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Introduction Employee welfare defines as "efforts to make life worth living for workmen".

These efforts have their origin either in some statute formed by the state or in some local custom or in collective agreement or in the employer's own initiative.

To give expression to philanthropic and paternalistic feelings. To win over employee's loyalty and increase their morale. To combat trade unionism and socialist ideas. To build up stable labour force, to reduce labour turnover and absenteeism. To develop efficiency and productivity among workers. To save oneself from heavy taxes on surplus profits. To earn goodwill and enhance public image. To reduce the threat of further government intervention. To make recruitment more effective (because these benefits add to job appeal).

Employee Welfare Employee welfare means

the efforts to make life worth

living for workmen. According to Todd employee welfare means anything done for the comfort and improvement, intellectual or social, of the employees over and above the wages paid which is not a necessity of the industry

Features of Employee Welfare Employee welfare is a comprehensive term including various services, facilities and amenities provided to employees for their betterment. * The basic purpose in to improve the lot of the working class. * Employee welfare is a dynamic concept. * Employee welfare measures are also known as fringe benefits and services. * Welfare measures may be both voluntary and statutory

Welfare facilities can be largely categorized into two types: Intramural facilities: These are provided within the establishment such as rest centers canteen, uniforms. Extramural facilities: These are activities which are undertaken outside the establishment such as child welfare, transport facility etc. Examples of Welfare Facilities Intramural Facilities

Extramural Facilities

Drinking water Toilets Cr?ches Washing & bathing facilities Rest shelters Uniforms Protective clothing Recreating facilities Canteens Subsidized food Medical aid

Housing Education facilities Maternity benefits Transportation Sports facilities Leave travel Vocational training Holiday homes Cooperative stores Fair price shops Social insurance

Principles of Employee Welfare Service Following are generally given as the principles to be followed in setting up a employee welfare service:

The service should satisfy real needs of the workers. This means that the manager must first determine what the employees real needs are with the active participation of workers.

The service should such as can be handled by cafeteria approach. Due to the difference in Sex, age, marital status, number of children, type of job and the income level of employees there are large differences in their choice of a particular benefit. This is known as the cafeteria approach. Such an approach individualises the benefit system though it may be difficult to operate and administer.

The employer should not assume a benevolent posture.

The cost of the service should be calculate and its financing established on a sound basis.

There should be periodical assessment or evaluation of the service and necessary timely on the basis of feedback.

Theories of Employee Welfare The Police Theory : This is based on the contention that a minimum standard of welfare is necessary for labourers. Here the asumption is that without policing, that is, without compulsion, employers do not provide even the minimum acilities for workers * The Religious Theory : This is based on the concept man is essentially "a religious animal." * The Philanthropic Theory : *

This theory is based on man's love for mankind. Philanthropy means "Loving mankind. * Trusteeship Theory

This is also called the Paternalistic Theory of Labour Welfare. According to this the industrialist or employer holds the total industrial estate, properties, and profits accruing from them in a trust.

* Theories of Employee Welfare Placating Theory :-

According to this theory, timely and periodical acts of labour welfare can appease the workers. They are some kind of pacifiers which come with a friendly gesture * The Public Relation Theory : This theory provides the basis for an atmosphere of goodwill between labour and management, and also between management and the public, labour welfare programmes under this theory, work as a sort of an advertisement and help an organization to project its good image and build up and promote good and healthy public relations.

* The Functional Theory :This is also called the Efficiency Theory. Here, welfare work is used as a means to secure, preserve and develop the efficiency and productivity of labour, It is obvious that if an employer takes good care of his workers, they will tend to become more efficient and will thereby step up production.

Agencies of Employee Welfare 1. Central government: - The central government has made elaborate provisions for the health, safety and welfare under Factories Act 1948, and Mines Act 1952. These acts provide for canteens, crches, rest rooms, shelters etc. 2 . State government: - Government in different states and Union Territories provide welfare facilities to workers. State government prescribes rules for the welfare of the workers and ensures compliance with the provisions under various labor laws. 3. Employers: - Employers in India in general looked upon welfare work as fruitless and barren though some of them indeed had done pioneering work. 4 . Trade unions: - In India, trade unions have done little for the welfare of workers. But few sound and strong unions have been the pioneering in this respect. E.g. the Ahmedabad textiles labor association and the Mazdoor sabha, Kanpur. 5. Other agencies: - Some philanthropic, charitable d social service organizations like: - Seva Sadan society, Y.M.C.A ., etc

Labor welfare has the following objectives: To provide better life and health to the workers To make the workers happy and satisfied To relieve workers from industrial fatigue and to improve intellectual, cultural and material conditions of living of the workers.

