining
aftonifliing

particularly the fort, baftions to


it.

which
Tatta

is is

faid to

have

had an

number of

made fyno-

nymous
lent face to
fays

to Daibul, in
Sir

the Perfian tables

(which were obligingly


mentioned in his pre-

me by

William Jones, and


it is

are thofe

Nadir Shah) where

placed in 24 10'.
I

The
it

itinerary

24 20', and D'Anville 24 40'.


reputed diftance from the

have placed
the Sinde,

according

to
it

its

mouth of

which brings

to

24 45'*.

The

country

known by

the

name of Panjab,

or that watered by
little

the five eaflern branches of the Indus, has been very


Pliny reckons the length of
which he was very near the
r
truth,

knov^n to

the Patale, or Deltci of the Indus, at


it

220 Roman miles;

in

being about

z :o.

U5

8i

UG In
ever,

modern times,
it

either geographically, or politically.

Howj

deferves notice, if only

on the fcore of ancient hiftory

being the fcene of Alexander's

laft

campaign, and the ne plus ultra


offers;

of his conquefts.
a

Here fome new matter

having before me,

map of

this

country drawn by a native, and preferved in the ar-

chives of government in Hindooftan.


tranflated

The names were


Major Davy,
this
;

obligingly
the requeft
ferves as a

from the

Perfian,

by the

late

at

of

Sir

Robert Barker.
is a

The

traft,

of which

map

ground work,

fquare of about 250 B. miles


part of

and includes the

whole foubah of Lahore, and a great

Moultan proper.
I
;

The
have
the

points of Lahore, Attock, and Sirhind (the fixing of which, before given an account of) determine the fcale of the

map

intermediate diftances from place to place in


ting,

it,

being given in wri'-

and not by a

fcale.

I confider this

MS.

as a valuable acquifition

for

it

not only confive

veys a

difl;in(t

idea of the courfes and


:

names of the

rivers,

which we never had before


ree, fets

but, with the aid of the

Ayin Acba-

us right as to the identity of the rivers crofied by Alexan-

der, during his

famous expedition into India

of which- more will

be faid hereafter.
Befides the places found in this

map,
;

have inferted others,

from the authority of the Ayin Acbaree


tions in Feriflita
;

feveral

from implied

fitua-

others from Sherefeddin's hiftory of


to

Timur*;
of the

(particularly his

march from Toulomba

Adjodin and Batnir) and

others from various

MSS.

in

my

poffeffion.

The

divifion

country,

is

entirely

from the Ayin Acbaree.

The town
feddin,
is

of Adjodin, often mentioned by Ferifhta, and Shere-

recognized in the

MS. map, by
j

the circumftance of
vifited

its

containing the
Ih.

tomb of Sheik Furrid, which was


called Paiikpiitton

by Timur.

the

map

it is

but

it

perfedly anfwers to the

* Tranflated by

M.

dela CroLx.

pofition

82

pofitlon of Adjodjn, as defcribed

by the above authors

and

is

point,

on the fixing of which

a great

many

others depend.

The
or

next river to the eafl of the Sinde, or Attock, and the


is,

weflmofl of the Jive rivers,

in

modern language,
is

called Behut,

Chelum

whofe general courfe


its

nearly parallel to that of


is

the Attock, but

bulk

is lefs.

This

the famous Hydafpes of

Alexander, and faid by the Ayin Acbaree to be anciently called


Bedujla.
It

runs through Cafhmere,

and was fuppofed by


at

M.
Ta-

D'Anville (though erroneoufly) to join the Sinde


vernier feems to have led

Attock.
;

M.

D'Anville into this miflake

which

has finally been the occafion of his mifplacing, and of courfe mif-

naming,

all

the other four rivers.

The

fadl

is,

that the river

.which runs by Cabul, and bears the Sinde on the weft


are obliged to
fide,

name of Attock,
up
and
this

joins the

and in front of the city of Attock.


Forfter for clearing

We

Mr. George

miftake.

He

travelled that

way

in 1783.

The
fines *

fecond river

is

the Jenaub, or

Chunaub

is

the Ace-f*

of Alexander.
;

The

third

is

the Rauvee, or Hydraotes


city

of

Alexander

on the fouth bank of which ftands the


rivers

of Lahore.

Thefe three

fucceflively unite
;

with each other

at

fome

dif-

tance above Moultan


at the place

and form
;

a ftream equal
is

to the Indus

itfelf,

of confluence

which

about 20 miles on the weft of


It is

Moultan
able,

and 50 below the mouth of the Rauvee.

remark-

that the

Jenaub communicates
;

its

name

to the confluent

ftreams in thefe times

as

it

did in Alexander's time, under the

name of
by the

Acefines.

Its rapidity

and bulk are particularly remarked

hiflorians of

Alexander and of Timur.


is

The

fourth river

is

the Beyah, anciently called Beypajha, and


phajis of Alexander
;

the Hyphafis or

Hu-

being the next in fucceflion to the Hydraotes

or modern Rauvee

and the

fifth is the Setlege,

Suttuluz, or Sutluj.
Ptolemy names
it

The Ayin Acbaree

does not give the ancient


anciently
his

name of

the Jenauh,

Sandabctis.

\ Said by the Ayin Acbaree to be Mr. Soughton Roufe tranflates it from

named Inaix'utty (Mr. Gladwin's tranflation). copy of the Ayin Acbaree, Iravaii.

This

83

This

laft

river,

about midway between


:

its

fource and the Indus,

receives the

Beyah

after

which, they do not mix their waters

with the other

rivers

of the Panjab, but join the Indus in a feparate


to the fouth

ftream, a great

way

of

Mouhan
laft

while the other

three rivers pafs in a coUecftive ftream on the north of Moultan,

and clofe under

it.

Ptolemy names the


;

river

of the Panjab
Arrian has
fays

(going eaftward) the Zaradrus


the

Pliny, the Hefudrus.


his

name of

Saranges

among

Panjab rivers

and

that

it

joins the Hyphafis

(or Beyah).
;

ancient
luj,

name was

Shetooder

The Ayin Acbaree fays that its from whence we may ealily trace Setis

or Suttuluz.

Before
is

it

joined by the Beyah,

it

is

a very

Confiderable river, and

navigable 200 miles.


takes place *,

About 24 miles
and four
differ-

below the conliux, a feparation again


ent ftreams are formed
v/hich, recovers the
;

the northmoft, and moft confiderable of


;

name of Beyah and is a deep and rapid river. and near The others are named Herari, Dond, and Noorney Moultan, they unite again, and bear the name of Setlege, until both the fubftance and name are loft in the Indus, about 80 miles,, or three days failing \, by the courfe of the river, below the mouth
:

of the Jenaub.
the
firft

It is

owing

to the feparation that takes place, after


I

confluence of the Beyah and Setlege,


are given to the latter,

apprehend, that fo
as well as ancient

many names
authors:

by modern,

which names, applied by the


;

natives, to their refpedtive

branches

have,

by Europeans, or

others,

who

were ignorant of

the circumftances, been fuppofed to belong to one principal river


only.

The

Perfian

map

of Panjab, and Sherefeddin's hiflory of


befides the

Timur, take notice of only one branch,

Beyah (whence

one would conclude there were only two principal ones) and this

named Dena Acbaree, by the Dond.


fecond river
is

poiTibly the fame

meant in the Ayin

Ayin Acbaree.

t Miffionary's

itinerary,

Although

84

Although we have the dlmenfions the Panjab country,


rably
gate,
its
fatisfa<fl:ory

in a tole-

manner, from
j

NW
;

to S E, both in the aggre-

and in particulars

yet

we have

not the means of determining


rather,

breadth from north to fouth

or

from Lahore
is

to the

Setlege.

The

firfl

jun6lion of the Beyah and Setlege,

ftated

by
to

the Perfian map, at 63 cofles below

Ludhana

but

we
is

are left
faid

guefs the crofs diftance from Lahore, unlefs

what

in

the

fame map, be
foor,
is

true,

that

it is

is

only

8 cofTes

from Lahore
:

to

Kuf-

and

alfo that

Kuflbor

on the banks of the Setlege


;

but this
that

highly improbable from other circumftances

in particular,

the fame Perfian

map

allows a greater fpace between the Rauvec


Col. Murray's
coffes

and Setlege, than between the Rauvee and Jenaub.

map

places Kuilbor

on the Beyah, and not within 25


of

of

tlic

Setlege.

The marches

Timur

acrofs the

lower parts of the


;

Panjab, aiford but a faint light to guide us, fuch as day's marches

and thofe in an oblique direflion.

The

authorities

on which

have founded the geography of the

Panjab, after fixing the primary points already difculfed, are the

following

The
rivers,
It

Perfian

map

furnifhes a general idea of the courfes of the


as a

and thefe ferve


furniflies
:

kind of ground-work, or

Jir/l

ideas.

alfo

fome

pofitive dillances,

and the Ayin Acbaree


iti-

many

others

and the march of Timur, and the Miflionary's

nerary,

furnifli

fome proportional,
is

or comparative ones.

Tou-

lomba, or Tulmabini, which


pointy
is

confidered as a primary Jiation or

fortrefs

above, or to

on the fouth bank of the Rauvee, 35 colles * the E N E of Moultan ; or 5 days out of 8, of the
-f*
:

voyage from Lahore to Moultan


the river,
\vt have
is

and the general direction of

nearly flraight, in the Perlian map.


fettled,

By

thefe helps
:

a point

in refped: of

Lahore and Moultan

and

from

it,

Timur's route may be traced acrofs the Panjab, both ways

Sherefeddin.

-j-

Itinerarj-.

the

'

85

that

is,

bacl:,

towards

tlie

Indus, the

way he came
According
certain,
to

r.nd

onward,

by the route of Batnir and Delhi.

3hercfeddin's

manner of writing, one could hardly be


ba was on the
placed
it

whether ToulomFerKhta has

fide

of the Rauvee, or the Jenaub.


erroneoufly
;

on the

latter,

for the miflionary


its

came down
5'
1

the Rauvee, and pafTed

by

it

moreover giving
is

latitude at

north of Moultan
day's

though

it

probably

25'.

Timur made one


to this
left

march, from the conflux of the Chelum and Jenaub


;

place

and

as

he did not bring the army with him, but


it

them
a

crofling the river,

may be
I

inferred that the


it,

march was not


in a

(hort one
tion
:

and therefore

allow 14 coffes for

S S

direc-

that being the pofition of

Toulomba from
ncjt
it,

the conflux, by

the above conftrudlion.


fide

fortrefs,

named, flood on the well


a bridge acrofs.
to

of the conflux

and

jufl:

below

Timur threw

Before

Timur

arrived at this place, he had

marched according

Sheafter

refeddin, 5 or 6 days along the weflern

bank of the Chelum,

he had taken the


that river.

fortrefs
is

of Sheabcdin Mobarick, in an ifland of


that
to

This

all

we

are told

of the particulars of his

march,
(I take

from the Indus,


it

Toulomba.

The

Indus he crofled,

for granted) at, or very near, the place


it

where Attock now

ftands (for

was

built,

more than

a century and half after,


Bano\N-.

by

Acbar)

as

he came by way of Nagaz and


he
crofl^ed

Sherefeddin re-

lates that

the Indus, at the place where Gelali or Gela-

leddin (King of Charafm) did,

when he
fatisfadtion

fled

from Gengis Cawn


fame place
*.
this head,

and

this

think

may be
-f*

afcertained to be the

The'

hifl:ory

of Gengis

gives no

on

but repre-

fents Gelali as chuflng the

moft

difficult part

of the river for the

My opinion is (I tnink) ftrengthened by a remark in the Ptrfi.in map of Panjab. A mountain near the Indus, a very little below, and on the oppolite iide to Attock, is m.;rked Mount Yullukah (or Gelali) moft probably from its beinjj the place from whence the Emperor Gelali crofled the Indus, in his flight from Gengis Cav/n in 1221. When Timur had crofled to the eall fide of the Attock, or Indus, he was faid to be arrived in the Di-fcrt of Gtlali therefore I have no doubt but that they both crofled nearly at the fame piaee, Gengis C;mn remained on the weft fide of the river. dc la Cxoix. t Written by
;

rear

86

rear

of the
:

field

of battle, to preclude

all

hopes of

flight,

from his

army

and

this (if true, for Gelali

himfelf

fwam

acrofs)

by no
being

means contradidls

my

opinion

becaufe, in
difficult

the neighbourhood of

Attock, there muft be

many

places,

Attock

itfelf

on the only pradlicable part thereabouts.

But

to return to Tiniur.
'",

After he had croflcd the Indus over a


that

bridge of boats

we
to

learn

the chiefs of the mountain of

Jehud or Joud came


fares.

make

their fubmiffions to

him,

as

Ambi1730

King of

the fame country, did to Alexander,

about

years before.

The Jehud

mountains, are thofe which extend from.


;

Attock, eaflward to Bember


the mountaineers, fometimes,

and

are

part of the territory of

defigned under the

name of Gickers,
being to
effe6t a

Gehkers, or Kakares.

Timur's

firft

objed: after crofllng the Indus,

junftion with his grandfon Peer

Mahmud's army, which was then

beiieging Moultan, he dire<5ted his courfe that way, inftead of taking

the

common

road to Delhi, by Rotas and Lahore.

The

neigh-

bourhood of

a navigable river, being a defireable objeft to an


flerile

army

marching through a dry


part of the Behut, or

country, he pufhed for the neareft


river

Chelum

(the

Hydafpes of Alexander)
and
ifland

where he attacked and took the


and crolled that

fortrefs

of Sheabadin.

After this, he marched as has been faid before, along the Chelum,
river,

and the Jenaub, below their conflux

and

went from thence


is

to

Toulomba, which we have

jufl: left.

This
was

a confiderable town, and a pafs of confequence on

the Rauvee
It

river;
in the

and often occurs

in Feriflita's hiftory of Hindooftan.


this place,

neighbourhood of

thar Alexander
;

made war on

the Malli, or people of ancient


of,

Moultan
here 6

as will

be taken notice

in

its

place.

Timur

ftaid

days,

and then proceeded


-f*

with the whole army acrofs the Baree Doabah


* October ii, 1398. The chronology of this event "W. de la Croi.x's tranfl.ition.

to

Shawnawaz
I

(or

is

difFerently Hated

have followed

t The term Doab

ov

Doabah has been explained

before.

See the Index.

Sha-

8?

Shanavas) a large and populous town near the north bank of the

Beyah,
grain

after its feparatio?i

from the

Setlege.

Here he found more


infer the

than his army could confume^ of the country, which


inundations
is

whence we may
flat,

fertility

low and

and fuhjed: to pedelcribes


at

riodical

like Bengal.

Sherefeddin

this

place a deep lake, fortified round with a wall, and defended by

2000 men.
Sangala,
fis
;

(This reminds one ftrongly of fomething hmilar


attacked, before he reached the
fortified

at

which Alexander
hill,

Hyphais

only the

which was
is

round with

carriages,

wanting).

Shawnawaz

about 95 B. miles from Lahore;

and

Sangala was only 3 days march from the place where the Hydraotes,

(Rauvee) was croffed, fuppofing


ftandsIt

it

to

be

at the place

where Lahore

was fomething more than

a days

march from Touiomba


to,

to

Jengian, a town on the fouth bank of the Beyah, oppofite

and

not far from Shawnawaz.


this
river,

As Timur's army was


Its diftance
1

days in pafFing
it

forne

in

barks,

and others by fwimming,

may be
is

I'eckoned a confiderable river.


at

from Moultan

given

40 cofles * Touiomba, in
tan, indicate.

and

have allowed

cofTes

for its diftance

from

a fouth-eaft diredion, as their dirtances

from Moul-

At Jengian, Timur ftaid 4 days, and v/as joined by Peer Mahmud, who had by this time taken Moultan. Timur's next ftation
is

Jehaul,

two days march from Jengian, on the road

to

Delhi:
to

and here he feparated from his grand army, which he directed

proceed by Debalpour, and to rendezvous at Semanah, a town 80


or 90
cofl'es

on the weft of Delhi; while he proceeded with 10,000


-f*,

horfe to Batnir or Battenize

a ftrong

fortrefs

about 70 cofTes
;

ii'om Jehaul, and far to the right of the Delhi road


'the

being beyond

defert

which

ftretches

along the fouth

fide

of the Setlege.
giving protedion

He

was led

to this place,

from refentment,

at its

Sherefeddin.

f The name of this

place does not occur in the

Ayin Acbaree.

to

88

to

the

people

of Debalpour,
:

who had

maflacred

a
it

garrifon

of Peer Mahmud's
llrength,
as

and poflibly the great reputation

had
of

for
it

might be one inducement

to undertake the fiege

Aornos, in Hke manner invited Alexander.

Timur,
(of

after leaving Jehaul,

proceeded the

firfl

day to Adjodin,
in

which we have fpoken

before) a

town included
:

one of the
this being
it at

large iflands
3 days

formed by the branches of the Setlege


I

and

march from Jengian,

eftimate the diftance

from

30

eolles, or

at

43 G. miles. As the Dellii and Batnir roads, feparated Jehaul, Adjodin may probably lie S E from it : and the whole

courfe from Jengian

At Adjodin,
the
Batnir

may be taken at E S E. Timur vifited, and fpent fome time


(fee

in devotion, at
fet

tomb of Sheik Furrid


i

page 81) and then


at

forward for

which

is

ftated

by Sherefeddin

60

coffes

from Adjodin.

This may be reckoned


to

85^-

G. miles

and the diflance from Batnir

Semanah, appears

to

be 8 days march, in which he was fome;

times delayed by his military operations

yet haviag a light army,


cofles in the

may be fuppofed And from Semanah


it

that

he marched 85

8 days*.

to Panniput, the

number of

cofles are given at

52

-fi fo tliat the

at 193J.

whole number 137, from Batnir, may be ftated G. miles: fomething being deduded for the defer t nature

of the country, in the Batnir province.


If therefore
to

60

cofles,

or 85T

G.

miles, be laid off

from Adjodin

Batnir, and
lat.

193^ from Panniput;

the interfedtion will place


it

28 39, Ion. 73 20'; and from Adjodin.


Batnir in

will bear about S S

On
river

the fouth-eafl: of Adjodin, a few cofles,


I

Timur

crofl^d the

Dena ; which

take to be one of the four branches of the

Setlege,

(poflibly the

Dond) and perhaps the only


the Beyah, already noticed.

principal one

among them, except

* Two days marches are mentioned, one day 14. or 11; cofles; another 18 cofles. It is not eafy to colled the diftance from Sherefeddin 's account of Tinuir's marches but we find he was eight days on the march. + Sherefeddin.
:

It

89

It

muft not be omitted that Timur crolTed an extenfive


to Batnir
:

defert In

his

way

mention

this particular to fliew that

Alexander
defert

was not niilinformed, when he was


beyond the Hyphafis
*.

told that there

was a

After taking and deflroying Batnir, which


-f,

employed only
ber,

few days

he marched on the 30th of Novem;

taking neitrly the ftraight road to Semanah

where he joined

his grand

army on the 8th of December 1398. His march from Semanah to Delhi, about
up 12 days
;

S'8

cofles, appears

to have taken

whence we may

colle<fl,

that the

com-

mon marches

of his grand army, were about yi cofTes each day;

or about 14 or 15 Britifli miles, by the road.

On

his return, he
city

made an excurfion

to

the north-eaft into the


la

Doab, took the


place where

of Merat, or Mevat, (called Mirte by de

Croix) 30 coffes from Delhi, and advanced to the Ganges, near the
it iflues

out of the Sirinagur mountains.

Toglocpour,

and the

ftraits

of Cupele, two places of vidtory on the eaftern bank


:

of the Ganges, cannot now be recognifed


account of the march, they cannot be
Britifli

but from Sherefeddin's


;

far

from Loldong

where the
BritiHi

army completed

their

campaign in 1774,

1100

miles from Calcutta X-

From

the banks of the Ganges, he proceeded to the north-wefl,

along the foot of the Sevvalic mountains, by Meliapour, JaDindar,

and Jummoo, to the frontiers of Caflimere


acrofs the
kers,

and from Cafhmere,

mountainous and defert country of the Kakares or Geh-

to the Indus,

which he
;

crofTed at
to

the fame place as before,

and in the fame manner

and returned

Samarcand by way of Ba-

nou, Nagaz, Kermudge, Cabul, Bacalan, and Termed.


' Ql^intus Curtius.

f Bat'.iir is repreiented as a very ftrong place, and yet Timur is fald to have taken only a body ot horfe with him (and indeed the extraordinary length of one of his marches feems to
it). Did he reduce the place v.'iihout artillery ? f At the time of Tm-iur"s conquell (139-) the Britifh nation had fcarely been announced to the people of Hindooftan ; nor w..s it till 200 years afterwards, that they found their way thither. Who could have believed thiit the Britifh conquelb would meet thofe of Tamerlane, sn a point equiiiltant iVom the mouths o! the G-tnges and Indus, in 1774 The Gickers cf Dow.

prove

.'

have

9^5

I have purfued

Timur's marches, although beyond the limits of


;

the prefent fedlion


ken.
I

in order that the thread of

it

might not be bro-

now

return to the Panjab.

The

bearing and diftance of


;

Jummoo from
is

Lahore, and that of

Bullaufpour from Ludhana


country, north-eaftward.

determine the breadth of the Panjab


given in the Perfian
this
I

Jummoo

map

at

50

colles

from Lahore, north-eafterly ; and


Col. Murray's
is

have followed,

as the befl authority.

map
Mr.

gives

54

coffes,

nearly
:

north

but this bearing

difproved by

Forfler's obfervations

for Caflimere lies about

135

coffes

97 coffes from Jummoo, and is from the bank of the Indus*, 20 miles above Attock

by

W,

which

the interval

would not allow,

if

Cartimere lay to the weft of

the meridian of Lahore.

Bullaufpour, a fort on the Setlege, within the mountains,

have
for
:

only the authority of the Perfian map, and fome vague

MSS.

and

it

is

placed

in

the

map 70 G.
fills

miles

NE

from Ludhana.

Col. Murray's
rection.

map

gives the diftance at

79

miles, in the fame di-

The
rivers

Perfian

map
:

up the fpace pretty amply, between

the Lahore road and the ^mountains from

whence we fuppofe

the

Panjab

to

fpring

and had Mr. Forfter's journal from the


the mountains, been left in England,
perfect
;

Ganges

to

Jummoo, through

this part

might have been rendered more

for

he entered
rivers

the mountains at Loldong, croffed the Ganges and

within the

hills,

and then went by Bullaufpour to

Jumna Jummoo.

By

the aid of the Perfian map, and other


I

MS. maps,

(particularly

the one furniflied by Col. Murray)

have been enabled to give the

road from Vizierabad to Yehungfaul, through the Retchna Doabah,

with many other pofitions

in

and about the Panjab.


is

The
:

road

from
is

Jummoo

to Beroudge,

&c.

from Sherefeddin.

Debalpour
and the

knowr. to be on the great road from Delhi to Moultan

divifions of the country in the

Ayin Acbaree point out

its fituation^

By Mr.

Forfter's jonrnal.

to

9'

to

be

fin-

down

the Setlege,

in the JalHndar

Doabah.
all

The few

particulars that occur


ville,

on the weft of the Indus are


is

from D'An-

except the pofition of Pifliour, which

placed according to

Mr.

Forfter's obfervations.
river,
is

Between the Indus, Agimcre, Moultan, and the Puddar


an exte'nfive defert, in which
is

fituated the fort

of Ammercot, or of Khodaiar *.

Omircout, the birth place of Acbar, and the


I

retreat

think

it

improbable that ever


parts,

we

fliall

have any geographical

knowledge of the inland

between the Puddar and Indus,

more than
tories.

the very vague information contained in the Indian hifriver


j

The

Puddar, from the length of


it is

its

courfe, promifes

to be navigable

and, probably,

more from- the want of


its

ufeful

products on
that
it

its

banks, than from the fliallownefs of

channel,

has continued fo long unexplored by Europeans.

The geography
of
little

of the Panjab country,

as being,

comparatively,

conhderation in a
its

map of

fuch extent, has been detailed

much beyond
not likely,

feeming importance.

The

reafon

is,

that

we

are

as far as I

can judge, for a great length of time, if ever,


I

to be poffeffed of

any better materials than thofe

have exhibited
I

indifferent as they

may

be, in

many

inftances

and therefore
for
as

conto

fider it as the finiihing ftroke to the

whole matter,
caft up,

fome time

come.

