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saqarTvelo: Zalauflebis simulaciebi

gigi TevzaZe

avtori uZRvnis am wigns: miloS armiCs antonia baiets Jan bodriars iosif brodskis boris vians xorxe kasaveedas xose lusiendes milorad paviCs rojer Jeliaznis riCard rortis rei stivenss vaJa-fSavelas meri Selis martin haidegers

avtori madlobas uxdis: gio axvledians, levan berZeniSvils, merab basilaias, levan
ramiSvils, mamuka faCuaSvils, sergo ratians, kote jandiers, giga kekelias, goCa cqitiSvils, korvin amberels, jins bulbulisTvlis boTlidan.

avtoris winasityvaoba:

dainteresebuli da saqarTveloSi mimdinare procesebSi garkveuli mkiTxveli am wignSi bevr ambavs Tu miniSnebas waawydeba, romlis Sesaxebac SeiZleba sxva azri hqondes, anda, sxvagvari interpretaciis sisworeSi iyos darwmunebuli. me miznad arasodes mqonia saqarTvelos politikuri moZraobebis istorikosi vyofiliyavi. yvela ambavs, romelic mkiTxvels Sexvdeba, upriania win sityva amboben waemZRvaros. am wignSi warmoebuli konkretuli msjelobisaTvis monaTxrobs da saxeldaxelod Seqmnil miTs ufro didi mniSvneloba aqvs, vidre politikosebis konkretul urTierTobebs Tu am urTierTobebis aRmwer da damamtkicebel masalebs. bolos da bolos, qveynis, rogorc sacxovrebeli sivrcis aRqma (Sesabamisad, saxelmwifos politikuri warsuli, awmyo da momavali) miTebidan da legendebidan ufro aRmocendeba, vidre konkretuli adamianebis

konkretuli zraxvebidan da qmedebebidan: sazogadoebis TiToeuli wevris rwmena da ndoba sakuTari xelisuflebis da politikuri sistemis mimarT aris is, rac saboloo jamSi Seuqcevad gavlenas axdens, rogorc qveynis ekonomikaze, aseve, yovel konkretul politikur gadawyvetilebaze da socialur SemTxvevaze.

sarCevi:

Sesavali wigni struqturaSi .............................................................................................................................. 6 simulaciis ganmarteba............................................................................................................................................... 6 I. masmedia da politikuri sistema .................................................................................................................7 I.1. saqarTveloSi masmediis da politikuri sistemis urTierTobis istoria sam punqtad ...................................................................................................................................................................................7 I.@2. cotaodeni Teoria............................................................................................................................................. 8 I.3. Teoria + ramdenime konkretuli magaliTi da isev cotodeni Teoria................... 9 I.4. masmediis mTavari niSani da misi dakmayofilebis procesi saqarTveloSi............11 I.5. simulacia pirveli ............................................................................................................................................ 13 I.6. simulacia meore ................................................................................................................................................. 20 II. saqarTvelos politikuri sistema da samoqalaqo sazogadoeba.................................... 22 II.1. cotaodeni istoria da Teoria ............................................................................................................. 23 II.2. simulacia mesame ............................................................................................................................................... 25 III. molodinebis orbita........................................................................................................................................ 30 III.1. cotaodeni Teoria.......................................................................................................................................... 30 III.2. simulacia meoTxe - oriode magaliTi.......................................................................................... 32 IV. politikuri partiebi da Zalaufleba .............................................................................................. 33 IV.1. umartivesi Teoria, romelic yvelam icis, magram teqstis gagrZelebas sWirdeba ............................................................................................................................................................................... 33 IV.2. simulacia mexuTe opoziciuri politika............................................................................ 34 IV.3. simulacia meeqvse mmarTveli politikuri Zala da vice versa ......................... 35 IV.4. simulaciaTa orbituli cirkulacia ..............................................................................................37 IV.5. simulaciaTa mokrZalebuli xibli ................................................................................................... 38 V. marTlmadidebluri eklesia da politikuri sistema ........................................................... 39 V.1. cotaodeni istoria + Teoria............................................................................................................... 40 V.1.1. erTi moxdenili analogia ...................................................................................................................... 40 (V.1. cotaodeni Teoria + istoria - gagrZeleba) .......................................................................... 41 V.2. simulacia meSvide ........................................................................................................................................... 44 V.3. mcire gadaxveva msoflio da Cven ................................................................................................ 48

VI. saqarTvelos politikuri sistema da mecniereba-ganaTlebis sistema ................... 49 VI.1. cotaodeni istoria ....................................................................................................................................... 51 VII. saqarTvelos politikuri sistema da Zalovani srtuqturebi .................................. 52 VII.1. cotaodeni istoria .................................................................................................................................... 52 VII.2. reliqturis da simulaciuris maradiuli turniri ....................................................... 53 VIII. simulaciuri orbitis mosalodneli safrTxe........................................................................ 55 IX. ra moaqvs mediaciuri meqanizmebis simulaciebs?......................................................................57 X. iZuleba simulaciisaTvis .............................................................................................................................. 59 XI. simulaciur socialur sistemaTa Sedegebi ................................................................................. 60 XII. moCvenebis saSiSroeba.................................................................................................................................... 62 XII.1. SehficeT! (Seqspiri, hamleti, I moqmedeba) ........................................................................ 62 XIII.2. isev Sena xar... bebero Txunelav? (Seqspiri, hamleti, I moqmedeba) ........... 63 XIII. saxelmwifo sazogadoeba (arsebobs Tu ara gamosavali?) ............................................ 65 XIII.1. Sesavali .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 XIII.2. gamosavali ........................................................................................................................................................ 66 XIII.2.1. mcire gadaxveva sazogadoebrivi xelSekruleba dRes ......................................... 68 (XIII.2. gamosavali - gagrZeleba)................................................................................................................... 69 XIV. iZuleba socialuri realobisaTvis ............................................................................................... 69

Sesavali wigni struqturaSi:


istoria igive Teoriaa. rodesac raimes gageba sWirdebaT, adamainebi rogorc wesi, istoriul ganxilvas mimarTaven. sul erTia, es erTi SexedviT abstraqtul fenomens, Tu konkretul pirovnebas exeba. humanitarul da socialur mecnierebebSi es mimarTva gadaiqceva SemTxvevis istoriis gadmocemad, zust mecnierebebSi _ sagnis genezisis kvlevad, yoveldRiur urTierTobebSi _ Woraobad, saxelmwifo sferoSi _ uSiSroebis samsaxuris masalebad, ekonomikur sistemebSi _ konkurenti da/an partniori firmis warsuli warmatebebis da Cavardnebis codnis aucileblobad da a.S. amitom am wignSi yoveli Temis gaSla-aRweras axlavs ama Tu im SemTxvevis istoria, rogorc saqarTveloSi, aseve dasavleTSi. bolos da bolos, istoria da Teoria _ orive - evropuli civilizaciis Sedegia. am wignSi samizne Temis istoriis Txroba bunebrivad gadaizrdeba Teoriis gadmocemaSi, romelic am Tu im meqanizmebs aRwers. wigni dayofilia Tavebad. yovel Tavs, mecxramete saukunis romanebis msgavsad, win uZRvis mokle Sesavali, romelic mkiTxvelisaTvis gzamkvlevis funqcias asrulebs. es, upirveles yovlisa, imisaTvis xdeba, rom konkretulma mkiTxvelma gaiadvilos kiTxva da ar daxarjos dro wignis im nawilebis furcvlaze, romlebic ar ainteresebs da romlebic mxolod Tu gaaRizianeben1. procesis aRmZvrel

. simulaciis ganmarteba:
simulacia, anu simulaciuri procesi, simulirebis saSualebiT miiReba. simulacia iseve moqmedebs, rogorc Tavad is, risi simulirebac xdeba. oRond safuZveli da dasayrdeni, romelic gaaCnia imas, risi simulirebac xdeba, simulacias ara aqvs. simulaciuri procesi mTeli ZalebiT cdilobs daamtkicos, rom simulaciis ukan Sesabamisi

safuZvli da dasayrdeni imaleba. ase rom, simulacia arafers ar faravs, piriqiT, is cdilobs aCvenos imis arseboba, rac ar aris. calkeuli Sedegebis mixedviT SeuZlebelia ganasxvavo simulacia da is, risi

simulirebac xdeba. maT Soris gansxvaveba mxolod procesebis, xdomilebebis da maTi Sedegebis kavSirSi Cans.
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Tuki vinme wigns mainc da mainc recenzirebis (an sxva msgavsi) mizniT mohkidebs xels,

kargi iqneba, Tu wignis kiTxvas XIII Tavis SesavliT daiwyebs. garwmunebT, rom ganzraxuli saqme bevrad gauadvildeba.

I. masmedia da politikuri sistema mkiTxveli gaecnoba masmediisa

da

politikuri

sistemis

urTierTobas

saqarTveloSi da cotaoden Teorias am ori fenomenis sxvadasxva pirobebSi mimarTebebis Sesaxeb. am Tavis wakiTxva yvelasaTvis, vinc am wigns xeli mohkida (wasakiTxad - ra Tqma unda), aucilebelia.
saqmis viTareba, rodesac politikur Zalebsa da sazogadoebas Soris kavSiris da interaqciis lomis wili masmedias ekuTvnis, muSaobs saqarTveloSi, iseve, rogorc yvela arademokratiul, demokratiisaken mimaval da ukve demokratiul qveynebSi.

I.1. saqarTveloSi masmediis da politikuri sistemis urTierTobis istoria sam punqtad maT, visac saqarTveloSi komunisturi reJimis 70 wlis gansakuTrebuli nostalgia aqvT, SeuZliaT saerTod ar waikiTxon es Tavi, da Sesabamisad, mTlianad wignic.
saqarTveloSi masmediisa da politikuri sistemis dRevandeli kavSiri cariel adgilze ar aRmocenebula da mniSvnelovani, Tumca mcirexniani istoria aqvs. es istoria sam etapad SeiZleba warmovadginoT: 1. komunisturi reJimis periodi, rodesac gazeTi da televizia partiis da mTavrobis konkretuli politikuri nabijebis mimaniSnebeli da rupori iyo (saxelmwifo gazeTebis tiraJebi, romelic aseul aTasobiT izomeboda, xolo erTaderTi saxelmwifo

televizia faravda qveynis did nawils). 2. nacionalisturi mmarTvelobis periodi, rodesac televizia kvlav Zvel,

komunisturi xanidan gamoyolil funqcias asrulebda, xolo presis bazarze gamoCndnen opoziciuri gazeTebi, romelTa tiraJebi, marTalia ver utoldeboda komunisturi xanis saxelmwifo gazeTebis tiraJebs, magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom maTi Sesyidva da gamowera nebayoflobiTi iyo, sakmaod seriozul ricxvs aRwevda2. 3. demokratiuli periodi, anu dro nacionalizmze orientirebuli xelisuflebis gagdebidan dRemde, rodesac arasaxelmwifo televiziebis da gazeTebis ricxvi

mag. gazeTi "droni" - 70 000, saqarTvelo 50 000. 7

ganuzomlad izrdeba arCevnebis win da mcirdeba arasaarCevno periodSi, da rodesac Tavisufali gazeTebis (ara yviTeli presis) saerTo tiraJi dReSi Zalian mcirea3.

I.@2. cotaodeni Teoria am TavSi mkiTxveli Sexvdeba

sqemas,

romelic

aRwers

masmediis

adgils Teoriul

Zalauflebis struqturaSi. Tuki vinme Zalian mosawyenad Tvlis

msjelobebs, SeuZlia dakmayofildes imiT, rom masmedia mediaciuri institutia, rac misi saxelidanac Cans, da gadavides Semdeg Tavze, sadac kidev ufro cota Teorias Sexvdeba.
sqema, romelic aRwers politikur Zalauflebasa da masmediis urTierTobas yvela periodisaTvis, iqneba es komunisturi, nacionalisturi, klanuri Tu demokratiuli mmarTveloba da sazogadoeba, erTi da igivea: aRweraSi monawileobs sul xuTi

elementi, romelTaganac ori ZiriTadia da Tanamedrove socialuri samyaros or ZiriTad komponents - politikur Zalas da sazogadoebas warmoadgnen. danarCeni sami ori mTavaris - politikuri Zalis da sazogadoebis - gaSualebiT da interaqciiT aris miRebuli. es elementebia: politikuri Zala; sazogadoeba; politikuri SemTxveva; masmedia; sazogadoebrivi azri. masmedias politikuri SemTxvevebis Sesaxeb informacia miaqvs sazogadoebasTan;

sazogadoeba reagirebs am informaciaze; am reagirebas hqvia sazogadoebrivi azri; sazogadoebrivi azri aris safuZveli da orientiri politikuri ZalebisaTvis;

sazogadoebrivi azris safuZvelze politikuri Zalebi iReben gadawyvetilebas da

eqspertuli SefasebiT, 25 000-dan 35 000-mde meryeobs.

TavianT qmedebas garkveuli mimarTulebiT warmarTaven, anu politikuri SemTxvevebis modelirebas ewevian.
politikuri Zala sazogadoeba

masmedia

politikuri SemTxveva

sazogadoebrivi azri

es

sqema,

romelic

politikuri

SemTxvevis,

sazogadoebrivi

azris,

politikuri

prioritetebis da sabolood mTlianad socialuri sistemis Camoyalibebas aRwers, universaluria nebismieri mmarTvelobisa da politikuri wyobisaTvis. es sqema politikuri Zalis da sazogadoebis urTierTobis procesis aRweras isaxavs miznad: sxvadasxva mizezis gamo ar da/an ver arsebobs uSualo kavSiri politikur Zalasa da sazogadoebas Soris. amis mizezebi tipebis bevria _ sazogadoebis sivrceSi

ganawilebidan

dawyebuli,

komunikaciis

mravalferovnebiT

damTavrebuli.

imisaTvis, rom es kavSiri Seiqmnas, unda warmoiSvas sazogadoebrivi azris instituti da politikuri SemTxvevebis speqtri.

I.3. Teoria + ramdenime konkretuli magaliTi da isev cotodeni Teoria avtoris azriT am TavSi bevri araferia gansamartavi. ramdenime konkretuli magaliTi Cveni axlo da samaxsovro warsulidan cotaTi gaacocxlebs mosawyen msjelobas.
es sqema muSaobda saqarTveloSi, masmediisa da politikuri Zalebis urTierTobis yvela etapze: am sqemas iyenebda komunisturi mmarTveloba, anu: sakuTar gadawyvetilebebs aqveynebda masmediaSi (mag., gazeTi "pravdas" anda komunistis pirvel gverdze, sainformacio gamoSvebis dasawyisSi). es gamoqveyneba-gamocxadeba sazogadoebrivi azris Sesaqmneli direqtiva iyo. sazogadoebrivi azric maleve gamoixateboda partiuli xelmZRvanelobis mier dadgenili reprezentator-pirovnebebis sagazeTo statiebiT da saeTero

gamosvlebiT. Semdeg amas garkveuli politikuri SemTxveva mosdevda da Sedegad im


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sazogadoebas moxerxebuli

da da

sazogadoebriv misaRebi iyo.

viTarebas am

viRebdiT,

romelic

mmarTvelobisTvis mxolod

SemTxvevaSi

masmedia

asrulebda

propagandistis da gzavnilis matareblis funqcias. amave sqemas iyenebda saqarTveloSi nacionalisturi xelisuflebac da demokratiuli Zalebic mTel msoflioSi am sqemaSi '"sxedan". saxelmwifoSi politikuri Zalebis Zlieri dapirispirebisas masmedias sazogadoebis mxridanac misdis impulsi, magram ZiriTad SemTxvevebSi es impulsi opoziciuri partiebis mier aris generirebuli. ase rom, sqemis principi ar icvleba: sqemaSi "politikuri Zala" rCeba Tavis adgilze. ubralod ara-diqtatorul pirobebSi am grafis qveS ramdenime politikuri

mimarTuleba unda vigulisxmoT. sqemidan da misi ganmartebebidan adgili Cans, rom masmedias masmedia gaiaros rogorc politikuri aris da SemTxvevis sfero, rogorc aseve

CamoyalibebaSi romelSic politikuri

centraluri

uWiravs: unda

aucilebeli

garkveulma SemTxveva,

gadawyvetilebam romelic

Camoyalibdes,

Semdeg,

politikur

Zalebze,

sazogadoebriv azrze imoqmedebs, xolo Sedegad politikur da sazogadoebriv suraTs mogvcems. amrigad, masmedias mniSvnelovani Tu adgili uWiravs qveynis SigniT Zalauflebis masmedia

gadanawilebis

procesSi.

aqamde

CamoTvlil

mimarTebebs,

romlebsac

warmoSobs, davumatebT mis gavlenas saarCevno kampaniebis dros, farul reklamas, politikuri Zalebis Ria Tu qaragmul mxardaWeras, advili gasagebi xdeba, ratom eqceva politikuri subieqtebis mxridan masmediis warmomadgenlebTan kontaqts didi yuradReba. es yuradReba gansakuTrebiT SesamCnevi da xelSesaxebia "axali demokratiis" qveynebSi, romelTa ricxvs saqarTveloc miekuTvneba. es yuradReba advili asaxsnelia: axali demokratiis qveynebSi Zalauflebis da gavlenis sferoebis gadanawileba axla mimdinareobs. politikosebsa da masmediis

warmomadgenelTa urTierTobis dawerili Tu dauwereli normebic axla yalibdeba. amitomac, bunebrivi da gasagebia am qveynebis mmarTveli Tu opoziciur Zalebis survili sakuTari gavlenis qveS moiqcion masmedia, da amas Tu ver moaxerxeben, simpatiiT mainc ganawyon TavianT mimarT. aRweril sistemas safuZvlad udevs principi, romelic SeiZleba bevrma ar icis, magram politikuri alRoTi grZnobs: demokratiul anda demokratiulobasTan miaxloebul mmarTvelobaSi masmediis ganwyoba gadamwyvetia sazogadoebrivi azris formirebisaTvis da Sesabamisad yoveli konkretuli politikuri Zalis keTildReobisaTvis.
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am principis SemuSavebis istoriuli Wrili SeiZleba Zalian sakamaTo iyos. magram faqtia, rom dRes politikuri Zala sazogadoebasTan kavSirs amyarebs ZiriTadad da umetes wilad masmediis saSualebiT, iqneba es partiis Seqmna, romelime partiuli aqciis gaxmaureba Tu sxva.

I.4. masmediis mTavari niSani da misi dakmayofilebis procesi saqarTveloSi am Tavs saTauri odnavi froidistuli SeferilobiT avtorma ganzrax daarqva. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT froidis jer kidev (ar damTavrda) totalur popularobas qarTvel inteleqtualebSi, es Tavi maT gansakuTrebuli intersiT unda

waikiTxon, magram froidistuls da fsiqoanalitikurs masSi verafers ipovian. Tumca, vin icis?
yovelive zemoTqmuli exeba politikuri Zalis pozicias da damokidebulebas

masmediasTan. Tavad masmedia, imisaTvis rom politikuri Zalis molodini gaamarTlos, mxolod erT parametrs unda akmayofilebdes; es parametri postulaturi formiT Semdegnairad formulirdeba:

masmediis yovel subieqts unda SeeZlos sakuTari sainformacio saSualebebiT moqalaqeebis maqsimalurad didi raodenobis mocva;
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, Tuki masmediis subieqts ara hyavs sakmarisi auditoria, politikur Zalas (anu politikuri Zalis warmomadgenel politikur figurebs) ar unda ainteresebdes masTan urTierToba. am parametris dakmayofilebas saqarTveloSi mxolod zogierTi telekompania

TuUaxerxebs. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo arxebi metruli diapazonis saSualebiT faraven qveynis teritoriis umetes nawils, jerjerobiT arsebobs erTaderTi damoukidebeli televizia, romelic met-naklebad qveynis mTel teritoriaze Tanamgzavruli kavSiris gamoyenebiT vrceldeba, magram mxolod garkveuli droiT4. danarCeni televiziebi, rogorc wesi, warmoadgenen mxolod dedaqalaqis da misi Tanamgzavri ubnebis Tu dasaxlebebis samauwyeblo-gasarTob obieqtebs. zogierTi maTgani Tbilisis yvela

ubansac ki ver moicavs.

