You are on page 1of 15

( Reaffirmed 1996 )

IS : 11639( Part 1) - 1986

Indian Standard
CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF PENSTOCKS
PART 1 SURFACE PENSTOCKS

Water

Conductor

Systems

Sectional

Committee,

BDC

58

Chairman

SHRI P. M. MANE 39 Shivaji Co-operative Housing Society Pune


Members Representing

CHIEF ENGINEER Bhakra Beas Management Board, Chandigarh SHRI SUDERSHAN KUMAR (Alternate ) Mukerian Hyde1 Project Design, Chandigarh CHIEF ENGINEER DIRECTOR ( Alternate ) Karnataka Power Corporation Limited, Bangalore CHIEF ENOINEER(~IVIL DESIGNS ) SHBI P. R. MALLIKARJUNA ( Alternate ) CHIEF ENGINEER ( GENERAL ) Public Works Department, Madras CHIEF ENaINEER ( IRRIQATION ) ( Alternate ) CHIEF ENGINEER ( HP ) Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Coimbatore SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER ( Alternate ) CHIEF ENGINEER ( IRRIGATION Public Works and Electricity Department, Mysore
SOUTH )

SUPERINTENDINaENQINEER ( Alternate ) SHRI C. ETTY DARWIN In personal DIRECTOR


Trivandrum

capacity
)

( Dursery

Muttada

P.O.,

DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( Alternate ) DIRECTOR ( HCD-I ) Central Water Commission, New Delhi DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( HCD-I ) ( Alternate ) DR A. K. DUBE Central Mining Research Station Unit, Roorkee Da J. L. JETHWA ( Alternate ) SHRI J. P. GUPTA Power House Designs, Irrigation Department, Roorkee SHRI A. P. GUPTA ( Alternate ) SHRI M. V. S. IYENoAR Hindustan Construction CO Ltd, New Delhi SHRI M. G. KHAN ( Alternate )
( Continued ORpage 2 @ Copyright 1986

Central Soils and Materials Research Station, New Delhi

INDIAN STANDARDS INSTITUTION This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act ( XIV of 1957 ) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

IS : 11639( Part 1 ) - 1986

( Contimed from page1 )


Members
Jorrs~ DIRECTOR, RESEARCH

RcjrescntinE
Research Designs and Standards Organization, Lucknow National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Ltd, New Delhi National Projects Construction Corporation Limited, New Delhi Kerala State Electricity Board, Trivandrum Water Resources Development Training Roorkee Geological Survey of India, New Delhi Centre,

SB!R%'~)KHAR . . SHRI A. K. MEETA


SHRI S. C. BALI ( Ahmate MEMBER ( CIVIL ) DR B. PANT

SHRI G. PANT SRRI N. K. MANDWAL ( Alternate) SERI A. R. RAICHUR In personal capacity ( 147, Garadianagar,Bombay ) SHRI Y. RAXA KRISHNA RAO Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board, Hyderabad SUPERINTENDIN@ ENQINEER ESIQN AND PLANNING ) ( Alternate ) REPRESENTATIVE Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune SHRI A. V. GOPALAERISHNA ( Alternate) SHRI G. V. SATHAYE General Designs Organization, Nasik SHRI S. C. SEN Assam State Electricity Board, Guwahati SHRI N. K. DAS ( Alternate ) DR H. R. SHARIVIA* Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi SHRI A. K. SRIEANTIAE Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board, Sundernagar SHRI RANJODH SuiaH ( Alternate ) Director General, IS1 ( Ex-o#cio Member ) SHRI G. RAMAN,

Director ( Civ Engg ) Secretary


SHRI HEMANT KUMAR Deputy Director ( Civ Engg ), IS1

Panel for Penstocks and Anchor Blocks, BDC 58 : P6


Convene7
KUMARI E. DIVATIA National Hydroelectric New Delhi Power Corporation Limited,