And

if

any good materials do

fuch

the latitudes
routes,,

and longitudes of fome principal points, or fome meafured


I fliall,
I flatter

myfelf, have prepared the ground for the erecftion


confl:ru<5lion.

of a fabric of a better

Upon

a reconfideration

of the
to

quedion concerning the length of the Panjab from Ludhana


Attock,
fions,
I

think fomething might be added to the prefent dimen:

perhaps 4 or 5 miles
all

but

it is

a matter of fmall importance,

where
tlie

the diftances are eflimated.

The

Panjab country being

frontier province towards Tartary,

and the northern parts of


in.

Perlia,

from whence have fprung the conquerors of Hindooftan

Sir

William Jones's Nadir Shah.

every

92

]
it

every age, Alexander alone excepted}


to.
all

follows, that their route


it.

the interior parts of the country, muft have led through


thefe conquerors, as far as
(or
I

Of

can learn, the routes of Alexander,

Timur
as it

Tamerlane) and Nadir Shah, are the only ones that have

their particulars

on record

*.

Timur's route

have already given

was interwoven

fo clofely
it

with the geographical conflruftion

and towards which


terials.

furniflied a confiderable proportion of

ma-

And Nadir
;

Shah's route was

the ordinary one, by Attock


;

and Lahore
it furnifl:ies

and,

apprehend, he returned the lame way


this

fo that

no matter for

work.
late

The

particulars of the

majches of the

Acmet

Abdalla, (King

of Candahar) during his frequent


have not come to

vifits to

Delhi, in the prefent age,


is

my

knowledge.

Alexander's route then,


;

the

only one that remains to be difculfcd


order, here
;

and although
it

laft

in point

of

is

confidered as the

firft as

refpeds hiftory, and the

gratification of popular curiofity.


I

take

it

for granted, that Alexander crolTed

the Indus
;

i" at

or

near the place where the city of Attock nov*^ ftands


it

becaufe

iirfl,

appears to have been in

all

ages, the pafs

on the Indus, leading


India
:

from the countries of Cabul and Candahar


flrongly indicated
fortrefs

into

and

this

is

by the circumflance of Acbar's building the

of Attock, to
fays,

command
there
is

it.

Mr.

Frafer, in his hiftory of

Nadir Shah,

"

but one place where an army can

" conveniently be tranfported, the ftream being fo rapid in mofl " parts. There is a caftle commanding that pafllige, called the
caOle of Attock."

Attock then, muft fland on or near the

fite

of

the Taxila

:j;

of Alexander.

And

fecondly, as

foon as Alexander

dooftan about the year 1240

or Zingis Cawn, made an in-uption into HlnSherefeddin menbut the particulars of his route are wanting. tions, in one place, that he crofled the Jennub at Toulomba ; and in another, that he befieged the city of Merat in the Dooab But Feriihta confines the exploits of this defcendant of Zingis
Turmechirin

Cawn, adefcendant of Gengis,


;

^for his

name is not menroned) to the Panjab country. t About ,27 years before Chrift, according to UHier and in the month of May. Taxila mull neceflarily have been very near the Indus, to X See the notes, page 51. allow of its being 120 milej from the Hydafpes (or Chclum). See Pliny's Indian itinerary. Book VI.
:

had

93

had eroded over

to

the eafl fide, Ambilares,

King of

the IndiAa

mountaineers (the Gehkers or Kakares) font ambafladors with prefents

to

him.

The

Prince of the fime country

made

his fubniif-

fions to

Tamerlane, and in the fame place, in 1398,

(fee

page 86).

From
by the

Taxila, as his intention appears to have been to penetrate


fliortefl

way

to the

Ganges, he would proceed by the ordi-

nary road to that part of the bank of the Hydafpes (Behut or Che-

lum) where the

fortrefs

of Rotas

now

ftands

and here he put into


while the oppofite

execution his flratagem for croiTjng the


ihore was poflefled by Porus.

river,

After crofllng the Acefmes (Jenaub)


latter

and liydraotes (Rauvee) which


near the place where Lahore

he may be fuppofed

to

crofs

now

ftands^ he appears to be

drawn out

of the direct route towards the Ganges, to attack the city of Sangalu,

moft probably lying between Lahore and Moultan


uncertainty as to
its

but

we

are left in

pofition,

by Alexander's
fafts.

hiftorians, otherwife than

by circumflances, and detached


in Arrian
:

The name
a city

Sangala, occurs only

and

is

faid to

have been

of great ftrength and imcalls the

portance, in the country of the C-Uhei.

Diodorns Siculus

fame people Cnthen, or Katheri

-,

and thefe

may

very cafily be re;

cognized under the name of Catry, in Thevenot


the Kilt try tribe, or Rajpoots.

that

is

to fay,

Thevenot fpeaking of the people


a tribe of Gentiles
:

of Moultan,

fays,

" there

is

(i. e.

Gentoos or
is

" Hindoos)
*'

here, called

Catry, or Rajpoots

and

this
all

properly

their country,

from whence they fpread over

the Indies."

Diodorus Siculus marks them by the cuftom of their

women burn;

ing themfelves alive, on the funeral piles of their hulbands


is

which

indeed a cuflom
at this day.

tribes,

among them, as Now we find by

well

as

fome other Hindoo


that

Arrian, that the Cathei were


;

confederated with the Malli and Oxydracae

is,

the people

of Moultan andOutch, and which lay to the fouth-weft of the


place where Alexander might be fuppofed to crofs ,the Hydraotcs
(or

Rauvee) in his way into India.

(That the Malli were the

people of the prefent Moultan, v/e can have no doubt, if

we

attend
t..

,,

94

to the voyage of

Alexander down the Hy^afpes, hereafter).

I find

no

difficulty therefore, in

determining the pofition of Sangala to be

to the S

W of Lahore.

As
for

to

the diftance, Alexander reached it


;

the third day after crofTing the Hydraotes


lefs

and we cannot allow


;

than 48 road miles,

thefe 3

marches

or 36

G. miles

in

horizontal* diflance.

Had

Alexander's route been S

towards the

Ganges, the above diflance would have brought him within 6 miles
of the Hyphafis (the modern Beyah) and Arrian fays not a word

about that

river,

until Alexander

had returned

to Sangala

from the

purfuit of the fugitives, and again fet forward on his march.


iaea
is

No

given either in Arrian, Diodorus, or Quintus Curtius, of

the diftance between


colledled

Sangala* and the Hyphafis

but

it

may be

by Arrian's manner of fpeaking,


Diodorus
places

that they

were not near

each other.

the

kingdoms of Sophites and of


;

Phigeus between the Catheri and the Hyphafis


infer a confiderable fpace

whence we may
right in

between them.

If

am
let

my

con-

jedlure concerning

the pofition of Sangala, the Hyphafis (Beyah)


it,

muft be about 40 miles from


it will,

eaftward

and

Sangala be where

the river Beyah anfwers to the Hyphafis or Hypafis (called

anciently

by the

natives,
erecfted

Beypafha) and Alexander's

altars

may

probably have been

between Aurungabad and the conflux


Firofepour
;

of the Beyah and Setlege,


or eaftern fide of the river.

at

Pliny fays on the further,


help regretting the extreme

One cannot

brevity of this part of Arrian's narration, with refpecEt to the detail

of Alexander's marches, between Sangala and the Hyphafis, and

back again

to the

Hydafpes

which

is

difpatched too rapidly for a

geographer to profit by.


plicit
;

Diodorus and Curtius are not more ex-

nor indeed,

if

they had, are they to be

much depended

on,

in

this refpedl, for

they have confounded the Hydafpes (Chelum)


in

with the Acefines (Jenaub)

their account of Alexander's voyage.

But, I think, whoever takes the trouble to compare Arrian's ac Although Diodorus
rian,

under that name,

is

and Curtius do not give the name Sangala, yet the pointedly defcribed by them.

city

meant by Ar-

countj

95

count, both of the land marches, and the voyage

down

the

rivers^,

with the geography of the Panjab


in the

will find the ancient Hydafpes,

modern Chelum, the


the Acefines
;

firll

river

beyond the Indus

and fuc-

ceflively,

in

the Jenaub or

Chunaub
:

the Hydraotes
I

in the

Rauvee

and the Hyphafis, in the Beyah


altars,
it

though

will not

contend for the exadl pofition of the

whether they might be


:

above the conflux of the Beyah, or below


Btypajba, appears

only the ancient name

more

likely to have been the origin of the


^

Greek

Hyphafis,
ancient

Hypafis or Huphafis
the Setlege.

than Shciooder, v/hich was the

name of
is

Therd
Curtius

a flat contradiction

between Arrian and Diodorus (and


tlie

who

follows the latter) regarding


;

quality of the country


it

on the

eaft

of the Hyphafis

the former defcribing


;

as a flourifliing

and well inhabited country


defert

the latter fay there

is

an extenfive

between

it

and the Ganges.

Arrian's account fuits the upper


;

part of the river, and Diodorus's, the lower part


tainly a defert,
as

for there

is

cer-

has been before obferved, between the Panjab

and Batnir.

We

are left to fuppofe that Alexander, after the determination


to the

of his army to proceed no further, returned

Hydafpes, by the

route he came, bating the ground he loll in marching after the

Catheri

and finding

his cities

of

Nicac;

and Bucephalia completed;

and

a fleet,

or part of one, built out of the timber procured from

the neighbouring mountains,


or
Iinaiis,

named by them Emodus and Hhnaus


fleet,

he proceeded down the Hydafpes with his

while

the greater part of the

army marched by

land.

Here
the

it

may be

proper to obferve, that Arrian does not fay from


it

Vs-hence the timber came, but leaves us to fuppofe that


forefl:s nearefl:

came from
the nature

to the river, and

enough

is

known of

of the country, to convince us that the

forefls

bordering on the

foot of the Caflimirian hills \yere very near to the river Hydaipes.

The mountains Emodus and Imaus


difl:ance,

indeed, were at a very great

and could be only

in

fight to the

NE

fince they are a

conti-

96

continuation of the great

ridge called Hindo-Ko,

or the Indian

Caucafus

and which are near the head of the Indus, and


I

run
be

through the heart of Thibet.


different readings of the fame

fufpeil
;

Emodus and Imaus

to

name
That

and Imaus or Himaus, we

have every reafonable proof of being derived fronx the Sanfcrit word

Himmakh,
at prefent
;

fignifying fnowy.

vafi:

ridge bears the fame


*.
firfl

name

and Pliny knew the circumftance well

To
327
in

return to Alexander.

He

lailed

barkation in the Hydafpcs, about the


years

emmiddle of November N. S.
from
his

place of

before Chrill,
field

(according to Ulher) having of courfe,


j

been in the

the whole rainy i^afon


fleet arrived

for

he croffed the Indus


conflux of the

May.

In five days, the

at the

Hyis

dafpes and Acelines

(Chelum and Jenaub)

the identity of which,


:

moft pointedly marked, by the nature of the banks


rivers,

for thefe large

pent up within

ftrait
;

rocky beds, form a

rapid,

and troubled

ftream at their confluence


fleet,

and this appearance difinayed the whole


large fhips.

and proved

fatal to
is it

fome of the

A fimilar defcriplife

tion of this confluence


croffed a little

given in Sherefeddin's
in

of Timur,

who
a

below

1398 nearly
Philip,

at the

lame

feafon, over

bridge of boats.
the

At

this place,

who had

led a divifion of

army along the banks of the Acefines, (whofe courfe is not far from that of the Hydafpes, and gradually approaches it, until they
meet) here joined the grand army, and was ferried over the Acefines.

We

may

obferve from this,

and from Craterus and Hepheftion

being detached with the other two divifions along the oppofite

banks of the Hydafpes, that Alexander might be

faid almofl to

fweep the whole country.

He now

approached the confines of the

^Malli, and fet out on his JirJ expedition with a detachment, againfl

the people of the country, to prevent their giving affiftance to that


nation
;

but the particulars of his march are not recorded.


fleet

He
;

returned again to the

and army

at the

confiux of the Hydafpes

Imliusj incolarum lingua nivofum fignificante.

Pliny

Book YI.

and

97

and from thence diTpatched the


at

fleet to

the next place of rendezvous,


(Je-

the conflux of the Hydraotes (Rauvee) with the Acefines


;

naub)

for fo the confluent flreams

of the Hydafpes and Acefines


largefl:
;

were named, the Acefines being the


is iaid to

and

as

the Hydafpes

be 20 flades in width the whole way, the other mufl; have


river.

been an immenfe
three of

The army was

divided into four divifions,

which marched

at a confiderable diflance
j

from each other,

along or near the courfe of the river


the

the fourth, Alexander took


river,

command

of himlelf, and marched inland from the


fide
;

to

attack, the

Malli on that

in order to drive the fugitives towards

the forks of the rivers, where they might be intercepted by fome

of the other

divifions.

The

line

of direftion of his march muft

have been fouth or fouth-eafl:ward. took


a ftrong city,

On
;

the fecond

morning he
long

and Perdiccas, another

and

after a fecond
:

night march, arrived at the Hydraotes (Rauvee)

perhaps,
;

we may
or 30

allow for the day, and two night marches, 40 road miles
miles of horizontal diflance *.

G.

He

fell in

with the

river at

fome

confiderable difl;ance above the conflux (the appointed rendezvous


for the fleet) as appears

by what followed

and

after crofljng it,

took two other towns


the Malli
;

-f-,

and then proceeded to the

capital city
fide,

of

after difpatching

Pithon back to the river


capital
;

to in-

tercept the fugitives.


mift:aken for the
land,

This

of the Malli,

muft not be

modern Moultan
with the

which

is
j

at

leaft:

40 miles by

below the conflux of the Hydraotes


fl:ream

or

two days voyage

for a boat going


quefl:ion,

but the ancient capital in

was above the conflux, and near the Hydraotes (Rauvee)


it,

by the
of the

garrifon's leaving
river.

and retiring

to the oppofite (north) fide

Alexander

recroflfes

the river, after them, but finding

* The Ayin Acbaree reckona 27 cofTes, or 51 B. miles, between the two confluences of the Hydafpes and Hydraotes with the Acefines ; but this account includes the windings of the

channel.

f One of thefe was a town of Brachmans or Bramins. Some of them burnt themfelves, together with their houfes ; and few came alive into the enemies hands. This mode of conduft has been praftifed in our own times. See Orme's Indoftanj Vol. II. p. 255. X Itinerary 1662.

them

98

them

too ilrong to be attacked with the party he brought with him,


a reinforcement,

and waiting for

the

enemy had time


This
in

to
is

retire into

another fortified city, not far

off.

namelefs city,

the place

where Alexander was wounded,


and not in the
(Outch) which
near
its
is

and

fuch imminent danger;

capital

of the Malli,
fide

nor

among

the Oxydrac<z

on the oppofite

of the Acefines (Jenaub) and

confluence with the Indus.

Indeed Arrian

is

particular

in pointing out this' error [of Diodorus].


this city above the conflux,

As

to the diilance
it

of

we may
fleet
firfl;

colled

that

could not be

very

far,

both by reafon of the quick communication between

Alexander, and the

camp and

and by the ground he had


I

marched
it

over, after leaving the

conflux.

am

inclined to place

about lo G. miles above the conflux (of the Jenaub and Rauvee)
a

and

few miles from the north bank of the


fide,

latter

<,

and the capital


river

of the Malli on the oppofite


fo that they will be

and not

far

from the

bank

fomewhat below the prefent town of Toulomba,


of

a famous pafs on the Rauvee, between Lahore and Moultan.

When
his

x^lexander was fufficiently recovered from the

efi-'eds

wound, he was embarked on the Hydraotes, and


fleet,

carried

down

the jlrearn, to his

which appears

to

have been brought into


the conflux after he

the Hydraotes
joined the

for

we

learn that he palled

fleet *.

We
its

learn alfo, until

from the fame author, that the Acefines


loft in
:

preferves

name

it is

the Indus, although

it

receives the

Hy-

dafpes and Hydraotes


gives the

the hiftorian

of Timur, in like manner,

name of Jenaub
:

to the confluent waters

of the
it

Chelum
was the

and Jenaub
largeft river
at leaft,

this alone,

however, does not prove that


in

for

we have many examples,


river,

modern geography,
fmalleft, gives its

where the adjundl

though the

name

to the confluent waters.

It is

worthy of remark, that Arrian,

as it appears, not

knowing what became of the Hyphafis (Beyah)


* Arrian.

does

99

does not fay that Alexander faw the

mouth of
truth

it,

as

he did thofe
it

of the Acefines and Hydraotes


into the Acelines.

but only informs us that


the
is,

fell

And

indeed,

that thefe rivers

under the modern names of Beyah and Setlege, do not join the

Jenaub

but after uniting their flreams,

fall

into the Indus, a great

way

farther

down.
do

It is

certain that the courfes

of

rivers,

even
fays,

of the

largeft,

alter fo

much,

in time, that
is

what Arrian
neceflity for

might have been the cafe;


pofing
it.

but there

no

fup-

Arrian, as well as

Sherefeddin, informs us that the lower part


is flat

of the Panjab towards Moultan,


[like Bengal]

and marfliy, and inundated


fall

by the periodical

rains,

which
it,

between the months

of

May

and Odober.

As

a proof of

Alexander was once obliged


retire

to break

up

his

camp, on the Acefmes (Jenaub) and

to the

higher grounds.

From
Oxycani,

the conflux of the Acefines with the Indus,


territories

we accompany

Alexander fucceflively to the


Sindomanni,

of the Sogdi, Muficani,


Oxydracac,
unmolell:ed.

and Patalans.
were

The
left

who had
Bhakor

fubmitted by their ambafladors,

anfwers neareft to the pofition and defcription of the country of the


Muficani, which was next to the Sogdi, and the mofl powerful on
that part of the

Indus

and the Oxycani, the next in order, to


In Sindomanni,

Hajycan

a circar, or divifion of Sindy.

we may

recognife the country of Sindy; or that thro'


flows, in the lower part of
its

which
a

the river Sinde

courfe

and Pattala, has ever been


fo
vafl:

referred to the Delta of the Indus.

But

change of names,
*, forbids

or rather fo

vafl;

change in the manner of writing them

the building of any hypothefes, on the fimilarity of ancient and

* comparifon of the modern names with the ancient, in many parts of Afia, leads me to conclude, that had they been faithfully written by the Greeks, mueh lei's difference would be found between them, than we now experience and I am inclined to think that the names of the rivers, in particular, are fcarcely changed fmce the time of the Greeks. Vanity has no ihare in
:

new naming of rivers.

modem

100

']

modern names of
equally evident.

places

except in cafes, where the locality

is

Having now conducted Alexander


the Indus, to the head of
its delta,

acrofs

the Panjab, and

down

it

may not be
which he

amifs to obferve,
pafTed,

that the ftate of the country through


different

was very

from what we

fliould

have conceived,
as

who

have been in

the habit of confidering Hindooftan,

being governed by one

monarch; or even

as divided

into
lefs

feveral large

kingdoms.

In the

Panjab country, in an extent

than

is

comprifed within one of


find

the foubahs, or grand divifions of the


lefs

Mogul Empire, we

no

than feven nations

and along the lower parts of the Indus,

many

more.

Even

in the Panjab,

where Alexander warred a whole cam-

paign and part of another, there was nothing of that kind of concert appeared,

which muft have taken

place between the governors


:

of provinces, had they been under one head


afting feparately, for himfelf.

but

in general,

each

The

Malli, Catheri, and Oxydracas,

we

are told, leagued together for their

mutual defence
It
is

and

this

proves that they were feparate governments.

curious, that

the fame caufe that facilitated Alexander's conquefts in India, fhould


alfo

have given them the degree of celebrity that has ever accom;

panied them
fmall
flates
:

that

is

to fay,

their fubdivifion into a

number of
or not

and ordinary

readers,

either not

regarding,

comprehending
as

their extent and confequence, have confidered

them

kingdoms.

The

conquefl of the Panjab and Sindy, would, with

fuch an army *, be no very great matter in our times, although


united
:

and yet this conquefl:


:

is

confidered as a brilliant part of

Alexander's hiHory

the truth
foldier
;

is,

the romantic traveller

is

blended

with the adventurous

and the feelings of the reader, are

oftner applied to, than his judgment.

But although the weftern part of Hindooftan was

in this

Itate,

there exilled beyond, or rather towards the Ganges, a powerful

Alexander had 120,000 men, and 200 elephants.

Arrian.

king-

101

kingdom,

as

appears by the fbte Mcgaflhenes found

it

he refided in quality of ambaflador


probably owed

from Seleucus Nicator,

when not many


in,

years after, at Palibothra, the capital of the Prafii *.


to

The

Prafians

the difcontents that

prevailed in

Alexander's

army, their efcape from

a foreign conqueft, at that period.

Alexander arrived

at Pattala

about the middle of Augufc (Before

ChriH 326
alfo

years)

and

after

he had made proper arrangements for


fleet

the fafety and conveniency of his

and army

and had viewed

the two principal mouths of the Indus, in


furprife,
if

which he experi-

enced fome degree of


fudden influx of the

not of terror, from the bore, or

tide-f-j

he departed by land for Sufa, leaving


fooii as

Nearchus with the


Ihould ceafe.
the Hydafpes,

fleet

to follow, as

the etelian winds


in failing

He
in

had been more than 9 months

down

and Indus.

He

croffed

the Hydafpes about the

fummer
the

folfl:ice

the preceding year, and of courfe had been in

field,

or

in

fome kind of warfare, during two rainy feafons

we

are told

however, by the author of the Ayin Acbaree, that but


in the lower parts of

little

rain falls

Moultan
failed

that

is,

the part

bordering on the Indus.

Nearchus

about the middle of

Odtober with the

NE

monfoon

conducting, according to Dr.

Gillies, in his elegant

hiflory of Greece,

" the

jirjl

European

jleet

v/hich navigated the Indian feas."


publiflied

By

the journal of this voyage,


fleet

by Arrian,

it

appears that the

failed

out of the

weflern branch, by the dlllance between the


the river Arabius,

mouth of the Indus and


;

which was only 1000


fladia,

fladia

for Arrian gives the


||.

breadth of the Delta at 1800


takes notice that

along the fea coafr

Arrian

when Nearchus

flood out to fea, on the coaft


at

of India, he found either no fliadow

noon

or elfe the fliadow.

* See
;

the Introdudion.

\ The Etefian winds blew from the N E in the Mediterranean, in the months of July and Auguft and the ancients thought proper to apply the fame term to the periodical windi ot th: fime feafon in the Indian ieas, although they blew from theoppofite quarter. The firll of Oflober O. S. according to Ufher. Pliny gives it 220 miles, fo that he reckoned nearly 8 ftades to one of hb miles. II

ibid.

102

if any,

was projedled fouthward.

This, however, could not poftill

fibly

happen, becaufe Alexander did not arrive


nor
till
:

after the

fummer
it,

folftice,

Auguft.

And

yet Arrian

took this from Nearwill

chus's journal
find that

but whoever examines the geography of

he could never be within a degree of the


at a reafonable diftance

tropic, allowing
fliore.

him
It

to

have failed

from the

may

appear extraordinary that Alexander fhould, in the courfe


fleet

of a few months, prepare fo vafl a

for his voyage

down
is

the

Indus
truth

efpecially as

it is

faid to

be the work of his army.

But the
full

is,

that the Panjab country, like that of Bengal,


;

of

navigable rivers

which, communicating with the Indus, form an


:

uninterrupted navigation from Cafhmere to Tatta

and, no doubt,

abounded with boats and


hands.

velTels

ready conflrudted to the conqueror's

That he

built

fome

vefTels

of war, and others of certain

defcriptions that

might be wanted,
vefiels,

I entertain

no doubt

but tranf-

port and provifion

doubt not, were to be collefted to any


;

number.

There were about 80 triremes


I

and the whole number


probable, too, that the

of embarkations were near 2000.


veffels in

think

it

which Nearchus performed


were found in the Indus.
>

his coafling voyage to the gulf

of
are

Perfia,

Veflels of

180 tons burthen


1

fometimes ufed in the Ganges

and thofe of

00 not unfre-

>'

quently.

Account of the

Map

of the Countries^ lying between the River Indus,

anJ

the

Caspian Sea.
to

HAVING
Perfia
it

fo often

had occafion

mention the countries of

and Tartary, contiguous to the north- weft parts of India

will be for the reader's convenience to have a fmall

map of

thofe

parts, inierted in this

work

by which. the
6

relative pofitions

of the

frontier

103

frontier provinces

of both countries, will be fliewn, and the heads

of the Indus, Ganges, and Oxus, brought into one point of view.
It will alfo

ferve to

convey an idea of the route purfued by Mr.


;

Forfter *, from the banks of the Ganges, to the Cafpian fea

and

which has never been


at leaft

travelled
to

by any European

in

modern times
Bember) and
fliall

no account of
pofitlons of

it is

be found on public record.