THE basic features of labor welfare measures are as follows: Labor welfare includes various facilities, services and amenities provided to workers for improving their health, efficiency, economic betterment and social status. Welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and other economic benefits available to workers due to legal provisions and collective bargainin. Labor welfare schemes are flexible and ever-changing. New welfare measures are added to the existing ones from time to time. Welfare measures may be introduced by the employers, government, employees or by any social or charitable agency. The purpose of labor welfare is to bring about the development of the whole personality of the workers to make a better workforce. The very logic behind providing welfare schemes is to create efficient, healthy, loyal and satisfied labor force for the organization. The purpose of providing such facilities is to make their work life better and also to raise their standard of living. The important benefits of welfare measures can be summarized as follows: They provide better physical and mental health to workers and thus promote a healthy work environment Facilities like housing schemes, medical benefits, and education and recreation facilities for workers families help in raising their standards of living. This makes workers to pay more attention towards work and thus increases their productivity. Employers get stable labor force by providing welfare facilities. Workers take active interest in their jobs and work with a feeling of involvement and participation. Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of organization and promote healthy industrial relations thereby maintaining industrial peace. The social evils prevalent among the labors such as substance abuse, etc are reduced to a greater extent bEmployee Welfare Schemes Organizations provide welfare facilities to their employees to keep their motivation levels high. The employee welfare schemes can be classified into two categories viz. statutory and non-statutory welfare schemes. The statutory schemes are those schemes that are compulsory to provide by an organization as compliance to the laws governing employee health and safety. These include provisions provided in industrial acts like Factories Act 1948, Dock Workers Act (safety, health and welfare) 1986, Mines Act 1962. The nonstatutory schemes differ from organization to organization and from industry to industry

Organizations provide welfare facilities to their employees to keep their motivation levels high. The employee welfare schemes can be classified into two categories viz. statutory and non-statutory welfare schemes. The statutory schemes are those schemes that are compulsory to provide by an organization as compliance to the laws governing employee health and safety. These include provisions provided in industrial acts like Factories Act 1948, Dock Workers Act (safety, health and welfare) 1986, Mines Act 1962. The non statutory schemes differ from organization to organization and from industry to industry.

STATUTORY WELFARE SCHEMES The statutory welfare schemes include the following provisions: 1. Drinking Water: At all the working places safe hygienic drinking water should be provided. 2. Facilities for sitting: In every organization, especially factories, suitable seating arrangements are to be provided. 3. First aid appliances: First aid appliances are to be provided and should be readily assessable so that in case of any minor accident initial medication can be provided to the needed employee. 4. Latrines and Urinals: A sufficient number of latrines and urinals are to be provided in the office and factory premises and are also to be maintained in a neat and clean condition. 5. Canteen facilities: Cafeteria or canteens are to be provided by the employer so as to provide hygienic and nutritious food to the employees. 6. Spittoons: In every work place, such as ware houses, store places, in the dock area and office premises spittoons are to be provided in convenient places and same are to be maintained in a hygienic condition. 7. Lighting: Proper and sufficient lights are to be provided for employees so that they can work safely during the night shifts.

8. Washing places: Adequate washing places such as bathrooms, wash basins with tap and tap on the stand pipe are provided in the port area in the vicinity of the work places. 9. Changing rooms: Adequate changing rooms are to be provided for workers to change their cloth in the factory area and office premises. Adequate lockers are also provided to the workers to keep their clothes and belongings. 10. Rest rooms: Adequate numbers of restrooms are provided to the workers with provisions of water supply, wash basins, toilets, bathrooms, etc.