Bhakra Beas Management Board, Chandigarh SHRI Y. P. NAYAR ( Alternate ) Irrigation Works, Government of Punjab, Chandigarh DIRECTOR ( T & P ) SENIOR DESIGN ENQINEER ( Alternate ) Central Water Commission, New Delhi DIRECTOR ( HCD-I ) DEP UTY DIRECTOR ( HCD-1 ) ( Alternate ) Irrigation Department, Government of Uttar Pradesh SRRI N. C. JAIN Lucknow Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Bhopal DR ZAFAR MEHDI SHRI j. L. KHOSE ( Alternate )

Members SHRI M. L. AGQARWAL

( Continuedon page 13 )
*Chairman for the meeting.

IS t 11639( Part 1 ) - 1966

Indian Standard
3lRULl
i-- - -~-~---

URAL

. _

CRITERIA FOR
1

PART

0. FOREWORD
0.1 This
Indian Standard ( Part 1 ) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 31 *January 1986, after the draft finalized by the Water Conductor Systems Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineering Division Council. 0.2 Conduits carrying water from surge tanks or directly from a reservoir, forebay, to the power house are known as penstocks. Penstocks are generally of concrete or steel or a combination of both. The pressure varies from minimum at the upstream end to the maximum at the junction with the scroll case.

1. SCOPE
( Part 1 ) lays down the various forces acting on surface penstocks and structural design of penstocks conveying water under pressure flow conditions. However, this does not cover specials of penbends, expansion joints, stocks like penstock supports, manifolds, manholes, branch outlets, etc. 2. NOTATIONS

1.1 This standard

2.1 For

the purpose of this standard, the meaning indicated against each: A = cross-sectional A, = cross sectional C = moment

the following

notations

shall have

area of pipe shell material, area of stiffener or stiffener ring, mmz ring, mm

mmz

6 = width of ring girder coefficient of elasticity stresses, bending

E = modulus

fi, f2, f3 = f4 =

longitudinal secondary

N/mm2 stress, N/mm2

IS : 11639 ( Part 1 ) - 1986 stress, N/mm2 fi = total circumferential fy = total longitudinal stress, N/mm2 1 = height of stiffener ring or ring girder, mm L = span length of pipe, mm M, Ml = moments P = internal pressure including water hammer, P1 = total reaction at support, q1 = shear stress, N/mm2 Y = radius of pipe shell, mm rl = mean radius of shell, mm S = hoop stress in pipe, N/mm2 St? = equivalent stress, N/mm2 Sa, S, = principal stresses, N/mm2 I = temperature rise or drop, C t = thickness of pipe shell, mm tl = thickness of stiffener ring or ring girder, mm W = total distributed weight, weight of water, N/m2 that is, self-weight of shell + N N/mm2

WI = total weight, that is, weight of shell + weight of water, N 5 = section modulus of pipe shell, ma 5c = coefficient of linear expansion or contraction material, per C p 3. DATA coefficient of friction. of pipe shell

REQUIRED data is required for the structural design of

3.1 The following penstocks:

a) General drawing of installation; b) Complete longitudinal profile; c) Type of penstock; i) Free penstock pipe laid in a tunnel, and ii) Steel lined pressure shaft. d) Geological data; i) Geology of area, ii) Type of ground/rock, iii) Bearing capacity of ground, 4

Is : 11639 ( Part iv) Shear properties of soil, v) Modulus of deformation, vi) Seismic coefficient. e) Climatic conditions; i) Temperature ( maximum, mean, minimum, night and in summer and winter ), ii) Wind conditions f) Hydraulic data; ( direction and maximum iii) Snow conditions ( period and average i) Diameter of penstock, and ii) Discharge through penstock. 4. LOADS ON PENSTOCK are the main loads considered for the

1) - 1966

and

by day and

speed ), and

depth of snow 1.