"rusTavi 2"-is sainformacio programa kurieri _ 2100 saaTze. 11

gazeTebis mdgomareoba bevrad ufro savalaloa. politikur-socialuri datvirTvis mqone gazeTebi mxolod TbilisSi gamodis. es faqti advilad asaxsnelia: ZiriTadi politikuri movlenebi TbilisSi an masTan mimarTebaSi xdeba. 1998 wlis seqtemberSi, rodesac e.w. "meore politikuri centris" aWaris liderebma gadawyvites

ideologiuri Seteva daewyoT, maT TbilisSi "axali qarTuli gazeTis" gamoSveba daiwyes da gazeTis redaqciac TbilisSive Camoayalibes. magram, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, TbilisSi gamomavali politikur-socialuri datvirTvis mqone gazeTebis saerTo

tiraJi dReSi ar unda aRematebodes 25-35 aTass. es ki niSnavs, rom gazeTebis mkiTxvelebi saqarTvelos rom mosaxleobis gazeTebis or procents ricxvi Tu Seadgens (imis

gaTvaliswinebiTac,

mkiTxvelebis

ramdenadme

aRemateba

myidvelebis ricxvs). am viTarebas sakuTari teqnologiuri safuZvelic aqvs, rogorc televiziebis, aseve gazeTebis SemTxvevaSic: TbilisSi arsebuli stambebis dabali donis gamo ver xerxdeba gazeTebis operatiuli gavrceleba da TbilisSi gamosuli gazeTi regionSi, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, SuadReze da SuadRis Semdeg Cadis. rac Seexeba televizias, rogorc amboben, yvela metruli arxi dakavebulia, xolo Tanamgzavruli teqnologiiT gavrceleba sakmaod Zviri jdeba da arsebuli televiziebi verc misi safasuris gadaxdas da verc Sesabamisi infrastruqturebis Seqmnas ver axerxeben.

zemoTqmulidan universaluri

Cans, sqemidan

rom

politikuri

Zalisa

da

sazogadoebis

urTierTobis damakavSirebeli

TiTqosda

amovardnilia

sazogadoebasTan

veqtorebi. anu, ver unda xerxdebodes politikuri SemTxvevis Sesaxeb sazogadoebrivi azris Seqmna da Sesabamisi ukukavSiri. magram, miuxedavad amisa, saqarTveloSi gazeTebic agrZeleben gamosvlas da televiziebic axorcielebien mauwyeblobas: politikuri

SemTxvevebi aisaxeba rogorc gazeTebSi, aseve satelevizio sainformacio saSualebebSi; reaqciac politikuri da Zalebis mxridan Sesabamisia; xdeba reagireba Zalebi sagazeTo cdiloben

publikaciebze

sainformacio

siuJetebze,

politikuri

maqsimalurad meti sainformacio saSualeba Semoiyvanon gavlenis sferoSi da a.S. situacia iseTia,

TiTqos

saqarTvelos

masmedias

totaluri

gavlena

hqondes

saqarTvelos mosaxleobaze. aq ukve mivadeqiT simulaciuri procesis pirveli rigis gamoxatulebas, anu

saqarTveloSi arsebuli Zalauflebis mier warmoebul simulacias:

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I.5. simulacia pirveli mkiTxveli xvdeba pirvel

simulacias

da

misi

kargad

gacnobis

Semdeg

pesimisturi ganwyoba eufleba. gansakuTrebiT mas Semdeg, rac am personaJis tyupiscals _ demokratiuli procesis simulacias Seeyreba. avtori irwmuneba, rom am nawilis pesimisturi dasasruli ar gamoxatavs avtoris Sexedulebebs da wignis xasiaTs.
saqarTveloSi sainformacio saSualebebi did gavlenas axdenen politikur Zalebze. amave dros, isini, iseve, rogorc yvela demokratiul qveyanaSi, efeqtur damcav Zaladac gvevlinebian. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom miuxedavad yvelafrisa, iqneba es gavrcelebis areali Tu mcire tiraJi, saqarTvelos masmedia iseve funqcionirebs, rogorc yvela masmedia: axdens gavlenas politikur gadawyvetilebebze, ayalibebs sazogadoebrivi azris fenomens, qmnis politikur SemTxvevebs da a.S. magram im sqemidan, romelic dasawyisSi aRvwereT, saqarTvelos masmediis SemTxvevaSi sazogadoebis grafa amovardnili unda iyos: amas unda miuTiTebdes Cvens mier motanili sainformacio saSualebebis gavrcelebis da qveynis gadafarvis magaliTebi: Tu

politikur-socialuri sagazeTo industria ver moicavs mosaxleobis or procentsac ki, xolo eleqtronuli masmediidan met-naklebad srulyofili gavrcelebis

monopolisti mxolod saxelmwifoa, maSin sazogadoebas Zalian mcire doziT unda miewodebodes informacia politikuri Zalebis moqmedebebis Sesaxeb. yovel SemTxvevaSi, es miwodeba ar unda iyos sakmarisi sazogadoebrivi azris SesamuSaveblad da

politikuri Zalebis da sazogadoebis urTierTobis Camosayalibeblad. SesaZlebelia es yvelaze naklebad exeba televiziebs, radganac maT ase Tu ise mosaxleoba uyurebs, rodesac eleqtroenergia aqvs da is, ase Tu ise, moqmedebs sazogadoebaze. rogorc 1998 wlis sociologiurma gamokvlevebma5 aCvena, regionebis politikuri simpatiebi met-naklebad emTxveva dedaqalaqis raionebis simpatiebs. es faqti albaT
5

sazogadoebrivi azris kvlevis qarTuli institutis (GIPO) mier Catarebuli kvlevebi 13

imiT SeiZleba aixsnas, rom dedaqalaqSi bolo dromde regionebis bevri mosaxle Camodioda. es procesi Zalian aqtiuri iyo komunisturi mmarTvelobis wlebSi, Semdeg cotaTi Senelda, magram bolo wlebSi kvlav gaaqtiurda konfliqtis zonebidan

ltolvilebis xarjze. Tanac, gasaTvaliwinebela isic, rom regionidan centrisken migracia saqarTveloSi ar niSnavs regionis dacarielebas. aq ufro misvla-mosvlas aqvs adgili, vidre mxolod erTi mimarTulebiT moZraobas. amitom TbilisSi

CamomsvlelTagan umetesobas sakuTar fesvebTan kavSirebi ar aqvs dakarguli, aqtiurad mimoiqcevian da, bunebrivia, gavlenas axdenen: centris telemauwyeblobebis gavleniT SeTvisebuli dedaqalaquri ganwyobebis regionebSi Canergvas axorcieleben. bunebrivia, Sexedulebebis mimoqcevis am process piriqiT efeqtic aqvs. Tumca sxva telekompaniebze Seudareblad popularurni pirveli saxelmwifo arxis da "rusTavi 2"-is sainformacio gadacemebi arian. am faqtis asaxsnelad yvelaferi unda gaviTvaliswinoT - rogorc tradicia - pirveli saxelmwifo arxis sainformacio gadacema wlebis ganmavlobaSi erTsa da imave dros gamodis eTerSi da erTi da igive struqtura aqvs, aseve xarisxi - teqnikuri da skandalurobis xarisxiT "rusTavi 2"-s sainformacio gadacemebs pirveli adgili uWiravs. saxelmwifo pirveli arxis popularobas xels uwyobs isic, rom jer erTi, regionebSi sxva araferi aris, Tu ar CavTvliT regionul sakabelo televiziebs, romlebic Zalian moisusteben inteleqtualuri da teqnikuri potencialiT, da meorec, pirveli arxis gadacemebi warmoadgenen

samTavrobo

informacias.

sxva

Tbilisuri

televiziebi

marTalia cota ukeTes, magram mainc TiTqmis iseTive mdgomareobaSi arian sazogadoebaze zemoqmedebis TvalsazrisiT, rogorc Tbilisuri gazeTebi. magram, miuxedavad am aSkara Seusabamobebisa, politikuri Zalebi ise iqcevian, TiTqos masmedia moqmedebs sazogadoebriv azrze da gamoxatavs sazogadoebriv azrs, masmediis warmomadgenlebi iqcevian ise, TiTqos informacia politikuri SemTxvevebis Sesaxeb sazogadoebamde marTlac miaqvT. am TiTqos gamo is universaluri sqema, romelic zemoT aRvwereT, muSaobs da Sesabamis Sedegebsac iZleva: gazeTebSi publikaciebi da cisfer ekranze gamoCena Zalian bevrs niSnavs politikuri ZalebisaTvis: icvleba gadawyvetilebebi, xdeba "wilebze" uaris Tqma, warmoebs politikuri Zalebis Sejaxeba da Serigeba, calkeul politikur gaerTianebebSi dapirispirebebis da talRebis

warmoqmna da a.S. anu, sqema, romelic aRwers da warmoadgens politikuri SemTxvevis

14

formirebas, unaklod muSaobs saqarTveloSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom TiTqos ar unda muSaobdes. es yvelaferi mxolod erT rameze miuTiTebs: saqarTvelos politikur ZalTa, anu Zalauflebis mflobelTa da am flobasTan miaxloebulebs Soris arsebobs garkveuli TamaSis wesi, romelsac iziarebs yvela, vinc ki Zalauflebisaken mimaval gzaze dgas. SesaZlebelia, da albaT es asecaa, rom politikuri Zalebis warmomadgenelTa

umravlesobas arc aqvs gancobierebuli am TamaSis arsi da mniSvneloba. ubralod, asea dadgenili da isinic dinebas morCilad mihyvebian. es TamaSi da moqmedebis es miRebuli paradigma sxva araferia, Tu ara demokratiuli politikuri procesis simulacia. erTi SexedviT, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, am procesSi yvelaferi Tavis adgilzea da yvela elementi saxezea: arseboben politikuri Zalebi, romlebic warmoSoben

politikur SemTxvevebs, arsebobs masmedia, romelic am SemTxvevebis Seqmnis monawilea da romelsac aseve miaqvs informacia sazogadoebasTan, wre arsebobs da sazogadoebrivi viRebT azri,

romelic

masmediaSi

gamoixateba.

ikvreba

demokratiuli

politikuri procesis srul suraTs. magram saqarTveloSi, rogorc viTarebis aRweram gviCvena, arsebobs erTi magram, romelic am demokratiul politikur process simulaciad aqcevs: arsebuli

sainformacio sivrcis da bazris pirobebSi SeuZlebelia sazogadoebis am procesSi CarTuloba; anu, arsebuli samauwyeblo saSualebebis da sagazeTo tiraJebis fonze sazogadoeba ver unda monawileobdes politikur procesSi. da is arc monawileobs. aq Cven isev mivadeqiT simulaciis kidev erT Tvisebas: simulaciuri procesi iseTive produqts gamoimuSavebs, rogorc is, ris simulirebasac is axorcielebs. anu,

simulaciuri da "realuri" procesebis mier gamomuSavebul produqtebSi gansxvaveba ar arsebobs. me ar minda imis Tqma, rom es produqtebi absoluturad identuria:

ubralod, realuri procesi SeiZleba ise warimarTos, rom Sedegad iseTive produqti miviRoT, rogoric simulaciis Sedegad miviReT. es rac Seexeba calke, Sesabamisi garemodan izolirebul Sedegebs. sistemaSi da urTierTkavSirSi simulaciuri procesis gziT miRebulma produqtebma principulad sxva Sedegi unda mogvitanon. Tumca amas Semdgomi analizisas vnaxavT. qarTul sinamdvileSi am konkretul simulaciur procesSi yvela monawile elementia Cabmuli: masmedia Tavs aCvenebs, TiTqos gamoxatavs da warmoqmnis sazogadoebriv azrs, politikuri Zalebi moqmedeben ise, TiTqos is, rac sainformacio saSualebebSi xvdeba,

15

mTlianad sazogadoebis yuradRebis centrSi eqceva da TiTqos eSiniaT masmediis. sazogadoeba, anu sazogadoebis konkretuli warmomadgenlebi, ise iqceva, TiTqos

sazogadoeba arsebobs da TiTqos azric gaaCnia. politikuri SemTxvevis monawileebi moqmedeben ise, TiTqos politikuri SemTxvevis SeqmnaSi masmedia da Sesabamisad

sazogadoebrivi azric monawileobdes. am simulaciaSi yvelas aqvs Tavisi wili, da es monawileoba sul ufro da ufro gulwrfeli xdeba. amis damadasturebelia Tundac is, Tu ra Tanxebs xarjaven

politikuri Zalebi masmediis sxvadasxva saSualebebis gakontrolebaze; aseve isic, Tu ra yuradRebas aqceven konkretul sainformacio gamoSvebebs da raoden adekvaturad reagireben gadacemebze Tu statiebze. bunebrivia, Cndeba kiTxva, Tu ra aris am simulaciuri procesis azri, Tuki

politikuri procesis sqemis mTavari elementi - sazogadoeba amovardnilia da ar monawileobs wris SekvraSi. azri ganuzomlad didia da kvlav iseTive, rogoric arasimulaciur process axasiaTebs: politikuri Zalebis mier urTierTkontroli da urTierTSejibri. romelime politikuri Zalis mxardasaWerad gamoqveynebuli werili mowinaaRmdegisaTvis garkveuli interesebis Zalebis niSnavs, mier. rom esaTuis sainformacio Zalis saSualeba aseTi kontroldeba publikaciebi gamowvevas

TviTon da

politikuri

SigniT

gadajgufebas

partiis

mmarTvelTa

simpatia-antipatiis

emsaxureba. garda amisa, Zlieri politikuri Zalebi saqarTveloSi jer kidev ar arian polarizebulni da es jerjerobiT albaT arc moxdeba. amitom yvelasaTvis momgebiania met-naklebad demokratiuli wesebiT iTamaSos da junglebis kanonebs ar dauTmos gza. am simulaciaSi ara marto saqarTvelo, aramed masTan dakavSirebuli ucxoeTic aris CarTuli. magaliTad, amas winaT, demokrati Jurnalistebi mxolod imitom gadarCnen seriozul dasjas, rom korufciaSi dadanaSaulebulma ucxoelma bizbnesmenebma gaiges, rom maTi saeWvo saqmianobis Sesaxeb statiebi wamyvan gazeTebSi gamoqveynda da wamyvani televiziiT gadaica. paradoqsi is aris, rom, maT romc scodnodaT am gaxmaurebis realuri fasi, reaqcia igive eqnebodaT: imitom, rom simulaciuri garemos saqcielis winaswarmetyveleba Zalian Znelia da SesaZlebelia, am konkretul SemTxvevaSi,

sagazeTo-saeTero publikaciebs an aranairi, anda Zalian realuri reaqcia gamoewvia. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom am ambebs sxvebic [ucxoeTSi] gaigebdnen da iq Zalian realuri procesebi aRiZreboda. Sesabamisad, am simulaciis monawile xdeba yvela is qveyana, romelTanac saqarTvelos strategiuli urTierToba aqvs da romlisTvisac saqarTvelo sasicocxlo interesebis
16

sferos warmoadgens. es monawileoba gamoixateba Tundac nebismieri saelCosa Tu ucxouri dawesebulebis masmediasTan urTierTobis samsaxurebiT. am konkretuli simulaciuri procesebis trialSi yvela aris Cabmuli. saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs erTiani sainformacio sivrce. erTiani sainformacio sivrce gulismobs, erTis mxriv, movlenebis (anu SemTxvevebis) ganviTarebadobas, xolo, meores mxriv ki, am movlenebis Tanadroulobas. TanadroulobaSi me vgulisxmob informaciis gadacemis vadas, romlis ganmavlobaSic gadacemuli da miRebuli gzavnili ar Zveldeba. es principi SeiZleba TviTon sazogadoebis, rogorc erTiani organizmis gansazRvrebas mivuyenoT da vTqvaT, rom sazogadoebis sazRvrebi SeiZleba davadginoT im sivrciT, romelSic mi-momdinare da miRebuli informacia ar aRiqmeba rogorc Zveli. am principiT SeiZleba sazogadoebis tipebic ki gamovyoT: magaliTad, Sua saukuneebis sazogadoeba, rodesac erTi kvira, romelic axali ambis Tu gzavnilis centridan provinciaSi Catanas sWirdeboda, ar aRiqmeboda rogorc dagvianeba. ar aRiqmeboda Tundac imitom, rom gzavnilic da axali ambavic

xdeboda

da

viTardeboda

informaciis gadacemis manZilis da drois gaTvaliswinebiT. dRes es dro bevrad ufro Semcirebulia da saaTebiT da wuTebiT aRiricxeba. saqarTveloSi saqme am mxriv Semdegnairadaa: regionSi movlenebi sakuTari (aseve simulaciuri) gziT viTardeba da informacia, romelic Zalian cota tiraJiT Cadis rva-cxra saaTis dagvianebiT, veRar monawileobs politikur-socialuri SemTxvevebis konstruirebaSi. es rac Seexeba gazeTebs. rac Seexeba televizias, is principSi amovardnilia sainformacio yoveldRiuri saSualebebidan, erTis mxriv, eleqtoenergiis mwiri miwodebis gamo, xolo meores mxriv, centraluri telemauwyeblobebis ZiriTadad TbilisSi mimdinare movlenebze da SemTxvevebze dafiqsirebis gamo. amitom da aqedan gamomdinare, sazogadoeba, romlis aucileblobasac politikuri SemTxvevis sqema moiTxovs, simulirebulia da Canacvlebulia simulaciiT _

sazogadoeba, romelic Tavs aCvenebs, rom is TiTqosda erTiani da informaciulad Sekrulia. politikuri erTaderTi, SemTxvevis rac aerTianebs saqarTveloSi mcxovreb moqalaqeebs, aris

simulaciis

yvelganmyofi

sistema,

romelic

yvelasaTvis

nacnobia da romelic nel-nela arsebobis pirobadac ki iqceva. axla rac Seexeba movlenebis ganviTarebas, romelic sainformacio sivrcis aucilebeli elementia: saqarTvelos sainformacio wyaroebSi ar aris daculi movlenis ganviTarebis principi. anu, romelime movlena, romelic dgindeba sainformacio saSualebiT, aRar povebs gagrZelebas, ar xdeba misi analizi, damuSaveba, Sedegebis Cveneba da a.S.
17

magaliTad,

saqarTvelos

evrosabWoSi

miRebis

procesi

sainformacio

saSualebebSi

faqtiurad orjer dafiqsirda6. saqarTvelos moqalaqisaTvis politikuri (da ara marto politikuri) movlenebi

uecrad Cndebian xolme, jadosnuri kanonebiT amoyofen Tavs sainformacio saSualebaSi da mere kvlav qrebian. SesaZlebelia, esec politikuri SemTxvevebis simulaciurobaze miuTiTebs. amitom, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saqarTveloSi sainformacio sivrce Canacvlebulia

simulaciis sivrciT, romelic kvebavs sakuTar Tavs da sakuTar orbitaSi sul ufro da ufro met komponentebs iTrevs. simulaciis es sivrce yvelgan aris,

yvelafrisgamWoli da faqtiurad maradiulia, radgan simulaciur garemoSi ar arsebobs Zala, romelic simulaciis perpetuum mobiles gaaCerebs. saqarTvelos simulaciuri sivrce TavisTavs TviTonve kvebavs, da rac mTavaria, es sivrce TviTon xdeba sxva movlenebis da SemTxvevebis safuZveli, igi ityuebs-iTrevs politikur, ekonomikur da mini-socialur pirobad iqceva. simulaciuri simulaciaa. sivrce sivrce upirveles yovlisa gveubneba, sagnebis rom is amave dros da sivrcis movlenebsac, maT bazisur konstruqciad da arsebobis aucilebel

ganisazRvreba,

rogorc

(politikis

informaciis

SemTxvevaSi - movlenebis) erTmaneTis gverdiT ganlagebad. sivrcis simulacia niSnavs, rom kanonzomieri kavSiri sivrcis elementebs Soris ar arsebobs da rom sivrce mxolod da mxolod SemTxveviTi dajaxebebis xarjze7 funqcionirebs. amitom simulaciuri sivrcis fonze TviTon centric SemTxveviTi xdeba. aqedan

gamomdinare, savsebiT bunebrivia meore centris warmoqmnis Sesaxeb baTumuri gancxadeba da TbilisSi mesame centris (Tu gzis) Seqmnis mcdelobebi. rodesac sivrce aRqmulia rogorc SemTxveviTi, bunebrivad Cndeba survili es centri sxvagan daafuZno, radganac, savsebiT SesaZlebelia SemTxveviTi dajaxebebi ise warimarTos, rom centris sxvagan arseboba moiTxovos. amitom meore (arsebuli) da mesame (virtualuri) centrebi sxva araferia, Tu ara samarqafo punqtebi, romlebic movlenaTa da xdomilebaTa dajaxebebis
6

1999 wlis 27 ianvars, evrosabWos saparlamento asambleis sxdomis translaciiT da movlenebiT, da 1999 wlis 27 aprils strasburgSi saqarTvelos droSis

Tanamdevi aRmarTviT.
7

saqarTvelos SemTxvevaSi - Tu centris da regionis raime movlena SemTxveviT daemTxveva

erTmaneTs, an, Tu vinme pirovneba, sakuTari gavlenis gamoyenebiT daamTxvevs maT.