NON STATUTORY SCHEMES Many non statutory welfare schemes may include the following schemes: 1. Personal Health Care (Regular medical check-ups): Some of the companies provide the facility for extensive health check-up 2. Flexi-time: The main objective of the flextime policy is to provide opportunity to employees to work with flexible working schedules. Flexible work schedules are initiated by employees and approved by management to meet business commitments while supporting employee personal life needs 3. Employee Assistance Programs: Various assistant programs are arranged like external counseling service so that employees or members of their immediate family can get counseling on various matters. 4. Harassment Policy: To protect an employee from harassments of any kind, guidelines are provided for proper action and also for protecting the aggrieved employee. 5. Maternity & Adoption Leave - Employees can avail maternity or adoption leaves. Paternity leave policies have also been introduced by various companies. 6. Medi-claim Insurance Scheme: This insurance scheme provides adequate insurance coverage of employees for expenses related to hospitalization due to illness, disease or injury or pregnancy. 7. Employee Referral Scheme: In several companies employee referral scheme is implemented to encourage employees to refer friends and relatives for employment in the organization.

Welfare includes anything that is done for the comfort and improvement of employees and is provided over and above the wages. Welfare helps in keeping the morale and motivation of the employees high so as to retain the employees for longer duration. The welfare measures need not be in monetary terms only but in any kind/forms. Employee welfare includes monitoring of working conditions, creation of industrial harmony through infrastructure for health,industrial relations and insurance against disease, accident and unemployment for the workers and their families.

Voluntary Welfare Measures:

Voluntary Welfare Measures includes all those activities which employers Undertake for the welfare of their workers on a voluntary basis. A brief account of such welfare measures is given below. i. Housing Facilities: Almost all the Public Sector enterprises have either provided or are in the process of providing Housing Facilities to their employees. For providing accommodation to its employees constructed townships with all modern amenities. Most of the workers have been provided with two rooms a Kitchen, a back veranda and a courtyard with all basic facilities like electricity, sanitation and running water supply. ii. Educational Facilities: Education playa very important role in motivating and enabling the working population for changes necessary for accelerated progress and for their mental and physical development. It is also important that the children of the workers should be provided with educational facilities. Educational Facilities to the children of the workers are fairly widespread in all the public sector enterprises. This includes provision of Primary, Junior and Higher Secondary Schools. iii. Medical Facilities: Employees whether in private or in Public sectors, have been providing medical facilities for their workers and their families, even before the introduction of Employee State Insurance Scheme. These undertakings has provided, by and large, suitably equipped first-aid center, ambulance room and even regular hospitals either inside the factory premises or approved by the company. Besides general medical treatment and health care, separate arrangement for specialist treatment for disease like T.B., Cancer, Leprosy, Mental disease have also been made in any Hospitals. iv. Transport Facilities: Transport facility provided by the employers to its employees/workers residing at long distance is purely a welfare measure/ Transport facility to workers residing at a long distance is essential to relive them from strain and anxiety. Such facilities also provide greater opportunity for relaxation and recreation and help in reducing the rate of absenteeism. v. Recreational Facilities: The importance of recreation in creating a healthy climate for industrial Peace and progress has been emphasized by several study teams, committees and commissions, which have surveyed the working and living conditions of labour in India.

The important benefits of welfare measures can be summarized as follows:

They provide better physical and mental health to workers and thus promote a healthy work environment

Facilities like housing schemes, medical benefits, and education and recreation facilities for workers families help in raising their standards of living. This makes workers to pay more attention towards work and thus increases their productivity.

Employers get stable labor force by providing welfare facilities. Workers take active interest in their jobs and work with a feeling of involvement and participation.

Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of organization and promote healthy industrial relations thereby maintaining industrial peace.

The social evils prevalent among the labors such as substance abuse, etc are reduced to a greater extent by the welfare policies.

wellfare amenities included Latrines and Urinals, Washing and bathing facilities, Canteens and Uniform. Welfare amenities outside the establishment viz., Maternity benefit, Social insurance measures including Gratuity, Pension, Provident Fund, Family Planning, Education facilities.

i. Maternity Benefits: 1961 Maternity benefit is one of the important benefits provided under the employees State Insurance Act, 1948; this act entitles a women employee to claim maternity leave from her employer. If she has actually worked for a period of atleast 160 days in the 12 months immediately preceding the day of her expected delivery. The act also provides for 6 weeks leave with wages in care of medical termination of pregnancy. ii. Payment of Gratuity Act: 1972 Under the act gratuity is payable to an employee on the termination of his employment after he has rendered continuous service for not less than five years. Gratuity is payable at the rate of 15 days wages based on the rate of wages last drawn by the employee for every completed year of service or part thereof in excess of 6 months. The amount of gratuity payable to an employee shall not exceed Rs. 3.5. Lakh.