4.1 The following penstocks:

design

of

a) Internal water pressure, b) Weight of penstock and water, and c) Temperature. In are: a) wind load, b) snow load, and c) seismic forces. 4.2 The loads given in 4.1 are of the following nature: a) Permanent b) Intermittent c) Exceptional loads, loads, and loads. nature are the forces which act upon They correspond to: addition, the other loads considered depending on location

4.2.1 The loads of permanent the penstock in normal operation.

a) The maximum ooerating which is the sum of maximum - nressure . . static pressure and over pressure due to water hammer under normal operating conditions, taking into account the oscillations in surge tank; The weight of penstock and water between the supports; b)

Spacing

and type of supports;

IS : 11639( Part 1 ) - 1986 d) The difference between the temperature which may exist in the penstock in normal operation and the temperature existing when coupling up the sections during erection; e) Friction at supports; and variation. nature are the forces which though not f ) Temperature

4.2.2 The loads of intermittent exceptional, do not arise often. The two main cases are:

a) Penstock during filling, and b) Empty penstock under partial vacuum. The forces to be taken into account in each case correspond to: a) The weight of penstock and water between the supports, b) The type and spacing between supports, c) The temperature effect, and d) Friction at supports. In addition to the forces enumerated in (a) to (d), intermittent loads may also occur due to wind or snow load and earthquakes. 4.2.3 The loads of exceptional are: a) Shop or site test; b) Erection stresses; nature that may act upon the penstocks

c) Bad operation of safety devices during filling such as non-operation of air valves which would create vacuum inside during empting operation of penstocks; d) Pressure rise caused due to unforeseen operation of regulating equipment of turbine/pump distribution: i) In case of impulse turbine, pressure rise due to needle slam on loss of oil pressure or mechanical failure; and ii) In case of reaction turbine, turbine gates may be closed instantaneously at any time by action of governor manual control of main relay valve or by the emergency solenoid device. e) Stresses developed due to resonance possible, the frequency of penstock pipe match with the frequency of machine, ding in the draft tube, frequency of the shall be avoided ); and f) Seismic forces. 6 in penstock ( As far as in any reach shall not frequency of vortex shedsystem, etc, and resonance

IS

11639 ( Part 1 ) - 1986

5. STRESSES

IN PENSTOCK

SHELL
are subjected to in pipe at the

5.1 The stresses in the penstock

shell of surface penstocks The stresses circumferential and longitudinal stresses. mid-span and at the supports are as below: a) At mid-span:

Hoop stresses developed due to internal pressure equal to sum of static pressure due to maximum water level in reservoir or surge tank plus the dynamic pressure due to water hammer as calculated for operating conditions, stresses developed due to its own weight and ii) Longitudinal weight of water by beam action, stresses developed due to sliding friction over iii) Longitudinal the supports, and stresses developed due to expansion or contraciv) Longitudinal tion of penstock shell due to variation of temperature. b) At supprts: stresses developed at the supports due to i> Circumferential bending caused by internal pressure, stresses due to secondary bending moments ii) Longitudinal caused by the restraints imposed by ring girder or stiffener rings, iii) Longitudinal action, and iv) Longitudinal stresses stresses developed developed at the supports due to beam in 4.1.

i)

by forces enumerated

5.2 The stresses in penstock shell shall also be checked to withstand the stresses developed due to intermittent and exceptional loading and for the following forces: Longitudinal a> stresses developed due to earthquake and wind, rise called by

b) 4

Circumferential non-operation Stresses

stresses developed due to pressure as specified in 4.2.3 (d),

Longitudinal c>

stresses developed due to wind, developed due to filling and draining

and of penstocks.

6. METHOD to 6.1.7.

OF CALCULATION

OF STRESSES IN PIPE SHELL


as given in 6.1.1

6.1 The stresses for different

forces shall be calculated

I3:11639(Partl)-1966 6.1.1 Hoop Stress Due to Internal Pressure 6.1.1.1 The hoop stress developed by: s NOTEp t

due to internal

pressure

is given

The internal pressure P is due to static head + dynamic head.

