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International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge (IJSRK), 1(6), pp. 116-122, 2013 Available online at http://www.ijsrpub.

com/ijsrk ISSN: 2322-4541; 2013 IJSRPUB http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsrk-2013-p116-122

Full Length Research Paper Damage Source Identification of Welded Steel Beam Specimen Using Acoustic Emission
Alireza Panjsetooni1,2*, Norazura Muhamad Bunnori2, Zohreh Shirkhani3, Zeinab Shirkhani4
2

Islamic Azad University, Abdanan Branch, Iran School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Seri Ampangan, Seberang Perai Selatan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia 3 Payame Noor University of Ilam, Ilam, Iran 4 Governor General Office of Ilam, Ilam, Iran *Corresponding Author: E-mail: Alireza5civil@yahoo.com
Received 26 March 2013; Accepted 1 May 2013

Abstract. Acoustic emission (AE) method is a passive non-destructive technique is being used as the prime candidate in structural health and damage monitoring in civil structure for investigation process of damage in both case local and global monitoring. This technique was employed for investigation process of damage in steel beam specimens. Several-welded steel beam specimens were built and tested under loading cycle and were simultaneously monitored using AE. According the stages of failure of welded steel beams, The AE test data were analyzed by AE source location method. The results showed that source location of damage in steel structures could be identified using AE technique. Key words: Non-destructive technique, Acoustic emission, welded steel beam, Damage source

1. INTRODUCTION Acoustic emission (AE) is defined as the class of phenomena whereby transient elastic waves are generated by rapid released of energy from localized sources within a material or the transient waves so generated (Astm, 2006).Load conditions that exist in structure have been known to cause materials like steel and concrete to emit AE energy in the form of elastic waves due to various material-relevant damage mechanisms. A developing flaw in these materials emits bursts of AE energy in the form of high frequency sound waves, which propagate within the material and are received by sensors (Nair and Cai, 2010). AE technique is a powerful testing tool for real time examination of the behavior of materials deforming under stress (Nair and Cai, 2010). For decades, this technique is being used as the prime candidate for structural health and damage monitoring in loaded structures(Surgeon and Wevers, 1999) This technique has proved to be highly effective especially to assess and measure the damage phenomena taking place inside a structure subjected to mechanical loading (Carpinteri et al., 2006) . Extensive AE studies of concrete and steel structures have been reported and this method was proposed for monitoring of the concrete and steel structures these structures but more study is needed to develop methods of analyzing the data recorded

during the monitoring (Panjsetooni and Bunnori, 2013a, b). Connections are important parts of steel structures. In this study steel structures with welded connection was investigated. several papers related with evaluation of the welded steel using basic AE parameters were published such as Mukherjee et al. (1997), Na et al. (2001), Roberts and Talebzadeh (2003), Na et al. (2006) and Mukhopadhyay et al. (2012) .The majority of these works has not focused on welded connection that is used in civil engineering structures. The main objective of this current study is damage evaluation assessment of welded steel beam using AE source location analysis. In this research, suitably of this method for evaluation of welded steel was investigated. This work has been focused on welded connection that is used in civil engineering structures. Commonly, previous works has been focused on local evaluation of welded steel that are non-civil structural systems and has not been used in civil engineering structures. 2. METHODOLOGY 2.1. Source location One of the most useful applications of AE is in the location of active defects. The location of active defects is calculated by means of the differences