Types of Employee Welfare Services Safety Services

Prevention of accidents is an objective which requires o explanation. The costs of accidents are enormous in suffering to the injured, in reduction or loss of earnings, in disabilities and incapacities which afflict those involved and in compensation, insurance and legal costs, in lost time, filling in reports and attending to enquiries, and in spoilage of materials, equipment and tools to management. Accidents are the consequence of two basic factors: technical and human. Technical factors include all engineering deficiencies, related to plant, tools material and general work environment. Thus, for example, improper lighting, inadequate ventilation, poor machine guarding and careless housekeeping are some hazards which may cause accidents. Human factors include all unsafe acts on the part of employees. An unsafe act is usually the result of carelessness. Young and new employees, because of their difficulty in adjusting to the work situation and to life in general, also have many more accidents than do old and nature workers. The Phenomenon of Accident Proneness. Some persons believe wrongly in the theory that certain individuals are accident prone, that is , they have some personality trait as opposed to some characteristic of the environment which predisposes them to have more accidents than others in work condition where the risk of hazards is equal to all.

Components of a Safety Service

Among the many components of a safety service the following have proved effective when applied in combination:

Appointment of safety officer

In big organizations, the appointment of a safety officer to head the safety department is a must. In small organizations, the personnel manager may look after the functions of this department. The head of the safety department, who is usually a staff man, is granted power to inspect the plant for unsafe condition, to promote sound safety practices (through posters an d safety campaigns), to make safety rules, and to report violations to the plant manager.

Support by line management

The head of the safety department, whether enjoying a staff or a functional position, by himself, cannot make a plan safe. His appointment lulls line management into assuming that all its safety problems have been solved.

Elimination of hazards

Although complete elimation of all hazards is virtually an impossibility but following steps can be taken to help reduce them:

Job safety analysis

All job procedures and practices should be analysed by an expert to discover hazards. he should then suggest changes in their motion patterns, sequence and the like.

Placement

A poorly placed employee is more apt to incur injury than a properly placed employee. Employees should be placed on jobs only after carefully estimating and considering the job requirements with those which the individual apparently possesses.

Personal protective equipment

Endless variety of personal safety equipment is available nowadays which can be used to prevent inju

Safeguarding machinery

Guards must be securely fixed to all powerdriven machinery.

Materials handling

Though often ignored, the careless handling of heavy and inflammable materials is an important source of several injuries and fire.

Hand tools

Minor injuries often result from improperly using a good tool or using a poorly designed tool. Therefore, close supervision and instruction should be given to the employees on the proper tool to use an the proper use of the tool.

Safety training, education and publicity

Safety training is concerned with developing safety skills, whereas safety education is concerned with increasing contest programmes, safety campaigns, suggestion awards, and various audiovisual aids can be considered as different forms of employee education.

Safety inspection

An inspection by a trained individual or a committee to detect evidence of possible safety hazards (such as poor lighting, slippery floors, unguarded machines, faulty electrical installations, poor work methods and disregard of safety rules) is a very effective device to promote safety.

Health Services

The prevention of accident constitutes only on segment of the function of employee maintenance. Another equally important segment is the employee's general health, both physical and mental. There are two aspects of industrial health services 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Preventive Curative, the former consists of pre-employment and periodic medical examination, removal or reduction of health hazards to the maximum extent possible, Surveillance over certain classes of workers such as women, young persons and persons exposed to special risks.

Counseling Services

An employee very often comes across problems which have emotional content. For example, he may be nearing retirement and feeling insecure or he may be getting promotion and feeling hesitant to shoulder increased responsibility or he may be worried due to some family problem. Employee Welfare in India The chapter on the Directive Principles of State Policy in our Constitution expresses the need for labour welfare thus:

The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life. The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing: That the citizens, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means of livelihood; That the ownership and control of the material resources are so distributed as to subserve the common good.

1. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Factories Act, 1948 The principal Act to provide for various labour welfare measures in India is the Factories Act, 1948. The Act applies to all establishments employing 10 or more workers where power is used and 20 or more workers where power is not used, and where a manufacturing process is being carried on.