(or

The

Pifliour, are given

Jummoo, Attock, Behnbur in the large map of India;

therefore, I

begin with an account of thofe of Calhmere, Cabul and Candahar.

From Jumrnoo, Mr.

Forfter travelled to the capital city of Cafli-

mere, which he reckons 97 colTes by the road; and the general


The hiilory of this gentleman's travels is very curious. He proceeded hy land from Bengal to the Cafpian fea, and from thence by the ordinary route on the river Wolga, &c, to I'etersburgh ; in the years 1783 and 1784. It was necelfary, from a regard vo fafety, to avoiil the country of the Seiks ; that is, Lahore he accordingly crolfed the Ganges and Jumna rivers within tne mountains, and proceeded to Calhmere by the road of Jummoo. He vifited this celebrated country, I prefume, through motives of curiofity, as it lay fo far out of his way. From thence, croffing the Indus, about 20 miles above Attock, he proceeded to Cabul, the capital city of Timur Shah, King of Candahar ; or more commonly known by the name of Abdalla. He meant to have proceeded from thence, through the country of Bucharia or Tra.ifoxonia ; but finding it too hazardous, he purfued the accultomed route of the caravans by Candahar. From tills place, wliicli is fuppofcd with reafon to be the Pampainijan Alexandria, his route was nearly in a Itraight line through Herat, to the fouth extremity of the Cafpian ; acrofs the modern pro\inces of Seiftan^ Koraian, and Mazanderan ; and which were known to the It will Ancients, under the names of Paropamifus, Aria, or [Ariana) Parthia, and Tapuri. be perceived that (as far as a comparifon can be made) Mr. Forfter traced back a confiderable As he travelled in the difpart of the route purfued by Alexander, when in purfuit of BeiVus. guife of an Afiatic, and in the company of Afiatics ; through a valt extent of Mohammedan country, where the religious prejudices of the natives, are nearly equalled by thtir political jealoufy of all forts of foreigners ; we may pronounce the man who could perform fueh a taik without fufpicion, to poiTefs great prefence of mind, and no lefs difcretion ; added to an uncommon iliare of obfervation of manners, and facility of attaining languages. Deteftion had been worfe than death : and he was fubjeft to continual fufpicion fro.n. his fellow-travellers, who were not in the fecret. I hope he means to publilli his obfervations on the manners, government, and prefent Rate of that part of Ferfia, of which we know the leaft as well as of Calhmere, afubjeft vet more intereiling to the philofopher and naturalift. It may fcrve to Ihevvf the extenfive commercial intercourfe, and credit in Hindoollan, and the .adjoining country (once dependant on it) notwithftanding the variety of governments it contains, and the unfettled ftate of the greateft part of them ; that the bills of exchange which Mr. Forfter obtained at Calcutta, were negociable at Cabul, 1 7 or 18 hundred miles diftant ; and the capital of a kingdom totally unconnefted with, and poflibly hollile in political fentiments, to that in which the bills originated. From the lime he left the laft Britifti ftation in Oude, to the Cafpian, in which he employed near a twelvemonth, and travelled 2700 Englilh miles ; he was compelled to forego moft of the ordinary comforts, and accommodations, which are enjoyed by the loweft clafs of people, in European countries ; fleeping in the open air, even in rainy and fnowy weather ; and contenting himfelf with the ordinary food and cookery of the country he paffed through. Indeed it was barely poflible to carry with him the means of procuiing comforts, without hazarding his fafety ; as he was fo long on the road,
:

bearing.

IC4
lafl

bearing,

at

by

W.

The

19 colTes of the way, were by

water,
writes

following the courfe of the Cheluni or Behut river (he


it

JalumJ which, with


cafe,

its

feveral

branches, traverfes the

valley of Caftimere, and takes nearly a wefterly diretflion, in this


place.

This being the


and

only 78 coffes are to be reckoned in a

northwardly direction,
embarkation
:

from

Jummoo

to Iflamabad, the

place of

as

the hilly (not to fay mountainous) nature of

the country requires at lead 45 coffes to

make
1

a degree,

the pofition

of the capital of Cadimere

may

be reckoned
Ion.

17 G. miles
11'.

N by W
Perfian

from Jummoo:

or in

lat.

33 49',
:

73

The

tables give its latitude at 35

but not only the diftance from

Jumit

moo,

but

its

bearing from Piihour, plainly demonftrates that

ought not
Lahore be

to

be higher than 33 49', or

at

mofl34; provided
Bernier

in 31.

The

capital

of Caflimere has the fame name as


Forfler,

the province, according to

Mr.

and

M.

but the
It
is

Ayin Acbaree,

at

an earlier period, names

it

Sirinagur.

large city, and built

on the

fides

of the river Chelum, which has

a remarkable fmooth current throughout the whole valley, accord-

ing to

Mr.

Forfler) and this proves

the remarkable flatnefs of the


'

Country ;

as the

body of water

is

very large.
is

The

valley or country of Cafhmere,


its

celebrated throughout
fertility

upper Afia for

romantic beauties, for the


its

of

its

foil,

and for the temperature of

atmofphere.

All thefe particulars


it is

may

be accounted

for,

when

it is

confidered, that

an elevated

and extenfive

valley,

furrounded by fteep mountains, that tower


;

above the regions of fnow

and that

its

foil

is

compofed of the
formed
it its

mud

depofited

by

a capital river, which- originally

waters
itfelf

into a lake, that covered the


a pafTage

whole

valley
left

until

opened

through the mountains, and

this fertilized valley,

an

ample
race
:

field to

human

induflry, and to the

accommodation of a happy

for

fuch the ancient inhabitants of Caflimere, undoubtedly

were.

Although

105

]
it,
;

Although

this

account has no living teflimony to fupport

yet

hiftory and tradition, and

what
its

is

yet ftronger, appearances


all

have

impreffed a conviftion of

truth on the minds of

thofe

who
it.

have

vilited the fcene,

and contemplated the different parts of

Different authors vary in their accounts of the extent of the valley.

The Ayin Acbaree


to
1

reckons Cajhmere 120 cofTes long, and from 10


I

5 broad

but

imagine that fome other


Bernier,

dillrid:s

under

its

go-

vernment, are included.


thither, in 1664, fays
it is

30

who accompanied Aurengzebe leagues long, and 10 or 12 broad. And


accurate in his enquiries and
in breadth
;

Mr.

Foffter,

who
it

I
is

dare fay was

obfervations, fays

80 miles long, and 40

and of

an oval form.

The

author of the Ayin Acbaree dwells with rapture on the


;

beauties of Caflimere
favourite fubjedl

whence we may conclude

that

it

was a
three

with his mafter Acbar,

who had

vifited it

times, before
vifited
it

Abul Fazil wrote.


and feemed

Other Emperors of Hindooftan


of government, during

alfo,

to forget the cares


It

their refidence in the happy valley.


rains,

appears that the. periodical

which almoft deluge the

refl

of India, are fhut out of Cafh;

mere by the height of the mountains


fall

fo that only light fliowers to

there

thefe however, are in

abundance enough

feed

fome

thoufands of cafcades, which are precipitated into the valley, from


every part of the flupendous and. romantic bulwark that encircles
it.
'

The
from

foil i

the richefl that can be conceived

and

its

produtftions

thofe of the temperate zone.


all

A
is

v.afl

number of

flreams and rivers

quarters of the valley, bring their tribute to the


foil
;

Chelum,

the parent of the

which

a large navigable river,

and in which
crofTed
it

we

recognife

the famous Hydafpes of A.lexander,

who

about 100 miles below the valley.

Many

fmall lakes are fpread

over the furface, and fome of them contain floating iflands.

In a

word,

the fcenery

is

beautifully pidurelque

and a part of the

romantic circle of mountains, makes up a portion of every landfcape.

The pardonable

fuperflition of the fequeftered inhabitants, has

mul-

tiplied

100

tjplfed the places

of worfhip of Mahadco, ofBefchan, and of Brama*.

All Cafhmere

is

holy land; and miraculous fountains abound.

One
;

dreadful evil they are conftantly fubje(ft to, namely, earthquakes

and to guard againft


built of

tlieir

moil
is

terrible effefts, all the houfes are

wood
is

of which there
curious

no want.
with

Among
abounds,

other

manufactures,,
;

which Caflimere
all

that of the fliawls

which- are diftributed over


learn

the

weftern and fouthern Afia.

We

from

M.

Volney, that they


:

even

make

a part

of the drefs of the Egyptian

Mamlouks

and

at

prefent (as if to exhibit the moft flriking contraft in the claffes

of

wearers) they are

worn by

the Englifh ladies.

There remains no
is

doubt, but that the delicate wool of which they are made,

the

produce of a fpecies of goat,


adjoining one of Thibet.

either of that country,

or

of the

Notwithftanding the prefent extenfive


is

demand

for ihawls, the


;

manufadlure

declined to one fourth of


decline-

the former quantity

which may be

eafily referred to the

of the Perfian and Hindooftanic empires.

Here

ai'e

bred a fpecies
in
in.

of fheep, called Hwidoo, which like thofe of Peru, are employed


carrying burthens.

The

annual publick revenue of Cafhmere,

the time of Aurcngzebe, appears to have been only about 35,000!.

From what
province.

has

been

faid above,

it

was, no doubt,

a favoured

The

Caflimirians have a langu-age of their own, faid to be ante-

rior to the Sanfcrit.

And

it

would appear

that they had alfo a religion

of their own, different from that of the Hindoos^

Abul Fazil

fays,

"

the mofl refpedlable people of this country, are the Reyfhees,

" who although they donotfuffer themfelves to be fettered by tradi" tions, are doubtlefs true worfliippers of God." Nothing can exceed the liberality of
the great

mind

both, of

Abul

Fazil, and of his mafter,

Acbar

but the former appears to have caught fome of the

enthufiafm of the valley, by his defcriptions of fome of the holy


places in
it.

To fum up
is

the account of Cafhmere, in the words of

fae fame author, " It

a garden in perpetual fpring."

So

I07

So

far

am

from doubting the

tradition refpeiling the exiftence


j

of the lake that covered Caflimere


ferve to convince
It
it

that appearances alone


tradition,
I

would

me, without either the


effedl
;

or the hiftory.

mere natural

and fuch

apprehend muft be the


a

economy of

nature, in every cafe

where the waters of

river are

inclofed in any part of their courfe,

by elevated

lands.

The

firft

confequence of

this ftoppage,

is,

of courfe, the converfion of the

inclofed lands, into a lake: and if this happens near the fountains

of the

river,

and the ground

is

folid,

it

is

likely to
its

remain a lake
infant ftate to
it
is

for everj

the river not having force enough in


pafTage through

work
more

itfelf a

the mountains.

Hence

that

lakes are found near the fources of rivers, than in the lower
If the river be inclofed after
it

parts of their courfe.

has gained a

great accefTion of water,


firfl

and of courfe,
;

flreiigth, it will
at

indeed at
it

form

a lake as before

but in time, the place

which

runs

over, will be gradually fretted away, as in the cafe of the

Chelum
itfelf

abovementioned.
paffage

The Euphrates, in through Mount Taurus ; and


it

like

manner, opens

the Ganges through

Mount
a courfe

Imaus

and even though the bafe of the mountain be of the firmefl


will give

texture,

way

to the inceffant fridlion,


it

through

of ages

for

we know
years.

not but that

may have been

an operation of

fome thoufand

In the cafe of the Ganges,


it
j

which

paffes
y/r<3/<i:

THROUGH Mount
were
fofter

Imaus,

may be fuppofed
for the upper

that the lower

than the upper

ftill

remain, to a vaft

height.

In that of the Chelum, the lake appears to have exifted


foil,

long enough to depofit a vaft depth of

before
:

it

difperfed.

The

Cafhmirian hiftory names the lake Sutty-sirr

and adds,

that Kufliup led a colony of Bramins to inhabit the valley, after the

waters had fubfided.


ftan,

Caflimere

is
:

the frontier province of


it
;

Hindoo-

towards Tartary and Thibet

having

little

Thibet on the

north, and great Thibet on. the eaft

and Cafhgur on the

N W.
route,,

From
to

Calhmere, Mr. Forfter v/ent by a very circuitous


j

Cabul

the barbarous ftate of the people

who

inhabit the ihores

of

'oS

of the Indus towards

its

fource,

making

this

precaution neceflary.

The

countries in quellion are thofe of Pehliely or Puckcly, Sowhad,


the

{vnd Bijore,

fcene of Alexander's warfare on the weft of the

Indus

all

of which were fubjedled to regular authority during the

long and vigorous reign of Acbar.

We

are

told

by the Ayin

Acbaree, that feveral of the ftreams that form the head of the Indus,
yeild gold duft
:

and

this accounts for the

circumltance of the In-

dian tribute being paid in gold to Darius Hyftafpesj according to

Herodotus (Book
river

III.).

The fum
fo

indeed feems too great, in


:

proportion to what other provinces paid

but as the gold of the


that of the Kilhengonga,

Pc^o/us has been cxhaufted

may
I

in Pnckley, be diminidied.

Pehkely,

take to be the

Pa&ya of

Herodotus, Book IV.

(as

well as

the Peuceliiotis of Arriaji) from

whence Scylax

fct

out to explore the courfe of the Indus, under the


:

orders of the fame Darius

for
river.

it

lies

towards the upper part of

the navigable courfe of that

The
courfe,

iirli

part of

Mr.

Forfter's route

from Caflimerc, was down

the courfe of the Chelum, or Behut, which has a fouth or S S

from the

capital of Cafliniere, for about 14 cofles

at

which

point he difembarked, and ftruck to the wellward, towards Muzifferabad


;

the capital town of a chief,

who
cofles

llyles

himfelf Sultan of

dillri(fl

of the fame name, bordering on the fouth-\\eft of Caflicapital is

mere.
a

This

reckoned 71

from Caihmere

city,

in

W by

S direction.

The

country being mountainous from the

confines of Ca(hmere, together with the obliquity of the courfe

of the

river

not more than ji or

74 G. miles can be allowed on


at
15I-

this courfe.

The

frontier

of Caihmere was pafled

cofles

from the landing

place,

on the bank of the Chelum.

At Bazaar, 64 cofles in a S Mr. Forfter croflled the Indus.

W by S

direction
is

from Muzifferabad,

This place

about 20 miles to the


ferves to corredt
I

NNE

of Attock, and, together with

Jummoo,

the pofition of Caihmere, in refpeft of Attock and Lahore.

have

allowed the 64 cofles to produce So G. miles

and

it

accords, as

nearly

'9

nearly as fuch a rough kind cf computation, can be

expcded

to do.

The

greateft part

of the way from Muzifforabad, was mountainous,


fubjc(5t

and the country

to petty Prince?

of the Patau race.


Shall

Mr.

Forfter entered the country of

Timur
eafl

Abdalla,

at

Hyderloth of

buneec, a town about 8 miles to the

of the Indus.

The
July.

Indus (or Sinde) was crolTed by Mr. Forfter, the

He
:

remaks,

that

no
that

rain

had then fallen

in

that

neigh-

bourhood

but

we know

the periodical rains mull: have

comof-

menced

in the northern

mountains, near three months before, and


;

courfe muft have fwelled the river very confiderably

for

Mr. Forfter

judged the breadth of the ftream


It

to

be three quarters of a mile.

was

alfo very rapid,

and turbulent, although not agitated by


alfo,

any wind.

He

obferved

that the water

was extremely cold,


it.

and that

a great deal
is

of black (and was fufpended in

Nil-ab,
:

or the blue river,

name fomctimes applied


its

to the

Indus

pofli-

bly from the fancied colour of


fiind.

waters,
rivers,

The Ganges and Burrampooter


mud.
I

when mixed with this on the contrary, when

fwoln, are of a pale yellow, lightly tinged with red; being then
Saturated with

doubt not but that the Indus affumes the


have fdlen into the level countries, and
into the river.
river, are.

fame colour,

after the rains


foil

waflicd a portion of the


I

cannot find out where the fprings of this celebrated

Unqueflionably,

they are far more remote than the fides of the

mountains, which feparate Hindooftan from Tartary; and where

both the ancient and modern Europeans have agreed


for as thefe

to place

them
at

mountains arc not

in a

higher parallel than 35",


to

moft; the Indus could have no more than 150 G. miles


(reckoning in a
Forfler crolfcd
flrait line)
it
:

run

before

it

reached the place where

Mr.

and

we

have no example of any river having


its
;

acquired fuch a volume of water, in fo early a part of


this fuppofitlon

courfe, as

would make
rivers
j

it.

All the Panjab rivers

and moft
fall

of the weftern
in

that

is,

thofe of Candahar and Cabul,


fays,
**

below

this point.

The Ayin Acbarce

the Sind, accord-

"O

" ing to fome, rifes between Caflimere and Cafhgur, while others " place its fource in Khatai." By Khatai, is ftridlly meant China ;
but the term
countries
;

is

likewife extended to Tartary, and other adjacent

of which Cafhgur

may be

one.

This country comand extends


to the

mences on the north and

north-eall:

of Caflimere,
;

northward to the fortieth degree of latitude

and eaftward

chain of mountains, which, in the idea of the ancients, feparated


the tv/o Scythias
:

in

effed,

it

was

that

branch of

Mount Imaus
and termi-

that extended in a diredlion nearly

from north

to fouth,

nated on the eaftern branch of the fame mountains, near the heads

of the Ganges.
fide

The Indus may


;

then poffibly fpring from the weft


this

of this ridge of Imaus

and

would allow
it

a length of courfe,

equal to what the Ganges takes, before


great part of the fpace allotted
to be a findy defert
river
:

enters Hindooflan.
to

by the maps
that

Cafbgur,

is

known

it

is is

poflible

the black fand feen in the the torrents, from that


eaft fide

by Mr.
I

Forfter,

rolled

down by
the

defert.

cannot help obierving that on the


as

of the northern

Imaus, the name Cbat^ appears


Cajia does in the

name of

a nation

as that

of

pofition affigned to the


faid before,
is

modern

city of Cafligur.

Khatai, as

have

applied rather in a lax fenfe by the


or
;

people of Hindooftan.
per

Cheen,
China

Maha-Cheen,
as

is

their pro-

name

for the empire of

Sin^

appears to have been


its

among
ferent

the

Romans.

Khatai anfwers better to Tartary, and

dif-

members,

fuch as Thibet,
;

&c.

Probably Khatai,

and

Scythia have the fame derivation


plied in certain inilances,
Pifliour or Peifliore,
to the
is

as

they appear to have been aptra6ls

fame

of country.

the next place of note that lay in

Mr.
from
its

Former's route.

It is

a confiderable city,
to

and
j

is

fituated

on the

great road leading

from Attock

Cabul

being 25
j

colles

Attock, and 29 in a
latitude (lands in the

W by
map

S diredion from Bazaar

whence

at 3.2

44'

and

Ion.

69

54'.

From

this

In Ptolemy.

place

til

place to Cabul,

Mr.

Forfter reckons
I

90

coffes;

Col. Popkam's

MS. 108; and


which accords
Ion. 68 58'.

Tavernier 100.
;

have preferred Mr. Former's ac-

count of the diflance


befl

but have altered his bearing to


:

N N W,
34 36';
;

with other circumftances

and allowing 45
lat.

cofles to a degree,

Cabul, by this account, will be in


the Perfian tables,
:

By

its latitude is

2' 30'

and

its

Jon. 4 42' weft

from Lahore

but the conftrudlion allows only


in

3 47'.

Thefe bearings, taken

a great meafure, at a venture,

together with the computed diftances on each; can only be admitted in geographical determinations, where there are no fixed points
at the extremity

of the

feries,

through the necefiity of


at leaft

tlie

cafe

however, they
lity,

may
eaft

be eftimated, as

equal in point of authois

to the Perfian tables

of longitudes, in which Cabul

placed

104 40' to the

of the Fortunate Iflands.

The

city

of Cabul, the prefent capital of Timur Shah, King of


is

Candahar,

iituated
far

near

tlie

foot of the

Indian

Caucafus,
river,

or

Hindoo-Ko

and not

from the fource of the Attock


it.

which

paffes very near,

or under

Its fituation i^
;

fpoken of in terms of
lefs

rapture by the Indian hillorians


pleafant
:

it

being no

romantic, than
its

enjoying a delightful

air,

and having within

reach,

the fruits and other products both of the temperate, and the torrid

zone.

In a political light,
:

it is

confidered as the gate of India torefpecfl to

iwards Tartary
Perfia.

as

Candahar holds the fame place, with

The Ayin Acbaree


pf Cabul
;

is

very full, in

its

defcription of the province

as well as thofe
it,

of Candahar and Caflimere.


cofles

Cabul has
Attock
city,

an extent given to
probably) to

of

50
;

from the Indus

(at

Hindoo-Ko

and 100, from the

river Chaghanferai,

the eailern boundary, to Charbagh.


ai;

Thefe meafures may be taken


be a coun-

200 G. miles, by 134 ; and appear confiftent. The province of Cabul appears, by every account,
:

to

try highly diverfified


eternal

being made up of mountains, covered with

fnows

hills

of moderate height,

and eafy afcent

rich
plains

112

plains,

and

{lately

foreftsj
It

and thefe enlivened by innumerable

ftreams of water.

produces every article neceflary to

human

life,

together with the moft delicate fruits and flowers.

It is

fometimes

named

Zabuliftan,

from Zabul,
capital

one of the names of Ghizni

which was the ancient


Hindoo-Ko,
feparate

of this country, and of which, Can-

dahar was then reckoned a part.

The mountains

of Hindoo, or
j

Cabul from Balk and Badackflian

and are

precifely the ridge defigned

by the ancients, under the name of the


this ridge to

Caucafus of India
fions the

and the proximity of

Cabul, occa-

moft rapid changes in the temperature of the atmofphere.


Acbarec, from whence moft of thefe particulars are col-

The Ayin

ledted, takes particular notice of the

Attock

river,

which

takes

its

courfe from north to fouth (nearly) and fertilizes the lands of Cabul

and Ghizni.
Cabul, as well
eaft
as

Candahar, together with fome

diftridls

on the

of the Indus, are compiifed within the extenfive dominions


to the

of

Timur Shah Abdalla; which extend weftward


city of Terfliifti
;

neighbour-

hood of the
Peifliore,
tradl is

including generally Cabul, Candahar,

Ghizni, Gaur, Seiftan (or Sigiftan) and Koraf^n.


lefs

This
:

not

than 650 B. miles in length, from


not what the extent
it

eaft to

weft

but
yet

although
there

we know
It

may
the

be, breadthwife

is little

reafon to fuppofe, that

bears any proportion to the


tra<fl

length.

does not differ

much from

comprifed within

the ancient
chiefly

kingdom of Ghizni.
;

Timur
is

Shah's Indian fubjedls are

Afghans

the

reft,

Perfians and Tartars of almoft every defaid

nomination.

His government

to be

mild and equitable 5


This, ia

with fome degree of relaxation


a

as

to military difcipline.
difl"olution.

government purely military, forbodes

The
parallel

pofition of
i

Candahar

is

ftill

more indeterminate, than


latter,

that

of Cabul

as

being placed with a reference to the

and

in the

affigned
to

by the Perfian tables; which


Its

is

33, or a degree

and half
k(5ted

the fouth ward of Cabul.

longitude cannot be colis

from the Ayin Acbaree, becaufe there

a miftake in

the

figures

"3

figures

it

giving a higher number of degrees than for Cabul

reckoning from the Fortunate Iflands.

Mr.

Forfter eftimates the

bearing of Ghizni (or Gazna) from Cabul, at S or S by


diftance 2oi farfangs, or 41 cofles
:

and the

and from Ghizni to Candahar

W,

103

cofles.

Thefe give a general bearing of

S33W,

137

cofl*es.

Col. Popham's

MS.

gives
;

122

cofles

betw^een Cabul and

Candahar, in diredl
a wide difference in

difl:ance

and Tavernier iio.


:

There appears

thefe accounts

Mr.

Forfter's bearing
is

from

Ghizni,

is

unqueftionably too

much

foutherly, as

proved by the

difi"erence

of latitude
is

therefore the diftance arifing

from

his

comCol.

pound
half

courfe,

to

be placed out of the queftion.

And

Popham's MS.
(Britifli,

fays that the colTes are to be

reckoned

at

a mile and

we may
I

conclude) and then the


cofl"es
j

122

cofl^es,

produce
will

only 96 Hindoo ftanny


give 138 G. miles.

and

thefe,

at

42

to a

degree,

have accordingly placed Candahar 138 miles

from Cabul, and


fitlon

in lat. 33, Ion.

67 5': which
In

is

D'Anville's po-

of

it,

in

his

map

of Afia,

my

map,

it

ftands 5 42' wefl:

of Lahore; or 1 55'
cording to

wefl;

of Cabul.