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between arrival times of a signal at two or more transducers. Linear flaw location is calculated as following: (1) Where X is the distance between the source to the mid-point between two transducers, is the arrival time at transducer a, is the time of arrival at transducer b, and is a constant of determined from the speed of wave propagation through the material (Lozev, 1997). The first step in quantitative AE analysis is the estimation of spatial and temporal parameters of the stress wave source. The estimation of spatial and temporal parameters of the stress wave source is the first step in quantitative AE analysis. The source location in AE technique is done by measuring the time difference in the arrival at time of an AE signal at different sensors (Shield, 1997). Generally, the p-wave arrival times are used because they represent the first undisturbed arrival of a stress wave and the easiest to deduce. If at least four sensors detect a discrete stress wave signal it can be identified as an AE event and temporal parameters of the stress wave source can be estimated(Schumacher et al., 2012). The primary sources of AE are deformation processes such as crack growth and plastic deformation. The AE sources generate and propagate elastic waves in materials in all directions. Ultimately, the elastic waves reach the surface of the material and are detected by sensors attached to the surface of the specimen. AE energy is the total elastic energy released by an AE event occurred at a source (Beattie and Jaramillo, 1974). AE energy is defined as follows (Miller and McIntre, 1987). (2) Where Vi is the voltage transient of an ith channel, t0 is the starting time of the voltage transient record and t1 is the ending time of the voltage transient record. Using the AE energy, Relaxation Ratio was proposed by (Colombo et al., 2005). 2.2. Experimental procedure 2.2.1. Material details A series of experiments was conducted on welded mild steel beam specimens. A total of 24 test specimens in four types of test specimen were built. Figure 1 (a) shows the details and dimensions of

S1BLC specimen type. The dimension of the beam specimens were length of 600mm, web thickness of 6mm, overall web depth of 120mm, flange thickness of 8mm and flange width of 140mm. The weld thickness was 4mm for all welded parts. Figure 1 (b) (c) (d) shows the details and dimensions of specimen S2BLC, S3BLC and S4BLC. The dimension of the beam specimens were length of 600mm, web thickness of 4mm, overall web depth of 120mm, flange thickness of 4mm and flange width of 140mm. The weld thickness was 4mm for all welded parts. 2.2.2. Three point bending test monitored using AE technique A total of twenty steel beam specimens described earlier were tested in three point bending. Acoustic emissions were detected by six R15I sensors with the resonance frequency of approximately 150 kHz were employed. The sensors were attached on the steel beam specimens using grease as a couplant and tightened using a magnetic clamp. Four sensors were located on the side face and two on top face. In order to perform acoustic emission monitoring, an eight channel AE system (MICRO-SAMOS) manufactured by Physical Acoustics corporation (PAC) was employed. Figure 2 shows a test set up of three point bending beams. The steel beam specimens were tested in three point flexural loading under cyclic loading. The load was applied at the mid span of the steel beam specimens. The load applied to the preload of 0.5kN to hold the beam in place. The first load step was from 0.5kN to 10kN. AE was recorded continuously from the start of the load cycle to the first step load. The load then was removed from 10kN to 0.5kN.At the end of each loading cycle, the load as held for 2 minutes and AE was paused to record. The three point bending test was monitored by AE throughout the test. The load and mid span deflection and AE data were recorded continuously during the three point bending test. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The AE source location analysis was performed for all welded beam specimens that a sample will be explained.

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International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge (IJSRK), 1(6), pp. 116-122, 2013

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 1: Detail and dimensions of the steel beam specimens

Fig. 2: Test set up of three point bending beams

Type B: S2BLC was tested in three point-bending under loading cycle. The load was applied under nine load cycles in 10kN steps. The maximum load for each load cycle were 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80and 90kN. The yield load calculated and ultimate load was 56kN and 88.8kN respectively. In order to explain the behaviour of S2B3LC under loading cycle using AE

method, S2B3LC was divided into 5 zones as shown in Figure 3. Zone 1 and 2 were the location of the welded beam connected. Also, zone 3 where is the loading cycle was applied. The AE win software was used for data analysis that AE source location in term of absolute energy was performed. A summary of AE source location results are in Table 1.