6.1.2 Longitudinal Joint Eficiency ( e ) 6.1.2.1 6.1.3 It Shall be taken as 1.0 for fully radiographed joint. Longitudinal Stresses Due to Beam Action

6.1.3.1 The stress developed due to self-weight and weight of water pipe spanning over supports due to beam action shall be calculated by the following formula:

f = $where

N/m2

M = bending
of water.

moment

caused

due

to self-weight

and

weight

NOTE - Bending moment, M, at mid-span and at support shall be calculated for each case considering the pipe as a beam spanning continuously over intermediate supports

6.1.3.2 The longitudinal caused by internal pressure tension.

stresses developed due to radial strain may be taken equal to 0.303 times the hoop

6.1.3.3 The longitudinal stresses developed due to seismic forces in the pipe spanning over the support due to beam action is equivalent to seismic coefficient times stresses calculated in 6.1.3.1. These stresses should be added to stresses calculated in 6.1.3.1. 6.1.3.4 The longitudinal stresses developed due to wind or snow load acting on the pipe spanning over the support are calculated as given in 6.1.3.1, where bending moment, M, is caused due to wind load or snow load. 6.1.4 Longitudinal Stress Due to Sliding Friction

6.1.4.1 The maximum longitudinal stress developing over alt supports within a section between an expansion joint and the subsequent support shall be calculated by the formula:

f2=
where

ql+dy,
friction and subsequent 8 in section between an support = pW, Cos p, expansion

Pf = total sliding
joint

IS : 11639( Part 1) - 1986 a ;= eccentricity penstock, 5 = section /3 = angle of frictional force relative to centre line Of

modulus of section p,

of pipe shell, and under consideration shell with the and support horizontal. shall be between

The coefficient of friction, taken from Table 1.


TABE SL No. 1 FRICTION

COEFFICIENTS

FOR )

DIFFERENT

MATERIALS

( Clause 6.1.4.1 TYPE 01~ SUPPORT Steel on concrete Steel on concrete with asphalt roofing paper in between Steel on steel ( rusty ) Steel on steel ( greased ) Steel on steel with two layers service sheets in between Rocker support Roller support Concrete on concrete of graphite

FRIOTIO~~ COEBPICIENT 0.60 O-50 050 O-25 0.25 015 0.10 o-75

i)
ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii)

6.1.5 Temberature

Stress

6.1.5.1 Longitudinal stresses caused due to expansion of pipe shell shall be calculated by the following formulae: a) Pipe she!1 without fa=EcrT expansion joint joint

or contraction

b) Pipe shell withexpansion


f 3 = PI> PAc,

where ~1 = coefficient shell, and


AC = contact

of friction

between penstock

packing

material

and pipe material

area between

shell and packing

in rnm2, 6.1.6
Circumferential Bending Stresses at Supports

6.1.6.1

by internal

Circumferential stresses at supports due to bending pressure shall be calculated by the following formula: M = C PI r 9

caused

IS : 11639 ( Part

1) - 1986

The value of C for different angles of support is given in Fig. 1. The effective length of shell resisting the bending moment is equal to 4 times the radius of the shell.

VALUES

OF

IN OEGREES

FIG. 1

VARIATION OF CIRCUMFERENTIALMOMENT AROUND SHELL RESTING ON SADDLE SUPPORT Bending Stress Due to Restrain by Ring Girders or Sti$ener

6.1.7 Longitudinal Rings at the Supports

calculated

6.1.7.1

The secondary by the formula:


f4 =

bending
1*82(Ar-bt) Ar+ 1*56tdT

stress

due to restrain
x JY_ t

shall

be

NOTE -

This stress is local and the effect shall be taken for a distance of 3/q where

4 = 5% on either side of the supporting ring and pipe thickness shall be increased, r if required, in this zone.