18

iseT

gawyobas

elodebian,

romelic es

sxvagan

moiTxovs

politikur

da

socialur garegani

SemTxvevaTa

amosavalis

arsebobas.

SemTxveviTi

gadanacvleba

mxolod

impulsiT SeiZleba iyos gamowveuli: magaliTad, Crdilouri interesebis eskalaciiT, anda dasavluri yuradRebis gaZlierebiT. simulaciur sivrces ar SeiZleba ramdenime centri hqondes. Tumdac imitom, rom es sivrce orbitulia da sakmaod mkacr kanonebs emorCileba. meore da mesame politikuri centrebi miuTiTeben, rom SesaZlebelia ramdenime centris arseboba. am miTiTebas TiTqosda amagrebs da amyarebs sazogadoebis Tanamedrove aRwerebi, romlebic

gveubnebian, rom damTavrda erTcentrulobis dro da SesaZlebelia mravali sivrce da centri gvqondes. magram es aRwerebi amave dros miuTiTeben, rom mravali centri mraval sivrces moiTxovs. simulaciuri sivrce, romelic saqarTveloSi aRiwereba, erTiania da aris is erTaderTi raRac, rac qveyanas qveyanad tovebs. Tanac, unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom Tu sxva sivrceebze da sxva centrebzea laparaki, igulisxmeba, rom es sxvadasxva sivrceebi da centrebi sxvadasxva "statusis" arian, anu ar Sedian erTmaneTTan konfliqtSi. rodesac mizani pirvel, meore da mesame centrebs erTi da igive aqvT, aSkaraa, rom meore da mesame mxolod elodeba, rodis gauqmdeba pirveli, rom misi adgili daikavon. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom meore da mesame centrebi mxolod pirveli centris ZaliT da surviliT arseboben, rogorc politikurad, aseve simulaciuri orbitis

gaTvaliswinebiT: pirvelma centrma "Sinaganad icis", rom SemTxveviTi centria da rom ar akontrolebs movlenaTa dajaxebebs. amitom, arasasurveli politikuri SemTxvevebis gamarTlebisaTvis, saWiroa sxva, virtualuri Tu fizikurad dafiqsirebuli, centrebis arseboba. movlenaTa simulaciuri orbita simulirebs yvelafers: dawyebuli cnobil politikuri da

konfliqtiT,

damTavrebuli

SeiaraRebuli

gamosvlebiT.

mojanyesTan

abragTan8 Jurnalistebis gazafxulis vizitma cxadyo, rom misi da misi Zalian mcirericxovani TanamebrZolebis dapatimreba Zalian advilia. magram moxda erT-erTi SesaZlebeli interpretacia, TiTqos misi tyeSi yofna vinmes sWirdeba: aramc da aramc: es konkretuli mojanye iseTive simulaciuri movlenaa, rogorc saqarTveloSi

mimdinare demokratiuli procesi. misi yofna iseTive saSiSia, rogorc myvirala werili romelime ministris korumpirebulobis Sesaxeb. magram misi dapatimreba realuri,
8

akaki eliavasTan
19

konkretuli qmedebaa, romelsac konkretuli sasamarTlo procesi mohyveba, xolo sasamarTlo procesi iseTi movlenaa, romelic yoveldRe moxvdeba gazeTebSi da

ganviTarebadi SemTxvevis saxes miiRebs. es ukve saxifaTo realobasTan miaxloebas udris, ramac SeiZleba simulaciis awyobil sibrtyeSi saSiSi xvreli gaaCinos.

I.6. simulacia meore avtori Tvlis, rom Tuki mkiTxvelma am nawilamde moRweva SeZlo da wigni ukve ar gadaagdo, SeiZleba is pirdapir SeviyvanoT rigis mixedviT meore simulaciis saufloSi. Tumca, visac wignis male damTavreba swadia, SeuZlia pirdapir gadavides momdevno Tavze, sadac principSi igive ambebia moTxrobili da igive msjelobebia gaSlili, oRond ufro farTod da STambeWdavad. am Tavis wakiTxvam SeiZleba xelisuflebis momxrTa da, aseve, politikuri opoziciis momxreebis wyena gamoiwvios. aseT mkiTxvels ori gza aqvs: an wynarad daxuros wigni (ar daxios), anda daiwyos Semdegi Tavis kiTxva.
am fonze is procesebi, romlebic im baziss moiTxoven, romlis simulirebac

saqarTveloSi xdeba, arseboben, rogorc simulaciurebi da simulaciebi. erT-erTi aseTi warmoebuli simulaciuri aqtivoba aris arCevnebi. is, rom arCevnebis procesi umetesad dakavSirebuli aris imasTan, rasac TamaSs da Tavis moCvenebas eZaxian, Cveulebrivi da sayovelTao movlenaa. amjerad me minda saqarTveloSi TviTon arCevnebis organizaciis procesze SevaCero yuradReba: Zlieri partiebis mier, romlebsac sakmarisi finansebi gaaCniaT (upirveles yovlisa moqalaqeTa kavSiri, Tumca sakrebuloebis arCevnebis periodSi finansuri siZliere edpsac etyoboda, arafers vambob aRorZinebis kavSiris da socialisturi partiis Sesaxeb) seriozul Tanxebs abandeben masmediaSi: saarCevno klipebis, sagazeTo publikaciebis Tu sxva masmediuri aqtivobis warmoebisaTvis. amboben, rom moqalaqeTa kavSirma

sakrebuloebis arCevnebSi milioni dolari daxarja, xolo socialisturma partiam kidev ufro meti. am wignisaTvis ara aqvs mniSvneloba imas, Tu ra Tanxa daixarja. yovel SemTxvevaSi 1998 wlis Semodgomis tele-radio gadacemebidan da sagazeTo publikaciebidan kargad Canda, rom Tanxa Tu gavlena sakmaod iyo gamoyenebuli; gakeTda klipebi, daiwera statiebi, momzadda radio-gamoSvebebi.

20

1998

wels

moqalaqeTa

kavSiris

saarCevno

kampaniis

dawyebamde

Catarebuli

sociologiuri gamokvlevis Sedegebis da arCevnebis Sedegebis SedarebiT irkveva, rom saarCevno kampaniam moqalaqeTa kavSirs 0 raodenobis xmebi Semata. edp-s reitingi TbilisSi katastrofulad iweoda dabla da saarCevno masmediur aqtivobas aranairi gavlena ar mouxdenia. leiboristebis reitingi maRla miiwevda da advili axsnac aqvs: populisturi lozungebi da populisturi qceva, yvelaze ufro axlos iyo

realobasTan gansxvavebiT moqalaqeebis cifruli gaugebrobidan da socialistebis gaurkveveli socializmisagan. moqalaqeebma saarCevno kampaniisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli yvela qmedeba ganaxorcileles: gaaaqtiures masmedia, iares da propaganda gawies regionebSi. magram es aqtivoba Zalian specifikuri iyo: milioni samuSao adgiliT SeSinebulebma sul aiRes xeli

dapirebebze. anu faqtiurad ar CautarebiaT saarCevno kampania. saarCevno kampaniis mimdinareobas etyoboda, rom ZiriTadi dawola masmediaze modioda da Tanxebic iq iyo gadasrolili. es ki mxolod erT rames miuTiTebs: Zalauflebis mqoneTa mier moxda ara arCevnebis, aramed winasaarCevno kampaniis simulacia. anu, simulaciur orbitul brunvaSi arCevnebisaTvis mzadebac CaerTo. bunebrivia, is procenti, romelsac

moqalaqeTa

kavSirisaTvis SevardnaZis

figura uzrunvelyobs, met-naklebad myari

rCeba, da rac ufro da ufro ar Cans is figura, romelsac misi Secvla SeuZlia (aseT figurebze fiqri mxolod moqalaqeTa kavSiris SigniT SeiZleba), da rac ufro da ufro cxadi xdeba populisturi lozungebis matarebeli partiebis da pirovnebebis siduxWire, miT ufro garantirebulia moqalaqeTa kavSirisaTvis saparlamento

umravlesoba. amitom winasaarCevno aqtivobis simulacia xdeba isev da isev imis dasanaxavad, vinc umravlesobaSi mosvlis garantias iZleva. winasaarCevno procesi erT-erTi mediaciuri meqanizmia. es procesi politikur Zalas saSualebas aZlevs Tavisi uSualo warmomadgenlebis meSveobiT daukavSirdes

amomrCevels. am dakavSirebis meTodebi saSualebas iZleva politikuri Zala TviTon daukavSirdes sazogadebis wevrebs da politikuri SemTxvevebis warmoSoba masmediis gareSe areguliros, anda maTi koreqtireba moaxdinos. magram saqarTveloSi, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, ar aris sazogadoeba, da Sesabamisad, ar aris mxardamWeri. arseboben gaWirvebulebi, romlebic elodebian, da gaborotebulebi, romlebic aRar elodebian. saqarTveloSi sazogadoeba simulirebulia, amitom, bunebrivia, Zalauflebis mqonem ar icis, sad wavides da vis elaparakos. amitom mis mier arCeuli politika sworia: ise iqceva, TiTqos elaparakeba da urTierTobaSi Sedis. sinamdvileSi saarCevno Sexvedrebis
21

organizebisas

xdeba

gamgeblebis

Tu

Zalauflebis

sxva

reprezentatorebis

mier

Tavmoyril xalxTan Sexvedra, xolo arCevnebis dros, rogorc amboben, policiis da sxva Zalovanebis aqtiuri Careva saarCevno procesSi. paradoqsia, magram faqtia, rom opoziciuri partiebi mxolod da mxolod imitom iReben xmebs, rom cdiloben realuri problemebis mogvarebas dapirdnen xalxs. magram,

rogorc es ukve moxda adgilobrivi sakrebuloebis arCevnebis dros leiboristulsocialisturi garRvevis SemTxvevaSi, realuri problemebis mogvareba simulaciur garemoSi mxolod simulaciurad SeiZleba (anu, gamoitano gadawyvetileba da ar Seasrulo, daniSno ufaso saswrafo daxmareba da ar amuSao da sxva). amitom

opoziciisaTvis erTaderTi xsna aris, ar moxvdnen parlamentSi im raodenobiT, rom dapirebulis Sesruleba daekisroT. amitom, saqarTvelos winasaarCevno orbitaze Tu SeiZleba SeamCnio realobis imas, rom da es

arasimulaciuris

naperwklebi.

magram,

gaviTvaliswinebT

arasimulaciuri gamarjvebis an gamarjvebasTan miaxloebisas isev da isev tradiciulis, anu, simulaciis gziT midis9, xolo vinc ar midis, ar midis mxolod da mxolod imis gamo, rom ver gaimarjva (an ar gaimarjva), mTeli es sistema, romelsac arCevnebisaTvis mzadeba da winasaarCevno kampania hqvia, warmogvidgeba, rogorc Zalauflebis mier simulirebuli procesi, romelic imdenad Zlieria, rom SeuZlia Tavis TavSi imis elementebis SeTavsebac, ris simulaciasac is ar awarmoebs.

II. saqarTvelos politikuri sistema da samoqalaqo sazogadoeba rodesac avtorma gadaxeda am wignis potenciuri mkiTxvelebis kontingents, aRmoaCina imis SesaZlebloba, rom maTi umetesoba am Tavis wakiTxvisas SeiZleba risxvam Seipyros. Tuki aseTi grZnoba dageuflaT, pirdapir gadadiT III nawilze (molodinebis orbita).
am bolo dros saqarTveloSi arcerTi arCevnebi ar tardeba e.w. sazogadoebrivi damkvirveblebis gareSe. am, erTi SexedviT, ucnauri, magram aprobirebuli, institutis rols saqarTveloSi arsamTavrobo organizaciebi kisruloben.

erovnul-demokratiuli partia, romelic Tavis gamosvlebSi da braldebebSi arasodes ar midis bolomde. 22

samoqalaqo

sazogadoeba elementia,

politikuri rogoric ara

procesis masmedia.

iseTive

struqturuli

da

funqcionaluri gansxvavebiT

oRond, SemTxvevis

samoqalaqo

sazogadoeba, aramed

masmediisagan,

politikuri

konstruirebis,

saxelmwifo marTvis procesis monawilea.

II.1. cotaodeni istoria da Teoria rogorc am wignis SesavalSi iyo naTqvami, am TavSi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis istoria SeumCvevlad gadadis mis Sesaxeb TeoriaSi da piriqiT. aq gamoTqmuli bevri debuleba sakamaToa, magram avtori irwmuneba, rom sxvanairad SeuZlebelia mkiTxvelis mesame simulaciis sferoSi Seyvana.

istoriulad samoqalaqo sazogadoeba arc saqarTveloSi da arc romelime postkomunistur qveyanaSi ar Seqmnila. samoqalaqo sazogadoebis dasawyisi, anu

sazogadoebis organizebuli da institucionizirebuli nawilis warmoSobis fesvebi Sua saukuneebis amqrul, ostatTa da vaWarTa gaerTianebebSi unda veZeboT. magram es mxolod istoriaa da Tanamedrove mdgomareobis gasagebad arafers mogvcems. samoqalaqo sazogadoebis idea kvlav daibada Cveni saukunis Sua wlebis aSS-Si da Camoyalibda, rogorc mediaciuri instituti. saqme is aris, rom marTvis sistema, romelic saxelmwifos sWirdeba, Zalian rTuli da xisti konglomeratia. is sferoebi, romelTa kurirebasac demokratiuli saxelmwifo Cvens saukuneSi Tavis Tavze iRebs, Zalian bevria da faqtiurad socialuri sferos yvela gamovlinebas moicavs. saxelmwifos mier uSualo marTva, anu saxelmwifo

biurokratebis ama Tu im socialur sferoSi Careva, ar iZleva sasurvel Sedegebs. metic: aseTi Careva iwvevs biurokratiuli aparatis usaSvelo zrdas, romlis didi

Semcirebac,

amis

Semdeg,

faqtiurad

SeuZlebelia.

biurokratiuli

aparatis

moculobiT dafiqsirebas aucileblad mosdevs ukmayofileba sazogadoebis mxridan, xolo saxelmwifos mxridan mosalodnelia marTvis sistemis damokratiulidan

totalitarulisaken gadaxra.

23

amitom, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebi, romlebic sxvadasxva mizniT iqmnebian10 Tavis Tavze iReben erTis mxriv saxelmwifos kontrols, xolo meores mxriv ki im saxelmwifo programebis magram ganxorcielebas, romlis romelic aucilebelia demokratiuli marTvis

saxelmwifosaTvis,

uSualo

Sesrulebac

saxelmwifo

demokratiul sistemas ar SeuZlia. iseTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa adamianis uflebebis dacva, ganaTleba, saxelmwifo biurokratiul aparatze kontroli, religia eqceva arasamTavrobo organizaciebis arealSi. es gadacema an saxelmwifosTan dadebuli specialuri xelSekrulebis safuZvelze (prokurmenti11) xorcieldeba, anda ucxouri grantebis sistemiT, romlis sistema, iniciatori, romelic formalurad mainc, rogorc wesi,

saxelmwifoa, rogorc Tanxmobas iZleva.

qveyanaSi ucxouri

fondis moRvaweobaze

Sesabamisad, viRebT iseTive suraTs, rogorc masmediis SemTxvevaSi: imisaTvis, rom saxelmwifom marTos sazogadoeba, is urTierTobs masTan ara pirdapiri direqtivebis gziT (rac SeuZlebelia demokratiul saxelmwifoSi), aramed samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebis saSualebiT. amis Sedegi, erTis mxriv, saxelmwifos demokratiuli

marTvis sruli sistemaa, xolo meores mxriv samoqalaqo sazogadoeba, rogorc organizmi, Sekrulia.
saxelmwifo sazogadoeba

romlis

ZiriTadi

nawili

institucionizirebuli

da

informaciulad

samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebi

saxelmwifo marTvis sistema

samoqalaqo sazogadoeba

10

iqneba es erTi interesis garSemo Seqmnili jgufi Tu sivrcobivi principiT gaerTianebuli xalxi. 11 prokurmenti socialur-politikur sferoSi: specialuri xelSekrulebis dadebis wesi, romlis mixedviTac saxelmwifo Tavisi zogierTi funqciis Sesrulebas (da am funqciis SesrulebisaTvis gamoyofil Tanxas) gadascems arasamTavrobo organizaciebs.
24

marTvis is sistema, rodesac saxelmwifo uSualod urTierTobs sazogadoebasTan, Tanamedrove samyaroSi sxva araferia, Tu ara diqtatura, anda, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, ganuviTarebeli demokratia. garda amisa, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebi, rogorc mediaciis meqanizmi,

finansuradac momgebiania saxelmwifosaTvis: imis magivrad, rom saxelmwifom garkveuli Tanxebi socialur sferoSi usasrulo droiT dasaqmebul biurokratTa Senaxvaze

xarjos, igi biujeturi Tanxebis miznobrivi ganawilebiT aRwevs sasurvel Sedegs, ise, rom, xelSekrulebaSi dafiqsirebuli valdebulebebis garda, arafers ar iRebs Tavis Tavze im xalxis mimarT, romlebic garkveuli periodi misTvis muSaoben. samoqalaqo sazogadoeba saxelmwifosaTvis saWiro gaxda mas Semdeg, rac dadginda, rom miumarTavi TviTregulacia ar mimdinareobs umtkivneulod. es, upirveles yovlisa, am saukunis pirvel naxevarSi demokratiuli sistemebis nacionalisturi sistemebiT

CanacvlebaSi gamoixata. samoqalaqo sazogadoeba saxelmwifos saSualebas, aZlevs erTis mxriv, sakuTari moqalaqeebis interesebi sasurveli gziT mimarTos, xolo meores mxriv, damangreveli ideologiis matareblebi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis CarCoebSi Casvas da ase Tu ise daakmayofilos. garda amisa, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebi damatebiT samuSao adgilebs qmnian, rac bunebrivia, iwvevs marTvis sistemiT ukmayofilo xalxis raodenobis Semcirebas da keTildReobis zrdas.

saqarTvelom gaiara ganuviTarebeli demokratiis qveynis stadia, rodesac politikuri da sazogadoebrivi interesebi ar iyo struqturirebuli da SesaZlebel-misaRebi iyo absoluturad socialuri interesis mqone xalxis12 moxvedra parlamentSi. dRes

saqarTveloSi uamravi arasamTavrobo organizaciaa, romlebic warmatebiT Rebuloben grantebs da arseboben, rogorc samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebi.