The

eaftern geographers, ac-

M.

D'Anville, allow 2 degrees between them.

Candahar, while the Perfian and

Mogul

empires were feverally

undivided, was the frontier city and fortrefs of Hindooftan towards


Perfia
latter
;

and was efleemed the key of the weflern provinces of the

and not unfrequently changed mafters.


as

The Ayin
:

Acbaree,

clafl"es,
it,

belonging to Candahar, feveral provinces on the wefl of


but as the limits of

and which unequivocally belong to Perfla

the empire varied with the prowefs and abilities of the diflerent

Emperors,
utmort.
ancient
I

it

may

be concluded that Acbar extended

them

to the

believe there are


:

no doubts entertained concerning the


to

name of Candahar which is allowed Alexandria^ from whence Alexander, directed


into BaSlria and Sogdiana, that
charia,
is,

be the Paropamifan

his

march northward,
Bu'-

the

modern countries of Balk,


it,

and Samarcand

and returned again to

previous to his

Indian expedition.

CL

The

i'4

The
pofed.

pofitlon of Ghizni, the ancient capital of the


is

kingdom of
but Mr.
is,

the fame name,

totally different
it

from what

M.

D'Anville fup:

He

has placed
it

in the

NW

extreme of Cabul

Forfter found

in the very heart of that province.

Geography

indeed, very bare of particulars through the whole trad between

Caflimere and Candahar

although Mr. Forfter has contributed fo


it.

much
mere

towards the improvement of


ftands nearly a
it,

He

has fliewn that Cafli-

whole degree

to

the north of the pofition

affigned

in our beft

maps

has taught us to diftinguifli certain

branches of the Indus, which before, were either confounded together, or mifnamed.
river

In particular,
city

we

learn
is

from him,

that the

which

pafles

by the
in

of Cabul,

named
:

the Attock

and joins the Indus

front of the city of Attock


it is

and although
i

the fmalleft river of the two (for

not more than

oo yards

wide, though deep) yet communicates


a confiderable portion of
its

its

name

to the other, during

courfe.
firft

Although
nor ought

this

was the part of India, the

known

to

Euro:

peans, yet at this day,


it

we know
;

lefs

of

it,

than of moft other parts

to.

excite furprife

for the

moderns have

vifited India,
:

on

a very different errand than

what the ancients did

ours being

purely on the fcore of maritime trade, until the downfal of the

Mogul

empire, opened the

way

to the acquifition I

of territory

and

that in the oppofite corner of the empire.

have availed myfelf of

the laborious refearches of the celebrated D'Anville, to introduce


fevefal places,

whofe names he has

identified
I

on the authority of
unacquainted with.

a Turkifti geographer,

whofe works
alfo,
I

am

From M.

D'Anville's works

have copied the pofition of the

northern mountains, which feparate India from the Tartarian provinces, as well as thofe provinces themfelves
before, extended the
;

having, as I

fliid

map

to

Samarcand and Calligur, in order to

{hew the
frontiers

relative pofitions

of the places fituated near the

common
for

of Perfia, India, and Tartary.

Thofe who wifh

more

particular information,

may

confult his

map

of Afia publifhed in

"5
'^',

iy^i
the

as alfo

his Ec/aira'Jemens
firfl

which accompanied which


His
:

that,

and

map

of India; the
dire<5tly

fedlion of
fubjedl.

is

particularly curious,

and applies

to this

Antiqiiite Geographiqiie
I

de L'Inde, deferves

attention likewife

though

confefs I cannot

follow Arrian in his detail of Alexander's marches, in the countries


bordering on the weft of the Indus, for want of fuch unequivocal

marks,

as

are to

be found on the

eaft

fide

of that

river,

in the

courfes and confluences of the Panjab rivers.

However, by the

aid

of the Ayin Acbaree,

feveral pofitions
as the

in the

march of Alexander

may be

afcertained

fecond volume of that work, under the

heads of Caflnnere and Cabul, gives the names, dimenfions, and relative pofitions,

of the fubdivifions of thofe countries.

think I

can clearly perceive that Alexander never went fo far to the north
as the city

of Cabul

and that although his route

is

generally re-

prefented as very circuitous, and even traverfmg the country from one

extreme to the other; yet


lerably ftraight,

apprehend, that on the contrary,


(or

it

was to-

from Alexandria

Candahar) to the Indus, near

Peucelaotis, or Pehkely.

Let us endeavour to trace his route ge-

nerally

Leaving Alexandiia, he came to the

river Cophenes

'\-

-,

which, by

circumftances, ought to be the river that runs under the city of

Nagaz
to be

and the modern name of which,


in the Turkifli

M.

D'Anville has found


of.
It is

Cow,

geographer above fpoken


Forfter's journal,

un-

fortunate, that neither

Mr.

nor Col. Popham's

MS.

give the particulars of any of the rivers on the road between:


:

Cabul and Candahar


flreams that crofs
it
:

the latter indeed,

notes no lefs
as

than five

but leaves us in uncertainty

to their bulk,

names, and future courfe.


daries,

In Alexander's arrangement of boun-

the river Cophenes was the eaftern limit of the province of


-,

Faropamifus

of which Alexandria, or Candahar, v/as regarded

as

This work is very fcarce, and might be reprinted, with emolument to the publifher. t I'he names of places in the map, at page 102, are given according to ancient, as well as modern acceptation of. tliem. The ancient names have a daih under them.

0^2

the

ri6

the capital
fpedl
;

and
ftill

think

it

anfwers to the Nagaz river in this re-

and

more
this

in the diftance
river

marched by Alexander,

in the

interval
river,

between

and the Indus.

From

the

Cophenes

Hcpheftion and Perdiccas, with a ftrong detachment, were


;

fent into the country of Peucelaotis (according to Arrian

Peuco'aiiis,

according to Strabo) near the Indus, where they were


for ferrying the

to

make

ready

army

over.

This country,

in

name and

fituation

agrees with the

modern

Pe.'kely or

Puckley, lying on the north of

Attock

and Hepheftion's Hay there muft have been very cbnli:

derable, previous to Alexander's arrival

as

on occafion of the retook up

volt of the Prince of the country, the fiege of his capital

30 days. Cophenes
fituations,

Alexander himfelf,
againft

inarched

from the banks of the


nations,

the ^fpii,

Tbymi, and Arafaci ;


I

whofe

and modern names,

am

utterly ignorant of ;

but con-

clude that they were inferior divifions of the modern Cabul, and
fituated

on the north-eafl of Candaharj

for,

not to mention that


as

Alexander would hardly purfue the fame route

Hepheftion did,

which was

to the eaft

he afterwards

failed

down
:

the Jlream of the

Indus, to the place where the bridge was built


ftance fervcs to prove that his expedition

and every circum-

was

to the

N E.

In his

way

to the Afpii,

he croffed two
in a

rivers,

the Choe and Euafpla;

and defeating the Afpians


territories

pitched battle, pafled through the

of the Gurcei ; and croffed the river of the fame name,


difficulty,

with

much

by reafon of the depth and


its

rapidity of

its

ilream, and the nature of

bottom
at

which was compofed of


on
his

round flippery
country of the
I Ihall paufe,

ftones.
/'Jjaceni,

He

was

this time,
is

way

to

the

or AJJacani ; and this

a point, at

which

to endeavour to afcertain its pofition,


it.

from the nature


then, ap-

of the circumftances relating to

The

river Giireus,

pears to have been the mofl confiderable one that occurred fmce

Alexander palfed the Cophenes:


for

it

was deep, but yet fordablej


they would either have been
it,

had his army croffed

it

in boats,
its

ignorant of the nature of

bottom ; or knowing
6

they could

not

''7

not have regarded

it as

an obftacle.

The

dcfcription fuits the At-

tock

river,

which running under Cabu],

paiTes

on the

eaft

of the

territory

of Ghizni (Ghuzneen, in the Ayin Acbaree) and joins the

Sinde or Indus, in front of the city of Attock.


fore,

The

Gura;i, there-

anfwer to the Ghiznians

and their

river to

that of Attock.

It is very difficult to

judge of the length of Alexander's march from


;

the Cophenes to the Gureus


road miles.

but poffibly

it

might be 70 or 80
eaft

The
eaft

country of AfTacani, appears to border on the


JJJ'a-kyl,

of the

Gureus, and anfwers to

a territory fituated

on the fouthMaffhga,
Bazira,

of the city of Cabul *, and between that and Bijore.

the capital, being taken by allault, Alexander

fummoned

which we may conclude


cani
tion
J

to

be the territory adjoining to the Affadiftrid:

and here the modern


that anfwers mofh

of Bijore prefents

itfelf in a pofi;

unequivocally to that of Bazira

and the

fimilarity

of the names

is

no

lefs flriking.

Bijore

is

afmall province
is

bordering on the north of Pifliour (or Pcifliore) which

fynoni-

mous with Beckram


Attock.
Its

-f-,

and

is

confined by the rivers Indus and

dimenfions are not more than 50 miles by 20, full of


race.

mountains and wilds, and inhabited by a favage and turbulent


Its pofition

becomes

interefling, as

it

contains the famous mountain


brilliant

ol Aornus, the taking of which was one of the moft


ploits

ex-

of Alexander, in thefe parts.


its

The Ayin Acbaree

gives
:

no
but

intimation of
defcribes
neffes,
it

containing any fuch remarkable mountain

generally as a very ftrong country, and as having faft-

into

which the inhabitants

occafionally retreat.

According

to the above particulars of the fituation of Bijore,

and the account


I

of Alexander's proceedings after he


this

left
c^z^

Aornus,

conclude that
or
itx

celebrated mountain

lies

about

G. miles northward,
Arrian defcribes

NN

E, from Pifliour

and 85 from Cabul.


:{:

bafe to be 18 or 20 miles
Ayin Acbaree Vol. TI. p. 195. \ Rsckonlng 10 (lades to a mile.

in circuit;

of vail elevation, and acp.

\ Ibid,

194 and 205.

ceffible

ii8

ceffible

only by one narrow path, cut out in the rock.


a great extent of arable
i

On

the

fummit was

and pafture land, with fprings


fubfift,

of water; fo that a garrifon of

coo men might


it

without
fimilar to

any extraneous

aid.

We

may

fuppofe

to be

fomewhat

Gwalior

*, or

Rotas Gur in Bahar.

The

Indus does not pafs near


lies

Aornus

becaufe the diftrid of

Sowhad proper

between the

Indus and Bijore, according to the Ayin Acbaree.

M.

D'Anville in his Eclaircijfemens,

and Antiquiti de JJIndey

informs us that the Sieur Otter, in his account of the return of

1739, (a work I have never been able to meet with) defcribes a remarkable mountain of the name of Renas, on the eaft

Nadir Shah,

in

of the Attock
in the

river,

and near the banks of the Suvat

and indeed,

pofition, in

which we might expedl

to find Aornus.

The

river Suvat,
as

probably means that of Sowhad ; a province bordering,


:

we

have faid before, on the weft of the Indus


is

and

fhould fuf-

ped; that the Indus itfelf


ville's reafoning,

intended by the river Suvat.

M. D'Anfor the

to prove that
:

Renas and Aornus


and
I

are

meant

fame word,
to page author's
I

is

very curious
t\\Q

beg leave to

refer the

reader
in the

J of

A7itiquite de L'Inde,

where he will

find

it

own

words.
Alexander, after the taking of Bazira, ard before
its

It appears that

he befieged Aornus (notwithftanding

proximity to the former)

proceeded to the Indus, where he took poffefiion of the city and


fortrefs

of Peucelaotis, and

feveral

fmall towns on, or near, that

river
I

and

as

Hepheftion and Perdiccas make their appearance here,

conclude this to be the city fpoken of before, as fuftaining a fiege


;

of 30 days

which period might


:

poflibly expire about the time of

Alexander's arrival

and the furrender might have been a confe-

quence of

it.

We

have before fuppofed the country of Peucelaotis to be the


:

modern Pehkely

and the

fortrefs

and

city in queftion,

was proba-

See the Index,

article

Gwalior.

bly

119

bly the capital of

it.

The Aj in Acbaree
(or rather S
;

defcribes the

provirice
;

thus

it is

iituated

on the weft

W)
j

of Caflimere

with

the country of

Gehker

to the fouth
Bijore,

Attock

to the weft (or S

W)

Sowhad, which includes


north
:

on the

NW

and Kenore on the

its rivers

are the Behut, Sinde (or Indus)

and Kifliengonga
circumftances of
its

and

its

dimenfions 66 B. miles by 47.

The two
it
;

the Indus and Kifliengonga pafiing through

and

bordering
its

on the

diilridt

of Attock (or Attock-Benaris) point out

general

pofition very clearly.

Mr.

Forfter iTiews us that the Attock diftridl

extends 27 or 30 miles to the

NNE

of the city of that name


;

and

it

may

poflibly

go fomewhat farther northward

though proof Pehit

bably not much.

Here then

v/e place the fouthern limit

kely, about 35 miles above the city of Attock,

and extend

to

the

N N E,
on the

along the fhores of the Indus


eaft

though

it lies

of that

river,

than on the weft.

much more of The Kifhengon-

ga being the

common boundary
its

of Pehkely and Cafhmere, proves

that Pehkely has


Forfter,

greateft extent

from

NE
it,

to S

and Mr.
fee

who

avoided the Pehkely

diftridt,

and did not


in his

the

Kifhengonga, muft have been to the


Caftimcre to Piftiour.

eaft

of

journey from
at

flight infped:ion

of the map,

page 102,

will convpy a clearer idea of the relative pofitions of the feveral pro-

vinces juft mentioned, than any written defcription


I fhall

and

to

that,

beg leave

to refer the reader.


left

If I underftand the matter right, Alexander

the rock AorPeiicelaotisy


is,

nus behind him,

as I fiid before,
:

v/hen he proceeded to

to receive its furrender

and afterwards marched back again (that


;

to the

or

N W)

to inveft the rock


in his

taking the city of Embolma,


after the taking of

which

ftood near

it,

way.

And

Aornus,
ftill

he made a fecond expedition into the country of the Aflacani,


tracing back his fteps to the northward.

His errand among the

Aflacani (Iffa-kyl) this fecond time, was to get poffeftion of


elephants,

fome
fal-

which were
It

faid to

be fent thither, to prevent their


to

ling into his hands.

was doubtlefs an objed:

him,

to

be provided

^20

vided with a fufficient

number of

elephants, in order

to

oppofe,

with
arrive

a profpedt

of fuccefs, thofe of his enemies,


fide

when he

fhould

on the

eafl

of the Indus.

And ahhough

Alexander
at-

might, from his fuperior knowledge of difcipline, defplfe the

tacks of thofe animals, as every accompliflied general in every age


has done
j

yet

from an equal degree of knowledge of the liuman


his
foldiers

mind, he might conclude that

in general

would

feel

themfelves poflefTed of more confidence, when, in addition to their


ordinary means of attack, they could alfo employ that,

which ap-

peared the moft formidable in the hands of their enemies.


elephants were at
fent off
laft

The
to

found, in the paflures near the Indus, and

by land

to the

grand army

which we may fuppole

be

on

their

march, towards the bridge.


;

He

in

tlie

mean

time, poffi-

bly tired of marching

or for the fake of novelty, wifliing to

em-

bark on the Indus

caufed trees to be felled, with

which having
the flream to
fully

conftrufted boats (according to Arrian) he failed

down

the bridge.

Poffibly he
3

made fome
it

rafts,

which might be
conceive, by thofe

equal to his wants


are acquainted

but

is

difficult

to

who
him

with the nature of conftrudling any kind of boats,

that he either waited to build

them

or that he carried with

the requifites for their equipment, on fo fudden an emergency.


I

have before (page 92) fuppofed Attock to be the place where


:

Alexander croffed the Indus


affigned for
it,

and over and above the reafons there


another
:

will

now add

which

is,

that after
arrival)

he

came

to the bridge,

(which was compleated before his

he

made an excurlion by
bank of the Indus,
ville to
is

land, into the country adjacent to the weftern


to

view the

city

of Nyja (fuppofed by D'An-

be Nagaz, the Nagara, or Dyonyfiopolis of Ptolemy) and he

then faid to have entered the country, that lay between the

two
into

rivers,

Cophenes and Indus.


Cophenes
is

We

have before taken

it

for granted
falls

ihat the

the river that runs by Nagaz, and


;

the Indus about 30 miles below the city of Attock

and

as the river
it is

Attack joins the Indus

in front

of the city of that name,

clear

that

121

that until

he came oppofite

to that city,
if it

he could not be between


faid that the

the Cophenes and Indus.

And
all

be

Attock

river,

was the Cophenes, he had


and the Indus
it is
j

along been between the Cophenes

and Arrian's words could have no meaning.


crofii

But

ng place: there the mountainous country from the north-eaft terminates, and
the plains of the Panjab begin
;

probable on every account that Attock was the

a circumftance highly favourable

to his future plan of penetrating into India, and no lefs fo to the


conftrucftion of his bridge
;

which was no
fo

eafy matter to accomplifh,

acrofs a river fo

wide and

rapid

as the

Indus

but which was

lefs difficult in a level

country than in a mountainous one.

The
in

bridge was undoubtedly

made of
at

boats,
a

as

Tamerlane's was,

1398

but Tamerlane crofTed

feafon
it

when

the river,

was

(comparatively) low;

Alexander, after

was eonfiderably fwoln,

with the periodical

rains.

By
laotis
it

Alexander's fending off Hepheflion from the Cophenes,

to

provide the means of paffing the Indus in the country of Peuce-

(Pehkely)

it

would appear

that he
:

had an intention of croffing


and
it

higher up than he afterwards did

was natural enough,

before he had learnt from Hepheftion that the fituation was in every
refpedt,. It is

unfavourable.
unlikely that Alexander, fo far from vifiting Cafhmere, as
ever

fome have thought,

had heard any


life,
:

diftincft

account of

it

otherwife fome of the writers of his


notice of fo extraordinary a country
to

would

furely have

taken

nay, I conclude, according

my
:

idea,
it,

of Alexander's character, that he would certainly have

vifited

v>?hen

he returned to the Hydafpes, to embark for the


at leifure
;

Indus

and was, in fome degree

if a

man who

is

eter-

nally preparing

work

for himfelf, can be faid to have any.

As M. D'AnviUe's account of

Alexander's progrefs in the Anti-

qulte de L'Inde, fuppofes that the Behut, or

Chelum

(he calls

it.

Genave) the wefternmoft of the Panjab


Alexander
;

rivers,

was the Indus of


D'AnviUe's opinion

it is

necelFary to obferve,

that

M.

WAS

122

was formed on the fuppofed certainty of that Monarch's having only four rivers between him and the country of the Prafii, when

he had
had

crofTed the Indus.

That

learned geographer had not the

true geography of the Panjab before


all

him

and, in

f\(fl,

Alexander

the five rivers of the Panjab to crofs, after he arrived on the

eaft fide

of the

river,

which he fuppofed

to be,

and was in

reality,

the Indus.
I return

from

this long digrefllon

concerning Alexander, to the


trad: in queftion.
I

account of the modern geography of the

am

convinced that the more our knowledge of the particular geography

of the countries, on both


increafes
;

fides

of the upper parts of the Indus,

the clearer will be our ideas of Alexander's marches.

The

commentaries of the Emperor Baber,

quoted in the Ayin


j

Acbaree,

may be

a fruitful

fource of information

as

they treat

particularly of the province of Cabul.

Between
Cafpian
fea,

Candahar and Mefchid-Sirr, on the fouth

coaft of the

Mr.

Forfler's route lay in a pretty ftrait line

through

Herat, Terfhifli, and Buftan (Bifi:am in D'Anville) and this cir-

cumftance
farfangs,

is

favourable to the defign of ufing his fcale of

computed

through that fpace.


;

He

eftimates this meafure roundly

at 2 cofles

or about 4 Britifh miles.

His whole number of


is

far-

fangs between Candahar and

Mefchid

280

*,
I

and the

difi:ance
is
1

according to

M.

D'Anville, (the beft authority

know)

5 of

longitude, wanting 12',

which with

the difference of latitude be-

tween 33 and 37, gives 772 G. miles.

The

farfang then, pro-

The whole number, fummed up, is 276; but there is an omiffion of the diftance of a ftage between Nafirabad and Shawroot ; and this I have allowed 4 farfangs for.

duces

123

duces 2,757 G. miles of horizontal diftance; or allowing for the inflexions of the road 3,71, or near 3^ Britifli miles ; not very wide

of Mr. Forfler's eftimation


taken at 3,8 B. miles.
farfangs,
fcale
25-I-

for

Hindooftanny
to
this

cofles

may be

According

proportion, about 21^

will

make

a degree of a great circle.

M.

D'Anville's

of Farafangas in his Euphrates and Tigris, are


to a degree.

at the rate

of

With

the above fcale, I have compared fome of

the intermediate places, in


that Herat, the capital
1 37'

M.

D'Anville's
is

map

of Afia, and find

city of Korafan,

too far to the weft


15',

by

of longitude; and Terfhifli (or Terlliiz) by


fea.

in
:

refpedt

of the Cafpian
is

Thefe

pofitions

have ventured to

alter

for it

probable that

M.

D'Anville might not have been pofleffed of an


as

itinerary,

fo accurate

Mr.

Forfter's.

Between Candahar and

Gimmock, Mr.
fon
is

Forfter efiimates the bearing, at


latter,

W and W by N
No
From Herat

and the fhort diftance between the

and Herat, N.

reato

afligned for the fudden change of courfe.

Buftan,

W by N,

and the remainder of the way,

W,

W by N,
he

and

N W.

All thefe bearings are tolerably accurate.

This gentleman furnifhes us with new ideas refpefting the bearing of the chain of mountains, that is commonly fuppofed to penetrate Afia

from weft

to eaft,

under various names

or rather,
It is

brings us back to the ideas left us by the ancients.


tionable, that the

unquef-

Greeks and Romans knew more of the particular


than the modern Europeans do
to us,
:

geography of
parts that are
cal piecifion.

Perfia,

although the

known

may be
ridge,

arranged with more geometri-

This chain or

which
E,

rifes

in lefler Afia,

and

was anciently named Taurus, and runs eaftward through Armenia;


and from thence deviating
the Cafpian fea
;

to the S

fluits

up the fouth

coaft of

Coronus, Sariphi,

was continued by Ptolemy, under the names of and ParopamiJ'us : dividing Hyrcania and Tapuri,
>

fromParthia; Margiana from Aria


of Paropamifus
(or,

and Baitria from the province

according

to

modern geography,
^

dividing

Mazanderan, or Taberiftan, from Comis

Dahiftan from Korafan y

and

124

and Balk from


that vaft ridge,

Seiftan, or

Sigiftan)

and

finally

was made

to join

which under the name of Indian Caucafus, divided


from Scythia.
or whether

India from Ba^flria; and afterwards took the names of Imaiis d.n^

Emodus

',

feparating India
this

It

is

not
it

known

to

the

moderns, what courfe

chain takes, after


:

leaves the neigh-

bourhood of the Cafpian


Indian Caucafus
:

fea

it

does in reality join the


ftrong, although
:

but the probability of

it is

it is

not after the manner

M.
this

D'Anville fuppofed

for

he gives

it

an

diredlion

from the Cafpian, and makes


been the
;

it

pafs

on the fouth

of Herat.
crofled
it

But had
in

cafe,

Mr.

Forfter muft have

his

way from Candahar

inftead

of which, he crofTed
fea

no mountains
fo that

until

he came within 90 miles of the Cafpian

he

left

the continuation of the Indian Caucafus, if fuch there


;

be,

on

his right

or

to

the northward

and

really believe
:

that

the ridge does exift, under the form defcribed by Ptolemy


rivers crolfed

for the

by Mr.

Forfter,

had

all

foutherly courfe

proving
:

that the high land lay to the north, although cut of fight
fore the connexion

there-

between the Cafpian mountains, and the Indian

Caucafus, muft be by the north of Korafan.

As

for the ridge that

Mr.

Forfter crolled near the Cafpian

fea,

it

had a north and fouth

diredlion,

and anfwers to the mountains Mafdoramus of Ptolemy,

which
S

fliut

up the

eaftern fide of Parthia proper,

which
is

lay

on the

of the Cafpian.

The modern name


:

of this ridge
it is

Kana-hoody j

and Mr. Forfter remarks that the elevation of


the weft, than on the eaft
general,
fo that

far greater

on

the lands of Koralan, are in

more

elevated than
are- thofe

thofe towards

Ifpahan.