Employee Welfare Officer Section 49 of the factories act provides that in every factory wherein 500 or more workers are ordinarily employed the employer shall appoint at least one welfare officer. The welfare officer should possess; (i) a university degree; (ii) degree or diploma in social service or social work or social welfare from a recognized institution; and (iii) adequate knowledge of the language spoken by the majority of the workers in the area where the factory is situated. Supervision Counseling workers Advising management Establishing liaison with workers Working with management and workers to improve productivity. Working with outside public to secure proper enforcement of various acts.

Health of Employees

Cleanliness. Every factory shall be kept clean by daily sweeping or washing the floors and work rooms and by using disinfectant where necessary. Disposal of wastes and effluents. Effective arrangements shall be made for the disposal of wastes and for making them innocuous. Ventilation and temperature. Effective arrangements shall be made for ventilation and temperature so as to provide comfort to the workers and prevent injury to their health. Dust and fume. Effective measures shall be taken to prevent the inhalation and accumulation of dust and fumes or other impurities at the work place. Artificial humidification. The State Government shall make rules prescribing standard of humidification and methods to be adopted for this purpose. Overcrowding. There shall be in every work room of a factory in existence on the date of commencement of this act at least 9.9cubic meters and of a factory built after the commencement of this act at least 4.2 cubic meters of space for every employee. Lighting. The State Government may prescribe standards of sufficient and suitable lighting. Drinking Water. There shall be effective arrangement for wholesome drinking water for workers at convenient points. Latrines and urinals. There shall be sufficient number of latrines and urinals, clean, well-ventilated, conveniently situated and built according to prescribed standards separately for male and female workers. Spittoons. There shall be sufficient number of spittoons placed at convenient places in the factory.

Safety of Employees

Fencing of machinery. All dangerous and moving parts of a machinery shall be securely fenced. Screws, bolts and teeth shall be completely encased to prevent danger. Work on or near machinery in motion. Lubrication or other adjusting operation on a moving machinery shall be done only by a specially trained adult male worker. Employment of young persons on dangerous machines. No young person shall be allowed to work on any dangerous machine (so prescribed by the state government) unless he is sufficiently trained or is working under the supervision of knowledgeable person. Device for cutting off power. Suitable device for cutting of power in emergencies shall be provided. Hoists and lifts. These shall be made of good material and strength, thoroughly examined at least once in every six months and suitably protected to prevent any person or thing from being trapped.

Welfare of Employees Chapter V of the factories Act contains provisions about the welfare of employees. These are as follows:

There shall be separate and adequately screened washing facilities for the use of male and female employees. There shall be suitable places provided for clothing not worn during working hours and for the dying of wet clothing. There shall be suitable arrangement for all workers to sit for taking rest if they are obliged to work in a standing position. There shall be provided the required number of first-aid boxes or cupboard (at the rate of one for every 150 workers) equipped with the prescribed contents readily available during the working hours of the factory.

he State Government may make rules requiring that in any specified factory employing more than 250 employees a canteen shall be provided and maintained by the occupier for the use of the employee. There shall be provided sufficiently lighted and ventilated lunch room if the number of employees ordinarily employed is more than 150.

Restrictions in the Factories Act on the employment of young persons: 1. Prohibition as to employment of children (Section 67)

No child who has not completed his fourteenth year shall be required or allowed to work in any factory. 2. Employment of Children and Adolescent (Section 68)

A child who has completed his fourteenth year or an adolescent shall not be required or allowed to work in any factory unless following conditions are fulfilled: 1. The manager of the factory has obtained a certificate of fitness granted to such young 2. While at work, such child or adolescent carries a token giving reference to such certificate. Certificate of fitness (Section 69) Before a young person is employed in the factory, a certifying surgeon has to certify that such person is fit for that work in the factory.

Welfare Funds In order to provide welfare facilities to the workers employed in mica, iron, ore, manganese ore and chrome ore, limestone and dolomite mines and in the beedi industry, the welfare funds have been established to supplement the efforts of the employers and the State Government under respective enactments. The welfare measures financed out of the funds relate to development of medical facilities, housing, supply of drinking water, support for education of dependents and recreation, etc. Voluntary Benefits Benefits are also given voluntarily to workers by some progressive employers. These include loans for purchasing houses and for educating children, leave travel concession, fair price shops for essential commodities and loans to buy personal conveyance.