II.2. simulacia mesame imdenad, ramdenadac es

Tavi

arasamTavrobo

organizaciebs

da

samoqalaqo

sazogadoebas eZRvneba, avtorma gadawyvita es nawili aso13-ebisaTvis misaRebi formiT daewera da proeqtis aRweris CarCoebSi Caesva.

12

mag., mklavWidelTa asociaciis Tavmjdomaris.


25

arsebuli situaciis aRwera


saqarTveloSi arasamTavrobo institutebis arsebobas ramdenime wlis istoria aqvs, romelic qveyanaSi jorj sorosis fondis daarsebiT daiwyo. mas Semdeg ramdenime sxva fondic daarsda. magram saxelmwifos interesis sferoSi arsamTavrobo organizaciebi, SeiZleba iTqvas, mxolod 1998 wels moxvdnen. es daintereseba ori formiT gamoixata: saparlamento daintereseba, rodesac parlamentis Tavmjdomarem14 arasamTavrobo

organizaciebisadmi miZRvnil dReze prokurmentis sistemis mxardaWera gamoacxada, da saxelmwifo kancelariis daintereseba, rodesac saxelmwifo kancelariasTan arsebuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebis sabWo Seiqmna.

problemis dayeneba
miuxedavad imisa, rom oficialurad registrirebuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebi saqarTveloSi ramdenime aseulia, maTi realuri ricxvi, anu is organizaciebi,

romlebic muSaoben da damatebiT samuSao adgilebs qmnian, 50-s ar unda aRematebodes. is, rom grantebs, rogorc wesi, erTi da igive organizaciebi iReben, is, rom vrceldeba Worebi fondebis aqtiur korufciaSi CarTulobis Sesaxeb da sxva faqtorebi, romlebic yovelTvis axlavs axali moqmedebebis dawyebas, sxva msjelobis sagania. amjerad am teqstisaTvis mniSvnelovania, Tu rogoria politikuri sistemis da arasamTavrobo organizaciebis urTierToba saqarTveloSi.

proeqtis aRwera
saqarTveloSi jerjerobiT Tuki vinme iyenebs arasamTavrobo seqtors da urTierToba aqvs masTan, aris mmarTveli Zala, anu Zalauflebis mqone. opozicia jerjerobiT arasamTavrobo dakavSirebul organizaciebs procesebSi eWvis TvaliT uyurebs. sasamarTlo opoziciam reformasTan usayvedura

parlamentis

Tavmjdomares

arasamTavrobo organizaciebTan urTierToba, da ramdenime xani opoziciur diskursSi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebTan urTierToba korufciaSi CarTulobaze da e.w. mafiasTan urTierTobaze ufro amoralurad gamoiyureboda. magram miuxedavad aseTi mxardaWerisa, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis da Zalauflebis mqoneTa urTierToba vera da ver mivida TanamSromlobamde. jerjerobiT maTi

urTierToba ufro rCevebis da interesebis lobirebis donezea. anu, mimdinareobs ara

13

aso _ arassamTavrobo

organizacia
26

TanamSromloba (prokurmenti da sxva) aramed, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mier qveynis ukeT mosawyobad (maTi azriT) rCevebis gacema da Zalauflebis mqoneTaTvis politikuri da socialuri SemTxvevebis Sesaxeb maTi azris uwyeba. dRes saqarTveloSi arasamTavrobo organizaciebi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis bazisur da institucionirebul nawils ki ar warmoadgenen, aramed emTxvevian mas; dRes

saqarTveloSi samoqalaqo sazogadoeba [e.i. sazogadoeba] da arasamTavrobo aramomgebiani organizaciebi erTi da igivea, _ isini emTxvevian erTmaneTs. Sesabamisad, mediaciis funqcia, romelic aso-m (arasamTavrobo organizaciam) unda Seasrulos politikur Zalebsa da sazogadoebs Soris demokratiuli marTvis sistemis amoqmedebisaTvis, SeuZlebelia ganxorcieldes.

biujeti
ra Tqma unda, ver vityviT, rom saqarTvelos samoqalaqo sazogadoebis organizaciebi uazro an arasaWiro problemebze muSaoben. iqneba es upatrono bavSvebis movla, adamianis uflebebis dacva, samedicino samsaxuris uzrunvelyofa, samezoblos (Temis) problemebis mogvareba Tu sxva politikuri Tu socialuri sakiTxebi, aso-ebi metnaklebi warmatebiT15 arTmeven aseve, Tavs. magram rogorc rigiT, politikurad isini

araangaJirebul

moqalaqeTa,

xelisuflebis zogierTi

nawilis mierac

aRiqmebian ucxouri organizaciebis gagrZelebebad, satelitebad, romlebic ucxouri fuliT saqvelmoqmedo an ZirgamomTxrel saqmianobas16 ewevian. samoqalaqo sazogadoeba ar arsebobs da arc SeiZleba arsebobdes prokurmentis gareSe, rogorc adgilobrivi biujetebis, rogorc aseve centraluri Tanxis winaSe, biujetis doneze. ar sanam iqneba

arasamTavrobo

organizacia

sabiujeto wevris

ganmkargavi, manamde

angariSvaldebuli

sazogadoebis

nebismieri

SeuZlebelia

vilaparakoT qveyanaSi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis, da Sesabamisad, marTvis demokratiuli sistemis arsebobis Sesaxeb. dRes arasamTavrobo momuSave organizaciebi ise iqcevian, TiTqos arsebobs samoqalaqo sazogadoeba,
14 15

da

TiTqos

isini

warmoadgenen

im

mediaciur

meqanizms,

romelmac

zurab Jvaniam. an warumateblad es konkretuli Sefasebis sferoa. rogorc ki moxda erT-erTi aso-sa da Sinagan saqmeTa saministros dajaxeba, im wuTSi gaCnda

16

braldebebi ucxoeTis specsamsaxurebis da saqarTvelos aso-ebis TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb.


27

demokratiuli marTvis sistemis arseboba unda uzrunvelyos. xelisuflebac sixaruliT eTanxmeba am ideas da mimarTavs garkveul zedapirul RonisZiebebs am debulebebis gansamtkiceblad. meore mxriv, marTvis arsebuli sistemis warmomadgenlebi Tavs ikaveben da aSkarad ar undaT prokurmentis sistemis daweseba. Zalauflebas saqarTveloSi aqvs sakuTari samoqalaqo sazogadoeba, romlebsac aso-ebi warmoadgenen, da rac savsebiT sakmarisia simulirebisaTvis. TviTon aso-ebic ukve CaerTvnen simulaciur orbitaSi da aRiareben, rom saqarTveloSi arsebobs samoqalaqo sazogadoeba, radganac maT es sWirdebaT erTis mxriv TavianTi programebisa da

xelSemwyobi kanonebis lobirebisaTvis saqarTveloSi, da meores mxriv, sazRvargareT grantebis momcemebTan da dafinansebis sxva wyaroebTan urTierTobisaTvis.

gadawyevtis gzebi
amaze mets Zalaufleba ar iZleva: samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Seqmna, anu prokurmentis sistemis daweseba da Sesabamisad, biujetis didi nawilis realuri gamWvirvaloba da biurokratiuli aparatis Semcireba katastroful naxvrets gaaCens simulaciur

sistemaSi da SeiZleba es sistema daangrios kidec. arasamTavrobo organizaciebi CarTulni arian simulaciur orbitaSi da, rogorc wesi, imas akeTeben, rasac grantis gamcemi ucxouri fondebi moiTxoven. es survili ki, rogorc wesi, ucxouri analogiebiT aris nakarnaxevi da met-naklebad sustad asaxavs arsebuli marTvis sistemis saWiroebebs. amdenad, saqarTvelos ara arasamTavrobo da da

organizaciebi

mediaciuri

meqanizmis Soris,

funqcias

asruleben

sazogadoebas mTavrobaTa

Zalaufleba-saxelmwifos

aramed

dasavleTis

qveynebis

Zalauflebas da saqarTvelos saxelmwifos Soris, rac srulebiT ar aris cudi, magram ra SuaSia aq samoqalaqo sazogadoeba? amitom saqarTveloSi, gansxvavebiT sxva postsabWoTa qveynebisagan, Zalian advilia arasamTavrobo aramomgebiani organizaciis Seqmna: anu, Zalaufleba maT kart blanSs aZlevs. es gasagebicaa: rac ufro meti iqneba arasamTavrobo organizacia, miT ufro advili iqneba maTi gasaReba samoqalaqo sazogadoebis arsebobis utyuar sabuTad. Sesabamisad, miT ufro Zlieri iqneba Zalauflebis simulaciuri orbita.

28

biznes gegma
amdenad, aq gasagebi xdeba mesame simulaciis buneba: arasamTavrobo organizaciebi saqarTveloSi ver asruleben mediaciur funqciebs sazogadoebasa da marTvis sistemas Soris. Sesabamisad, isini ver qmnian samoqalaqo sazogadoebas da, rogorc saqarTvelos arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, saqarTveloSi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis da demokratiuli marTvis sistemis arsebobas simulireben. demokratiuli marTvis sistemis simulaciis fonze, anu rodesac ar arsebobs

samoqalaqo sazogadoeba, kavSiri saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebas Soris kvlavac an direqtiulia, anda, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi pirdapirdemokratiuli.

mosalodneli Sedegebi
ar SeiZleba imis Tqma, rom saqarTveloSi Zalauflebis mqoneni da ZalauflebaSi monawileni opozicia erTxmad erTxmad uwyoben uaryofs xels samoqalaqo sazogadoebis simulacias, xolo da

samoqalaqo

sazogadoebas.

opoziciur

partiebSic

mmarTveli Zalebis wevrebs Sorisac arseboben aso-ebis momxreebic da mowinaaRmdegeebic. Tumca mmarTvel ZalebSi, anu mmarTveli Zalebis warmomadgenel pirovnebebs Soris, asoebis mowinamRdege ufro bevria, vidre opoziciaSi aso-ebis mxardamWeri. rodesac 1999 wlis dasawyisSi parlamentis sxdomaze gadioda kanonproeqti

samoqalaqo sazogadoebis fondis Sesaxeb, romelic prokurmentis sistemis realuri dasawyisi SeiZleba gamxdariyo, mmarTvel partiaSi Cumi mowinaaRmdege17 ufro meti iyo, vidre opoziciaSi am kanonproeqtis mimarT agresiulad ganwyobilebi. metic, finansTa saministom, axali ministriT, kanonproeqts uaryofiTi daskvna daurTo. arada, is TiTqosda am kanonproeqtis momxre unda yofiliyo: rogorc im sistemis mxardamWeri, romlis amoqmedebac momavalSi saxelmwifo aparatis xarjebs mkveTrad Seamcirebda. garda amisa, rac yvelaze ufro ucnauria, zogierTis mier gamoiTqva eWvi, rom samoqalaqo sazogadoebis fondis daarsebiT axal partias eyreboda safuZveli. am adamianebis SiSi da wuxili savsebiT gasagebia: isini ufrTxian im balansis

darRvevas, romelic dRes arsebobs da romelic uzrunvelyofs simulaciuri obieqtebis wrebrunvas. ase rom, axali partiis da axali wesrigis safrTxe marTlac Zevs samoqalaqo sazogadoebis saxelmwifo fondis dafuZnebaSi, oRond ara pirdapir, aramed

17

Cumi imitom rom iniciativa parlamentis Tavmjdomarisagan modioda da prezidentic principSi Tanaxma iyo.
29

momdinareobs simulaciur sivrceSi realobis instalirebis Sedegidan da, Sesabamisad, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis (e.i. sazogadoebis) realuri Seqmnidan. sxva ambavia, rom TviTon am kanonproeqtis arCevnebis wels gansaxilvelad gamotana ukve SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc simulaciis faqti, radganac, fondis amuSavebis SemTxvevaSi, arCevnebis periodSi fondis Sedegi mxolod saxelmwifo biujetis xarjva Tu iqneboda, rac bunebrivia damatebiT kozirs miscemda mmarTveli partiis

mowinaaRmdegeebs, gamoiwvevda prezidentis ukmayofilebas da a.S. amitom moinaxa martivi da genialuri gamosavali: kanonproeqti miiRes pirveli

mosmeniT, anu miiRes, da Tanac ar miiRes. amiT moxda erTis mxriv samoqalaqo sazogadoebis (udris aso-ebs) nawilobrivi dakmayofileba, meores mxriv ki Sida Tu gare mowinaaRmdegeebis daSoSmineba. anu, dRes Cven saqarTveloSi gvaqvs samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTarebis fondi, da Tanac ar gvaqvs. anu, arsebobs molodini, rom samoqalaqo politikuri Tanamgzavria. sazogadoeba procesebis, odesme iseve, Seiqmneba. rogorc molodini ki simulaciuri procesebis, socialuraucilebeli

Cveulebrivi

III. molodinebis orbita erTi SexedviT, es Tavi politikurs an

ufro aman

fsiqologiur ki SeiZleba

procesebs sababi

aRwers,

vidre

socialurs.

misces

mkiTxvel-

profesionals araprofesionalizmi daswamos avtors. rogorc ar unda gaigos mkiTxvelma es nawili, am Tavis mravalgvari interpretaciiT am wignis mTavar ideas (Tu aqvs) arc araferi moakldeba da arc moemateba.

III.1. cotaodeni Teoria avtori cdilobs sakuTari ganaTlebidan gamomdinare cotaodeni filosofiuri terminebi SemoaZvrinos am wignSi. sulswrafi mkiTxvelisaTvis am Tavis

gamotovebac dasaSvebia.
simulaciur obieqtebs da procesebs Tan axlavs specifikuri molodini. es molodini, rogorc fsiqikuri gancda, albaT, erTaderTi arasimulirebuli ram aris simulaciebis mimoqcevaSi. magram is simulirebas xels ki ar uSlis, aramed, misi Tanamdevi da

30

gverdiTi procesia: is simulaciis gamowveulia, magram ar aris simulacia, radganac myari da arsebuli safuZveli gaaCnia simulaciis saxiT18. molodinis garkveuli, fenomenologiuri aRwera rom movindomoT, miviRebT, rom is aris

arsebuli da mimdinare

procesebidan gamomdinare

logikuri

Sedegebis

ganWvreta-winaTgrZnoba da, amasTanave, fsiqikuri ganwyoba, romelic am Sedegebs egebeba rogorc met-naklebad nacnobs da inteleqtualurad19 sasurvels. simulaciiT gamowveuli molodini yvelafriT waagavs Cveulebriv, fenomenologiur molodins, apriorulad ontologiurad garda iReb, erTisa: rom simulaciuri mimdinare Sedegebs molodinis dros elodebi

sxvas.
Sansi

anu, da aqvT

simulaciuri iseTive, an

procesidan ufro

logikurad

gamomdinare

naklebi

ganxorcieldnen, rogorc maT sapirispiros20. anu, molodini, romelsac aRZravs simulaciuri procesi, aris sxvis molodini.

sxvis molodini aris SemTxvevis interpretacia, romelic simulaciuri garemos da


procesebis gamo, miuxedavad alogikurobisa da arabunebriobisa, mainc ZalaSia, iseve, rogorc Cveulebrivi, `bunebrivi~ interpretacia. amis erTaderTi safuZveli

Zalauflebis mier simulaciiT Seqmnili garemoa. mokled, sxvis molodini aris iseTi mdgomareoba, rodesac frazis, abris, gancxadebis, teqstis, moqmedebis, miTiTebis cxadi, TavisTavadnagulisxmevi Sinaarsi iTvleba mxolod erT-erT SesaZleblobad. sxvis molodini aRZravs sxva safuZvlis da faruli mizezis panikuri siswrafiT Zebnis dasawyiss. es safuZveli da mizezi ki, sxvis molodinis gamo, apriorulad sawinaaRmdego an sxva unda iyos, vidre am aqtivobebis mier aSkarad da gamWvirvaled miTiTebuli Sedegi.

18

am SemTxvevaSi simulacia raRacis myar bazisad gvevlineba, riTac is kidev ufro mtkicdeba da

xelSesaxebi xdeba.
19

ara SefasebiTad, radganac albaT, virtualuri statistikuri gamoTvlebiT arasasurvelis molodins iseTive sixSiriT miviRebT, rogorc sasurvelisas. 20 anda SesaZleblobebis sxva, absoluturad gansxvavebul sibrtyeSi myofs.
31

III.2. simulacia meoTxe - oriode magaliTi SesaZlebelia, romelime mkiTxvelma aseTi aRmoaCinos. avtori

molodini faqtebs,

sakuTar da

TavSi

ver rom

mxolod miesalmeba aseT

imedovnebs,

TandaTan aseTi moqalaqeebi sul ufro da ufro metni iqnebian. sxvis

saqarTvelos

moqalaqeebi

totalurad

molodiniT

arian

Sepyrobilni.

es

gansakuTrebiT politikuri SemTxvevebis aRqmidan Cans. simulaciuri molodini imdenad Zlieria, rom cnobili abragis21 politikuri ajanyebis dros spontanurad da erTsa da imave dros ramdenime opoziciur da gaRizianebul TavSi warmoiqmna idea, rom es ajanyeba prezidentis iniciativiT xdeba da misi provocirebulia, adgilobrivi

sakrebuloebis arCevnebis gadadebis mizniT. igive struqtura hqonda prezidentis mosaklavad mowyobili teraqtebis Sesaxeb moarul Worebs. aseTive molodins vxvdebiT nebismieri kanonproeqtis Tu prezidentis brZanebulebis mimarT, Tuki am teqstebSi aSkarad ar Cans uaryofiTi da korufciuli mxare: da es namdvilad ar aris paranoia. erTis mxriv tradiciis gamo, xolo meores mxriv sakuTari gamocdilebiT, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi, romlebic politikis yofiT analizs ewevian, maTgan zustad imas elian, rasac unda moelode simulaciuri procesisagan: garda aSkarad deklarirebulisa, amave dros, sapirispiros anda sruliad sxvas. anu, aseTi molodini faqtiurad yvelanairi molodinis gauqmebas niSnavs: rodesac elodebi

yvelafers, es niSnavs, rom sinamdvileSi arafers ar elodebi. yvelaze ufro saocari ki is aris, rom am molodinis ganeitraleba SeuZlebelia. rac ar unda uTxra da aCveno sxva-molodinis matarebels, simulaciuri garemo mas, ukve Tavisi mxridan, Seugdebs sxva movlenas, romelic mis molodins gaamarTlebs. rogorc es moxda abraguli ajanyebis SemTxvevaSi: Cawynarda Tu ara am ajanyebis SevardnaZis versia, moewyo uSiSroebis ris yovlad komikuri ukve viziti am tyeSi da gavardnilebTan misi Sedegebis

Jurnalistebis TanxlebiT,

Semdegadac

ajanyebis

uSiSroebiseulma versiam wamoyo Tavi. es molodinebi specifikur orbitas qmnian. maTi mimoqceva ki ukve Tavad iwvevs Sesabamis procesebs. ase, eliavas ajanyebis Sefasebam gamoiwvia is, rom bevri ambobs, uSiSroeba eliavas dajgufebas, rogorc arastabilurobis safrTxobelas, ise iyenebso (Tumca, SesaZlebelia, rom aseTi Sefasebac sxvis molodinis Sedegia), aso-ebi marTlac

21

akaki eliavas.
32

iqmnebian imis gamo, rom granti aiRon da arafrad dagideven Sedegebis miRwevas, opoziciuri partiebi marTlac moelian meore da mesame centridan sargebels, Tundac imitom, rom, maTi azriT, isini pirveli da erTaderTi aqtualuri centris ZaliT arseboben da a.S.