10

IS : 11639 ( Part 1 ) - 1986 7. EQJJIV ALENT STRESSES

7.1 The circumferential and longitudinal stresses obtained as specified in 6.1.1 to 6.1.7, shall be combined to obtain equivalent stresses in accordance with Hencky Mises Theory, given by the formula:

where fx fY =

longitudinal

stress,

hoop stress, and stresses may be readily obtained from Fig. 2.

q = shear stress The equivalent

8. LINER THICKNESS 8.1 The liner thickness of an exposed equivalent stress as specified in 7. penstock shall withstand the

8.2 Notwithstanding the thickness obtained as specified in 8.1 and regardless of pressure, a minimum thickness of liner shall be provided to resist the distortion during fabrication and erection. A minimum thickness of D -i- 50 cm is recommended where D is the diameter of shell 400 in cm. 8.3 No corrosion allowance is recommended. Instead, it is suggested to paint the inside and the outside surface of pipe with a paint conforming to the relevant Indian Standard. 9. WORKING 9.1 Normal STRESSES AND FACTOR OF SAFETY

Operating

Condition

9.1.1 It is recommended that under normal operating condition as specified in 4.2.1, the working stresses with a factor of safety of 3 based on the minimum ultimate tensile strength shall be adopted for design but in no case the maximum stresses obtained in 7.1 shall exceed 0.5 times the specified minimum yield strength of material. 9.2 Intermittent Loading Condition 9.2.1 It is recommended that under intermittent loading condition as specified in 4.2.2, the working stresses with a factor of safety of 2.5 based on minimum ultimate tensile strength shall be adopted for designs but in no case the maximum stresses obtained in 7.1 shall exceed 213 the specified minimum yield strength of material. 11

IS : 11639 ( Part
16

1) - 1986

I I I I I I I I I
TENSION; THOUSANDS

FIG. 2 9.3 Exception


9.3.1 Under Condition

EQUIVALENT STRESS DIAGRAM

exceptional loading condition as specified in 4.2.3, it is recommended that the working stresses with a factor of safety 20 based on minimum ultimate strength shall be adopted for design but in no case the maximum stresses obtained in 7.1 shall exceed 0.8 times the specified minimum yield strength of material. 12

IS : 11639( Part 1 ) - 1986


( Continuedfrom page 2 ) Members Representing

Sam C. GENESA PILLAX Kerala State Electricity Board, Trivandrum SHRI A. R. RAQHAVAN Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Madras SHRI T. RAUSWAMY Indian Hume Pipe Co Ltd, Bombay SBRI B. RAMASWAMY ( Alternate ) Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi DR H. R. SHARMA SHRI B. THOMAS Central Water & Power Research Station, Pune SHRI R. VIJAYAN In personal capacity ( ECONS-l?ngineers d Consultants, 351136 Kamalhodath Lane, Cochin ) SHRI N. G. KURUP ( Alternate )

13

INTERNATIONAL
Base Units
QUANTITY

SYSTEM

OF UNITS

( SI UNITS)

UNIT metre kilogram second ampere kelvin candela mole

SYMBOL m kg S A K cd mot

Length Mass Time Electric current Thermodynamic temperature Luminous intensity Amount of substance Supplementary
QUANTITY

Units UNIT radian steradian


SYMBOL

Plane angle Solid angle Derived Units QUANTITY Force Energy Power Flux Flux density Frequency Electric conductance Electromotive Pressure, stress force

rad Sf

UNIT newton joule watt weber tesla. hertz siemens volt pasta 1

SYXBOL

DEF~BITION 1 1 N = 1 kg.m/s* J = 1 N.m

J
W Wb T HZ S V Pa

1 W = 1 J/s 1 Wb = 1 V.s 1 1 1 T = 1 Wb/m* 1 Hz = 1 c/s (s-l) S = 1 A/V V = 1 W/A 1 N/m

1 Pa -