The Kanato
j

hoody mountains
but

which M. D'Anville has extended

Herat and Cabul ; but

we

find their courfe to

be quite different
ftill a

how

far

they extend to the fouth or S


it

I confefs

was a matter of furprife

E is to me

queftion.

that there fhould


Terfhifli,

be

no mountains between the province of Cabul and


route paffed by
hills,

in the

Mr.

Forfter

he defcribes nothing but fcattering


lofty chains of mountains.

where the maps ufually reprefent

Through-

'25

Throughout
crolTed

his

whole route from Candahar


to

to the Cafpian Tea,

he

no ftream that was too deep

be forded, although the


latter

journey lafted from the beginning of Auguft, to the


January.
I

end of

have introduced Alexander's march


render the

after Beflus,

&c.

in

order

to

map more
;

compleat.

We

may
;

trace

the ancient
in

Tapuri, in Taberiflan

Dahe,

in Dahiflan

Arachojia,

Arok-

hage
fus,

and Aria,

in Herat,

or Harat.

Cau-cafus, and Paro-pami-

the names of ridges of mountains on the

N W of India,
fignify

derive

part of their
tains

names from Ko and Pahar, words v/hich


Indian languages.

moun-

and

hills in the

Of

Imaus,

we have fpoken

before, in page 96.


gia,

Probably, the name of the Caucafus of Georas that

had the fame derivation,

of India.

I fliall clofe

the account of this fmall map, with an obfervatioti

or two, refpe<3:ing fome geographical m.ifconceptions

which

have
is,

obferved to prevail, even


that the
Badlria.

among

forne of the learned.


is

The

firft

modern Bucharia
This
is

(or Bocharia)

the fame with the ancient


that Bucharia
Oxiis,
is

fo far

from being the

cafe,

fitua-

ted beyond the river anciently called the

or
;

the

modern

Jihon

and
:

is

the country anciently


is,

named Sogdiana
in

from Sogd,
Samarcand

the valley

that

the
is

beautiful valley,
fituated.

v/hich

(anciently Maracandii)
contrary, lay

Badria,

or

Badiriana,

on the
the pre-

on

ih.tfouth of the

Oxus j and comprehended


;

fent provinces of

Balk and Gaur


alfo applied

and probably part of Korafan.

Maver-ul-nere,

is

to the country

beyond the Jihon


river,
t/je

and between the lower parts of the courfes of that


Sirr,

and the
c-^untry

or ancient
;

laxartes

Mavel-ul-nere fignifying

beyond the river

or Tranfoxiana.

The

other mifconception refpeds ancient Parthia. Very inaccurate

ideas prevail concerning the local pofition of that country.

Thofe

whofe knowledge of

it is

colleded chiefly from

its

wars withthe Ro-

mans, conceive Parthia


phrates and Tigris
;

to

be only the countries bordering on the

as their boundaries,

on the extenfion

Euof their empire,

126

plres,

met thofe of the Romans.

Strabo has either been miflaken in

this point, or has not fully expreffed himfelf,

where he defcribes the

Parthians
chians,

who defeated Craffus, as who gave fo much trouble


It

the defcendants of thofe Carduto


is

Xenophon, during the

cele-

brated retreat of the Greeks.


that the Parthians

probable, or at leafl poffible,

might have had

in their

army

at that
;

time, fome
as the

detachments from among thofe hardy mountaineers

Car-

duchi were then numbered among their fubjedls


the Parthian army,

but the bulk of

came from

Perfia, their proper country.

Who-

ever coniiders the flight fubjedlion in

which

the Carduchians were


firft

held, even during the vigorous reigns of the


will not expedl that the Parthians
quarter.

Perfian Emperors,
recruits
is

had many

from that
:

The

hiflory of the Parthian

geography

briefly this

Parthia proper, was a fmall province, very near to the fouth-eaft

extreme of the Cafpian


Alexander's empire,
Syria,
fell

fea

which

territory, after the

divifion

of

to the

(hare of the Seleucidas,


jera.

Kings of

and of the

eafl:,

about 300 years before our

About 50
and
under

years after,

Parthia rebelled;
provinces,

and together with Hyrcania,


flate,

other

adjoining

became an independant

Arfaces.

As

the empire of the Seleucidas

grew weaker, the Par-

thians extended their country weflward; and the fine province of

Media (now Irak-Ajami)


the foundation of their

fell

to
it

them

and within a century


all
:

after

fl:ate,

had fwallowed up

the countries

from the Indus

to

the Euphrates, Badlria included

and

this pro-

vince had thrown off the yoke of the Seleucids, long before Parthia.

The

Parthian conquefts in Armenia, about 70 years before Chrift,


v/ith the

brought them acquainted


theirs,

Romans

whofe conquefts met


Parthians, together
,

both in that country and in Syria.

The

with

their conquefts,

had advanced
at

their capital weftwards

and had

eflablifl:ied it

on the Tigris

Seleucia, or rather Ctefiphon (near

the prefent Bagdad) before their wars with the

Romans commenced.
people,

The

particulars of their

firfl:

wars with the

Roman

which
here,

continued about 65 years, are too well

known

to be repeated,

had

J27
it
;

had

this

been a proper place for

fiich

as

the expeditions of

Pompey, and Anthony j and the


of
this laft event,

defeat of Craffus.

On

occafion

the Parthians extended their conquefls further


retire
:

weftward, but were afterwards compelled to


rally loft

and they gene-

ground in Armenia and Mefopotamia, during the time of


Trajan penetrated to their capital
fea.
;

the

Roman Emperors.

and

fatisfied his curiolity

by embarking on the Indian

The mode-

ration of Adrian reftored

the ancient boundary of the Euphrates.

In A. D. 245, Perils, or Perfia proper, which had hitherto ranked


as a province

of Parthia, gained the afcendency

and under Artax-

erxes, put an

end to the dynafty of the Arfacids, and reftored the


Perfia to
years.

ancient

name of
480

the empire
that,

after that

of Parthia had

exifted about

So

in fait,

the Parthian empire,

confidered generally, was the Perfian, under another name.

SECTION

128

SECTION
Indus, and
their principal

IV.

The TraSi Jituated between the Kistnah River ^ and the


Countries traverfed by the Cou7"fes of the

Ganges and
is

Branches

that

to

fay^

the middle Parts of \njii A,

THIS
the

very extenfive traft

is

bounded on the north-eaft by

the foubahs of Bengal,

Bahar, Allahabad, and Agra;


;

on

N W by the
fea
j

courfe of the river Puddar

on the eaU and weft


or

by the

and on the fouth by the

river Kiftnah

Krifhnah

and comprehends
Oriffa, Candeifli,

in general the foubahs

of Guzerat, Malwa, Berar,

Amednagur
It is

(or

Dowlatabad) Vifiapour (or Beja-

pour) and Golconda.

about 800 Britifh miles in length from


:

N W to S E
from fuch

and 600 wide

and has in and about


ccEleftial

it,
j

many
or

points

that are determined either


points,

by

obfervations

inferred

by the help of furveys or good

charts.
fcale

The

fundamental points on which the conftrudlion and

of

this part depend, are as follows

On
tions

the north and north-eaft, Agra, as determined by obferva-

and furvey (page 48)


Balafore,

and Calpy,

Chatterpour,
lines

Rewah,

Burwah, and
by Col.

inferred

from meafured

drawn from

other places of obfervation.


Pearfe,

(page 11).

On the eaft., On the fouth,

Cattack, as determined

Mafulipatam,

as deter-

mined by Col.

Pearfe, and Capt. Ritchie (page 12).

On

the weft,
3
1

Bombay, by the

obfervations of the

Hon. Mr. Howe (page

and

Surat,

129

,^

Surat,

Cambay, and Diu Point,

inferred

from charts and furveys

(page 33).

And

in

the interior parts,

Narwah, Sirong, Bopaul,


Nagpour, Ruttun:

Huffingabad,
obfervations,

Burhanpour,

Poonah,

Amcdabad, by Mr. Smith's


:

and General Goddard's march

pour, and Gurrah, by

Mr. Ewart's

obfervations and furveys

and

Aurungabad, Hydrabad,
the authorities by

Snmbulpour, Agimere,
I fhall

and Areg (near


firft,

Vifiapour) by mifcellaneous materials.

proceed

to give

which

thefe primary Jlations or points, w^ere de-

termined
filled

and afterwards fliew

how

the intermediate parts were

up, in detail.

The

conftrudlion of the fea coafls, on both


fecflion I
:

fides
fliall

of this trad, has been already difcuffed, in begin

and

my

account of the conftruftion of the inland parts, with'


lines- acrofs

Mr. Smith's and General Goddard's


Calpy to Bombay, and Surat.

the continent, from'

The

Rev. Mr. Smith

fet

out from Calpy with Col.


at

Upton
^

inr

1776, on an embaify to the Mahratta Court


into the great road

Poonah

and

fell

from Delhi and Agra


is

to the

Deccan,

at the city

of

Narwah

which

fituated

on the

river Sindeh, near the entrance

of a famous

pafs, that leads

through the chain of mountains, that diproceeded to Sirong,


a'

vide Malvva from Agra.


city of

From Narwah, he
of Candehh
;

Malwa,

fubjed: to
capital
is

Madadjee Sindia: and from thence to


and
;

Burhanpour, the

at

one period, of the


is

Deccan

alfo.

It

yet a flourilliing city

and

fituated in the

midft of a delightful country.

In his way to this place from Sij

rong, he croiTed the famous river Nerbuddah

formerly the reputed

boundary of the Deccan,

to

the north.

From Burhanpour, he
rivers in his

went

to

Poonah, the capital of the weftern Mahratta empire, crof-

fing the heads of the

Godavery and Beemah

way

and

from Poonah
tions

to

Bombay.

During

all this

route,

he

took, obfervai

of latitude and longitude,


Vv^as

as

often as opportunity offered


thefe,

which
no

not unfrequently

and with

together with the

intermediate bearings of the road, he conftrudled a map,


iefs

which

is

valuable on the fcore of

its

general accuracy, and extenfive

infor-

'

^3

]
its

information

than curious, by the novelty of


firlt

fubjed.

We

had

then for

tb.e

time,

a geographical

line,

on which we could

depend, drawn acrofs the continent of India, through the principal


points between

Agra and Pooaah

and which, by

eft;abli(hing io

many
wah,

interefting pofitions, has enabled us


it,

to correcft feveral

routes,

which, without

would have remained very indeterminate.


correils the bearing

Nar-

for inftance,
it,

and diftance of the road

between

and Agra j Sirong, the road to Ougein, and


;

Mundu

>

and Burhanpour, the pofition of Aurungabad


the roads to Surat, Hydrabad, and Nagpour.

and the bearing of

General Goddard's celebrated march from Calpy to Surat, touches

on the route of Mr. Smith,


and Burhanpour
ral's pofleffion at
:

at

Calpy, Sirong, Bopud, Hurdah,


it,

and the map of

which remained
engineers

in the

Gene-

the time of his death, was faid to be


field
;

drawn from

the materials furniflied by the


diftances,

who

meafured the

and took the bearings of the road, the whole way.

On
map,

a comparifon of the difference of longitude

fhewn by

this

with that refulting from Mr. Smith's obfervations, the difference

was

6'

35";

the meafured line giving (o

much more

than the

obfervations.

General Goddard's

map gave the miles of welling, Calpy and Sirong 109^, or difference between _ _ _ of longitude
ing, or difference of longitude
-

2"
J-

o'

15'

]
j

And from Sirong to Burhanpour 964,

miles of weft- 7
I

44

20

Whole

difference

between Calpy and Burhanpour

44

35

And, Mr. Smith's longitude of Calpy


'

is

80

o'

o"j
o

Burhanpour

76
3

22

Difference of longitude by obfervation

38

And

"

13^

And
tion

In the interval

between Calpy and SIrong, about 2 degrees,

the meafurement exceeded the difference of longitude by obferva-

4 minutes

fo that the

meafured line exceeded the diftance by

obfervation, proportionally through each interval.

Now
firft

it

remains to be obferved, that Calpy, on the fouth bank


river,

of the Jumna
in

the

laft

point in the furvey, that way, and the


flands in

Mr. Smith's route;


fide

my

map,

in lat.
it

26 7' 15",

and in Ion. 80 4'; while Mr. Smith reckons

in 80.
at

Again,
(fee

on the weft
is 4' to

of India,

have taken
it

Bombay
and
5' to

72 40'
in fadt,

page 31) and Mr. Smith places


the weft of
:

in

72 45':
;

fo that,

he
it

my

account at Calpy

the eaft of

at

Bombay

his

whole difference of longitude between Calpy and


g' lefs than

Bombay, being
it

what

have taken

it

at.

And
lefs

again,

has been obferved that

Mr. Smith reckons

6'

35"

between
It

Calpy and Burhanpour, than Goddard's meafured route


is

gives.

certain that obfervations of longitude, taken in the ordinary

way,

cannot be expected to corred; fmall errors in diftance, fo well as

meafured
utility

lines

and therefore

it is

no impeachment of the

general,

of Mr. Smith's obfervations, that I have ventured to deviate


in

from them,

fixing the pofitions of

fome places

in

the

road

acrofs the continent..

Narwah, or Narwha,
25 40';

is

the

firft

point that

I ftiall

notice In

Mr,

Smith's map, from Calpy.


Ion.

He

places this city

and

fortrefs

in lat.

78 17' j

his

difference of longitude

from Calpy,
of latitude,

being 1 43'.

Mr. Cameron, who furveyed


reckons

the roads and country

between Etayah and Sirong,

1 3' difference

and 57 miles of wefting, or 1^4' difference, of longitude from Etayah to Narwah. Now, Etayah being by the furvey in 26 43'

40"

lat.

and 79 17' Ion.

the latitude of Sirong comes out peris

fedlly right,

but the longitude


I

4'

to the weft of

Mr. Smith's
have placed

account

or 78 13'.

cannot, however, determine with what


furvey was

degree of exadtnefs,

this

made

and

Narwah

in

79 ij\
S 2
Sirong

^32

]
is

Slrong (called alio Seronge) by Mr. Smith's obfervatlons,


Ion.

in

78

4'

and

as

General Goddard's
is

map makes

it

2 of longitude

well from Calpy (which

in

80 4' by the above account) they

both agree in

this

point, although they diifer in the quantity of


:

welling between the two meridians of Calpy and Sirong


Smith's difference of longitude
line exceeds
It
is
it

for

Mr.

is

only 1 56'

and the meafured


is

by 4 minutes.

The

latitude of Sirong

24 4' 40".

proper to obferve, that General Goddard's route croffed Mr.

Smith's about 6 miles to the S

of the

latter place

but the fur-

vey was

clofed to

it.

Between

Calpy and Sirong,


in

General

Goddard's

route

palled

through Chatterpour, a city


(or Bundela).

the weftern quarter of Bundelcund


vilited,
',

This place was formerly

and

its

pofition

determined by menfuration, from


placed
it

Rewah

by Capt. Carter.
30''.

He
God-

in lat.

24 58' 30";
it as

Ion.

79 56'

General

dard's route reprefents

being half a xninute in latitude more


3'

to the north, that

is

in

24 59'; and
a

30" more wellerly

in refpedt

of Calpy.

As

it

was fixed by

meafured line drawn weftward from


it,

Rewah,
altered

its

longitude ought to be better determined by

than by

a meridional line
its

drawn from Calpy ; and accordingly,

have not

pofition.
is

Bopaltol

the next place where the roads meet


is

Mr. Smith's
from Sirong;
jy" 28' Ion.
;

longitude of it

77^48', and

lat.

23 13' 30".

General Goddard's

map

gives

32 G. miles, or 35' 15" of longitude,


in 77 28' 45".
It I

making Bopal
and 23 14'

have placed

it

in

latitude.
1

appears unaccountable that there lliould be

no

lefs

than

9' difference,

between Goddard's account and Mr.


I

Smith's, in the longitude of Bopaul.


ftands above,
.

copied the longitude, as

it

from Mr. Smith's map.


river,
is

Hurdah, on the fouth of the Nerbuddah


comes out

the next point

of jundlion of the two routes.

This, Mr. Smith places in yy 21


it
i

15"; and by Goddard's


or 77 19' 45".
It

line,

30" more
as

to the weft;

will

be recolleded, that

General Goddard
at

U3

at fetting out,

was

4'

to the eaftvvard of
5'

Mr. Smith's account

(at

Calpy) Hurdah will be

30' on the whole, more to the weft-

ward, than Mr. Smith's difference of longitude from Calpy, would


give.

Between Bopal and Hurdah, General Goddard's route makes a


large elbow, or angle, to the fouth-eafl, to lluffingabad Gaut, on.

the fouth bank of the

Nerbuddah

river;

and on the frontiers of


:

Nagpour, the

eaftern divifion of the

Mahratta empire

thus efta-

blifhing a moft ufefnl primary point or ilation, in a quarter where


it

was the moft wanted.

Huffingabad.is placed in

lat.

22 42' 30", of Nagpour

Ion.
city.

7754'j

^iid

about 140 G. miles to the

NW

The two

routes run often into, and acrofs each other,

between
by Mr.

Hurdah and Burhanpour.

The

latter,

as

is il^id

before,

is

Smith's obfervation, in Ion. 76 22'; and in

lat.

21 ig: and by

Goddard's meafurement, which gives 3 44' 25" from Calpy, in


Ion.
I

76 i9'25''i which, rejefting the feconds,


it ;

is

the longitude

have adopted for

not altogether on the evidence of the mea-

fured diftances themfelves, but becaufe they agree with the


difference of longitude arifmg

whole

from the
(fee

obfer\'ations adopted in the

map, between Calpy and Bombay,


Burhanpour
quefts
is

page 130).
earlieft

a very fine city,

and was one of the

conit

made

in

the Deccan.

In Acbar's divifion of the empire,


It is

ranks as the capital city of the foubah of Candeifli.

now

in the

hands of the Poonah, or weftern Marattas.

About 20 miles
or Afeergur.
at

to the

N E of
The
ward,
30'

it,

is

a very ftrong fortrefs

named Afeer
is
;

final feparation

of the two routes,


to Surat

Burhanpour, from

whence Goddard went weftward


to

and Smith, fouth-weft-

Poonah.

The

meafure of the road to Surat gives 3


;

45"

difference of longitude

which taken from 76 which


I

9',

leaves

72 48' 15" for the longitude of Surat;

have adopted.
(page

This fubjedt has been already


32) where
it is

difcuffed, in the firft fedion

obferved,

that the different

authorities

between

Bombay

7^

135

the greatnels of
defence
;

its

extent, and other circiimflanees, incapable of


as
a
its

mull be confidercd

great

political

evil

in

ftate

it is liice a

fortrefs that expofes


:

weakefl part to the enemy, and


allegory,

points his attacks

and to purfue

tiie

there

may be fome
at large,

danger of the
in

garrifoii's facrificing the interefc

of the empire

order to preferve their


Scythians,
:

own

property, in the hour of alTault.


to the
foil,

The

who

were not chained

could never be
ftand in the

conquered

and thofe
;

who
all

have no large capitals,

next degree of fecurity

other circumftances taken into the cafe.


it

If the queftion be confidered, as


are yet ftronger
:

concerns morals, the objciftions

for the larger the capital, the greater will be the


is

proportion of the population that

corrupted.

Amedabad, the
Guzerat.
fcale

capital

of Guzerat, was the extreme point of

General Goddard's marches to the northward, in the province of


In the
iirft

feAion, a comparifon was

made between

the

and bearing of the

map

of General Goddard's marches in

Guzerat,

and thofe of the lurveys taken between Surat and the


;

Myhie

river

and

it

was found

to agree

fo well,

that the line be-

tween Brodera and Amedabad might be very


bearing was

fifely adopted.
j

The

36

W,

and the diliance 53,2 G. miles


lat.
;

giving for

the pofition of Amedabad, 22 58' 30''


3'

and 72 37' Ion.; or


is

weft of Bombay.

By M. Thevenot's
:

account, the latitude

23 and fome odd minutes

and 23 by the Ayin Acbaree.

Amedabad

is

a very confiderable city, and fucceeded


It is

Mahmoo-

dabad, as capital of Guzerat.

one of the beft

fortified cities

of Hindoortan

and made a good defence when taken by General

Goddard
former

in

1780.

On

the peace of 1783,

it

was

reftored to its

pofleiTors,

the Poonah Mahrattas.

Travellers have dwelt

much on
is

the beauty, and convenient fituation of this city,

which

in a level country and on the banks of a fmall navigable river,

named Sabermatty;
of that name,

and which,

together with

other

confluent
to the city
is

ftreams, falls into the head of the gulf of

Cambay, near

Cambay,

is

indeed, the port of

Amedabad, and

diftant

136

diftant

from

it

about 56 road miles.


;

It is a large city,

and appears
is

to be the Commies of Ptolemy

although the gulf, which


its

now

denominated from Cambay, had then


the modern Baroach.

name from Barygaza, or

Aurungabad
ftrucftion

is

a point

of confiderable importance to the contracft

of the weftern part of the


its

in queftion

and although
accurately

we

have neither

latitude,
;

longitude,

nor. diftance

meafured from any one point

yet the fort of coincidence that arifes

between

number of

eflimated routes, from 6 different places, in


it,

oppofite directions, round

imprefs a certain convid:ion of


It will

its

being placed nearly in


ticularize
alfo

its

true pofition.

be necefTary to par-

the principal of thefe routes.

the pofitions of Hydrabad, Beder,

One of them regulates andMahur; and is that


I

of

M.

Bufly from Mafulipatam.

The copy from whence


As
his

have

colledled

my

ideas

on the

fubjedt, is that included in the late

Mr.
goes

Montrefor's

map

of the fouthern part of India.

map

no

farther weft than

Aurungabad, we may conclude that he hag

not altered the original bearing and diftance, with a view to reconcile its fituation to

any other place to the north or weft.


already placed in the

Mafulipatam

is

map,

in lat. 16 8' 30", Ion.


(fee

81 \i' , on the authorities of Col. Pearfe and Capt. Ritchie

page 12).
Kiftna river
Mefolia,

This
;

is

a city

and port of
to

trade,

near the

and appears

be fituated within the


this

mouth of the diftrid; named


Buz-

by Ptolemy.

Between
fide

place and Bezoara (or


river,

wara) a fort on the north


allows only 36
Stevens's,

of the Kiftna

G. miles; but
fixes

as there is exifting

M. Buffy's route a map of Major


G.
miles, I have

which
;

the faid difiance at 40,3

adopted
at

it

and allowed

M.

Buffy's authorities to

commence only
and Ion.

that point.

Bezoara, fo

placed,

is

in

lat.

16 33';

80 39'.
^*
'^'^

35 10'

tude

Then from Bezoara to Aurungabad,. the bearing is given N, 323 G. miles producing 3 6' difference of latiand 264of wefting; or difference of longitude (in lat. 18)
;

4 38',

This would place Aurungabad

in lat. 19 39', Ion.

76 \.
Buffy's

137

BiilTy's (or

rather Montrefor's)

whole diflance from Mafuh'patain

to

Aurungabad, was 359. Let us now cxaniine what data we have to check

this

lone line

of

M. Buffy's, from the fide of Surat, Poonah, and Burhanpom-. The pofition of Surat has been jufl; accounted for and Noopour,
:

a city

on the road from Surat

to

Burhanpour,

is

by Goddard's route
i

59' of longitude to the eaft of Surat; or in Ion. 73 47'

^"

And

from

this
at

place to Aurungabad,

which,

42

to a degree, is

Tavemier reckons 105 colfes 150 G. miles of horizontal diflance.


Bezoara,
is

Now, Noopour, Aurungabad, and


in a right line,
nier's

lie as

nearly as poflible,

whofe extreme length,

150, added to

fpace, within 2 miles.

475 G. miles. TaverBuffy's 323, make up 473; or the whole But from the nature of a march of an army
is

in a
it

warm

climate, great part of which,


;

often

made

in the night,

muft

neceffarily require corredlion

in the bearing at leaft,

and

probably in the diflance too.

Nor

can the 105 cofles of Tavernier,

be expelled to be even

fo corred: as the

march

it is

therefore a matter
It

of furprife that only

fo

fmall a difference fhould have arifen.

lliould be remembered that 4,3 miles were added to

M.
fo

Buffy's

original diflance,

between Mafulipatam and Bezoara

that the
it

whole

original error

was 6,3

if

we do

not refer a fhare of

to

Tavernier's eflimated diflance.

It is

proved in another inflanceby

Mijor Gardner,
that

in Peach's

march from Ellore towards Warangole,


This
;

M.