IV. politikuri partiebi da Zalaufleba Tuki mkiTxvelma moaRwia am Tavamde, is ukve mzad aris imis wasakiTxad, rac aq daxvdeba. viTreba sul ufro da ufro iZabeba da uaxlovdeba tragikul finals, romlis molodinic, avtoris da mkiTxvelis sasixarulod, wignis bolos ar marTldeba. IV.1. umartivesi Teoria, romelic yvelam icis, magram teqstis gagrZelebas sWirdeba
demokratiuli marTvis sistemisaTvis opoziciuri partiebi iseTive aucilebelia, rogorc mediaciuri meqanizmebi. oRond opoziciuri partiebi principulad sxva rols TamaSoben; isini monawileoben Zalauflebis gadanawilebis da politikuri SemTxvevebis proeqtTa momzadebis procesSi. Tumca, struqturulad, maTi urTierToba masmediasTan da samoqalaqo sazogadoebasTan iseTivea, rogoric zemoT aRweril sqemebSi: maTi adgili iq aris, sadac Zalaufleba arsebobs (sqemebSi Zalauflebis ujredSi). opoziciuri partiis funqcia aris mmarTvelobaSi Zalauflebis gadanawilebis procesis kontroli da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi mediaciuri meqanizmebis amoqmedeba. bunebrivia, Zlieri opoziciuri partiis survilia Tavad moipovos Zalaufleba. amitom, opozicias Zalauneburad uwevs mWidro TanamSromloba Zalauflebis mqonesTan, rom saTanado viTarebaSi ar warmoiSvas mmarTveli Zalis opoziciiT Canacvlebis problema. aseTi mWidro urTierTobis arena, rogorc wesi, parlamentia. rogorc wesi, opoziciuri partiebi qmnian koaliciebs, urTierTobaSi Sedian

biznesmenebTan, amyareben mWidro kavSirs masmediasTan da sazogadoebriv organizaciebTan da a.S. mTeli es aqtivoba gaiSleba xolme politikuri centris garSemo, romelic yvela saxelmwifoSi dReisdReobiT aris iq, sadac mmarTveloba da parlamenti

fizikurad arseboben. bunebrivia, amave dros, opozciis mxridan politikuri centris dakavebis survilic arsebobs. mTeli saWadrako partia, romelsac qveynis Sida

politika hqvia, erT dafaze mimdinareobs, da partiis endSpili arCevnebia.

33

IV.2. simulacia mexuTe opoziciuri politika avtori dawmunebulia, rom am TavisTvisac igive rekomendaciaa misaRebi da gamosadegi, rac wina monakveTisTvis.
saqarTveloSi funqciebs, sxva mdgomareobaa. imis gamo, opoziciuri rom qveyanaSi partiebi mxolod ver asruleben sakuTar

Tundac

simulaciuri

mediaciuri

meqanizmebi arseboben: amitom opozicias ar SeuZlia arc namdvili sazogadoebrivi azris, da arc simulaciuris generireba; mas ubralod ar aqvs arc Tanxebi, arc SesaZlebloba da arc tradicia iseTive gavlena moaxdinos simulaciur masmediaze da samoqalaqo sazogadoebaze, rogorsac Zalauflebis mqone axdens. amitom meqanizmi, romelic opoziciis da mmarTvelobis konstruqciul kavSirs

uzrunvelyofs, saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs. Sesabamisad, rogorc ukve aRvniSne masmediis Sesaxeb saubrisas, opoziciis erTaderTi Sansi aris samarqafo politikur centrebTan dakavSireba da sxvis molodini. rac xdeba kidec. sul ufro da ufro meti partia Cadis aWaraSi e.w. meore politikur centrTan molaparakebisaTvis. xandaxan es molaparakeba uSedegod mTavrdeba, xandaxan ara. magram faqti faqtad rCeba: opozicia elodeba simulaciebis iseT SemTxveviT gawyobas, rodesac meore centri aqtualuri gaxdeba, realuri ki piriqiT. am gawyobisagan isini mets moelian, vidre arsebulisagan. rac ar unda iyos, aWara mxolod aWaraa, da ver SeZlebs biurokratiuli meqanizmis srul Canacvlebas. ai aq ki gamoCndebian opoziciuri partiebi, romlebmac Tavis droze kargi urTierToba daamyares samarqafo centrTan. es molodini namdvilad ar aris usafuZvlo. opoziciis is nawili, romelsac pirovnulad ar SeuZlia virtualuri centris liderebTan urTierToba, anda ar surs mWidro urTierToba, sxva, mesame centrs ayalibebs da a.S. es procesi srulebiT ar niSnavs, rom opozicia cudia da qveynisaTvis cudi unda. ubralod, Zalauflebis mier simulirebuli politikuri SemTxvevebis orbita iwvevs am procesebs: Zalauflebis mier biZgmicemuli simulaciuri orbita apirobebs mediaciis da Sesabamisad sazogadoebrivi azris (e.i. sazogadoebis) ararsebobas. aseve, simulaciiTaa gamowveuli samoqalaqo sazogadoebis, da Sesabamisad, demokratiuli marTvis sistemis

34

elementebis

ararseboba.

es

ararseboba

ki,

Tavis

mxriv,

opoziciisaTvis

marTvis

sistemis elementebis sakuTari xalxiT Canacvlebis imedis safuZvelia22. dRes opozicia mxolod formis gulisaTvis Tu ekamaTeba mmarTvel partias da prezidents. jer erTi, maT ukve dakarges prezidentis gadmobirebis imedi, meorec, es kamaTi maT mxolod saarCevno kampaniisaTvis sWirdebaT, raTa rogorme SeinarCunon opozicioneroba pirveli centris meoreTi an mesameTi SemTxveviT Canacvlebamde. samarqafo (virtualuri) centric ar ayovnebs da cdilobs politikur realobaSi SemoaRwios. magram, isev da isev simulaciuri meTodebiT: magaliTad, afinansebs

kompozitorTa kavSirs, xsnis sakuTar warmomadgenlobas TbilisSi da a.S. mokled, cdilobs inteligenciis, anu im fenis simpatiis simulirebas, romelic didi xania aRar arsebobs saqarTveloSi, garda im xalxisa, romlebic, rogorc jgufi da masa, mudam darCebian qarizmatuli liderebis mxardamWerebad (ix. Tavi XIII: moCvenebis saSiSroeba).

IV.3. simulacia meeqvse mmarTveli politikuri Zala da vice versa vice versa laTinuri gamoTqmaa da niSnavs piriqiT, sapirispirod. ra Tqma unda, saTauri pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT ar unda gavigoT. avtori cdilobs daanaxos mkiTxvels, rom saqarTvelos politikuri speqtrisaTvis mainc ar aris ucxo politikuri brZolis meTodebi, da rom es brZola, miuxedavad imisa, rom amis saWiroeba TiTqosda ar aris, mainc rogorRac xorcieldeba.
wina monakveTSi aRwerili situacia mainc ver xsnis qveyanaSi arsebul viTarebas. saqme is aris, rom Tu simulacia sruli da gamarTulia, Zalauflebas mainc unda

sWirdebodes realuri dapirispirebebis producireba. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi simulacia sruli ver iqneba da SeiZleba dauaxlovdes damRupvel realobas (mag. diqtaturas). erTaderTi adgili, sadac Zalauflebis mier simulirebul realobaSi Zalauflebis kontrolis da gadanawilebis TamaSia SesaZlebeli, ise da isev Zalauflebaa, anu is sivrce, romelic identificirdeba, rogorc Zalauflebis samyofeli. saqarTveloSi es asec xdeba:

22

marTvis sistemis samoqalaqo elementebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi aseTi Canacvleba

damoukidebelia qveynis politikuri mmarTvelobisagan da mxolod sazogadoebriv kontrols eqvemdebareba.


35

kontroli

da

gadanawileba

mimdinareobs

uSualod

iq

da

imis

garSemo,

sadac

Tavmoyrilia Zalaufleba, anu - qveynis prezidentis qarizmatuli figuris irgvliv. es ki niSnavs, rom mTeli es TamaSi, romelsac erTis mxriv demokratiuli mmarTvelobis normebi, xolo meores mxriv Zalauflebis mier simulirebuli sivrce moiTxovs, mimdinareobs mmarTvel partiaSi, anu moqalaqeTa kavSirSi. marTalia, xandaxan xdeba am TamaSSi sxva partiebis da figurebis CarTvac, rogorc es moxda sakrebuloebis arCevnebis Semdeg, rodesac socialist_leiboristebma erTi SexedviT seriozuli

ganacxadi gaakeTes, magram es mxolod epizoduri movlena iyo da saerTo suraTi ver Secvala. Tavad mmarTvel partiaSi ki, rogorc amboben, situacia iseTia, rom bevr demokratiul politikur sistemas SeSurdeba. iqmnebian da iSlebian koaliciebi, mimdinareobs

masmediaze da samoqalaqo sazogadoebaze gavlenisaTvis brZola, erTmaneTs ejaxebian ekonomikuri da finansuri interesebi, xdeba ama Tu im dajgufebis favoritebis da warmomadgenlebis daniSvna sxvadasxva mmarTvelobiT Tanamdebobaze da a.S. mTeli es brZola mediaciuri meqanizmebis da procesebis sruli gamoyenebiT warmoebs. ase rom, Cven marTlac gvaqvs demokratiuli marTvis sistema calke aRebul partiaSi. nebismier sxva partiaSi aseTi masStabis ganxeTqilebebs partiis daSla unda

mohyoloda. magram am konkretul SemTxvevaSi Zalauflebis da simulaciis uflebis xelSeuxebeli gamnawilebeli prezidentis qarizmatuli figuraa, da yvelam icis, Tu risi dakargva mouwevT partiis datovebis Sedegad (miT umetes, rom amis gamocdileba partiaSi arsebobs). calke aRebul partiaSi mimdinare politikuri brZolis saukeTeso magaliTia

sasamarTlo reformis procesi: e.w. reformatorTa gundma miaRwia yvela mosamarTlis gamocdiT daniSvnas, magram waago brZola uzenaes sasamarTlosTan, romelmac daarwmuna prezidenti garkveuli xalxis yovelgvari gamocdis gareSe daniSvnis aucileblobaSi. anu, sasamarTlo sistemac Caewera simulaciur orbitaSi; civilizebuli msoflios dasanaxad gaifiltrnen korumpirebuli da arakvalificiuri mosamarTleebi, magram

uzenaesi sasamarTlo kvlav erTpirovnuli mmarTvelobis qveS darCa (imisda miuxedavad, rom prezidentis mier daniSnul mosamarTleebs parlamentma unda misces Tanxmoba. rogorc wesi, arsebul situaciaSi moqalaqeTa kavSiris umravlesobis pirobebSi prezidents parlamenti uars ver eubneba). mTeli es brZola, romlis kuluaruli da konstruqciuli ganviTarebac bevr mmarTvel Zala-opoziciis tandems SeSurdeboda, erTi mmarTveli partiis da erTi saparlamento umravlesobis farglebSi xdeboda.
36

IV.4. simulaciaTa orbituli cirkulacia ganaTlebuli mkiTxveli aqac da aqamdec aRmoaCens Semoxvedrili metaforafrazebis da dasavleTSi sakmaod popularuli mimdinareobis teqstebSi

gamoyenebuli gamoTqmebis Tanxvedras. magram avtori irwmuneba, rom is amas arc malavs da rom cnobili terminebi da cnebebi misTvis viTarebebis aRsaweri moxerxebuli instrumentebia.

aq ukve cxadi xdeba raSi sWirdeba mmarTvelobas masmediis da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis simulacia: sakuTari Tavis SigniT saurTierTod. rogorc gamoCnda, realuri

politikuri brZola mmarTvel partiaSi mimdinarobs. Sesabamisad, brZolis civiluri xerxebi moiTxovs civiluri da Tanamedrove meqanizmebis arsebobas. ZiriTadad es unda iyos subieqturi mizezi, romelic Zalauflebas simulirebisa da simulaciebis

Seqmnisaken ubiZgebs. savsebiT sworia mosazreba, romelic am bolo dros saqarTvelos politikiT

dainteresebuli inteleqtualebis wreSi musirebs, rom opoziciuri partia arCevnebSi xmas iRebs ara imitom, rom misi programa da Tundac tipi gansxvavdeba mmarTveli partiisagan, aramed imitom, rom viRaceebi ganawyenebulni arian mmarTvel partiaze da amitom aZleven xmas maT mowinaaRmdegeebs. aq ukve muSaobas iwyebs sxvis molodinis meqanizmi, da swored imis gamo, rom Sefasebamolodini-interpretacia mravalgvaria da arafriT ar SeiZleba iyos erTi (an Tundac ori), ganawyenebulTa da ukmayofiloTa xmebi ifanteba da opoziciur partiaTagan veravin agrovebs xmebis sasurvel(?) raodenobas. Tu opoziciuri partia axerxebs imas, rom mosaxleobas sakuTari Tavi prezidentis alternatiul procents23. rac Seexeba moqalaqeTa kavSiris xmebs, es umetes wilad qarizmatuli lideris xmebia. sxva pirovnebebze da dajgufebebze xmebi imisda mixedviT nawildeba, raoden axlos aRiqmebian isini prezidentTan. dasayrdenad miasaRos, is am SemTxvevaSi iRebs xmebis seriozul

23

1994 wlis arCevnebSi erovnul-demokratiuli partia. 37

Tumca aqac saintereso viTarebasTan gvaqvs saqme: rac ufro axlo aris warmodgenebSi pirovneba prezidentTan, miT ufro nakleb xmas iRebs24. rac ufro damoukideblad aRiqmeba pirovneba prezidentis gundidan, miT ufro met xmas iRebs25. Sesabamisad, rac ufro dauaxlovdebian opoziciuri partiebi sxvadasxva centrebs da rac ufro Seasusteben kavSirs pirvel centrTan, miT ufro naklebi Sansi aqvT momaval arCevnebSi xmebis seriozuli procentis aRebisa (Tumca, meore centrma moaxerxa opoziciuri partiebidan seriozuli blokis Camoyalibeba, romlis Sedegic, maTi

arCevnebSi gamarjvebis an gamarjvebasTan miaxloebis SemTxvevaSi, ara marto socialuri realobis, aramed istoriis TvalsazrisiTac ukan gadadgmuli grandiozuli nabiji iqneba ix. Tavi XII _ moCvenebis saSiSroeba). ra Tqma unda, ver ityvi, rom opozicia gaWirvebulia da saerTod ara aqvs finansebi. bunebrivia xdeba fulis keTeba da partiebis dafinanseba, magram es Zalauflebis Cumi TanxmobiT da e.w. ekonomikur sivrceSi garkveuli pirovnebebis SemoyvaniT xorcieldeba. miT umetes, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom eqspertTa umetesobis SefasebiT saqarTvelos ekonomikuri da finansuri sivrce TiTqmis mTlianad korufciulia.

IV.5. simulaciaTa mokrZalebuli xibli saTauri iseTi aSkara miniSnebis Semcvelia, ganmarteba, rom avtors simulirebis

iqneb

arc

iyos da

saWiro

imis

processa

rutinuloba-

komfortulobisken swrafvas Soris kavSiris danaxva surs. avtors aSkarad umtyuna gemovnebam, ris gamoc gaCnda safrTxe, rom cnebebi `simulacia~ da `simulireba~ mkiTxvelebma aRiqvan, rogorc RirebulebiTi midgomis Sedegi da konkretuli aqtivobebis Sefaseba. Tumca Semdeg (karga Sors) avtori aseT midgomas TviTonve uaryofs.

zemoTqmulidan gasagebi xdeba, Tu ratom arideben Tavs opoziciuri partiebi da virtualuri centrebi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis organizaciebTan TanamSromlobas da maT inspirirebas. samoqalqo sazogadoeba erTia, da misi gadmobireba-gadabireba rTuli da unayofo saqmea. sanam is ar arsebobs da simulaciuri saxiT tivtivebs Cveni politikuri sistemis zedapirze, manam opozicias arc Tanxa eyofa da arc gavlena maTi
24

1998 wels Jvanias reitingi saqarTveloSi 0.5dan 1.5-mde meryeobda 38

alternatiuli samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Sesaqmnelad. amitom, opozicia isev da isev SemTxvevas elodeba, rom ukve Zalauflebis mqonis poziciidan gaagrZelos samoqalaqo sazogadoebis simulireba.

sul sxva saqmea masmedia. finansurad Zlier virtualur centrs ukve hqonda erTi mcdeloba ideologiuri dartyma mieyenebina mowinaamRdegisaTvis iafi da

mravalgverdiani gazeTiT. magram es dartyma imdenad ijda ukve nacnob ideologiur kliSeSi - gazeTi SekveTili statiebiT, didi xelfasebiT, martivi ideologiuri xerxebiT faqtiurad moxda Zalauflebis simulirebulis imitacia. misi mogerieba advili iyo da am SemTxvevam, imis magivrad, rom daesustebina, piriqiT, gaaZliera pirveli centri. amdenad, saqarTveloSi Zalaufleba simulaciebs eweva imisaTvis, rom Tavi SeinarCunos da daimalos, gaibnes simulaciebis fenebSi. pasuxs kiTxvze, ratom xdeba es simulacia, ratom inarCunebs sakuTar Tavs Zalaufleba maincdamainc am da ara sxva saxiT, isev

sxvis

molodinamde

mivyavarT

da

interpretaciebis

usasrulobaSi

CaveflobiT:

mmarTveli Zalis Sinagani demokratiulobis mtkicebidan sxva SemTxvevaSi ucxouri daxmarebis SeuZleblobamde.

V. marTlmadidebluri eklesia da politikuri sistema imas, vinc odnav mainc aris eklesiiT da eklesiurobiT kategoriulad ekrZaleba am monakveTis wakiTxva.

Sepyrobili, Sinaganma

SesaZlebelia,

winaaRmdegobam, romelic mas gauCndeba misTvis miuRebeli azrebis kiTxvisas, xeli SeuSalos wignis Sinaarsis aRqmaSi. Tanac, Tuki vinmes es wigni aqamde waukiTxavs, usamarTloba iqneba, ramdenime miuRebeli frazis gamo moisrolos is da ar miiyvanos saqme bolomde. man pirdapir unda gadaSalos wigni gverdze, da VI Tavidan ganagrZos wignis gacnoba.