Machinery Connected with Employee Welfare Work 1. Chief inspector of Factories

It is the duty of the Chief inspector of factories (who generally works under the administrative control of the labour commissioner in each state) to ensure enforcement of various provisions of Factories Act i8n respect of safety, heath and welfare of workers. 2. Central Labour Institute

The institute was set up in Bombay in 1966 to facilitate the proper implementation of the Factories Act, 1948; to provide a centre of information for inspectors, employers, workers and others concerned with the well being of industrial labour and to stimulate interest in the application of the principles of industrial safety, health and welfare.

3.

National Safety Council

The National Safety Council was wet up on 4th March, 1966 in Bombay at the initiative of the Union Ministry of Labour and Rehabilitation, Government of India, as an autonomous national body with the objective of generating developing and sustaining an movement of safety awareness at the national level. 4. Director General of Mines Safety

The Director General of Mines Safety enforces the Mines Act, 1952. He inspects electrical installation and machinery provided in the mines and determines the thickness of barriers of 2 adjacent mines in order to prevent spread of fire and danger of inundation.

Appraisal of Welfare Services 1. One of the main obstacles in the effective enforcement of the welfare provisions of the Factories Act has been the quantitative and qualitative inadequacy of the inspection staff. 2. at present, a labour welfare officer is not able to enforce laws independently because he has to work under the pressure of management. 3. Women workers do not make use of the crche facilities either because they are dissuaded by the management to bring their children with them or because they have to face transport difficulties. National Commission on Employee Recommendations 1. The statutory provisions on safety are adequate for the time being effective enforcement is the current need. 2. Every fatal accident should thoroughly be enquired into and given wide publicity among workers. 3. Employers should play a more concerted role in safety and accident prevention programme and in arousing safety consciousness. 4. Safety should become a habit with the employers and workers instead of remaining a mere ritual as at present. 5. Unions should take at least as much interest in safety promotion as they take in claims for higher wages.

SOCIAL SECURITY The connotation of the term "Social Security" varies form country to country with different political ideologies. In socialist countries, the avowed goal is complete protection to every citizen form the cradle to the grave. There are some components of Social Security:

Medical care Sickness benefit Unemployment benefit Old-age benefit Employment injury benefit Family benefit Maternity benefit Invalidity benefit and Survivor's benefit

Social Securities may be of two types 1. Social assistance under which the State finances the entire cost of the facilities and benefits provided. 2. Social insurance, under the State organizes the facilities financed by contributions form the workers and employers, with or without a subsidy from the state.

Social Security in India

At present both types of social security schemes are in vogue in our country. Among the social assistance schemes are the most important. The social insurance method, which has gained much wider acceptance than the social assistance method, consists of the following enactments. The workmen's Compensation Act, 1961. The Employee's State Insurance Act, 1948. The employees' State Insurance Act, 1948. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961. Employees' compensation Act, 1923

a. Coverage. This Act covers all workers employed in factories, mines, plantations, transport undertakings, construction works, railways, ships, circus and other hazardous occupations specified in schedule II of the Act. The Act empowers the State Government to extend the coverage of the Act by adding any hazardous occupation to the list of such occupations is schedule II. 1. Administration. The Act is administered by the State Government which appoints Commissioners for this purpose under sec. 20 of the Act. 2. Benefits. Under the Act, compensation is payable by the employer to a workman for all personal injuries caused to him by accident arising out of and in the course of his employment which disable him for more than 3 days.

2.

Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948 1. Other than seasonal factories, run with power and employing 20 or more workers. 2. Administration. The Act is administered by the ESI corporation, an autonomous body consisting of representatives of the Central and State Governments, employers, employees, medical profession and parliament. 3. Benefits. The Act, which provides for a system of compulsory insurance, is a landmark in the history of social security legislation in India. 1. Medical Benefit. An insured person or (where medical benefit bas been extended to his family) a member of his family who requires medical treatment is entitled to receive medical benefit free of charge. 2. Sickness Benefit. An insured person, when he is sick, is also entitled to get sickness benefit at the standard benefit rate corresponding to his average daily wage. 3. An insured woman is entitled to receive maternity benefit (which is twice the sickness benefit rate) for all days on which she does not work for remaining during a period of 12 weeks of which not more than 6 weeks shall precede the expected date of confinement. 4. The Act makes a three-fold classification of injuries in the same way as is done in the workmen's compensation Act. 5. Dependant's Benefit. If an insured person meets with an accident in the course of his employment an dies as a result thereof, his dependants, i.e. his widow, legitimate or adopted sons and legitimate unmarried daughters get this benefit.