Buffy's geographer has given too little diflance.

is

pro-

bably an error of the compiler, not of the furveyor


error of a different kind

it

being an

from what might have been exped:ed in


diflances with a perambulator *.
is

the ordinary

way of meafuring

The

latitude of

Aurungabad

inferred
-f

from
at

its

diflance
;

from
as the

Burhanpour given by Golam

Mohamed

66

colfes

and

" That long dirtances may Be accuralely meafured by a perambulator, I need only menticn that during the Bengal furvey, I meal'ured a meridian liie of 3 dejrces, with a perambuLitor, and found it to agree minutely with the obfcrvations of latitude. However, due allowance was m.ide for the irregularities of the ground, whenever tliey occured. Th^ country indeed,, was fiat the v\hole way.
fepoy t)fficer fent by Col. Camac, in 1774, to explore the roads aad country of the t can, and to gain intelligence concerning the Mahratta powers.

D;c-

bearing

us

bearing

is

not

far
j

from meridional, we may

llato th difTerence

of

latitude at i 34'

which taken from

21^^ 19',

the latitude of Eur-

hanpour,

leaves

19 45', for that of


j

Aurungabad*.
is

Now, M.

Buffy's line, giyes only 19^ 39'

which

6'

too far fouthwardly,

by

this account.

If 19 45' be adopted,

fome further addition


;

muft be made
trifling a

to the line

of diftance from Bezoara

but

it

is

too

matter to require difcufiion.


thefe (iaia, will be 76

In effed, the longitude o


2'

Aurungabad by

30";

lat.

19 45'.

Two
S

more
;

lines

of dillance are given, from Nimderrah Gaut and


in

Bahbelgong

two points

Mr. Smith's
is

route,

on the weft and

W of Aurungabad.
Now,
it

Nimderrah
lat.

in lat.

19 12' 45", Ion. 74''

54' 30": and Bahbelgong in

20*^45', Ion. 74 51" 30".

M.

Anquetil du Perron
to

furniflies thefe diftances.

That from Nimderrah

Aurungabad, he reckons 32
as the

cofles

and that from Bahbelgong


is

34'.

diftance

between Poonah and Nimderrah,


the reft of his route.
is

known,

furniflies a fcale for

He

makes

this diftance

34^

coftesj

but

it

clear that

he reckoned by fome
he reckons leagues

other ftandard than the

and

cofles the fame, as

common oofs (poflibly we ihall have occafion to

remark

in his route

from Goa

Poonah) for the diftance being 69,7 G. miles of horizontal diftance between Poonah and Nimderrah, it ftiould rather be
to
cofles,

48 1

than 34!.

However, taking

his diftance

for

a fcale,

whatever the denomination may be, the diftance between Nimderrah and Aurungabad, will be 64,7 G. miles
j

and that from Bah-

belgong,

70,2.

And

the

medium of

thefe accounts give alfo,

76

2'

30" for the longitude of Aurungabad.


is

There

yet another line of diftance to Aurungabad, and that


;

is

from Nagpour
Ewart,

whofe

pofition

is

afcertained with precifion.

Two
at

accounts of the eftimated diftance between them, collefted by Lieut.


are,

162, and i65coflre5: the

medium of which, 163^,

* M. D'Anville reckons the fame difference of latitude between the two places, but he has placed both of them too far north by 24 minutes ; following I apprehend, the latitude of Burhanpour, given in the Ayin Acbaree.
,

42

colTes

39

42 coiTes to a degree, is 233 G. miles of horizontal diftance. This would place Aurungabad, admitting its latitude to be 1 9 45', in
75 53' 3
'

'-'^

9 ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ *^^ other accounts.

The

refult

of

the fhort diftances, are doubtlefs to be preferred to that of the long

ones

and

I infert this laft

only to fliew the extremes of the differ-

ent accounts.
Laftly, if the diftances
is

from the 4
-,

neareft points are taken


;

that
;

from Noopour

50 G. miles
:

Burhanpour 95

Nimderrah 64,7

and Bahbelgong 70,2


will be in
lat.

the

medium

of the interfedlions of thefe,

19 44', Ion. 76.

Although

have taken the latitude at


is

i
:

g 45', as the diftance

from Burhanpour
minutes
wefterly.

fo

nearly meridional
its

yet the interfedtions of

the other diftances, point to


:

in

which

cafe,

its

being in a lower latitude, by 4 or 5 pofition would alfo be fomewhat more,

Upon
^6
its

the whole,
;

have placed Aur.ungabad in


faid,
it

lat.

19 45', Ion.

2'

30"

and by what has been


:

cannot be

much
;

out

of

true place

but

as it is a poiat

of great importance in the geo-

graphy of

this part

of India,
i

it

required particular difcuffion


line,
it.

being

the centre of feveral roads


it

and the bearing of that long

between

and Hydrabad, Beder, Calberga, &c. depending on

Aurungabad
town,
zebe
;

is

but a modern city

owing

its

rife

from
to

a fmall

to the capital of the province of

Dowlatabad,

Aurung-

from

whom

alfo,

it

had

its

name.
it

After the Deccan became

a province, of the
capital
i

Mogul

empire,
fo,

was reckoned the provincial

and continued to be

after the

Nizams became indepen-

dant of Delhi; and until the encroachments of the Poonah


rattas,

MahEmpe-

of

late years,

made

it

an uncomfortable refidence to the


firft

Nizam.
rors

When

the

Deccan was

invaded by the Patan

of Delhi,, Deogire was the capital of the province of Dowla-

tabad, and was lituated near the fortrefs of the fame


is

built
;

on
and

mountain about 4 or

5 cofTes to the

NW

name ; which of Aurun-

gabad

is

deemed impregnable by the people of the country.

The

140

The Emperor Mahomed,

In

the 14th century,


at

made an attempt
;

to eflablifli the capital of his

Empire,

Deogire

and

to th.at

end

almoft ruined Delhi, in order to drive the inhabitants to his


capital,

new
This

about 750 miles from their ancient habitations.


:

fcheme, however, did not fucceed

and was

if polfible

the

more

abfurd, as at that time, but a fmall progrefs had been

made towards

the conqueft of the Deccan.

The

pagodas of Elora are in the neighbourhood of Dowlatabad,


are cut ont of the natural rock.

moft of which

M.

Thevenot,

who

particularly defcribes

thein,

fays,

that for

two leagues

together,

nothing
fands

is

to

be feen but pagodas, in which there are fome thou-

of

figures.

He
:

does not,
I

however,

greatly

commend
flood
in

the

fculpture of
origin.

them

and,

apprehend, they are of early Hindoo

We
;

mufl remember that Deogire,


was the
tlie

which

this

neighbourhood,

greateft
its

and

richefl;

principality in the
it,

Deccan
in

and that
:

fame of

riches,

incited Alia to attack

1293

and thefe elaborate monuments of fuperilition, were pro-

bably the offspring of that abundant wealth, under a government,


purely Hindoo.

M.

Bufly's line includes within

it,

the pofitions of Hydrabad,


is

Golconda and Beder.

When

the line

correfted as above,
lat.
1

to
I

Aurungabad, Hydrabad will be found

in

7 24'

which

conceive to be too far to the northward, confidering


diflance

its

reputed

from Nagpour and Cuddapah.


lays

M.

D'Anville too (in his

Eclaircifl'emens)

that

the latitude of
I

Hydrabad
not
is
j

is

17

12'.
it

How

he came by his information,


:

know
it

but

believe

to

be nearly right

and

this

is

the parallel

generally placed in.


is,

A third
map
in

circumflance tending to confirm this opinion,

that the

of Col. Peach's march from Ellore to Warangole (in 1767)


diftances

which the

were meafured, and the angles of pofition

taken by Major Gardner, places the latter only 37 G. miles from the pofition in which Hydrabad flands by M. Bufly's line. It can

hardly be deemed an impeachment of the general truth of a line

of

HI

of 360 G. miles, meafured


that line, fliould be
diredlion.
It
is

after

an army, that a pofition, in or near

10 or 12 miles out of the fiippofed line of

conformable to

my
I

idea of the distances of

Nag-

pour, Cuddapah, and Warangole, that Hydrabad fliould be in ij^


12',

rather than in
:

17 24'

and

have accordingly followed


it

M.

D'Anville
fide,

giving the lines between


a

and Aurungabad on the one


accordingly.

and Condapilly on the other,

new diredion
BufTy's

Although by proportioning

M.

march from Bezoara,


1

Hydrabad

is

placed in 78 51' longitude; or only


different reports of the diftance

14 G. miles

from Bezoara, yet the


places,
is

between thefe

much

greater than

the conftrucflion allows.

For J14

miles will produce only 87^ cofles, according to the proportion of


4^6 to

a degree (which

is

the refult of the calculation

made on the
at

road between Aurungabad and Mafulipatam, page 4) whereas, one

account from General Jofeph Smith, Hates the number of cofles

98

and another from a native


1
1

at

103.

Again, Col. Upton reck-

oned

84r

colfes

between Hydrabad and Ellore, which the con-

flrudion allows to be only 138


to the

G. miles;
to

or

105^

colfes
I

according

fame proportion of 46

a degree.

So that
is

have either
all cir-

miltaken the longitude of Hydrabad, which


c-umfVances confidered
pofed.
is
;

improbable,
I

or the cols

is

even fmaller than

have fup-

Or, the road leading through a hilly and woody country,


:

more crooked than ordinary *


Until

and the journals remark

its

being

very woody, and thinly inhabited, between Condapilly and Hydrabad.

we have

the latitude and longitude of Hydrabad, or

fome place very near


tion
;

it,

we
is

cannot be

fatisiied

with

its

prefent pofi-^'

for

M.

Bully's line
it.

too long, to be exadt, without theaid<r

of latitude to check
pour,

The

reputed diftance between


its

it

and Nagparallel

169

cofles,

agrees perfedly with

corre(3:cd

of

i7i2'.-

General Smitli's proportion of


the native 55.

cofles

to

a degree,

is

51I

Col. Upton'-ij 52^; and the

map by

Hvdra-

H2

Hydrabad
the Deccan
left
;

or Bagnagur,

is

the prefent capital of the

Nizams of

who

fince the

difmemberment of
capital
;

theii'

empire, have

Aurungabad, the ancient

which

is

not only in a corner


near their herediis

of their dominions, but in that corner which


tary

lies

enemy, the Poonah Mahrattasj and which

alfo the

leafl

defenfible.

About
it

5 or 6 miles to the

W N W of Hydrabad,
is

and

joined to

by
*"

a wall of

communication,

the celebrated fortrefs

of Golconda

occupying the fummit of a

hill

of a conical form, and

deemed impregnable.

When

Aurungzebe conquered the kingdom of


was taken
pofleflion of

Golconda, in 1687, this

fortrefs

by treachery.

The
as

next primary point ox Jlation, and one of the moft important,

being the fartheft removed from any other given point, in the
conftrudtion,
is

whole

Nagpour

the capital of the eaftern divifion

of the Mahratta empire, and nearly in the centre of India.


laft

This
to

confideration, and the


cities,

number of

roads iffuing

from

it

the

circumjacent

moil of which roads had their diflances given

by computation only, made the determination of this point a grand


dejideratum in Indian geography.
that regard to ufeful fcience and

Mr. Haftings

therefore,

with

improvements of every kind, which

has ever diftinguidied his chara(Ster, diredled a furvey to be

made of
and
alfo

the roads leading

to

it

from the weftern

frontier of
in

Bahar

from the

fide

of Allahabad.

This was executed

1782 and 1783,

by Lieut. Ewart, under the


General.

diredlion of Col. Call, the Surveyor

The

refult

of this expedition was perfectly fatisfadtory.


line at Chittra or
lat.

He
'in

began his meafured

Chetra in Bahar, placed

85 of longitude, and in

24 12', in

my map

of Bengal and

Bahar ; and his difference of longitude from thence to Nagpour, in


lat.

21

8' 30'',

was 5

16' weft:

by which Nagpour would be in


to Benares in Ion.

79 44'.

And from Nagpour back


made 3^25'
10'',

83

13',

in

the fame map, he

diiference of longitude, eaftj.

India

* The termination, ccit.ia, or kand, fignifies as cotta, and core, which have the fajne the fame fenfe occafionally in ever)' p<irt.
;

fortrefs,

fignification,

and often occurs in the fouth part of do in the north. Gur is ufed in

which

^43

which placed Nagpour

in Ion.
j

79 47' 50"
this I

or

3'

50" only,

diiTer-

ent from the other account


the error of his needle.

and

fulpedt to arife partly

from
to

If

we

clofe the account

back again

Chittra, the place he fet out from, he

made only 4 minutes

differ-

ence, in the diftance out and

home

and the road diftance,

\vas

600 B. miles from Chittra

to

Nagpour, only.

Taking the medium of the two accounts, the longitude of Nagpour will be 79 45' ^^", or 79 46'.

The

obfervations for deter-

mining the longitude

at this place,

by Lieut. Ewart, do not accord

with the above account, by a confiderable number of minutes


therefore I have not inferted

them

here, in expecftation

that they

may

be compared with correfponding ones, taken at places whofe

fituations are already afcertained.

As Mr. Ewart's

route to Nagpour, was by


:

way of Burwak, Sur-

goojah, and Ruttunpour

and from thence ro Banares, by Gurry,

the capital of Mundella, he afcertained the pofitions of thofe places,


fatisfadtorily
j

and by that means added to the number of primaiy


latitudes

Nations.

The

were

flonflantly taken,

in order
:

to

cor red

the route, in detail.


ries at

Nor

did his

work end here


eftimated cr

for his enqui-

Nagpour,

furnifli a

number of
that

computed routes

from
S

that capital to Burhanpour, Ellichpour,


6cc.
is,

Aurungabad, Neerbe wild, un-

mul, Mahur, Chanda,

in every diredicn, except the

whence we may
and
little

infer the ftate

of that

tradl to

cultivated,

frequented.
to Cattack
is

And

it

appears by his intelli-

gence, that the

way

unfafe in any direction farther

fouth than Sumbulpour.

Nagpour, the

capital
is

of Moodajee Boonflah, the chief of the


a city of
is

eaftern Mahratta ftate,

modern
built,

date
is

and though very

extenfive and populous,


lefs, fave
is faid,

meanly

and

open and defcnceItrength.


as

only by a fmall citadel, and that of


to

little

The city
;

by Golam Mohamcd,
it

be twice

as large

Patna

but

Mr. Ewart's account makes

but of a moderate
treafures

lize.

Moodajee's
is

principal fortrefs, the depofitory of his

and valuables,

Gyalgur,

::

H4

Gyalgur, called

alfo

Gawilc, fituatcd on a ftccp mountain, aboiit

103 G. miles to the

W by N

of Nagpour.

Each of
nnfcttlcd

the

native
at

Princes in India, has a dcpofitary of this kind, and


a di (lance

commonly
ftate
is

from

his place of rcfidcncc:


it

tlic

of the
fer-

country making
tile

ncccffary.

The

country round Nagpour

and well cultivated,

intcrf]U'rfcd

with

hills

of

moderate height
and particularly
thinly fct with

but the general appearance of (he coimtry


l)ctwcen Nngpoiir and
villages

at large,
forcll,

Bahar,
It is the

is

that

of a

and towns.
tliat

wcftern and northern parts of


largeft:

Mooto-

dajcc's country,

produce the

part of his revenue;

gether with the Chout, or projuirtion of the revenues of EUichpour,


fitc.

held by the Nizam.


is

Ruttunpour
and
is

city lying in

ihe road from Hahar (o

Nagpour,

the capital, and refidence of Bambajee,


caftern part of the

who

holds the govern-

ment of the

Nagpour
has
16',

territories,
its

under his brofixed very ac-

ther ]\To()dagee.

I'his jilace, alfo,


in
lat.

pofition

curately by

Mr. Ewart,

22"

Ion.
all

82 36'.

This

is

primary

Jhition

of great ufe,

as
;

it

regulates

the pofitions betwceti

Cattack and Gurry-lNlundella


its

between Bahar and Nagpour.

As

corrcded pofition

difiers

only 3 miles from the former eftimated

one,

coUeded from Col. Camac's obfervations and enquiries; it fervcs as an additional proof, how much may be effedtcd by a careful

examination and regider of the efliinated diltances on the roads


this
all

and

mode of improving
others
fail.

the geograpliy of India,

may be

adopted,

when

An

intelligent perfon (hould


as

be employed in
colledled at
t)f

colleding fuch

fort

of information,
cities in

Mr. Ewart

NagIlincities,

pour; from the principal


dooftan
;

the lead kiunvn parts

at

the fame time determining the pofition of fuch


;

by calcAial obfervations

by which means a number of fixed points

would be
at

ellabliihed,
laid off,

from whence the computed diftances might

once be
a

and correded.

More could be done

in this

way

in

Ibort

time,

towards conndeting the geography,

than mofl
pcopls

H5

people can eafily conceive


adopted.

and, I

flatter

myfelf,

it

will be foon

Agimere, Ajtnere, or Azmere,


geography of the

is \.\it

primary point on which the


refts
;

N W part of
by John

the tradt in queftion,

and

is

determined by the cftimatcd diftances from Agra and Burhanpoiir.

An
his

itinerary kept
:

Steel,

reckons
left

19 coiles between
to

Agra

and Agimere

and Tavernier,

who

Agimere

the north, in

way from Amedabad, reckoned loo

cofles froni

Banderlandry to
Steel's

Agra; and Banderfandry being 14 from Agimere, by

account,

we may take 114 for the whole diflance, from Agra to Agimere. A map of Malwa and its neighbourhood, communicated by Mr. Benfley, places Agimere 180G. miles to the wefl of Gwalior; ami another map communicated by Mr. Haflings, gives the fi\me diftance.

By

the conflrudtion,

founded on Mr.

Steel's

119 colics
is

from Agra, and which produce 172^0. miles, Agimere


to

found

be lol miles

fliort

of the diflance from Gwalior, in the above

maps.

The

parallel

of Agimere

is

determined by Sir

Thomas

Roe's

com-

putation of the diflance from Burhanpour to Agimere, through

Mundu
happens

and Cheitore; and that

is

222

cofles,

or 318

G. miles:

and the interfeftion of the two diftances from Burhanpour and Agra,
in lat.

26 35', Ion. 75
:

20'.

This

is

the pofition of Agirefped: to


its

mere

in the

map

no great accuracy, however, with


is

parallel,

can be expefted, where the authority

nothing more

than a Angle line of diflance, and that a very long one.

The Ayin
Col.
it

Acbarce

is

totally filent

concerning

its

latitude

and longitude.
Haflings, places
it

Call, in a

map of his, communicated by Mr.


I

in

the parallel

have aihgncd to

it ;

and allows

to

be diflant from

Burhanpour, 307 G. miles, and 192!- from Agra; on what authority,


I

know

not.

Thevenot gives
capital of the

its

latitude at 261.

Agimere was the


Ptolemy.

foubah of the fame name, in


is

Acbar's divifion of the empire, and


It is built at

probably the Gagajmira of


;

the foot of a very liigh mountain

on the
top

146

top'of which,

is

a fortrefs of very great flrength.

It is

about 230
Acbar,-

miles by the road, from Agra, and yet the famous

Emperor
j

made

a pilgrimage

on foot, to the tomb of a

faint, there

to

implore

the divine bleffing on his family,

which

at that

time confifted only

of daughters
it.

but after this pilgrimage, he had three fons added to

Jehanguire, his fon and fuccefTor, occafionally kept his Court


;

here

and
;

this

occalioned the

vifits

of

Sir

Thomas Roe

to this

place
it,

as well as to Cheitore,

and Mundu, which lay in his way to

from

Surat.
as

Ougein can hardly be regarded


the pofition of one place only
tables
3

primary
is,

ftation,

as

it

effedls

that

Mundu.
a point in
is

Col.

Camac's

place

it

50
;

cofles

from Bopaltol,

Smith's and

Goddard's routes

and 89 from Pawangur, which

14 cofles to the

ENE

of Brodera, in Guzerat.

Perfian book, of routes, obligingly

communicated

by Capt. Kirkpatrick,
or 5

gives

108

cofl^es

between
This,

Ougein and Brodera;

more than Camac's account.


fervices

together with fome other routes from the Perfian book, was tranflated for

me, by Mr. David Anderfon, whofe

on the mein

morable occafion of negociating the Mahratta peace,


1783,

1782 and

claim the united acknowledgments of Great Britain, and


If

Hindooftan.

we

take the diftance on the map, between Bopal

and Brodera, through Ougein (which occafions a conliderable bend


in the line)
it

will be found

to be
thfe

251 G. miles

and the compu-

tation of cofles

being 158,
is

proportion will be about 38 to a

degree

which
laid off

nearly the fcale adopted for


cofl.es
;

Malwa,

in

page

5:

Having

50

for the diftance of

Ougein from Bopal,


is

weft ward, by this fcale


its

the parallel of Ougein

then obtained by

reputed diftance from

Mundu
it

concerning whofe pofition,


:

we

have only the following information


Sir

Thomas Roe

pafled

in

his

way from Burhanpour


it

to

Chei-

tore and Agimere, in

1615; and reckoned

66

cofles

from the

former, or 94I G. miles.

For the direction of

this line

of diftance,

which appears

to

be about

N by W,

we have nothing more than


the

H7

the general bearing and diftance of


us
:

Muhdu from Ougeln


by means of the

to

guide
this

the general longitude of Ougein,

which alone concerns


lines

part of the queftion, being obtained

of dif-

tance from Bopal and Brodera.

D'Anville gives the bearing line

of

Mundu

from Ougein,

at

S S
it

W,
S 4

diftance 311.

G. miles

and a

MS. map
ing S by
that

of Col. Muir's has

36.

have made the bearrefult will be,

W,

and the diftance 36 miles; whence the


is

Mundu
it

in

lat.

22 50^

Ion.

jf

47'.

Col. Muir's

map
is

places

in 23 18',

and

M.

D'Anville's in

23 10'; but this

owing

to

his

taking Burhanpour at too high a latitude,

by 30

minutes.

The 50
ward
;

coil'es,

or 86

G. miles, being
75

laid off

from Bopal, weft-

and 36 miles northward from Mundu, give the pofition of


in lat. 23 26', Ion.
56'.

Ougein

The Ayin Acbaree


Ougein or
Col. Muir's

takes

no
;

notice either of the latitudes or longitudes of

Mundu

although fuch ancient and famous


latitude of

cities.

map

has the

Ougein

at
it,

23 56', or 30' to the northward of the


in the

afllimed pofition of

map.

And

D'Anville places

it

in

23

39'.

The cities of Ougein and Mundu are both of great antiquity. The former appears evidently both as to name and pofition, in
Ptolemy, under the name of Ozene.
written, about
tal

When
(or

the Ayin Acbaree waS

200

years ago,
is
;

Mundu,

Mundoo) was

the capi1

of Malwa, and

defcribed as a prodigious city, of

2 cofTes,

or 22 miles in circuit

and containing many monuments of ancient


vifited

magnificence

1615,

it

when it was was then fallen much to


:

but

by
It

Sir

Thomas Roe,

in

decay.

occupied the top of a

very large and high mountaia

few

cities

were ever placed in a

bolder fituation.

Ougein

is

the prefent capital of Madajee Sindia


poffefTes the principal part

who, with
Holkar's
faid to lie

Tuckajee Holkar,
capital
is

of Malwa.
is

at

Indore or Endore, a modern city, which

about 15 cofTes from Ougein, weftwards.

This

is

a part of

Hin-

dooftan,

h8
we
are

dooftan,

concerning which,

but flightly informed


:

and

Sindia wifhed to keep us in ignorance

for

it is

faid,
its

he exprefled a
route through

difapprobation of the brigade from Guzerat, taking

Ougein, in

its

way

to the Bengal provinces

fo
it

that the detach-

ment

returned,

nearly by the fame road

as

went,

as

far

as

Sirong.

Having now

difcufled

the

manner of

eflablifliing

the primary

Jlations, or thofe principal points,

on which the general conftrudlion


j

of the geography of the

traft

under confideration, depends

I fhall

proceed to give the detail of the manner, in which the intermediate


fpaces were filled
1

up

but fo great a variety of matter


begin
j

offers,

that

hardly
:

know where
I fhall

to

nor

is

it

a point of

much

confeis

quence

however, to preferve

as

much
and

regularity as the fubjed


fide,

capable of,

begin on the weftern


eaft
;

near

Bombay

then

go round by the north and

finifli in
is

the fouth.

The
Mr.

road from

Bombay

to

Poonah

taken from a

MS. map,
on

made daring

the unfortunate campaign of 1778-9: collated with

Smith's, and General Goddard's.

And

all.

the particulars

the weft of the Gauts, between

Bombay and

Surat, are alfo taken

from General Goddard's map.

The

road from Poonah to NufTergur (or Nufferatpour) and round

to Soangur,

was defcribed by Meffieurs Farmer and Stewart, during

the time they remained as hoftages in the Mahratta


particulars

camp

and the

were obligingly communicated to


afcertains

me by Mr.