25

1998 wels aseTi iyo saakaSvili. 39

V.1. cotaodeni istoria + Teoria eyrdnoba ra im daSvebas, rom eklesiuri xalxi am Tavebs ukve aRar kiTxulobs, avtors Seyavs mkiTxveli eklesiis, rogorc mediaciuri institutis, istoriaSi da ramdenime moulodnel daskvnasac ki akeTebs.
eklesia, rogorc religiis institucionalizebuli forma, istoriulad, mmarTvelobasa da sazogadoebas, anu, mrevls Soris, mediaciis funqcias asrulebda. met-naklebad es funqcia yvela qveynis xelisuflebis da sarwmunoebis mier iyo gaziarebuli.

gansakuTrebiT es exeba iseT religiebs, romlebsac warsulSi saxelmwifo statusi hqondaT. ideologiurad eklesia ormag mediaciur funqcias asrulebda: mmarTvelobas da sazogadoebas Soris, da mmarTvelobas da RmerTs Soris. eklesia qmnida sazogadebriv azrs, iyo erTaderTi rgoli, sadac ikveTeboda saxelwifo da sazogadoeba. anu, politikuri SemTxvevebis da marTvis sistemis funqcionirebaSi eklesia iseTive rols asrulebda, rogorsac masmedia da arasamTavrobo organizaciebi asruleben. Sua saukuneebis bolos universitetebis warmoSobiT da Semdeg maTi eklesiebis

daqvemdebarebidan gamosvliT, amqruli institutebis gaZlierebiT, daiwyo eklesiis, rogorc mediis funqciis Sesusteba. sabeWdi manqanis gamogonebam, mecnierebaze

orientirebuli interesis jgufebis warmoSobam da ganmanaTleblobis periodma, kidev ufro daasusta eklesiis mediaciuri funqcia da sabolood saxelmwifos danamatad aqcia.

V.1.1. erTi moxdenili analogia es swored is moulodneli daskvnaa, romlis Sesaxebac am monakveTis pirvel ganmartebaSi iyo laparaki.
SesaZlebelia paraleli gaivlos masmediur aqtivobasa da Sua saukuneebis kaTolikur eklesias Soris: Tanamedrove masmediis saSualebebSi da mediaciis meqanizmebSi

skandaluri da makomprometirebeli masalebis gamoCena xSir SemTxvevaSi pirovnebis socialur mkvlelobas udris, rasac socialuri institutebi uSualod da pirdapir axorcieleben. inkvizicias, romelic moqalaqeebis saqmeebs ixilavda, arasodes ar
40

gamoutania pirdapiri dasjis ganaCeni. ganaCeni formulirdeboda, rogorc miTiTeba saero xelisuflebisaTvis damnaSavis usisxlod dasjis Sesaxeb, rac braldebulis cocxlad dawvas niSnavda. es erTi momenti dasjis arqeologiidan cxadyofs, Tu struqturulad rogoria

mediaciuri institutis moqmedeba, da rom is ar icvleba saukuneebis manZilze.

(V.1. cotaodeni Teoria + istoria - gagrZeleba)


saxelmwifos danamatad qcevam eklesias daukarga adrindeli Zalaufleba. Zalauflebis TandaTanobiTi kargva upirveles yovlisa dasjis meqanizmebis gauqmebaSi gamoixateboda. es procesi Suasaukuneebidan dRemde SeiZleba aRiweros, rogorc gza inkviziciidan dRevandelobamde, saxelmwifo cenzorobis gavliT. (cenzorobis periodSi eklesia

warmatebiT asrulebda imave funqcias, rac, mogvianebiT, totalitarul saxelmwifoSi redaqtorebs ekisrebodaT). dRes eklesias uari aqvs naTqvami dasjis adrindel

meqanizmze, romelic masmedias gadaeloca. mediaciuri meqanizmebis aseTma ganviTarebam eklesia sabolood miiyvana dRevandel mdgomareobamde, rodesac is, rogorc wesi, damoukidebelia saxelmwifosagan da

asrulebs arasamTavrobo organizaciis funqcias: Rebulobs marTvaSi monawileobas, magram, ara rogorc mTavari institucia, aramed rogorc samoqalaqo sazogadoebis erTerTi instituti. ra Tqma unda, arsebobs mcire gadaxrebi am sqemidan: vatikani, romelic saxelmwifoa, magram realurad is yvelaze ufro damoukidebeli aso-a, romelsac wevrebi mTel msoflioSi hyavs. aseve, xSiria specialuri xelSekrulebebi saxelmwifosa da eklesiebs Soris da saxelmwifos mier garkveuli eklesiebisaTvis gansakuTrebuli uflebebis miniWeba (mag., skolebis da saavadmyofoebis gaxsnis eqskluziuri ufleba). magram es xelSekruleba isev da isev prokurmentis sistemaSi zis da saxelmwifo marTvis sistemis Semadgeneli elementia. zemoT motanili pasaJi mxolod evropul istorias aRwers. marTalia, saqarTveloSi am istoriuli procesis principi igivea, magram eklesiis evropuli istoriuli

ganviTarebis xazidan arsebobs odnavi gadaxrebi, romelTa gaTvaliswinebis gareSec Zneli iqneba kidev erT simulaciur meqanizmSi garkveva. es gadaxrebi da Seusabamobebi mxolod droSi gavrcobis mxriv fiqsirdeba. magaliTad, is, rac evropaSi xdeboda gvian Sua saukuneebSi, saqarTveloSi moxda XX saukunis dasawyisSi. es qronologiuri araTanxvedra dRevandlobisaTvis seriozul Sedegebs iZleva.
41

saqarTveloSi, Sua saukuneebSi da merec, universiteti ar gamohyofia eklesias im martivi mizezis gamo, rom universitetis mxolod Canasaxebi arsebobda gelaTis akademiis saxiT, romelic sxvadasxva obieqturi Tu subieqturi mizezebis gamo ver ganviTarda da eklesiis labirinTebSive gauCinarda. amitom, Sua saukuneebSi,

saqarTveloSi eklesiis, rogorc mediaciuri meqanizmis funqciebi ar Selaxula. metic, eklesia formaluradac erTaderTi da realuradac iyo codnis am gavrcelebis unda da gadacemis iyo

instituti.

sirTule,

romelic

instituts

hqonoda,

dedaqalaqis mosaxleobis nawili, sadac areuli iyo amqruloba, aRmosavluri swavleba da cxovrebis wesi. magram saxelmwifos umetes teritoriaze marTlmadideblur

eklesias hqonda gavrcelebisa da mediatorobis pretenzia. yovel SemTxvevaSi, eklesia politikuri gadawyvetilebebis formirebaSi aSkarad Rebulobda monawileobas. magaliTisaTvis XVII saukuneSi kaTolikobis miRebis politikuri gadawyvetilebis winaaRmdeg mrisxane galaSqrebac gamodgeba. Tumca, albaT, eklesiis centraluri

mmarTvelobis gavlena naklebad vrceldeboda saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze, erTis mxriv am teritoriis sxvadasxva samefoebad dayofis, xolo meores mxriv, mosaxleobis erTi nawilis mahmadianobis gamo. magram yovel konkretul saxelmwifo mmarTvelobaze es gavlena didi iyo, erTis mxriv tradiciis gamo, xolo meores mxriv imitom, rom mmarTveloba ubralod ver xedavda sxva instituts, romelic raimenair mediaciur funqcias Seasrulebda.

aqve SeiZleba aRiniSnos saqarTveloSi Tbilisis gansakuTrebuloba; etyoba amaze gavlena Sua saukuneebma moaxdina, rodesac Tbilisi, marTalia mahmadianebis xelSi imyofeboda, magram mainc qalaq-respublikis tipis organizmi iyo da arasodes ar warmoadgenda regionebis asaxvas, rogorc axla. piriqiT, is

mTlianad cvlida Camosuls da Tavis Targze gadaawyobda xolme. amdenad is kulturis da mentalitetis mixedviT arasodes ar iyo `qarTuli~ qalaqi. amitom bunebrivia, mmarTvelobisaTvis eklesia iyo erTaderTi dasayrdeni marTvis sistemis alternatiuli elementebis Camosayalibeblad da sazogadoebrivi azris Sesaqmnelad. amqrobis is tipi, romelic TbilisSi iyo [da ZiriTadad homoseqsualistur gaerTiaenebebSi gamoixateboda26, romlis bunebac mTlianad marginaluri iyo, da qarTuli istoriuli mecnierebisaTvis dResac aseTad rCeba]
26

rac, albaT, TbilisSi misi qalaq-respublikobis dros arsebuli sufiuri da sxva aRmosavluri kavSirebis paginizirebuli versia iyo.
42

ver

iqneboda

eklesiis

institucionaluri sistema ki,

alternativa. rogorc

universiteti aRvniSneT,

da ar

damoukidebeli arsebobda.

saganmanaTleblo

ukve

amis gamo, saqarTveloSi marTlmadideblur eklesias da saxelmwifos Zalian mWidro urTierToba hqondaT meoce saukunemde. magram meoce saukuneSi qveyanaSi ufro

Tanamedrove mediaciuri meqanizmebis Semosvlam da manamde qarTvelebis mier rusul da evropul universitetebSi dawyebulma ganaTlebis procesma TandaTan saeklesio mrevlis Semcireba gamoiwvia. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom is procesi, romelsac dasavleTis eklesiebma 8-9 saukune moandomes, saqarTvelos eklesiam ramdenime aTeul weliwadSi gaiara. Tanac isic unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom sabWoTa diqtaturis periodSi eklesias sakmao raodenobis

mrevli hyavda (isev da isev damoukidebeli mediaciuri institutebis ar arsebobis gamo); eklesiuroba protestis gamoxatvisa da sazogadoebis wevrebis erTmaneTTan urTierTobis meqanizmi iyo. ase rom, saukunis dasawyisSi dawyebuli procesi ucbad SeCerda da 70 wlis ganmavlobaSi gaiyina. ar unda daviviwyoT isic, rom komunisturi mmarTvelobac aqtiurad (Tumca farulad TiTqmis iseve, rogorc dRes sxvadasxva gazeTs da aso-s iyenebs demokratiuli mmarTveloba dafinansebis meqanizmebis iyenebda. wliani

amoqmedebis SeiZleba

CaTvliT) iTqvas, rom

eklesias qarTuli

mediatoruli

funqciis

Sesasruleblad 70

marTlmadidebluri

eklesiisaTvis

komunisturi mmarTveloba (ra Tqma unda, ara am mmarTvelobis dasawyisi, rodesac xdeboda eklesiebis Zarcva da saeklesio pirebis sikvdiliT dasja, manam, sanam

Camoyalibdeboda sabWoTa marTvis sistema) Sua saukuneebis dabruneba, anu im periodis moqceva iyo, romelSic is yvelaze ufro kargad grZnobda Tavs. ase rom, misi, rogorc totaluri mediaciuri meqanizmis gauqmebis saSiSroebas qarTuli eklesia mxolod 1989-91 wlebis Semdeg unda Sexvedroda. qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiisaTvis axali funqciisa da statusis gamoZebnis sakiTxi sul 8-10 welia rac warmoiSva. mediaciuri meqanizmis gauqmebis mizezi mxolod da mxolod misi saWiroebis gauqmebidan SeiZleba gamomdinareobdes. rodesac xdeba totaluri mediaciis meqanizmis Canacvleba ramdenime mobiluri da danawevrebuli instrumentiT, rodesac mediaciuri instituciis tipi da mediaciis xasiaTi centrulis nacvlad gabneuliT, centraluris nacvlad marginaluriT icvleba, Zveli mediaciuri meqanizmi seriozuli amocanis winaSe dgas: an

43

1) unda moergos axal pirobebs, rodesac ukve SeuZlebelia erTaderTad yofna, gaxdes erT-erTi da axali wesebiT iTamaSos, anu SeinarCunos mediaciis funqcia

totalurobaze da erTaderTobaze uaris TqmiT, 2) an unda Seicvalos funqcia, uari unda Tqvas mediaciad yofnaze. Cvens konkretul SemTxvevaSi eklesia an saerTod unda gamqraliyo, anu TviTgauqmeba gamoecxadebina27, anda saxelmwifo struqturis nawili unda gamxdariyo, anu unda moTavsebuliyo saxelmwifo biurokratiis sistemaSi, rogorc sabiujeto organizacia, rogorc nebismieri saministro (es etapi dasavleTis eklesiam ukve gaiara XVII saukunis Semdeg, rodesac is faqtiurad saxelmwifos ideologiuri mrCevelis da cenzoris funqcias asrulebda). mesame gza am arCevanTa amplitudaSi TiTqos ar arsebobs. magram saqarTveloSi eklesiam da saxelmwifom moaxerxes mesame, erTi SexedviT SeuZlebeli gzis gamonaxva. am ucnauri da SeuZlebeli ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba isev da isev Zalauflebis mier warmoebul simulaciur sistemaSi Zevs.

V.2. simulacia meSvide SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saqarTvelosaTvis Zalauflebis mier

avtors

TviTonac eklesia

ver _

gaurkvevia, warsulis

ra

aris Tu da

marTlmadidebluri simulirebuli dacvisaTvis

reliqti

institucia. is

magram

sistemurobis rom

Tanmimdevrulobis

amtkicebs,

saqarTvelos

marTlmadidebluri eklesia Tavisi dRevandeli saxiT Zalauflebis mier aris gamowveuli arsebobisaTvis, da arc Tu ise cota arguments poulobs amis naTelsayofad.
saqarTveloSi amJamad moqmedi konstituciis mixedviT eklesia gamoyofilia

saxelmwifosagan. saxelmwifos eklesiasTan aranairi ideologiuri da politikuri kavSiri ara aqvs. magram saqarTvelos konstituciaSi aris erTi ucnauri adgili, romelic erTis mxriv gamoyofs eklesias saxelmwifosagan, xolo meores mxriv

aRiarebs mis gansakuTrebul rols saqarTvelos istoriaSi. Tavi rom davaneboT imas, rom marTlmadidebluri eklesiis dadebiTi roli saqarTvelos istoriaSi sakamaToa, konstituciaSi es Canaweri asaxavs da ireklavs saqarTveloSi
27

rac mxolod Teoriuli variantia.


44

marTlmadidebluri

eklesiis

mdgomareobas.

1991

wlis

Semdeg

saqarTvelos

mmarTvelobis damokidebuleba eklesiasTan

ar Secvlila. metic, saxelmwifosa da

eklesiis interaqciis garkveuli momentebi zedapirze amovida da SeiZleba iTqvas, dagvirgvinda prezidentis naTlobiT. bunebrivia, es naTloba politikuri nabiji iyo, romelic xazs usvamda marTlmadidebluri eklesiis rols dRevandel saqarTveloSi. am aqtiT umaRlesma xelisufalma moaxdina manifestacia imisa, rom eklesia asrulebs mediaciis funqcias da misi gavlena saqarTvelos mosaxleobaze imdenad Zlieria, rom xelisuflebis marTlmadidebluri orientaciis afiSireba ganamtkicebs politikuri mmarTvelobis pozicias, sasurvel imijs Seuqmnis mas da aamaRlebs reitings. magram, saqarTveloSi sxva mediaciuri institutebi eklesiasze bevrad ufro metad arian ganviTarebulni (im simulaciis gaTvaliswinebiTac, romelic maT mimarT

mimdinareobs). meore mxriv, Tuki dRes SeiZleba am eklesiis rogorc mediaciuri institutis mediaciaa. is Sesaxeb laparaki, es mxolod RmerTsa da da adamians Soris gaweuli aso-ebis saxiT, romlebic

mediaciuri

institutebi,

masmediisa

saqarTveloSi arsebobs, ganuzomlad ufro met adamians moicaven, vidre eklesia. im xalxis raodenoba, romelzedac eklesias dRes saqarTveloSi realuri politikursocialuri aRematebodes. gavlena maTi aqvs, ricxvis eqspertuli Semcireba, SefasebebiT, ra Tqma erT procentsac saqarTveloSi ar unda

unda,

sxvadasxva

religiuri mimdinareobis gavrcelebiTac aris gamowveuli. isini iqcevian, rogorc Tanamedrove sasuliero institutebi da yvela Tanamedrove xerxs mimarTaven mrevlis gafarToebisaTvis. bunebrivia, saqarTvelos marTlmadidebluri eklesia uimedod agebs maTTan Sejibrs da amis gamo agresia uCndeba. magram Zalauflebis reprezentatorebi biujetidan eklesiis mimarT Zalian zust programas politikuri

axorcieleben:

eklesia

finansdeba,

nebismieri

seriozuli

delegaciis programaSi aucileblad Casmulia partiarqTan viziti. anu, Zalaufleba ise iqceva, TiTqos saqarTveloSi marTlmadideblur eklesias dRes imdenad didi gavlena hqondes, rom SeeZlos mediaciis procesi ganaxorcielos: politikuri SemTxvevebis konstuirebis procesSi da saxelmwifo Suasaukuneobrivi roli Seasrulos. am moqmedebas komikuri gamoxatvebic axlavs; magaliTad, tragikomikuri situacia, romelic Seiqmna parlamentSi, patriarqi miiwvies. qveynis patiarqis evrosabWoSi sityva rodesac saqarTvelos marTlmadidebluri sityvis eklesiis saTqmelad (sxva marTvis sistemis ganxorcielebaSi Tavisi

gawevrianebasTan iyo

dakavSirebiT aekrZalaT

savse

moTxovnebiT,
45

seqtebis

qristianul konfesiebis) muSaoba saqarTveloSi, rom marTlmadidebloba erTaderTi swori gzaa da a.S. anu, Tavisi suliT es sityva ufro evrosabWodan gamosvlis mowodeba iyo, vidre milocva evrosabWoSi Sesvlis gamo. rac yvelaze ufro

sainteresoa, am gamosvlaSi da sityvaSi gamovlinda is, rom patriarqi Tavs marTlac saxelmwifo moxeled aRiqvams da saxelmwifo problemebzec sakuTari azri gaaCnia: saqarTvelos saxelmwifodan gamoyofili eklesiis meTaurma parlamentis Tavmjdomares da parlaments sTxova, wvrili mewarmeebisaTvis gadasaxadebi SeemcirebinaT. eklesiis meTauris sityvis bolo nawili JRerda rogorc parodia romis papis am wels gakeTebuli gancxadebaze, sadac es man Zlier ki da saxelmwifoebs Teoriulad saxelmwifo valebis

restruqturizaciisaken qristianul moralur

mouwoda.

ukanaskneli dayrdnobili

absoluturad mmarTvelobaSi

safuZvelzea

CarevasTan araferi saerTo ara aqvs. Zalauflebas meqanizmi. aSkarad sWirdeba rom marTlmadidebluri Tuki sxva mis eklesia, mier rogorc mediaciuri mediaciis xmis

Tundac

imisaTvis,

simulirebuli anu

instrumentebi

ajanydnen,

hqondes

saSualeba

mediaciis,

xalxis

alternatiul gamoxatvas mimarTos. igive SeiZleba iTqvas masmediis da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebis Sesaxeb: Tu eklesiam sajarod gamoxata ukmayofileba, yovelTvis arseboben aso-ebi, romelTa azric (da es yvelam icis) apriorulad SeuZlebelia daemTxves sapatriarqos azrs. meore mxriv, sapartiarqo, rogorc Tavad sakmaod rTuli marTvis sistema, mTlianad imeorebs mmarTvelobis saxelmwifo struqturas. masac iseTive simulaciuri meqanizmebi aqvs, rogoric saxelmwifos. Tumca, rodesac is TviTon ver umklavdeba sakuTar sivrceSi warmoSobil ukmayofilebas (eresi an uTanxmoeba), maSin ar Takilobs

saxelmwifo struqturebs (mag., policias) sTxovos daxmareba, rogorc es moxda eklesiaSi ukanaskneli ganxeTqilebis dros, rodesac urCi samRvdelo pirebi policiis ZaliT gamoyares maTi samyofelidan, anda, rodesac erT-erTi alternatiuli

qristianuli mimdinareobis warmomadgeneli policiaSi daibares da daemuqrnen. rac Seexeba am meore SemTxvevas: savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom saqarTvelos

marTlmadideblurma eklesiam arc araferi sTxova policiis warmomadgenlebs. magram saxelmwifo sistema da Zalauflebis neba TavisTavad miuTiTebs sakuTar konkretul aRmsrulebels, rom man saqarTvelos marTlmadidebluri eklesiis, rogorc saxelmwifo struqturis, sxvaTagan dacva unda uzrunvelyos.