The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 Maternity benefit is one of the important benefits provided under the Employees State Insurance Act, 1948. Another important legislation in this respect is the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961. The Act covers only those persons who are not covered by the Employees State Insurance Act. The Act entitles a woman employee to claim maternity leave from her employer if she has actually worked for a period of at least 160 days in the 12 months immediately proceeding the day of her expected delivery. The act further provides for the payment of medical bonus of Rs. 250 to the confined woman worker. The committee on the status of women in India 1974 has, there fore, recommended the following changes in the Act:

1. The administration of the fund should follow the pattern already established by the ESIC. 2. For casual labour a minimum of 3 months of service should be considered as qualification service for this benefit. 3. This will provide greater incentive to women workers to participate in trade union activities.

The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 1. Coverage. The Act applies to every factory, mine, oilfield, plantation, port and railway company and to every shop or establishment in which 10 or more persons are employed, or were employed, on any day of the preceding 12 months. by 2. Administration. The Act is administered by a controlling authority appointed the appropriate Government.

3. Benefits. Under the Act gratuity is payable to an employee on the termination of his employment after he has rendered continuous service for not less than five years. The completion of continuous service of five years is, how ever, not necessary where the termination of the employment is due to death or disablementGratuity is payable at the rate of 15 days' wages based on the rate of wages last drawn by the employee for every complete year of service or part thereof in excess of six months. But the amount of gratuity payable to an employee shall not exceed Rs. 3.5 lakh.

4. Source of Funds. Under the Act gratuity is payable entirely by the Employer. For this purpose is required either (i) to obtain insurance with the Life Insurance Corporation, or (ii) to establish a gratuity fund. Thus it is his liability to pay the premium in the first case to make the contribution in the second case.

Types of Employee Welfare Statutory welfare work - comprising the legal provisions in various pieces of labor legislation.

Voluntary welfare work - includes those activities which are undertaken by employers for their voluntary work. Different ways of Social Security Provision in India 1. Social Insurance- common fund is established with periodical contribution from workers out of which all benefits in terms of cash or kind are paid.The employers & state prove major portion of finances.Benifits shuch as PF, Group Insurance etc are offered. 2. Social Assistance- Benefits are offered to persons of small means by govt out of its general revenues. Eg- Old age pension

Social Security Employee Welfare Medical care - Sickness benefit in cash - Old age pension or retirement benefit - Invalidity pension - Maternity benefit - Accident

benefit - Survivors benefit Art 41 0f Indian constitution says that the state shall within the limits of its economic capacity & develeopment, make effective provision for security , the right to work, to education & to public assistance in cases of unemployment, oldage, sickness & disablement & in other cases of undeserved want

Philosophy of Employee Welfare The philosophy of labour welfare activities is based on the theory that success of industrial development depends upon harmonious

relations and co-operation between labour and management (employer ). The labour has a fund of knowledge and experience at his jobs. If rightly directed and fully used, it would make a good contribution to the prosperity of the organization this can be achieved only through the satisfaction of the labour .

DUTIES OF WELFARE OFFICER 1. Maintain the relationship between workers and management. 2. Collective bargaining between employees and management. 3. Helpful nature. 4. Reduce to the dispute. 5. Medical advisors give information to employees about all facilities. 6. Proper checking to all employee wages facilities. 7. Make the better relationship between worker and management. 8. Motivate to all workers. 9. Arrangement for home and other facilities for employees. 10. Training and motivation to workers. 11. Increasing employee moral.