Farmer;

His map
Gauts
;

the fituations of CaiTerbarry and Coondabarry

and, in particular, that of the city of

Amednagur, once

the capital of the foubah of the lame

name

but

now

better

known

by that of Dowlatabad. This city, which was the refidence of the Emperor Aurengzebe, during his conquefl: of the Deccan and Carnatic, has generally

been placed 50 miles to the fouth-eaft of

its

true pofition.

The

road from Nimderrah Gaut to Aurungabad, and back to


to

Bahbelgong, and thence by Chandor and Saler-Mouler,

Noopour
3

H9

pour

is

from
;

M.
as

Anquetil du Perron.

Chandor occurs

in

Mr.
in

Smith's route

well as Unkei-Tenki, which

we meet with

Tavernier, and helps us to join the routes together.

The

fouth-eail: part

of Guzerat

is

from

a furvey taken

by order

of the Bombay Government,

collated

with

General Goddard's
that

marches

and

eftabliflies

among

other points,

of Brodera, a

principal fortrefs and town, in the north-eaft part of the tradl lying

between the

rivers

Tapty and Myhie

through which the great


lies

road leads from Surat to Ougein.


Ion. j;^ 11'.

Brodera

in lat. 22 15' 30",

The Ayin Acbaree

reports that there

was an avenue

of mango of Puttan
entirely
as

trees,
J

extending the whole way from Brodera to the city


miles.
:

which may be 130 from General Goddard

The
owe

road to Amedabad,

is
it,

and the country round about

well as the peninfula of Guzerat,

their prefent appearance,

to a

MS. map of Governor Hornby's, communicated by Mr. Dalrymple. This map contains much new matter and the Ayin
:

Acbaree

affifts

in difcriminating the valuable parts of

it.

In

it is

found the

fite

of

Mahmoodabad

in its turn, the capital^of Guzerat, in the


it,
1 1

and founded by Sultan

Mahmood
it

th century.

The Ayin

Acbaree defcribes the walls of

as

including a vafl extent of

ground

and fpeaks of

rather as an exifting city, than as a place


latter part

in ruins.

This was in the


a city

of the i6th century.

Juna-

gur or Chunagur,

and

fortrefs in the heart


is

of the peninfula,

and a fubjed: of

Feriflita's hiftory,

likewife found in this

map

but Nehlwarrah, one of the ancient capitals of Guzerat, and alfo the
fubjedt of the
this

fame

hiflory,

cannot trace out by name, either in


I find

map, or

in the

Ayin Acbaree.

however, in the
;

latter,

fome notices
agrees with
at the foot

refpefting. a large city in ruins


ideas of that of

and whofe lituation

my
it

Nehlwarah.
;

It is in the peninfula,

of the mountains of Sironj


:

and the port of Gogo was

dependent on
tory,

whence

conclude by the lights afforded by hif-

and by

its

latitude, given

by Nalir-Uddin and Ulegbeg, at

22, that

it lies

about 30 road miles

NW

of Gogo.

Many

ISO

Many other pofitions are.pointed out, or illuflrated, by this map; which, I am informed, is the produdlion of a native of Guzerat.
After this account of
its

its

author, one might have refted fatisfied with

containing a great variety of particulars, although not arranged


:

in geographical order

but

it is

remarkable, that

it

gives the

form

of Guzerat with more accuracy, than moft of the European maps


can boaft.
It does not

however, clear up

tlie

ambiguity that has long exifted,


:

concerning the lower part of the courfe of the Puddar river

nor

am

yet informed

whether that

river difcharges itfelf into the


;

head

of the gulf of Cutch, by one channel


channels,

or whether

it

forms feveral

and difcharges

irfelf

through the many openings that

prefent themfelves, between the head of the gulf of Cutch, and the

Indus.

One
is,

thing only,

we
;

are certain of

by means of

this

map

and that

that one large river (or branch of a river) falls into the

head of the gulf of Cutch


that has
its

and that

it

appears to be the fame river

fource in the S

part of Agimere,

and which

is

named
its

by Europeans, the Puddar.


the gulf of Cutch,
is

The

river that

opens into the head of


Butlafs
;

named

in the

MS. map,

taking

courfe by Sirowy, Palhanpour,

and Radunpour (or Radimpour).


rivers

The Ayin

Acbaree does not enumerate among the


It

of Guzerat,

or Agimere, either the Puddar, or Butlafs.

is

more extraordi-

nary that the Puddar fliould not be taken notice of, as the Ayin

Acbaree defcribes an extenfive

tradl

of low fenny land, on the weft

of Amedabad, and which was periodically overflowed by the mouth

of a
is

river

when
it,

that very river

is

what we name the Puddar.

It

certain that the

BO notice of

name occurs only in D'Anville. Tavernier takes in his route from Amedabad to Agra, although he
it.
;

muft have crofled

Poflibly the

word Puddar, may be no more


river,

than an appellative

or

may be
:

the fame as buddar, or budda, in

Soane-budda and Ner-budda


Butlafj;,

and the proper name of the

might have been omitted.

The

[
is

^51

The

peninfula of Guzerat

about 200 miles in length, and 140

wide, formed by the Arabian fea (called by the Afiatics, the fea of

Omman)
fhew.
the
as

and the gulfs of Cambay and Cutch

both of which pe-

netrate far within the continent, as the dimenfions of the peninfula

By

the numerous fuhdivifions of this traft, and

more by
it

fum of its

revenue, in the Ayin Acbaree,

we

are led to confider

of very great importance, in the opinions of the Moguls.

Surat
fliare

too, that great

emporium,

fituated in its vicinity,


it,

had

its

in

raifing the value

of the natural produfts of

among which,
it

cot--

ton

is

the ftaple article.


fea,

Being

a frontier province, as

refpeds

the accefs by

Guzerat contains a greater mixture of


any other province.
his

races,

and
Ayin"

a greater variety of religions, than

The

Acbaree
'*

lays,

*'

From

the liberality of
its

Majefty's

(Acbar's)

difpofition, every fed: exercifes

" without moleftation."


in the
1
1

What

mode of worfliip, happy change fince Mahmood,


particular

th century
!

whofe principal delight was the deftrudion of

Hindoo temples
deftroyed

The famous pagoda of Sumnaut, which was by Mahmood, flood within the peninfula, of which we
;

have been fpeaking

and

its

particular

fite

is

pointed out by cir-

cumflances, in the Ayin Acbaree, and Ferifhta.


fays,

For the former

" Puttan on the fea {hore, is alfo called Futtan Sumnaut.'* And the latter, " it was fituated upon the (hore of the ocean, and " is at this time to be feen in the diftrids of the harbour of Deo
**

(Diu) under the dominion of the idolaters of Europe."


to
is

This

plainly refers

Diu, in the hands of the Portuguefe


about 30 miles on the

and the

town of Puttan
fea fliore.

N W of Diu

and on the

Although the gulfs of Cambay and Cutch penetrate


within the land, yet fo
far

fo

deeply

from rendering the

fea

fmoother, or the

navigation fafer, they occafion fuch high and rapid tides, and are
fo thickly

fown with fand banks,


Bore,

that

few places

are

more dangerfuddenly,'

ous.

The

which means the

flood tide rufliing in


feet

and forming a body of water, elevated many

above the com-

mon'

[ISO
mon
furface of the fea
it
J

and of courfe levelling every obflacle that


:

oppofes

rages here with great violence

covering in an inftant
I

the fand banks,

which

before appeared dry and firm.

have ac-

counted for the terror with which Alexander's followers were ftruck,
at the

mouth of

the Indus, from this dreadful phenomenon.

(See

the Introducflion).
Capt. Jofeph Price, had the misfortune to be carried up to the

head of the gulf of Cutch, by pirates,

who

captured his
;

fliip,

after

a mofl gallant and obftinate defence, of two days

but was after-

wards treated with great refpedl and tendernefs, and permitted to


depart by land, for
to

Bombay.

He

accordingly traverfed the Iflhmus,


is

Gogo
;

and reports that the country in that track,

generally

flat
is

having only a few eminences, and thofe


is

fortified.
;

The
as

foil

dry and fandy, as

common

to

Guzerat in general

for,

the

author of the Ayin Acbaree fays, the rain there, does not occafion

mud.

This may be
road from

inferred

from the nick-name of Gberdabad, or


Agimere, by Meerta,
Call,

dufl-town, bellowed on Amedabad, by Shah Jehan.

The

Amedabad

to

is

chiefly

from a map
Hafl:ings.
as

conftirudled
this I

by Col.

and communicated by Mr.

To

have added Tavernier's particulars of the road,


I

he travelled this way from Amedabad to Agra.

know

not from

whence Col.
fedlly
fcale

Call had his particulars, but they appear to be per-

new.

Tavernier's diftance
;

is

enormous,

according to the
is

of the cofs

but

it

is

to be confidered, that the road


;

very

circuitous,

and no

lefs

mountainous

fo that

no rule can well be

applied, for reducing the road diftance, to a ftraight line.

The
route.

pofitions of

Agimere, Jaepour, and Ougein, have been

al-

ready difcufl"ed, ^s well as the places fituated in the line of Mr. Smith's

The

fpace included

between thefe points,

and which

is

chiefly fituated in the

foubah of Agimere, has undergone a very


in
its

confiderable

improvement

geography, fince the publication


Hafl:ings,

of

my

laft

map

by the contributions of Mr.

Mr.

Benfley, and Col.

Popham.

know

not

who

the authors of the


feveral

^53
;

feveral

maps

in

queAion were
I

they have, however,

my acknow:

ledgments for the alliAance


grieve to refleft, that

have

receiv'ed

from them

and

fome of the perfonages who furnifhed the


this

moft intereRing matter towards the improvement of

work, have

not hved to be witnefles of the fuccefs of their labours.


in quefiiion, includes

The

tradl

among
the

others,

the provinces of Cheitore and


;

Oudipour,

fubje<5l to

Rana or chi^f Prince among the Rajpoots

and the antiquitv of whofe houfe may be gathered, by the name


'Rhan7ii:z

appearing in Ptolem.y, nearly in

its

proper pofition, as a

province.

The
which

province of Agimere in general has ever been the


;

country of Raipoots
doos, and
tore or

that

is,

the warrior tribe

among
:

the

Hin-

are noticed in Arrian,


I

and Diodorus
fynonimous)

and CheiI believe,

Oudipour (which
firft

confider as

is,

reckoned the

among

the Rajpoot flates.

The whole
vallies
;

confifts

generally of high mountains divided

by narrow

or of plains,

environed by mountains, acceflible only by narrow paiics and defiles


:

in efted:,

one of the flrongefl countries in the world


:

yet

having a fufHcient extent of arable land


fupport of a numerous population
;

of dimenfions equal to the

and

bleffed

with

mild climate
:

being between the 24th and 28th degrees of latitude

in

fhort,

country likely to remain for ever in the hands of


fors
;

its

prefent pofTef-

and to prove the afylum of the Hindoo religion and cuftoms.


it,

Notwithftanding the attacks that have been made on

by the

Mognl Emperors, Some of their than nominally reduced.


Gaznavide, Pattan, and
the country abounds, were indeed taken
j

it

has never been more

fortreffes,

with which

but
IN

the

spirits of inare

dependent NATIONS, DO NOT RESIDE


they to be conquered with them.

FORTRESSES; nor

Accordingly, every war made


a

on thefe people, even by Aurungzebe, ended in


defeat,

compromife, or

on the

fide

of the

afiailants.

Cheitore was the capital of the Rana in the days of his greatnefs.
It

was a

fortrefs

and city of great extent, fituated on

mountain
:

but has been in ruins fince the time of Aurungzebe in 1681

and

had

154

had once before experienced


1567.

a like fate

from the hands of Acbar, in


inferred

The pofition of this Sir Thomas Roe, who made from Agimere. From this 25 21', Ion. 74 56'. The
more
to the well:
;

place
it

is

from the account of

105 cofies from

Mundu, and
it

51
lat.

have been led to place

in

different

MS. maps,

give

its

pofition

and indeed, one of them, fo

far as to

throw

it

near the great road from


is

Amedabad

to Meerta.

The

caufe of this,

a miftake in the difference of longitude

between Agra and Guzein

rat,

which has been reckoned too much


is

thefe

MSS.

Cheitore,

placed as above,

only about 181 G. miles on the weft of Nar-

wah

Mr.

Haftings's

MS. map,
it

gives this diftance at

196

Col.

Popham's

at

195
laft,

Col. Muir's at
affign
it it

All but the

conftrudtion places

19
1

map of Malwa 231. while my the fime parallel as Narwah the map of minutes more fouthwardly
193
^

and a

Malwa, alone
Agimere
but

places

8'

fouth of Narwah.

Mr.

Haftings's copy

agrees with the conftruflion, in


;

making

it

bear about S S

W from
is

fliortens

the diftance about 6 coffes.


fortrefs in the

Rantampour, a very celebrated


fituated in the eaftern quarter

Indian hiftories,
its

of Agimicre, and has

pofition

from

the fame

MSS.

and in the S

quarter of the fame foubah,

many

other noted fortreffes and refidencies of Rajahs, are extradted from


the fame

MSS.
in

afllfted

by Col. Camac's

tables

of routes
Sandri,

fuch as

Kotta, Boondi, Gandhar, Thora,

Suifopour,

Mandelgur,

&c.

And

Marwar, or the north

divifton of

Agimere, Nagore,
ccc.

Bicaneer,

Catch wana, Didwanah,

Samber, &c.

The upper
it

part of the courfes of the

Chumbul,
fome
fort

Sinde, and Sepra rivers, appear

now,

for the

firft

time, in

of detail

though

mull:

be

long, e'er the geography of parts fo remote from our eftablil:iments

and influence, can be

in

any degree correal

and the reader will

pardon his being reminded, that the geography


includes an extent equal to one half of Europe.

we

are

treating of,

The Ayin Acbaree

has furniftied fome

new

ideas

refpedting the

divifion of the foubah

of Agimere,
5

It

confifted at that time

of

three

^5S

three grand
pore)
tore,
;

divlfions,

Marvvar,

Meywar, and Hadowty


Sirowy,

(or

Na-

and thefe contained 7

circars or fabdivilions,

Agimere, Chieand Beykaneer

Rantampour,
Bicaneer).

Joudypour,
as

Nagore,

(or

Marwar,

including the circar and fortrefs of


in

Agimere, has grown almoft fynonimous with Agimere,


acceptation.

common

The
or

extent of

this^

province as given by the fame

book,

is

168

cojTes,

or about 320 B. miles, from eafh to weft; and

150

coffes,

285 B. miles, from


account.
is

N
is

to S

and

its

extent on the
:

map,

juftifies this

Such

the province of the Rajpoots


;

the grain cultivated there

chiefly of the dry kind

and from the

indulgence granted to this tribe throughout India, namely, that of


feeding on goat's
in this

we may infer, that the cuftom originated mountainous country. The taxes amounted (in the time of
flefli,

Acbar) to no more than a feventh, or eighth, of the produce of the


harveft.

We
the

come next

to the

Gohud and Narwah

provinces, between
tradl

Chumbul and

Sinde
in a

rivers.

Much

of this

was defer ibed

by Mr. Cameron,

map communicated by

the late Col.

Camac

but even a province equal to one of the largeft Englifli counties,


loft in

is

fuch a map,
eaft

as the

one under confideration.


river,

Beyond up

this,

on the

and fouth-eafl, to the Betwah

is filled

chiefly

with Col. Camac's information.


budda,

Between that
(fee

river,

and the Ner-

the Perfian book of routes

page 146) furniilies the


its

road between Callinger and Bilfah, and becomes interefting by

leading through Sagur (the Sageda, of Ptolemy) a capital fortrefs

and town, fituated on a branch of the Cane


miles to the eaftvvard of Bilfah.

I'iver,

about ^$ G.

This route was

alfo tranflated

by

Mr. Anderfon.
PanaJJ'a of

It gives

only 78 coffes between Pannah (or Purnah,

the famous diamond mine of Bundelcund, and fuppofed to be the

Ptolemy) which,

fhould apprehend, was a miftake


is

as the diftance

on
26

a ftraight line,
coffes

165 G. miles.

Sagur, however,

being ftated

at

from

BilGih, a

known

point, does not allow

of being far mifplaced, by an error in the

fcale.

Bilfah

15^]
fides,

Bilfah
to Bopal

is
;

placed by a route of Col. Camac's, leading from Sirong

and being confined by thefe points on two


j

and by

the routes of Goddard and Smith, on the others

it

cannot be far

out of

its

place.

Bilfah,

which

is

almoft in the heart of India,

affords tobacco of the

moft

delicate kind,

throughout that whole

region

and which

is

diftributed accordingly *.

Chanderee, and other places along the courfe of the Betwah, are
either
is

from Col. Camac's

routes, or Col.

Muir's map.

Chanderee

a veiy ancient city,


fays,

and within the province of Malwa.


there are

The
It
is

Ayin Acbaree now,


like

"

14,000 ftone houfes

in it."

moft of the ancient


is ftill

cities

of Hindooftan, fallen into de-

cay; but

the refidence of a principal Rajah.

The routes in
:

the

central parts of

Malwa,
it

are

from Col. Muir's map

Hindia,

is

from

Tavernier, fuppofing

was meant by -^W/.

It is aftonifliing

how

he could

fo far miftake the coufe of the


it

Nerbudda

at

that city, as

to fuppofe

ran into the Ganges.

Hindoo map of Bundela


to the

or Bundelcund, including generally

the trad: between the Betwah

and Soane

rivers,

and from the

Ganges

Nerbudda

was obligingly communicated by Mr.


the names in
it,

Boughton Roufe, who


Perfian.

alfo tranflated

from the

This map points out


aflifts

feveral places that I

had not heard


I

of before, and

in fixing

many

others of

which

had been

partially informed.

The

country between Mirzapour and the heads of the Soane and

Nerbudda, was explored by Major William Bruce,

who

fo

emi-

nently diftinguiflied himfeif at the efcalade of Gwalior in

1780-!^.

During
among the learned, whether tobacco came It is univerIt was poflibly indigenous to both continents. or America. fall)' diiTeminated over Hindooftan, and China : and appears to have been in ufe fo long, in the former, that it is not regarded as a new plant. It is there named Tainba-fatra ; that is the copper, or copper coloured, leaf. t The circamftance.s .-ittending this capture are fo very curious, thai I cannot help ihferting them here, though confefiedly out of place. They are exlrafted from the printed account of
*
difference of opinion feems to h'lve arifen originally from

Ana

Gwalior, which accompanies a beautiful engraved view of that fortrefs, publilhed in 1784. " The fortrefo of Gwalior Hands on a vaft rocli of about. 4 miles in length, but narrow, and cif une4u.'J breadth; and nearly flat at the top. The fides are fo Iteep as to appear almoR
perpen

^57

]
i(fl

During

his expedition,

he

verified a

which had been long


fource from a

doubted, though ftrenuoufly infifted on by the natives; (viz.) that


the Soane and

Nerbudda

rivers

had

their

common
;

pond, or lake, on the fouthern confines of the Allahabad province,

Thefe

rivers

do

literally

flow from the fame lake

making, con-

perpendjcular in every part ; for where it was not naturally fo, it has been fcarped a'.vay and the height from th,; plain below, is from 200 to 300 feet. The ramjxirt conforms to the edge of the precipice all round ; and the only entrance to it, is by fteps ru ining up the fide of the rock, defended on the fide next the country by a wall and balHons, and farther i^uarded by 7 The area withi 1 is full of noble buildings, flone gateways at certain diftances from each other. refervoirs of water, w^ells, and cultiv.ited land ; fo that it is really z little dillriill in itfelf. At the N. W. foot of the mountain, is the town, pretty large, and well built ; the houfes all of ftone. To have befieged this place, would have been vain ; for nothing but a furpri^e or blockade could have carried it. tribe of banditti from the diftrift of Gohud had been accuftomed to rob about this town, and once in the dead of night had climbed up the rock, and got into the ibrt. Thi.s intelligence they had commumcated to the Rana, who often thought of avaiii'ig himfelf of it, buc was fearful of undertaking an enterprize of fuch moment with his own troo-'s. At length, he informed Colonel Popham of it, whD fent a p.Tty of the robbers to conduit' fome of his own fpies to the fpot. They accordingly climbed up in the night, and found that the guards generally went to fleep after their rounds. Popham now ordered ladders to be made, but with fo much fecrefy, that until the night of the furprize, a few Officers only knew it. On the 3d of Augull, 1 780, in the evening, a party was ordered to be in readinefs to march under the command of Major Bruce ; and Popham put himfelf at the head of 2 battalion: which were immediately to follow the llorming party. To prevent as much as poifible, any noife in approaching or afcending the rock, a kind of ftioes of woollen cloth were made for the fepoys, and fluffed with cotton. At 1 1 o'clock, the whole detachment marched from the camp at Reypour, 8 miles from Gwalior, through unfrequented paths, and reached it a little before daybreak. Jufl as Bruce arrived at the foot of the rock, he faw the lights which accompanied the rounds, moving along the rampart, and heard the centinels cough (the mode of fignifying that uill is lAjell, in an Indian camp, or garrifon) which might iiave damped the fpirit of many men, but ferved only to infpire him with more confidence; as the moment for adion, that is, the interval between the paiTing of the rounds, was now afcertained. Accordingly, when the lights were gone, the wooden ladders were placed againft the rock, and one of the robbers firll mounted, and returned with an account that the guard was retired to fleep. Lieutenant Cameron, the engineer, next mounted, and tied a rope ladder to the battlements of the wall this kind of ladder being the only one adapted to the purpofe of fcaling the wall in a body (the wooden ones only ferving to afcend from crag to crag of the rock, and to aifili in fixing th.e rops ladder.) When all was ready. Major Bruce, with 20 fepoy grenadiers, afcended without being difcovered, and fquatted down under the parapet ; but before a reinforcement arrived, three of the party had fo little recoUeftion as to fire on fome of the garrifon who happened to be lying alleep near them. This had nearly ruined the whole plan the garrifon were, of courfe alarmed, and ran in great numbers towards the place but ignorant of the ftrength of the aflailants (as the men fired on had been killed outright) they fuffered themfelves to be flopped by the warm fire kept up by the fmall partv of grenadiers, until Colonel Popham himfelf with a confiderable reinforcement came to their aid. The garrifon then retreated to the inner buildings, and difcharged a few rockets, but foon afterwards- recreated precipitatelythrough the gate ; while the principal Oihcers, thus defcited, ailembled together in one houie, and hung out a wliite flag. Popham fent an Oificer to give them ali'urances of quarter and protection ; and thus, in the fpace of two hours, this important and aftoniifiing ibrtrci's was completely in our polfeffion. had only 20 men wounded, and none killed. On the fide
:

We

of the enemy, Bapogee, the Mahratta governor was killed, and moll of the prmcipal Officers

were wounded."

jointly.

158

jointly
ftan
:

with the Ganges, an ifland of the fouthern part of Hindooin oppofite direftions
is

and flowing

1500 miles.

The

courfe

of the Nerbudda river


it

afcertained, only in certain points

where
:

happens to be crofled by any of the great roads here defcribed

excepting Qnly in the neighbourhood of Broach.


diate parts are
at

All the interme-

drawn from
as

report.

It

is is

reprefented to be as wide
at

Hufiingabad Gaut,

the

Jumna

Calpy

but fordable in

moft places, during the dry

feafon.

We

learn

from Mr. Ewart


live near

that the Soane

is

named Soane-budda,
its

by the people who


fifler river
is is

the upper part of

courfe

as

its

named Ner-budda.
in the

The upper
as the

part of the courfe of

the Soane
to be
;

drawn

fame manner

Nerbudda
it,

is

defcribed

and the

fortrefs

of Bandoo-gur, near

is

from the infor-

mation of Mr. Ewart.

The
nations.

data for the pofitions of

Nagpour and Ruttunpour,

are

already given in page 142 and 144, in the difcuffion of the primary

Many
:

roads lead from each of thefe places

but two only

were meafured
to

one from Chittra in Bahar, through Ruttunpour,


to

Nagpour; the other from Nagpour, through Gurrah,

Rewah
feveral

and Mirzapour, on the Ganges.


points,

The

firft,

by determining

fuch as Surgoojah, Dongong, Kyragur, &c. enabled

me

to correal

fome of Col. Camac's eftimated routes


Mundella, and Deogur.
to Ellichpour,

and the

latter,

befides giving the pofition of Gurrah, the capital of


della
;

affiftcd in

fettling

Gurry-MunThe eftimated

routes

from Nagpour, were

Barhanpour, Narnalla,

Gawile (or Gyalgur) Aurungabad,

Jaffierabad,
;

Mahur, Notchencollefted

gong, Neermull, Chanda, and Manickdurg

all

by Mr.'