46

marTlmadidebluri eklesiis simulaciur bunebas yvelaze kargad aRwers amaswinandeli SemTxveva sabaJoze: mebaJeebma ieRovuri literaturiT savse manqana daakaves, romelic yvela wesis dacviT kveTda saxelmwifos sazRvars, da elodebodnen partiarqis

Tanxmobas am literaturis gasanadgureblad. saxelmwifo moxelis qceva mxolod erT rameze miuTiTebs: man icis, rom marTlmadidebluri eklesia saxelmwifo struqturaa da, bunebrivia, misgan moelis direqtivas, ra uyos (rogorc amboben) konkretuli saxelmwifo struqturis winaaRmdeg mimarTul teqstebs. TanamSromeli Tu sruqtura morwmuneobiT rom es konkretuli Sepyrobili, sabaJos is iqve

yofiliyo

gaanadgurebda im literaturas da ar daelodeboda sapartiarqodan instuqcias. es SemTxveva miuTiTebs, rom marTlmadidebluri eklesiac iseTive rols asrulebs saxelmwifoSi, rasac sxva mediaciuri institutebi, erTi gamonaklisiT: eklesiis

dafinanseba ar iTvleba mosyidvad da garkveuli pirovnebebisaTvis eklesiis aSeneba xelisuflebisagan Tavis dasacavi indulgenciis yidvas niSnavs. bunebrivia, dRes eklesia ibrZvis sakuTari simulaciuri bunebis ganmtkicebisaTvis: amis misaniSneblad isic sakmarisia, rom aqamde eklesiis iuridiuli statusi ar aris gansazRvruli. anu is aris ubralod eklesia. eklesia moiTxovs gansakuTrebul uflebebs da specialur xelSekrulebas saxelmwifosTan, romlis mixedviTac

saxelmwifom Tavis Tavze unda aiRos eklesiis didi nawilis Senaxva. cxadia, aseTi moTxovna logikuria im funqciebidan gamomdinare, rac saxelmwifom da Zalauflebam eklesias daakisres. Zalauflebac siamovnebiT simulirebs marTlmadideblur eklesias, rogorc centralur mediaciur meqanizms. es mas mediaciuri balansisaTvis sWirdeba. ra Tqma unda, Cndeba kiTxva, Tu rogor aris SesaZlebeli erTsa da imave dros erTi centralur-mTavari da bevri sxvadasxva mediaciuri principebis arseboba? anu, rogor aris SesaZlebeli Sua saukuneebisaTvis da XX saukunis miwurulisTvis damaxasiaTebeli principebis erTad muSaoba? arasimulaciur garemoSi es SeuZlebelia. magram simulaciuri orbita saSualebas iZleva yovel calkeul SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxvanairi sivrce ESemovitanoT da iseTi sivrceSi myofad movaCvenoT Tavi, iseTi garemos simulireba movaxdinoT, romelic mocemul momentSi gvWirdeba. miT umetes, rom aranairi saerTo sivrce da, SesaZloa iTqvas, aranairi sivrce, romelic SeiZleba gansazRruli da garkveuli politikursocialuri SemTxvevebis safuZveli gaxdes, saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs. ase rom,

winaaRmdegoba yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi mxolod Teoriuli SeiZleba iyos.


47

V.3. mcire gadaxveva msoflio da Cven avtori aRiarebs, rom simulaciis warmoeba misTvisac ar aris ucxo da gazeT dronSi 1999 wels gamoqveynebuli rei stivensis statia `arsebobs Tu ara

mesame msoflio omis damTavrebis Sansi?~ misi Semoqmedebaa. amitom, is, vinc im statiasa da am monakveTs Soris kavSirs dainaxavs, nu Seecdeba avtoris

plagiatobaSi dadanaSaulebas. Tumca, Tu avtoris mier aRwerili masmediis simulaciuri mdgomareoba simarTles odnav mainc Seesabameba, aseTi mkiTxvelis gamoCenis Sansi TiTqmis nuls utoldeba.

situacia, rodesac sxvadasxva saukunis principebi erTsa da imave dros arseboben, dasavluri civilizaciisaTvis ucxo ar aris: adamianTa uflebebis sayovelTao da ganuxrelma formalurma dacvam, romelic ideologiebis da principebis sayovelTao uflebebis dacvaSi gadaizarda, uzrunvelyo is mdgomareoba, rodesac SesaZlebelia aqtualuri da gaaqtiurebuli saxiT Sexvde yvela mimdinareobas Tu swavlebas,

romlebsac ki uarsebiaT msoflio istoriis manZilze, oRond erTi pirobiT: es mimarTulebebi, swavlebebi da maTze damyarebuli sociumebi ar unda arRvevdnen

saxelmwifo struqturebs da ar unda uqmnidnen safrTxes saxelmwifoebriobas (Tumca aseTi instututebic axerxeben arsebobas). es viTareba TandaTan umarTavi gaxda, da seriozuli msxverplic moitana. principma, rom ara marto adamians, aramed eTnossac da saxelmwifosac aqvs ufleba sakuTari arsebobis wesi airCios, TandaTan safrTxe Seuqmna msoflio Zalebis arsebul balans da TandaTan farul msoflio omSi gadaizarda. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mesame msoflio omi, romelic vietnamiT daiwyo, rodesac konkretulma saxelmwifom brZoliT moipova ufleba yofliyo totalitaruli, dRemde grZeldeba. iugoslaviis movlenebi iZleva Sanss, rom damTavrdes mesame msoflio omi da axal msoflio wesrigs Caeyaros safuZveli. anu, es aris omi ganurCeveli da Rirebulebebis gareSe darCenili msoflios winaaRmdeg: im viTarebis winaaRmdeg,

rodesac iZulebuli xar da rodesac SesaZlebelia moiTmino da yuradReba ar miaqcio sakoncentracio banaks Suagul evropaSi da a.S. magram im viTarebasac, rom dRes yvela ideis, azris, sociumis da mimarTulebis povna SegviZlia, saqarTveloSi Zalaufleba simulirebs da es cxadia marTlmadidebluri

48

eklesiis magaliTze: am institutis, rogorc saxelmwifo struqturis, simulaciiT miiRweva saWiro efeqti, anu yvelafris arsebobis uflebis da wayruebis sistema, romlis winaaRmdeg ase brZolac, rom, iugoslaviis dabombvis saxiT, msoflioSi principi, ukve

mimdinareobs.

sazogadoebis

saerTo

mdgomareobis

romelic

simulirdeba saqarTveloSi, SesaZlebelia gauqmdes iq, sadac arsebobs is realoba, risi simulirebac xdeba.

VI. saqarTvelos politikuri sistema da mecniereba-ganaTlebis sistema am Tavidan Cans, rom avtors Zalian undoda simulaciebis wyebaSi mecnierebaganaTlebis sistemis Seyvanac, magram arafriT gamouvida. avtori iZulebulia axali personaJi Semoiyvanos TxrobaSi, romelsac reliqturs uwodebs.
rodesac mimdinare socialuri procesebSi meqanizmebis simulaciis Sesaxebaa laparaki, saqarTveloSi kiTxva iseve,

gaTviTcnobierebul sistemis Sesaxeb.

adamians

aucileblad

gauCndeba sistema,

saqarTvelos

mecnierebis

mecnierebaTa

akademiis

rogorc mravali sxva kavSiri, iqneba es mweralTa kavSiri, kompozitirTa kavSiri Tu sxva, saqarTvelos amJamindelma xelisuflebam memkvidreobiT miiRo sabWoTa periodidan. sabWoTa kavSirSi, iseve rogorc yvela Zlier saxelmwifoSi, mecnierebaTa sistemis marTva upirveles yovlisa ganviTarebisa da teqnologiuri srulyofisaken mimarTuli procesi iyo. oRond, sxva qveynebidan garda didi gansxvavebiT, yuradReba sabWoTa eqceoda kavSirSi

teqnologiaSemcveli

mecnierebebis

ideologiuri

programebis arsebobasac28. sabWoTa saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia da ganaTlebis sistema damoukidebeli organizmi ki ara, sabWoTa kavSiris mecnierebis da ganaTlebis sistemis organuli nawili iyo. es sistema im pirobebSi, romelsac mas imdroindeli politikuri sistema da Zalaufleba uwesebda, kargad da gamarTulad muSaobda. sabWoTa kavSiris ngrevis Semdeg mTliani organizmis nawili darCa martodmarto _ moswyda rogorc konceptualur, aseve materialur mkvebavs. rac mTavaria, arc

mecnierebaTa marTvis sistemas, romelsac saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia hqvia, da arc ganaTlebis sistemas bolo dromde aranairi survili da miswrafeba ar hqonda Secvliliyo, Tu ar CavTliT ramdenime kosmetikur RonisZiebas, romelic ZiriTadad
28

anu, humanitaruli da sazogadoebrivi mecnierebebis kurirebas da marTvas.


49

saswavlo programebidan ideologiuri sagnebis da samecniero Temebidan ideologiuri aqcentebis moSla-gandevniT gamoixata. sxva mxriv arsebuli mecniereba-ganaTlebis sistema Zveleburad muSaobda da Sedegad iseTsave produqts iRebda, rogorsac sabWoTa dros. mecnierebis mxriv aq problema mxolod dafinansebis sakiTxi iyo: iseTi mecnierebebi, rogorebicaa fizika, maTematika, qimia, biologia da sxva, gansakuTrebiT ki is dargebi, romlebic ar iTxovdnen damatebiT pirobebis danaxarjebs xelfasis, garda, viTardeboda saweri saSualebebis da pirovnebebis elementaruli xarjze (am samuSao

konkretuli

pirovnebebma

sabolood sazRvargareT ipoves samuSao adgilebi). ra Tqma unda, laparakic ar iyo mecnierebebis eqsperimentuli dargebis ganviTarebaze. erTaderTi, raSic mecnierebis arsebuli statusi, sistema rac exmareboda mecnierebebs, iyo am mecnierebebisaTvis kontaqtis (da miniWebuli kontraqtis) im pirovnebis

ucxour

samecniero

dawesebulebebTan

SesaZleblobas aiolebda. es kontaqti umetes SemTxvevaSi ama Tu

sazRvargareT miwveviT mTavrdeboda, ufro iSviaTad ki kvleviTi grantis adgilobrivi miRebiT. amitom nel-nela, samecniero institutebis sistema gadaiqca saqvelmoqmedo

organizaciad, romelic dabali donis mecnierebs saSualebas aZlevda saarsebo minimumi mieRoT da SimSiliT ar momkvdariyvnen. mecnierebaTa akademias, iseve rogorc

sapatriarqos, aranairi iuridiuli statusi ar gaaCnda bolo dromde. Tumca, rogorc amboben, cota xnis win miRweuli iqna SeTanxmeba, romlis mixedviTac mecnierebaTa akademia miiRebs saxelmwifo statuss da is saxelmwifo qoneba, romelSic da

romelzec misi struqturebia ganTavsebuli, mas uvado sargeblobaSi gadaecema. am suraTidan naTlad Cans, rom mecnierebaTa akademia, rogorc sistema arafers ar simulirebs: Tuki SeiZleba mis farglebSi raime simulaciurze vilaparakoT, es iqneba romelime konkretuli dargis an mecnierebis simulireba, rac ara struqturuli, aramed Sinaarsobrivi sakiTxia. mecnierebaTa akademia gamoiyureba rogorc simulaciuri, magram sinamdvileSi is reliqtia, romelic zustad imave wesebiT arsebobs, rogoriTac yovelTvis arsebobda. formalurad (e.i. realuradac) is zustad iseve moicavs mecnierebs da damxmare

personals, rogorc moicavda, isev ise iRebs fuls biujetidan da iseTive urTierToba aqvs saxelmwifo mmarTvelobasTan. rodesac amboben, rom mecnierebaTa akademia

gamoxatavs samecniero inteligenciis azrs, amaSic araferia simulaciuri: is fena,

50

romelsac sabWoTa periodSi inteligencias uwodebdnen, arsebobs mxolod akademiis da ganaTlebis dawesebulebebis kedlebSi, azri da, amdenad, akademiis da universitetis azria, romelic

xelmZRvanelobis mier

gamoTqmuli

marTlac

inteligenciis

ubralod sxvagan arsad ar aris. am azris gamoxatva iseve xdeba, rogorc sabWoTa periodSi mecnierebisa da ganaTlebis sistemaTa xelmZRvanelobebis mier. igive SeiZleba iTqvas ganaTlebis sistemazec: bolo dromde is ucvleli iyo da rogorc gamocdili sistema, Sesabamis produqts iZleoda. magram, demokratiuli

mmarTveloba moiTxovs demokratiul ganaTlebis sistemas, ris gamoc moxda ramdenime axali kanonis miReba. magram es axali kanonebi iseTi xalxis mier iwereboda, romlebic an arsebuli sistemis warmomadgenlebi iyvnen, anda sakuTari mentalitetiT axlos idgnen im sistemasTan. amitom ganaTlebis axalma kanonma TiTqmis araferi Secvala ganaTlebis sistemaSi, da is iseve funqcionirebs rogorc adre. metic, am kanonma xeli Seuwyo ganaTlebis sistemis ngrevis dawyebas: skolebs miecaT meti Tavisufleba, da rogorc Cans, SeusustdaT kontrolis meqanizmi, ramac, bunebrivia, gamoiwvia korufciis zrda da swavlebis xarisxis daqveiTeba. rac Seexeba umaRles saswavleblebs, maTSi swavlebis xarisxi bevrad ar Secvlila, da iqac imata korufciam. sxva mxriv, ganaTlebis sistemaSi, iseve, rogorc mecnierebis sistemaSi ar amoqmedebula Tanamedrove meqanizmebi, Tu ar CavTliT ramdenime ucxouri universitetis post-graduate filialis gaxsnas, romlebsac swored imis gamo, rom totalurad ar moikides fexi da ar gaxdnen Zalian popularulebi, ver davwamebT simulaciurobas. anu, isini aZleven iseT ganaTlebas, rogorsac hpirdebian da amis arafers.

VI.1. cotaodeni istoria iseve, rogorc sxva TavebSi mecnierebis sistemis istorias,

avtori rogorc

alagebs

dasavluri

ganaTlebis

da

mediaciuri

meqanizmebis

istoriis

nawils. SeiZleba es mcdeloba ar aris moklebuli gonebamaxvilobas, magram ukve mosawyeni xdeba. mkiTxvelma SeiZleba Tavi imiT daimSvidos, rom wignis naxevarze meti ukve waikiTxa da dasasruls uaxlovdeba.
dasavluri ganaTlebis sistemis da mecnierebis istoria gveubneba, rom isini seriozul rols asrulebdnen mediaciuri meqanizmebis Camoyalibebis procesSi. es roli da funqciebi ZiriTadad eklesiasTan dapirispirebaSi yalibdeboda. magram masmediis

Camoyalibebis Semdeg maT es funqcia gauuqmdaT, da isini mTlianad SeiTavsa saxelmwifo

51

struqturam, rogorc teqnologiamatarebeli procesebis kontrolis da ideologiuri marTvis meqanizmebi. saganmanaTleblo da samecniero sistemis, rogorc mediaciuri meqanizmis, bolo gabrZoleba 60-ian wlebSi moxda, magram maSinac, studenturi

gamosvlebi politikuri xasiaTis ufro iyo, vidre sazogadoebrivi azris gamomxatveli. saqarTveloSi ganmanaTleblur da samecniero instituciebs mediaciis Camoyalibebis procesSi monawileoba ar miuRiaT, Tu ar CavTliT sabWoTa periods, rodesac isini, garkveul wilad, politikuri maSinac, es da nacionalisturi mxolod jgufebis TavSesafars opoziciis

warmoadgendnen.

magram

politikur-disidenturi

arsebobis adgili iyo da mediaciis meqanizmebTan aranairi saqme ar hqonia. ase rom, saqarTveloSi mecnierebaTa sistemas da ganaTlebis struqturebs, arc adre da arc axla, simulaciuri orbitis CamoyalibebaSi sakuTari wvlili ar SeutaniaT.

VII. saqarTvelos politikuri sistema da Zalovani srtuqturebi avtors kidev Semohyavs reliqturi personaJebi. mkiTxvelma SeiZleba ivaraudos, rom avtori male saxelmwifo struqturebis did nawils mTlianad reliqtur fenomenebad gamoacxadebs. magram es molodini molodinad darCeba.

VII.1. cotaodeni istoria imdenad, ramdenadac am reliqturi

fenomenis

istoria

struqturulad

ar

gansxvavdeba sxva reliqtebis biografiebisagan, is yvelaze ufro mokle iqneba. iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom avtori wignis weris mis mierve dawesebuli sqemis tyveobaSi moeqca da cdilobs, rac SeiZleba Cqara dauZvres gardauval

aucileblobas.
policia da uSiSroebis sistema yovelTvis iyo saxelmwifos damcveli da arsebuli safrTxeebis gamaneitralebeli. saqarTveloSi policiis da uSiSroebis sistema, iseve rogorc mecnierebaTa akademia da ganaTlebis sistema, sabWoTa periodSi Camoyalibda da sabWoTa banakis ngrevis Semdeg mTlian organizms mowyda. Tumca bevri ambobs, rom es ar momxdara, da kavSirebi yofil centrTan axlac Zlieria. yovel SemTxvevaSi, es struqturebi imave meTodebiTa da wesebiT agrZeleben muSaobas, rac, bunebrivia,

moqalaqeebis didi nawilis ukmayofilebas iwvevs.

52

rogorc ukve vTqviT, mediaciuri funqciebi sabWoTa periodSi danawilebuli iyo ramdenime struqturis mier. Tu gazeTebs da telemauwyeblobas gzavnilis roli ekisreboda, Sesabamisi gadawyvetilebebis ganxorcielebis kontroli da xSirad

ganxorcielebac policia-uSiSroebas hqonda davalebuli. ase rom, sabWoTa periodSi policia-uSiSroeba saxelmwifos da sazogadoebas Soris mediaciur funqcias arsulebda, anu, uzrunvelyofda im sazogadoebriv azrs da

socialur sivrces, romelic mmarTvelobas sWirdeboda. sabWoTa sistemis ngrevis Semdeg policia-uSiSroebis arc arsebobis wesi da arc funqciebi ar Secvlila. is darCa realur, Tumca gayinul da ngrevad, meqanizmad, romlis saSualebiTac mmarTvelobas urTierToba aqvs sazogadoebasTan da romelsac sakuTari gadawyvetilebebis ganxorcilebisaTvis iyenebs. metic, is, iseve rogorc mecnierebaTa akademia da ganaTlebis sistema, seriozuli raodenobis moqalaqeebs

moicavs. magram maTgan gansxvavebiT, policia-uSiSroebis sistemaSi dasaqmebuli xalxi socialurad aqtiuria, axalgazrdaa da ufro Sekrulia profesiuli interesiT.

