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NONLINEAR OPTICS (PHYC/ECE 568)

Fall 2011 - Instructor: M. Sheik-Bahae University of New Mexico

Homework #1, Due Thursday, Sept. 8 SOLUTION

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Problem 1. Nonlinear optical measurements show that an optical glass (SiO ) has =1.310 at =850 nm. The linear refractive index n =1.5
2 2 (3) 2 0 2 2

esu

(a) What is n in cm /W and m /W? (b) What is in SI units? (c) Estimate the peak index change (n) induced by a modelocked laser operating at 500 mW (average power), 25 fs laser pulsewith and 100 MHz repletion rate. The laser focused to a spot size of w =20 m.
0

2.8810 (c) n=n I


2

(3)

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m /V

The peak irradiance is obtaine as I=P /area=(P /repetition rate/pulsewidth)/area


peak

=(50010 J)/(*(2010 m) *(2510 s) (10010 ))= 1.5910 W/m =1.5910 W/cm n3.610 1.5910 =5.7310
-16 10 -6

-3

average

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-15

14

10

Problem 2. Extreme nonlinear optics occurs when the incident optical field approaches the characteristic atomic field E=e/(40)a02 where a0 is the Bohr radius (read section 1.1 in Boyd). In this regime, we can no longer describe the nonlinearity by nonlinear susceptibilities as the process becomes non-perturbative. At such high electric fields, the atom simply ionizes. Calculate E and its corresponding irradiance I . What is the required pulse energy to achieve this irradiance for a 25 fs laser pulse focused to 20 m spot size?
2 11 at at

E =e/(4 )a 510 V/m


at

I = cnE /23.510 W/m =3.510 W/cm


at 0 at 2 at p 0

0 2

20

16

U=Pulse energy required= I w 10 mJ.


Problem 3. Pockels Effect: A 2 order nonlinear crystal with a known , refractive index n and a
0 nd (2)

thickness L is used as an electro-optic modulator as shown below. Here a DC voltage (V ) is applied


dc

across two transverse electrodes (separated by d). Ignoring anisotropy and tensor properties, show that the phase of the transmitted electric field will be modulated according to:

(v) =Vdc
(a) What is (use SI notation)? (b) For 1 pm/V, find the required V to achieve =/2 for L=1 cm, =500 nm.
dc (2)

(a) P()= E()+2 E()E(0)= ( + 2 E(0))E()=


(1) eff (1) (2) (1) (2) (1)

= + 2 E(0) = + 2 V /d
dc 0 (1) 1/2 (2)

0 (1)

eff

E()

(2)

(1)

(2)

Index of refraction is defined as n =(1+ ) n(V)=(1+


(1) 1/2 eff 2 (2) 1/2 0 dc 0

) = (n +2 V /d) n + V /n d=n +n(V)


(2) dc 0 0 dc 0 dc

=2Ln/=2 V L/n d=V Thus: =2 L/n d


0 (2)

(b) =2 V L/n d=/2


dc 0 (2)

L=1 cm, d=5mm, n =1.5, 1 pm/V V 100 kV !!!


dc 0

(2)

Problem 4: (the problem and its solution are in Gaussian units)