Ewart.

All ihcfe proved very fitisfa(5lory


feveral intervals
:

as

they correfponded

with the diftances of the

and Nagpour being deis

termined with the precifion requifite for a general map, there


little

doubt but that


fev.'

all

the places between Bengal and


:

Bombay,
that
is,

are

placed within a

miles of their refpedive pofitions

ad-

mitting

159
to

mitting the longitude of


cutta.

Bombay

be right, in refpedl of Cal-

Befides the routes colledled by

Mr. Ewart, Mr. Watherllone


fent thither

obligingly communicated his route from Huffingabad Gaut, on the

Nerbudda, to Nagpour.
higheft political

He

was

on bufinefs of the
;

im.portance,

by General Goddard

whofe army

was then encamped on the banks of the Nerbudda, in the courfe of His journey pointedits celebrated march acrofs the continent*.
out,

among

other particulars, the fource of the Tapty (or Surat


is

river)

whofe fpring

more remote than we had an


to the

idea

cf.

It

rifes at

Maltoy, a town fituated 42 cofTes


is

N W of Nagpour
is

fo that its coufe,

full

two

thirds

of the length of that of the

Nerbudda.
100
cofTes.

The
is

dillance between

Huflingabad and Nagpour,

Ellichpour
Berar proper
in the
;

fine city,
I

and was anciently the chief city of


to difiiinguifh the province
:

by which

mean

known
Orifla

Ayin Acbaree by

that

name

for our

modern acceptation of
j

Berar, includes the

whole country between Dowlalabad and


to the author of the

the eaftern part of which, was neither reduced by Acbar, nor even

known,

in particulars,
is
;

Ayin Acbaree.

At

prefent, Ellichpour
fubjecfl to

the capital of a large province or diflrid:,

the

Nizam

but paying a chout, or nominal fourth part

cf

its

revenues, to Nagpour.
-f-,

Deogur, or Deogire

was anciently
;

a capital city,
as

and the

refi-

dence of the Rajah of Goondwaneh

or,

he

is

called in the

Ayin

* In juilice to General GoJdard's memory, I think it incumbent on me to obfcrve that tlie author of the Hiftory of Hydcr Ally (publiflied in 1784) though fcemingly inclined to compliment him, has depreciated the merits of the undertaking, by over-rating the numbers and quality of General Goddard's troops. M. D. L. T. ftates the ihengih of the army at Sooo ; of which, fays he, 1200 were Europe ans. The truth is, that the detachmtnc confiiled of 103 European commifiioned officers, and 6624 native troops of ail denominations ; and without In the return from whence this was copied, the fervants and a iingle corps of Europeans. befides the bazar or followers of this little army, amount to no lefs a number, than 19,779
:

market people, not included in the return and thefe are ellimated at 2,000 more more than 4 followers to each fighting man. t This mull not be confounded with a city of the fame name, which ftoad near the Dowktabad.
:
i

in all,

fite

of"

Acbaree

i6o
the

Acbarec, the

Goond Rajah

Nerbudda being then the fouthem


to be

limit of Hindooftan.
elevated in

This province appears

one of the moll

Hindooftan, feeing that the rivers Tapty, Bain,


it.

and

Nerbudda, defcend from

Malwa,

is

unequivocally the higheft;

for there, the rivers defcend in every diredion.

Golam Mohamed's
Ewart, contribute

routes,

being added to thofe

colleifted

by Mr.

much

towards the improvement of the map, in


:

the interval between the meafured lines by Mr. Ewart

and before

we were
(which

favoured with that gentleman's moil valuable materials


as

entirely fuperfede the former,

far as

they go)

Golam

Mohamed's contributed largely towards the geography of the counThefe we owed to the late Col. Camac, try round Nagpour *'.

who to his praife, employed a part of his command on the weflern frontier of Bahar,
the
(late

leifure time,
in enquiries

during his
concerning

of politics,

government, geography, and. nature of the


:

countries included in the abovementioned tradl

the geography of

which, had

till

then, been very


is

little

known

to us.
its

Sumbulpour or Semilpour,

determined by

reputed diflance

from Ruttunpour, and from 4 different points in the Bengal furvey from routes colledled by Col. Camac. Unluckily, I had placed

Sumbulpour

in

the map, as
it

it

now

{lands,

before I had feen

Mr.
40'

Ewart's papers; by which


fouth-weil of
Ion.
this
;

appears to be
;

10 or ii miles to the
lat.,

its

true pofition

being in 21 25'

and

83*^

when it ought to be in 21 34' 30", and 83 46' 30". Had new pofition been eftabllfhed on the fame principle as Nagpour
;

and Ruttunpour

that

is,

mathematically

I fliould

not have fcru^n

pled to erafe a large portion of the map, to gain fo defirable

advantage

but

as it yet refls

on computed diftances,

am

content

to point out the error in this manner.

to

ofcftimatej cofTcs between Bunvah and Nagpour, was 196, and from thence total 359!. And the diltance on the map is 5 ly-j G. miles ; or at the ; rate of 41,7 cofles to a degree : agreeing with the fcale of cofTes, witiiin three-tenths of a cofs,

The number

Aurungabad, 163 i

in a degree.

.The

i6i

]
is

The
affedted

diftance of

Sumbulpour from Ruttunpour, which


is
L-

hardly

by the new matter,

by one account 53Coires; and by


cofles,

another 56: the medium, 54


tance adopted.

or 78

G.

miles,

is

the dif-

Then, Sumbulpour
i

is

from Doefah
Raidy

in

Bahar
in Bahar

91 cofles

Nowagur
in

59

Bahar

67
-

Beurah in Bahar

41

All thefe places being nearly in one line of direction from

Sum-

bulpour, admit of a

medium

being ftruck between them

and this

medium
is

appears to be 664 from Raidy, or 95

G.

miles.

The inlat.

terfedion of thefe lines of diftances, from Ruttunpour and Raidy,


nearly at right angles
Ion.
;

and they meet

as

is

faid
falls

above, in

21 34' 30",

83 46' 30".
;

This pofition

out

142 G.

miles from Cattack

and Mr. Motte,

who
in

traced this road, toge-

gether with the courfe of the

Mahanada

1766, made the diftance


it

129

he

alfo

reckoned 51' diiference of latitude, and

appears to

be 64'4.

The
is

lower road from Nagpour to Sumbulpour, through Ralpour,


;

from Golam Mohamed


is

and the upper, by

Dumdah

and Sooran-

gur,

Mr. Thomas's

communicated by Mr. Ewart.


laterally,

The

lower

route,

which

is

checked,

by the diftance of Raipour from


and navigable part of the
is

Ruttunpour, points out

alfo the courfe


river.

Mahanuddy, or Mahanada

Arung
fea.

the furtheft point to

which
river,

it

is

navigable,

from the

The upper
which

road crofles the


is

near the conflux of the Hutfoo river,

alfo navigable,

to

Dungong.

By

the deviation of the road between

Nagpour and
it

Soonpour, from the true line of diredlion towards Cattack,

may

be inferred that the country on the fouth of


in a ftate of anarchy.

it,

is

either defert, or

We

are however, not well


it
;

informed on this
rather, as

point, but have every reafon to fuppofe

and the

Mr.

Thomas

162

Thomas mentions Dewancole


ditti.

near Soonpour, as a retreat of ban-

Soorangur, where the roads divide to Sumbulpour, and Soonpour,


is

the burial place of the late

Mr.

Eliott

who

died on his
that crifis,

way from when the

Calcutta to Nagpour, in Odlober 1778.


fate

At

of the

Britirti

empire in India, hung fufpended by a

flender thread, this

gentleman was fent by Mr. Haftings, on an


at

embaffy to the Court of Nagpour, which


faid to

that time,

might be

hold the balance of power, in Hindooftan.

Zeal for the

public good, prompted

him

to undertake a fervice

of great perfonal

danger

and which eventually occafioned his death.

Mr. Haftings
:

caufed a
alfo

monument
fome

to

be erected to his memory, on the fpot


early genius

and
lefs

commemorated
*.

his

and attainments, and no

early death, in

lines,

which make
is

part of an imitation of an ode

of Horace

Soorangur
;

about 270 road miles (hort of Nagpour,


lies

and 470 from Calcutta


I obferved above,

and

out of the diredl road.


is

that

Sumbulpour

mifplaced

and

this

occa-

fioned an error in

all

the places between Ruttunpour and Cattack.


is

For the

diftance

between Soorangur and Soonpour


and Cattack,
too great]

too fmall

and

between the

latter

the

Mahanada not
map.

making
pour, as

fo

deep a winding or elbow, between Boad and Sumbuldefcribed, and as


is

Mr. Motte

reprefented in the

Golam Mohamed reckoned


which
is

only 137 cofles between Nagpour and


will not allow of lefs than

Sumbulpour: but the conftrudion


Boad, a fort near the Mahanada,
coffes only,

157

a miftake not eafily to be accounted for.


is faid

by Col. Camac
diftrid
:

to be

40

from Gumfoar,

in the

Ganjam

by conflrudioa

An
I

early death was


his

Eliott's doom,

op'ning virtues bloom. And manly fenfe unfold; Too foon to fade I bade the ftone. Record his name 'midll hordes unknown,

faw

Unknowing what
Sfie.the

it

told,

HoR. Book

II.

Ode

xvi.

New

Annual Regifter

for 17 86.

it

i63

it is

46

which

difference

is

probably occalioned by the miftake in

the pofition of Sumbulpour.

On

the weft of Boad, and near the


palled
a

Mahanuddy
Beiragur
as
;

river,
I

Mr. Thomas

town of the name of


There
indeed,

which

take to be the place noted in the Ayin Acbaree,


its

having a diamond mine in

neighbourhood.

is

mine of more modern

date,

in the vicinity of

Sumbulpour; but
famous for
perfecftly to
is

this

whole quarter muft from very

early times have been

producing diamonds.
the

Ptolemy's Adatnas river anfwers


diftridl Sabarce,

Mahanuddy

and the

on

its

banks,

faid to

abound
is

in diamonds.

Although

this geographer's

map of

India,
j

fo

exceedingly faulty, in the general form of the whole trail


it,

yet feveral parts of

are defcriptive.

When we

perceive the head"

of the river juft mentioned, placed

Arcot thruft up into the

among the Bundela hills, and middle of India ; we ought to refledl, that

Ptolemy's ideas were colledied from the people


coaft,

who

failed

along the

and who defcribed what they had feen and heard, without

regard to
a fcale
;

what

lay

beyond

it

and moreover, made ufe of too wide


the fphere of knowledge
libitum^ from, the
is

as

commonly happens when

confined,

and the geographer works ad

coaft,

towards the interior of an


Ptolemy's

unknown

continent.

map of

India, ihould carry thefe ideas


it is

Whoever confults in his mind that


:

the conftrudlion of
is

founded on three

lines

one of which,
to the

that of the
y

whole

coaft,

from the gulf of Cambay, round

Ganges

a fecond, the courfe of the Indus,,


,;

and the gulfs of Cutch

and Cambay
the

and the

third,

the

common

road from the Panjab to

mouths of the Ganges.

The

objedls within thefe lines, have a

relative

dependance on each line refpedlively ; and are invariably

placed at too great a diftance within


that an objedt
lines,
is

them

it

therefore happens,

which fhould have occupied

a place near

one of the
being a

thruft towards the middle of the

map

and

this

general cafe, places on oppofite fides of India, are crouded together,


as

Arcot and Sagur (SagAedaJ

are.

At the fame time the

central

parts are

wholly omitted

as

being, in reality,

unknown.

z.

Some may

i64
I

may

treat

with

ridicule,

what

have faid on the fcore of

Ptolemy

but a work which has travelled down to us from the fecond century of dur
asra,

muft have
it

poffelTed

fomething worthy to recommend

it,

and

to

keep

alive

and, at leail merits an explanation.

Mr. Motte's
computed
latitude of

route along the

Mahanuddy, was defcribed from


by
a compafs.

diftances, and bearings

He

alfo
it

took the

Sumbulpour, in

rough manner, and made


is,

nearly the

fame

as

that of Balaforej

that

about 21

degrees and a half.

The mouths
iflands,

of this

river,

which form an aflemblage of low woody


rivers,

like the

Ganges, and many other

have never been

traced, but are defcribed

from report only.


is

At

the

principal channel,

near Falfe Point,

a fortified

mouth of the ifland, named


which
This
fandy

Cajung, or Codjung.

This brings us
bounds the

into the neighbourhood of the Chilka lake,

circars (or

northern circars) on
fea,

the north. over a


flat,

lake feems the effedl of the breach of the


fhore,

whofe elevation was fomething above the


by

level

of the country

within.

Pulicat lake appears to have the fame origin.


the
fea,

Both of

them communicate with


ing
;

a very

narrow but deep openlake


is

and are fhallow within.

The Chilka
j

about 40 miles
12 or 15 wide;
fea.

in length

from

NE

to S

and in moft places


it

with a narrow

flip

of fandy ground, between


it.

and the
it
is

It
t

has

many
the

inhabited iflands in
;

On

the

NW
j

bounde

by a

ridge of mountains

a continuation of that,

which extends from


circars

Mahanuddy
fide

to the

Godavery

river

and fhuts up the

towards the Continent.


each

The

Chilka, therefore, forms a pafs on


It is

of

it,

towards the Cattack province-

defcribed
:

from

the obfervations of

Mr. Cotsford, and of Capt. Campbell

though

pofllbly the extent of it

may be fomewhat more


aflfords

than

is

given, to:

wards the north.

It

an agreeable diverfity of objedts


;

mountains, iflands, and

forefls

and an extended furface of water,

with boats and fmall

veflels

failing

on

it.

To

thofe

who

fail

at

fome

i65

me
the

dlftance

from the

coaft, it has the appearance


vifible.
lies

of a deep bay

flip

of land not being

The famous pagoda


ward of
this lake,
:

of Jagarnaut,

few miles

to the eaft-

and clofe on the

fea fliore.

It is a iliapelefs

mafs
firft

of building

and no otherwife remarkable, than


j

as

one of the

objeds of Hindoo veneration


coaft

and

as

an excellent fea mark, on a


;

which

is

perfe<flly flat,

and exhibits a continued fxmenefs

and

that in a quarter,

where

a difcriminating object
It

becomes of the

higheft importance to navigators.

has no claim to great antiit

quity

and
in

am

led to
j

fuppofe that

fucceeded the temple of

Sumnaut

Guzerat

which was

defliroyed

by Mahm.ood in the

lith century.
country near
it,

Poflibly the remote fltuation, and the nature of the

ihut up by mountains and deep rivers, might re-

commend

the fpot,

where Jagarnaut

is

fltuated

for

we

find Oriffa.

was not an

early conqueft.

The
tion.

circars are defcribed

from various

authorities.

The confirft

ftrudtion of the fea coaft has already been difcufled in the

fec-

Our

pofl'eflions
;

in this quarter, extend

no where more than


;

50 B. miles inland
tween the Chilka
river
flip

and in fome places, not more than 20

bethis

lake,

and the Godavery


about 70 or 75.

river:

and between

and the

Kifl;na,

So that the circars form a


fea
;

of territory, bounded on one fide by the

and on the other,


it.

generaUy, by a ridge of mountains, that runs nearly parallel to


Col, Pcarfe's line, runs entirely through this tradl
confidered
raifed,
a,-;

and may be

the foundation, on

which

a fuperftrudure has been

by the labours of many

different people.

The

difliridl
is

round

Ganjam, known by the name of Itchapour, and which


the divifions of the Cicacole country
ford's very elegant
;

one of

is

drawn from Mr. Cotsadjoining to


;

map.

The Tickly

diftrift,

it,

on

the fouth,

is

chiefly

from Lieut. Cridland's furveys


Coca/a of Ptolemy).

and extends
Cicacole,
to

to Cicacole town

(the

From

Vifagapatam, including the country to the foot of the mountains,


is

taken from an old

MS. map of Mr.

Dalrymple's

and from
thence

i66

thence to Rajamundry,

Is

taken from a

map of

Col. Forde's marches,

collated with Montrefor's large


is all

map,

at the Eafl: India

Houfe.

It

along to be underflood that Col. Pearfe's line (corredled as in

page lo) forms the fcale of the parts in queflion.


part of the circars
is
;

The

remaining
rivers,

that
a

is,

between the Godavery and Kiftna


that country, publiflied

chiefly taken
;

from

map of

by Mr.
late

Dalrymple

the ground- work of

which

is

compofed of the

Major
lum,
of the

Stevens's materials.

The
is

routes to

Joypour and Badrachil;

are

on the authority of Mr. Claud Ruflell

and the pofition

latter place,

which
or

very near to the Godavery, accords

with Mr. Montrefor's

idea, as exprelled in his large

map.
called

The Godavery

river,

Gonga Godowry, (fometimes


till

the

Ga/ig in FeriHita's hiftory) was,

very lately, confidered as the

fame with the Cattack


rity,

river,

or Malianuddy.
it,

As we had no authothe

that

can find, for fuppofing

the opinion muft have been

taken up, on a fuppofition that there was no opening bet wee;

mouths of the Kiftna and Mahanuddy

(or Cattack river)


It

of magni-

tude fufHcient for fuch a river as the Gonga.

could not be for


in-,

the want of fpace fufficient for the Cattack river to accumulate

independent of the Gonga

for

the diftance

is

as great
;

from the

mouth of mouth of

the Cattack river to the Berar mountains the Godavery to the Baglana mountains.

as

from the
truth
is,

The

that no juft account of thefe rivers, any


pooter, had then reached any

more than of the BurramSucceeding


that the

European geographer.
it

enquiries and difcoveries have

made

certain,
falls

Godavery

is

the river that runs under Rajamundry, and

into the fea between


rifes

Coringa and Narfapourj and that the Cattack river

in the

Ruttunpour country.

But the recent difcovery


is

(to

Europeans) of

the Bain Gonga, whofe courfe

diredlly acrofs the fuppofed courfe


river,

of the Gonga, (the name given to this compound

whofe head
at

was the Godavery, and


ambiguity
;

tail

the

Mahanuddy)

clears
to

up

once the

if

any there could be fuppofed

remain, after the

difcuflion of the fubjedt in the

memoir of

the

map of 1782.

The
Coda-

t67

Goda very
and
in

has

its

fource about 90 miles


its
:

to

the

NE
is

of Bombay;
fdits

the upper part of

courfe, at

leaft,

efteemed a

cred river by the Hindoos

that

is,

ablutions

performed in
in'

ftream, have a religious efficacy fuperior to thofe performed

ordi:

nary ftreams.

The Beemah
after

is

fuppofed to have fimilar virtues


in other parts

nor

are facred rivers

by any means uncommon,


traverfing

of India.

The

Godavery,

the

Dowlatabad foubah, and the


eaft,

country of Tellingana, ^rom weft to

turns to the fouth-eaft;


fea,

and receiving the Bain Gonga, about 90 miles above the


fides

be-

many

fmaller rivers, feparates into


;

two

principal channels at
feveral

Rajamundry

and thofe fubdividing again, form altogether

tide harbours, for vefTels of moderate burthen.

Ingeram, Coringa,

Yanam, Bandarmalanka, and Narfapour, are among the places fituwhich appears to be the moft conated at tbe mouth of this river
;

ilderable one,
forefts

between the Ganges and Cape Comorin.


its

Extenfive

of teek trees border on


fliip

banks, within the mountains


:

and lupply

timber for the ufe of the ports abovementioned


fliips

and the manner of launching the


fingular,
I

in thofe ports,
it

being very

have fubjoined an account of

in

a note *.
;

The

Godavery was traced about 70 miles above its courfe is defcribed only from report ;
of the Bain

its

mouth

the reft of

fave only at the conflux


it
;

river,

and in places where different roads crofs

un-

is built with her keel parallel to the fhore ; and, as It may happen, When compleated, fhe is placed on two itrong from low water mark. pieces of timber, called i/ogs (in the nature of a fledge of enormous dimeniions) and on theie, a ibrt of moveable cradle is conftrudled, to keep the vellel upright. Two long Palmyra trees, as levers of the ftcond kind, are tlien applied to the ends of the liogs, and by means of theie powers, they, together with the velTel th.it rells on them, are gradually puflied forwards over a plattorm of logs, until they arrive at the lowell pitch of low water ; or as far beyond it, as the levers can be ufed. Tackles are applied to the ends of the levers, to increafe the power the fulcrums, are wreaths of rope, fattened to the logs on which the vellel Aides and are removed forwards as ftie advances. Two cables from the land fide, are fallened to the veflTel, to prevent her }rom Hiding too rapidly ; and thefe are gr.adually let out, as Ihe .idvances. It is commonly the work of two days to tranfpoi t the veffe! to the margin of low water. If the tide does not rife high enough to float her from thence (which it feldom docs if the velTel be of any confiderabie burthen) part of the cradle is taken away, and the lliip left chiefly to the fupport of the cables till high water, when they are fuddenly let go, and the veflel falls on her fide: and with the fall, difengages herfclf from the remains of th<cradle, and at the fame time, plunges into deeper wattr. A Ihip of 500 tons has been launched in this manner,

The

ftiip

or veflel
feet

from 200

to

300

til

[
til
it,

i68

we
in

arrive at the part

where

M.

Bufly's

marches have defcribed

common with other particulars. The courfe of the Bain Gonga (or
is

Bain river)

as

have juft
are in-

obferved,

quite a

new

acquifition to

Geography ; and we
This
to us,
river,

debted to the

late Col.

Camac,

for

it.

courfe of near 400 miles, was not

known

which has a even by report, till

very lately.

It

rifes

near the fouthern

bank of the Nerbudda, and


;

runs fouthward through the heart of Beritr

and afterwards mixes


circars.

with the Godavery, within the

hills that

bound our northern


cannot find

This circumftance confutes


Bain Gonga

at

once the idea of the Godavery being


I

a continuation of the Cattack river.


is

how

far

up the

navigable
its

but

it is

mentioned
is

as a i^ery large river,

in the early part of

courfe; and
it.

probably equal in bulk to the

Godavery, when

it

joins

There

yet remains in the

map, between the known


circars,

parts of Berar,

Golconda, Oriffa, and the


in length,

avoid fpace of near 300 miles


is
it

and 250 in breadth; nor

likely ever
ftate

to

be

filled

up, unlefs a very great change takes place in the


politics in India
firft
:

of European

for

we

appear not to have penetrated beyond the


till

ridge of mountains,

very lately

when

the difcovery of the

black pepper plant was made, in the

diftridts

of Rampa.

Beyond the great ridge of mountains (which may be 60 or 70


miles inland) and towards Berar,
is

a very extenfive tradl of

woody

and mountainous country, with which the adjacent countries appear


to have but little, if any,

communication.

We

may

fairly

fuppofe

that to be a country void of the goods in general

efteem

among
Al-

mankind, that does not tempt


though furroimded by people
tion,

either their avarice, or ambition.

who

are in a

high degree of civiliza-

and

who abound

in ufeful manufadlures,

we

are told that

the few fpecimens of thefe miferable people v/ho have appeared in


the circars, ufe no covering but a wifp of flraw.

We

know

not,

with any degree of certainty,

how

far

this

wild country extends

within the great ridge of mountains, between the parallels of 17

and

i69

and 20

but the

firfl

civilized people that


I

we

hear of beyond them,


it

are the Berar Mahrattas.

think
a

it

probable that

may extend
in

150 miles, or more.


their

However,
this country,
at

party of Berar M.ihrattas found


hills,

way through
I.

and the Bobilee

1754,

(Orme vol.
cole circar.
for,

page 373)

an opening called Salloregaut, in the Cica-

Our

ignorance refpedting this tradt

may well

be accounted

by

its

lying out of the line of communication between our


;

fettlements

and by

its

never having been the feat of any war, in


part.
I fufpedt,

which the Europeans have taken


the tradl in queftion,
or ufefully explored.
is

however, that

either too defert, or too favage to be eafily

Between the Godavery and Kiftna

rivers,

and on the north-eafl

of Hydrabad, was the ancient country of Tellingana (or Tilling)

of which Warangole (the Arinkill, of

Feriflita)

was the

capital.

The
parts

fite
;

of this capital
is

is

fiill

evident, by

means of the old ram-

which

amazingly extenfive.
is

modern

fortrefs

is

conCol.
place,

flrudted within it; and

in

the pofTefTion of the

Nizam.
to this

Peach marched by way of Ellore and Combamet,


during the war of
J

767 ; and the road was furveyed by Lieutenant, now Major Gardner.