Employee welfare defines as efforts to make life worth living for workmen. Employee welfare is a comprehensive term including various services, benefits and facilities offered to employees & by the employers. Through such generous fringe benefits the employer makes life worth living for employees. Welfare includes anything that is done for the comfort and improvement of employees and is provided over and above the wages. Welfare helps in keeping the morale and motivation of the employees high so as to retain the employees for longer duration. The welfare measures need not be in monetary terms only but in any kind/forms. Employee welfare includes monitoring of working conditions, creation of industrial harmony through infrastructure for health, industrial relations and insurance against disease, accident and unemployment for the workers and their families. Employee welfare entails all those activities of employer which are directed towards providing the employees with certain facilities and services in addition to wages or salaries. The very logic behind providing welfare schemes is to create efficient, healthy, loyal and satisfied labor force for the organization. The purpose of providing such facilities is to make their work life better and also to raise their standard of living.

These efforts have their origin either in some statute formed by the state or in some local custom or in collective agreement or in the employers own initiative:

To give expression to philanthropic and paternalistic feelings. To win over employees loyalty and increase their morale. To combat trade unionism and socialist ideas. To build up stable labour force, to reduce labour turnover and absenteeism. To develop efficiency and productivity among workers. To save oneself from heavy taxes on surplus profits. To earn goodwill and enhance public image. To reduce the threat of further government intervention. To make recruitment more effective (because these benefits add to job appeal).

Wlfare facilities in CSPGCL KORBA

1.Drinking water 7 water supply center 2.Houses 2509 {types}} 3.Canteen 1 through Indian coffee house 4.Hospital 1 main hospital {include 30 bad } + ambulance room + first aid center in plant. 5.School primary, middle school, secondary school + bal mandir 6.Recration 1} employee welfare center 2} senior club 7.Rest house 1. V.I.P rest house, 2 rashian hostel, 3 camping house, 4 GT house 8.School bus 3 departmental + { private } 9.Gourdan 2 10.Swimming 1 only for officer 11.Play ground 2 {Football, bolly ball } 12.Fire vehicle 2 13Business parisar - 5

Canteen { section 46 } Every factory having more then two hundred and fifty workers must provide a canteen facilities to there employee. Canteen {sec. 46 } Affiliated by Indian coffee house in CSPGCL {EAST} 1.Kitchen room 2.Store room 3.Clean furs and wall 4.Door and window should be fresh air and ventilation 5.Drinking water 6.Wash basin 7.Proper lighting 8.Separate urinal and latrine for man and woman

Main Hospital CSPGCL Korba

Total bed -30 Doctors 06 { 1 MS, 1 MD, 1 Gaynology, 1-Eye Specialist, 2-MBBS} Staff nurse 09 A.N.M 03 Word boy 10 Word girls -04 Radio Gaffer 01 E.C.G. Technicians 01 Lab Technician - Sweeper 06 Ambulance room 01 Compounder - 03

Available facilities Men and women word Worn unit Emergency Room Latrine and Urinal Room OPD Section Pathology Lab X-ray ECG Room Daye therapy Medicine Distribute Tica

AVAILABLE FACILITIES IN SENIOR CLUB

1.Club Building and parisar 2.Room T.T Hall Auditorium Office Kitchen Store Room 3.Available thing/ Article Chair {100} 50 award committee through gift Bench{10} Table{10} Podium 1 set {2+1} { gift by Award committee Speaker {4 fixed} 4.Games Facilities T.T. Table{2} Carom board {4} Chees Board {6} Badminton court {2} 5.News paper and Magazines Daily news paper {2} Weakly news paper and Magazines {8} 6. Intertrainment Facilities

7. Tarad tall 1 only for officer, {Period 15 April to 15 june}

. Impact of Welfare on Productivity The welfare measures aim at integrating the

socio-psychological needs of employees, the unique requirements of a particular technology, the structure and processes of the organization and the existing sociocultural environment. It creates a culture of work commitment in organizations and society which ensure higher productivity and greater job satisfaction to the employees. Due to the welfare measures, the employees feel that the management is interested in taking care of the employees that result in the sincerity, commitment and loyalty of the employees towards the organization. The employees work with full enthusiasm and energetic behavior which results in the increase in production and ultimately the increased profit.

CONCLUSION Employee welfare includes various facilities, services and amenities provided to workers for improving their health, efficiency, economic betterment and social status. Welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and other economic benefits available to workers due to legal provision and collective bargaining employee welfare schemes are flexible and ever- changing. New welfare measures are added to the existing ones from time to time. Welfare measures may be introduced by the employers, government, employees or by any social or charitable agency. The purpose of employee welfare is to bring about the development of the whole personality of the workers to make a better workers.