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Fig. 3: Detail and dimension of S2BLC zones

The behaviour of S2BLC under loading cycle can divided three stages: (1) Elastic behaviour (2) plastic behaviour in mad span of welded steel beam (3) failure in connection zone. The AE source location in term of absolute energy will be explained according to these stages. Stage I: The behaviour of the S2BLC during cycle 1to 4(10kN to 40kN) was in stage of elastic behaviour. During this stage, AE activity has taken place throughout of the welded steel beam specimen with low level and more AE signals were emitted from the weld zone because of the discontinuous properties. Figure 4 (a) shows the source location of total emission during cycle loading 4 (40kN). Stage II: The behaviour of the S2BLC during loading cycle 5 to 7(50kN to 70kN) was in stage of plastic behaviour. During loading cycle 5 an increase in peak of absolute energy in zone 2 was observed. Zone 2 was where maximum deformation occurs. This peak of absolute energy in zone 2 was constant during loading cycle 6 and 7. Figure 4 (b) shows the source location of total emission during loading 7. Also, peak of absolute energy in zone 1 and 3 was constant in stage of failure. Stage III: The behaviour of the S2BLC during loading cycle 8 to 9(80kN to 90kN) was in stage of failure behaviour. During loading cycle 8 an increase in peak of absolute energy in zone 3 was observed and during cycle 8. Figure 4 (c) shows the source location of total emission during loading cycle 8. S2BLC was failed during loading cycle 9. Failure of the specimen was accompanied with very large increase in peak of absolute energy in zone 3 where failure occurred. Figure 4 (d) shows the source location of total emission during loading cycle 10. Also, peak of absolute energy in zone 1 and 2 was constant in stage of failure.

With respect to results obtained, the AE sources can be divided four stages: (1) The earlier loading cycle that the behaviour of welded steel beam is in elastic behaviour stage, the emissions were distributed throughout the specimen with low level, (2) With approaching last loading cycle that the behaviour of welded steel beam was in elastic stage, the emissions were with moderate level from the welded zone.(3) In plastic behaviour stage, the emissions were with large level from the yield zone. (4) In stage failure, the emissions were with large level from the facture zone. As regards both heterogeneity and brittleness are two major factors conducive to high emissivity and ductile deformation mechanisms are assonated with low emissivity, duration of loading cycle that behaviour of welded steel is in elastic stage, the welded zones are the primary source of emissions. Also, with reference to the works of (Na et al., 2006), (Ennaceur et al., 2006), (Stankovi and Bruhns, 2008) and (Martnez Gonzlez et al., 2010) show that, it could be said that in this stage, AE activities in weld zones are greater than steel zone. Thus the peak of AE activity in these zones is observable. In addition, the results show that in plastic behaviour stage, the primary source of AE signals is yield zone in mid span of specimens and the peak of AE activity in this zone is observable. With respect to the works of Na et al. (2006), the micro cracks initiated at loading between yield load and midway point to ultimate load. Duration of loading cycle that behaviour of welded steel is in plastic stage, the micro cracks in yield zone are the primary source of emissions .Also, and the results show that in failure stage, the primary source of AE signals was facture zone.

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International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge (IJSRK), 1(6), pp. 116-122, 2013

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 4: Source location of total emission during loading cycle S2BLC

Table 1: A summary of AE source location analysis


Cycle no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Load (kN) Zone 1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Peak of Absolute Energy (aJ) Zone 2 Zone 3

4. CONCLUSIONS This paper provides the results from tests on welded steel beam specimen under loading cycle and was monitored by AE throughout the test. On the basis of AE activities, the analysis of signal characteristics using AE source location analysis, the conclusions are presented below: 1- The results showed that in elastic stage, the welded zones are primary source of AE emission and AE emissions were with low level from the welded zones.

2- The results indicated that in plastic behaviour stage, the AE emissions were with large level from the yield zone. 3- The results showed that in stage failure, the emissions were with large level from the facture zone. 4- The results indicated that AE technique can used to identify the sources of damage in welded steel beam specimen ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) for providing support through the short term Grant [304/PAWAM/6039047]

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REFERENCES Astm E (2006). 06a Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness. Annual Book of Astm Standards. Philadelphia PA: American Society for Testing and Materials. Beattie A, Jaramillo R (1974). The measurement of energy in acoustic emission. Review of Scientific Instruments, 45: 352-357. Carpinteri A, Lacidogna G, Niccolini G (2006). Critical behaviour in concrete structures and damage localization by acoustic emission. Key Engineering Materials, 312: 305-310. Colombo S, Forde M, Main I, Shigeishi M (2005). Predicting the ultimate bending capacity of concrete beams from the relaxation ratio analysis of AE signals. Construction and Building Materials, 19: 746-754. Ennaceur C, Laksimi A, Herve C, Cherfaoui M (2006). Monitoring crack growth in pressure vessel steels by the acoustic emission technique and the method of potential difference. International journal of pressure vessels and piping, 83: 197-204. Lozev MG (1997). Acoustic emission monitoring of steel bridge members. Martinez Gonzalez, E, Picas Anfruns I, Casellas Padro D, Romeu Garbi J (2010). Analysis of fracture resistance of tool steels by means of acoustic emission. Miller RK, Mcintre P (1987). Acoustic Emission Testing (Non Destructive Testing Handbook, Volume 5). American Society for Nondestructive Testing, 288. Mukherjee P, Barat P, Jayakumar T, Kalyanasundaram P, Rajagoplan C, Raj B (1997). Acoustic emission studies on welded and thermally treated AISI 304 stainless steel during tensile deformation. Scripta materialia, 37: 1193-1198. Mukhopadhyay C, Sasikala G, Jayakumar T, Raj B (2012). Acoustic emission during fracture

toughness tests of SA333 Gr. 6 steel. Engineering Fracture Mechanics. Na EG, Ono K, Lee DW (2006). Evaluation of fracture behavior of SA-516 steel welds using acoustic emission analysis. Journal of mechanical science and technology, 20: 197204. Nair A, Cai C (2010). Acoustic emission monitoring of bridges: Review and case studies. Engineering structures, 32: 1704-1714. Roberts T, Talebzadeh M (2003). Acoustic emission monitoring of fatigue crack propagation. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 59: 695-712. Schumacher T, Straub D, Higgins C (2012). Toward a probabilistic acoustic emission source location algorithm: A Bayesian approach. Journal of Sound and Vibration. Shield CK (1997). Comparison of acoustic emission activity in reinforced and prestressed concrete beams under bending. Construction and Building Materials, 11: 189-194. Stankovic Z, Bruhns O (2008). Fatigue life investigation using nondestructive testing methods. PAMM, 7: 4030027-4030028. Surgeon M, Wevers M (1999). Modal analysis of acoustic emission signals from CFRP laminates. NDT & E International, 32: 311-322. Panjsetooni A, Bunnori NM (2013a). Damage Evaluation Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Structure using b-value and Damage Parameter Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signals. International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge (IJSRK), 1(3): 44-50. Panjsetooni A, Bunnori NM (2013b). Fracture Formation Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Beam Subjected to Cycle Loading Using Acoustic Emission Technique. International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge (IJSRK), 1(4): 51-59.

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Alireza Panjsetooni was born in Western area of Iran on 2rd January 1976. His first degree at University Tabriz in Bach of Civil Eng (Hons) 2000. Then he continued deeply in Master of earthquake Engineering (M.Struct) at Universiti Tehran in 2008 and currently his pursuing in PhD level at Universiti Sains Malaysia in Structural Health Monitoring.

Norazura Muhamad Bunnori (PhD) has been involved in Acoustic Emission (AE) technique since 2004 while she was pursuing her PhD study at Cardiff University, Wales, UK. She was graduated from Cardiff University in 2008 and continues with the AE research area in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia. Currently she is working as a Senior Lecturer at School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) since 2009. The research covered several topics of AE applications and analysis (quantitative and qualitive). The aim is to continue the AE study especially in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) research area and to discover more in this potential area. The passion towards AE is deep and she believes that there are a great number of information can be studied and discovered with this tool.

Zeinab Shirkhani was born in Ilam. She graduated with a B.Sc. degree of business management from Azad University. Now she works at Governor General Office of Ilam as financial manager.

Zohreh Shirkhani was born in Ilam (Iran).She graduated with a M.Sc. degree of Biology from Bu-Ali Sina University ( Hamedan, Iran). She is teaching at Payame Noor University of Ilam and investigating the petroleum resistant plants and rhizospheral fungi.

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