VII.2. reliqturis da simulaciuris maradiuli turniri avtori aRwers am turnirs, rogorc simulaciuri orbitiT moZraobis erT-erT Sedegs da amiT, rogorc iqna, mkiTxveli uaxlovdeba imis gagebas, Tu ra safrTxe SeiZleba moitanos simulaciebis orbitulma cirkulaciam.

simulaciis mier TavisTavad gamowveuli procesebis da sistemebis magaliTad e.w. Zalovan saministroebisa (uSiSroebisa da policiis) da mediaciur institutebs (am SemTxvevaSi masmediasa da aso-ebs) Soris am bolo dros aRZruli konfliqtebic gamodgeba. es konfliqti unda momxdariyo, miT umetes, amboben da asec Cans, rom mmarTveli partia aqtiurad iyenebs policias da uSiSroebas sazogadoebasTan urTierTobaSi (yvelaze ufro aSkarad es braldebebi arCevnebis dros wamotivtivdeba xolme).

policia da uSiSroeba iseve, rogorc mecnierebaTa akademia da ganaTlebis sistema reliqturi saxiT arsebobs. is ingreva, magram korufcia, romelic mas msWvalavs (rogorc amboben, TiTqmis yvela doneze), unarCunebs mas arsebobas. sazogadoebis da mmarTvelobis urTierTobis is nawili, romelsac mediaciuri

institutebi unda agvarebdnen, tradiciis gamo isev policia-uSiSroebis xelSia. anu,

53

policia-uSiSroebas Zalauflebis mier gadacemuli aqvs mediaciuri funqciis nawili. amitom konfliqti, romelic moxda da dResac grZeldeba sxvadasxva formebiT,

aucileblad unda momxdariyo, rogorc sazogadoebrivi marTvis da kontrolis faruli da simulaciuri meqanizmebis dajaxeba. es asec moxda 1997 wlis Semdeg, rodesac samoqalaqo sazogadoeba mmarTvelobis gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis sferoSi moeqca. jerjerobiT bunebidan gamarjvebuli arc iqneba am SetakebaSi gamovlindeba. es Zalovani ar aris gamovlenili procesi, da simulaciebis mediaciurma Tu am

gamomdinare, aRZres,

(yvela

romelic

institutebma

saministroebis

monitoringi

struqturebSi korufciaSi CarTuli Tanamdebobis pirebis gamovlineba, orbitulad Caiketeba da upiratesoba xan erT mxares eqneba, da xan meores). am SemTxvevaSi Zalaufleba simulaciur mediaciur meqanizms iyenebs rogorc uSiSroebis da policiis kontrolis momaval garants. am dawesebulebebis TanamSromlebis ricxvi Zalian STambeWdavia, da saTanado organizebis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba marTlac Seuqmnan safrTxe nebismier politikur Zalas. Tundac imitom, rom am struqturebSi

dasaqmebuli xalxi yvelaze ufro mravalricxovan, da SeiZleba iTqvas, erTaderT gansazRvrul da stratificirebul socialur jgufs Seadgens. maTTan urTierTobisas Zalaufleba maT sxva socialur jgufs ver upirispirebs, imitom, rom sxva aseTi jgufi ar arsebobs.

aqedan

gamomdinare,

Zalaufleba-mmarTveloba samoqalaqo

policia-uSiSroebasTan anu rogorc

urTierTmoqmedebs

rogorc

sazogadoebasTan,

eleqtoratTan, romelmac misi yofna-aryofnis sakiTxi unda gadawyvitos. xolo samoqalaqo sazogadoebasTan ki _ rogorc policia-uSiSroebasTan, anu rogorc im institutTan, romelic mxolod gardauvali aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi unda gaaaqtiuros da zedapirze gamoaCinos.
policiasa da uSiSroebas, romlebic sabWoTa periodis reliqtebs warmoadgenen, Zalaufleba iyenebs rogorc sazogadoebis kontrolis da marTvis, SeiZleba sabolood araefeqtur, magram yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi Sedegian (mag., mitingis darbeva, Jurnalistis cema) meqanizms. ra Tqma unda, aso-ebisaTvis xelis Sewyobis, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis simulaciis da Semdeg misi policia-uSiSroebasTan urTierTobaSi

gamoyenebis gegma aravis hqonia. ubralod, ase gamovida _ simulaciurma procesebma Tavisi moiTxoves.

54

aRsaniSnavia policia-uSiSroebis damokidebuleba mediaciur institutebTan: etyoba, rogorc reliqturi, magram realuri struqtura, is kargad grZnobs, Tu visTan aqvs saqme da maindamainc Tavs ar iwuxebs maTTan seriozuli dapirispirebiT. aseve, etyoba, isini grZnoben, rom Zalauflebis mier simulaciur sivrceebSi maTi alternativa ar arsebobs da arc Seiqmneba, sanam simulaciuri orbitebi ar dairRveva.

SeniSvna: am monakveTSi avtori ar ganixilavs Tavdacvis saministros, radganac,


marTalia, arsebobs mcire konfliqti samoqalqo sazogadoeba-masmedias da Tavdacvis srtuqturebs moTxovnilebiT Soris, magram es ufro Cveulebrivi vidre sazogadoebrivi meqanizmi. kontrolis Tumca am

gamowveuli

procesia,

simulaciuri

konfliqtebis safuZvelSi isev reliqturi

struqturebi Zevs. Tavdacvis sistema

jerjerobiT Camoyalibebis procesSia, da masze, rogorc konkretuli simulaciuri anda reliqturi meqanizmis Sesaxeb raimes Tqma Znelia. Tumca iseve, rogorc sxva

struqturebis SemTxvevaSi, aqac gardauvalia simulaciur orbitaSi CarTva.

VIII. simulaciuri orbitis mosalodneli safrTxe konkretuli magaliTebiT avtori cdilobs aCvenos, simulaciurma orbitam CaiTrios da aiZulos

Tu

rogor

SeiZleba iseTi

simulaciisaTvis

instituciebi, romlebic TavianTi bunebiT ar arian aseTni. Tumca gaugebaria, ratom airCia maindamainc ganaTlebis sistema amis saCveneblad da ara

saxelmwifos mier prioritetad dasaxuli romelime sxva mimarTuleba. etyoba aq saqme mainc CvenTvis ucnobma pirovnulma faqtorma gadawyvita. garda amisa, avtori adgils uTmobs mis mier Semoyvanil kidev erT reliqtur kompozicias _ Zalovan saministroebs, da simulaciuri orbitis Tavbrudamxvev fonze arCevs maTi da mediaciuri institutebis urTierTobidan momdinare safrTxes.
1998-99 wlebi gadamwyeti aRmoCnda saqarTvelos ganaTlebis sistemisaTvis.

gamoicvalnen xelmZRvaneli pirebi, romelTa xelSi ganaTlebis sistemam ngreva daiwyo. ganaTlebis sistemis axali politika ar Sexebia arc am sistemis mier producirebul korufcias da arc ganaTlebis organizacias da ekonomikas. ganaTlebis sistema igive darCa. Tumca mimdinarebs korumpirebuli subieqtebis Canacvlebis rTuli procesi. mimarTuleba swored SeirCa saSualo ganaTlebis reforma, radganac umaRles

saswavleblebTan brZola da maTi gardaqmnisaTvis drois xarjva yovlad uSedego


55

iqneboda. miT umetes, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom saxelmwifo universitetebis reqtors prezidenti niSnavs da es organizaciebi realurad arc imyofebian ganaTlebis

saministros daqvemdebarebaSi.

magram saSualo ganaTlebis reformisaTvis arCeuli iqna

formula SenarCuneba da ganviTareba da mTeli yuradReba-potenciali mimarTul iqna ganaTlebis Sinaarsisken. anu daiwyo aqtivoba ganaTlebis Sinaarsis Sesacvlelad: saxelmZRvaneloebis, saswavlo programebis da maswavleblebis gadamzadebis gziT. maSasadame, aqcenti gakeTda moixaza pirovnebebis da teqstebis Secvlaze, da ara im sistemis Secvlaze, romelmac es pirovnebebi da teqstebi awarmoa. da aq aSkarad moCans kidev erTi simulaciuri procesis dawyebis safrTxe: jer erTi, am mxriv mimarTuli reformis procesi SeiZleba arasodes ar damTavrdes imitom, rom es procesebi nebismieri ara normaluri ganaTlebis drois sistemis da Tanamdevi elementebia, da

gulisxmoben

reformas,

aramed

istoriis

Sesabamis

permanentul

cvlilebebs saswavlo programebSi. meorec, TviTon ganaTlebis struqturis marTvis da ekonomikis Seucvlelad warmoudgenelia im korufciuli sistemis aRmofxvra, romelic masSi budobs. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saxelmZRvaneloebis da programebis Secvla mxolod daafiqsirebs da gaamyarebs arsebul naxevrad dangreul sistemas da reformis

maradiuli orbita moxdenilad Caewereba simulaciebis saerTo orbitaSi. cvlileba, romelic Seitanes ganaTlebis gardaqmnis procesSi, isev da isev

Zalauflebis simulaciuri principis mier aris nakarnaxevi da miTiTebuli. frazaSi, rom yofilma ganaTlebis ministrma araferi gaakeTa, albaT, igulismeba, rom man araferi gaakeTa ganaTlebis sistemis simulaciur orbitaSi Sesayvanad. amitom, saWiro gaxda iseTi aqtivobebis Catareba, romlebic am Seyvanas uzrunvelyofdnen. qveynis ganaTlebis sistema erTis mxriv imeorebs politikur da socialur sistemas, xolo meores mxriv karnaxobs mas rogorc formas, aseve Sinaarss. es fraza metafora ar aris. ganaTlebis sistema aris is pirveli safexuri, romelze dayrdnobiTac adamiani socialuri sistemebis gadakveTaSi iwyebs moZraobas. amitom is sistema, romelsac adamiani Tavidan eCveva, mas avtomaturad gadaaqvs socialuri adaptaciis momdevno etapze. Semdeg iwyeba ukuprocesi da a.S. administraciuli sistemis nawili xdeba. amitom, marTalia, ganaTlebis sistema ar aris mediaciis meqanizmi, romelTa simulaciac dRes mimdinareobs saqarTveloSi, magram misi simulacia sabolood gaamagrebs da legitimur safuZvels SesZens simulaciur orbitas. amiT ganaTlebis sistema politikuri da

56

mtkiceba imisa, rom is, rac ganaTlebis sistemaSi xdeba, konkretuli pirovnebebis bralia, ra Tqma unda, ar SeiZleba. ubralod ganaTlebis sistemaSi sruldeba

Zalauflebis

konkretuli

reformatoruli

davaleba.

sxvadasxva

simulaciuri

orbitebis gadakveTiT da SemTxveviTobebis wyalobiT, es davaleba formulirdeba, rogorc qveyanaSi arsebuli Zalauflebis da politikuri sistemis ganaTlebis

sistemasTan Tanxvedra da piriqiT: rogorc es saerTod xdeba nebismier qveyenaSi saxelmwifoebrivi sistemis Secvlis Semdeg dgeba ganaTlebis sistemis politikur wyobasTan da principebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanis amocana. rogorc masmedia-samoqalaqo sazogadoebis da policia-uSiSroebis urTierTobis

aRwerisas aRvniSneT, simulaciurma orbitam Tavad daamyara konkretuli mimarTebebi da maT, vinc masSi iyo CarTuli, aiZula swored ase da ara sxvagvarad emoqmedaT. amitom, simulaciuri orbita ar Semoifargleba mxolod simulaciebiT; is Tavisi arsebobis wesebs TviTonve SeimuSavebs da Semdeg maT umorCilebs yvelafers, rasac ki ejaxeba rac misi mizidulobis sferoSi eqceva. im imeds da molodins, rom simulaciuri sistema saboloo jamSi araefeqturia (mag., policiis da uSiSroebis Zveli, sabWoTa wesebiT muSaoba) da Zalaufleba adre Tu gvian dainaxavs, rom mimdinare procesebi masve ayeneben zians da SeiZleba Zalauflebac daakargvinon, unda SevxedoT molodinebis orbitis poziciidan da am molodinis

sapirispiro sxva SesaZleblobebsac ganxorcielebis iseTive Sansi unda davutovoT. simulaciuri socialuri sistemebis saerTo analizi gvaCvenebs (Tavi X), Tu romeli molodini aris ganxorcielebuli da ramdenad gvaqvs ufleba davelodoT movlenebis TiTqosda kanonzomier ganviTarebas.

IX. ra moaqvs mediaciuri meqanizmebis simulaciebs? rogorc iqna, avtori gveubneba, Tu ra mosdevs sistemas, rogorc amas jer kidev wignis

simulaciuri

procesebis da

dasawyisSi

simuliaciis

simulaciuris ganmartebisas dagvpirda. magram is optimizmi, romliTac xandaxan gvawynarebda da uimedobis mdgomareobidan gamovyavdiT, jerjerobiT ar Cans.
bunebrivia, Cndeba kiTxva, Tu ra safrTxes Seicavs Zalauflebis simulaciebi da maTi orbitebi? xom ar arian isini, ubralod, gza arasimulaciuri marTvisa da socialuri sistemebisaken? xom ar iZlevian isini saSualebas nel-nela gadavideT arasimulaciur

57

garemoze? xom ar aris simulaciuri orbita mxolod droebiTi xerxi, radgan mocemul momentSi asea saWiro da sxvanairad ar gamova? (es bolo fraza gansakuTrebiT uyvarT saqarTvelos mmarTvel wreebSi). mediaciuri meqanizmebis simulaciaTa is kaskadi, romelic CamovTvaleT, sakmaod

seriozul sias qmnis: masmedia, samoqalaqo sazogadoeba, marTlmadidebluri eklesia, politikuri partiebi da maTi Tanamdevi procesebi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, molodinebis orbita, da aseve, arsebul orbitaSi sxva simulaciuri meqanizmebis CarTvis safrTxe, erTiandebian Zalauflebis mier warmoebuli mediaciuri meqanizmebis erT did

simulaciaSi da sabolood qveynis simulaciur marTvis sistemas socialur garemos qmnian.

da simulaciur

rogorc ukve vTqvi, simulaciur orbitas erTi Tviseba aqvs: rac ar unda dadebiT miznebs unda emsaxurebodes Tavidan misi SemoReba, is sul ufro da ufro met socialur
29

da

administraciul

struqturas

iTrevs

brunvaSi29.

saqme

mxolod

saqarTveloSi simulaciuri orbitis mier sxva movlenebis CaTrevis saukeTeso (Tumca, mxolod erT-

erTi mravalTa Soris) magaliTia am bolo dros aRZruli procesebi, romlebsac ise gamoiyurebian, TiTqos maTi safuZveli nacionaluri idea iyos. sul erTia, saqme exeba e.w. erovnuli saganZuris gatanas, makdonaldsis restornis aSenebas, piradobis mowmobebSi erovnulobis grafis aRdgenas, rusTavelis Zeglis gadatanas Tu qveynis mTavar biblioTekaSi saxelmwifo moxeleTa Semcirebas. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTveloSi mimdinare am procesis simulaciuri procesebi aucileblobiT wamyvani ar moiTxoven guram nacionalizmis SaraZes ukavia)

simulirebas,

aRmZvrelebs

(romelTa

Soris

adgili

gacnobierebuli aqvT, rom simulaciur sistemaSi gadamwyvet adgils mxolod maSin daikaveben da Zalauflebis matareblebi mxolod maSin gaxdebian, Tu daamtkiceben, rom garkveuli procesebis

simulireba da marTva mxolod maT SeuZliaT. amitom nacionalisturi (Tu nacionaluri) procesebi etenebian mimdinare demokratiuli procesis simulacias. is, vinc am procesebs asimulirebs,

nacionaluri ideis mniSvnelobas da legitimurobis uflebas iseTive meTodebiT amtkicebs, rogorc sxvebi saqarTveloSi demokratiuli procesebis mimdinareobis da demokratiuli Rirebulebebis arsebobas. anu, isini, iseve, rogorc simulaciis sxva mwarmoeblebi, simulaciis wesebis sruli dacviT muSaoben. iseve, rogorc demokratiuli procesis simulirebis dros, nacionaluri ideis simulaciac iseve agzavnis cnobebs masmediis saSualebiT, iseve simulirebs sazogadoebriv azrs da politikur process, rogorc orbitis sxva wertilebi. nacionaluri ideis matarebelTa kontingentic iseve Semoifargleba Zalian mcire ricxviT, da iseve, rogorc sxva SemTxvevebSi, xdeba am ramdenime adamianis mosazrebebis gasaReba sazogadoebriv azrad. Sesabamisad, simulaciuri nacionaluri procesebis aRmZvrelTa gzavnilebis

adresatic yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi an prezidentia, an parlamenti, anda virtualuri centrebi _ imisda mixedviT, ra saWiroeba arsebobs da ra mizani _ arqivis Camotana, parlamentSi moxvedra Tu sxva ram (mag., wignis gamocema).

58

mediaciuri gvqondes,

meqanizmebis SeiZleboda

da imiT

Tundac

politikuri Tavi,

SemTxvevebis rom adre

simulaciasTan rom Tu gvian, rodesac

dagvewynarebina

ekonomikuri pirobebi Seicvleba da politikuri viTareba daregulirdeba, mediaciuri meqanizmebi daiwyeben moqmedebas da simulaciebsac bolo moeReba. magram, rogorc ganaTlebis sistemis reforma, aseve, Zalovani uwyebebis da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis mediaciur urTierToba aCvenebs, rom simulaciebis TandaTan areali ukve ara mxolod ZiriTad

meqanzmebs

moicavs,

aramed

socialuri

sistemis

elementebSic ipareba. amitom daskvna, rom sul male, saqarTvelos mTeli socialuri sistema, rogoric is aris dReisaTvis, simulaciur orbitaSi moeqceva, ar aris ubralo SiSi, aramed horizontze moaruli saxifaTo aCrdilia.

X. iZuleba simulaciisaTvis aSkaraa, rom avtori ratomRac ar akisrebs simulaciuri procesebis dawyebaze pasuxismgeblobas mmarTvel Zalas, da yvelafers TiTqosda SemTxvevebis da viTarebebis fatalur damTxvevas abralebs. optimisturi da gamosavalmatarebeli debulebebi kvlavac ar Canan. mkiTxveli, romelic am Tavis bolomde miaRwevs, iZulebuli iqneba gaagrZelos kiTxva.
aq ukve gamoikveTa im simulaciebis TiTqmis mTliani suraTi, romelsac saqarTveloSi Zalaufleba sakuTari Tavis SenarCunebisaTvis awarmoebs. sistema, anu simulaciis orbita, masmediis, romelic inergeba da danergilia da saqarTveloSi, konkretulad eklesiis, moicavs rogorc

samoqalaqo

sazogadoebis

marTlmadidebluri

mediaciuri socialuri institutebis simulacias. piroba, romelic moiTxovs am sami elementis simulirebas, saqarTveloSi demokratiuli politikuri sistemis da marTvis sistemis arsebobis aucileblobaa da saboloo jamSi misi safuZveli balansirebis da SenarCunebis saWiroebaa. sxva meqanizmi30 albaT, ar SeiZleba arsebobdes saqarTveloSi mocemul pirobebSi da geopolitikur viTarebaSi. es, upirveles yovlisa, gamowveulia imiT, rom saqarTvelo

iZulebuli iyo daeCqarebina sakuTari gademokratiulebis procesi, imisaTvis, rom


30

da aq unda aRvniSnoT, rom simulacias me aramc da aramc ar viyeneb SefasebiTi

mniSvnelobiT, is CemTvis aris araRirebulebiTi midgomis principze damyarebuli socialuri realobis aRsaweri termini.
59

xelSesaxebi

kapitali

Seeqmna

evropisaTvis

da

mTlianad

dasavleTis

TvalSi

mimzidveli gamxdariyo. es principi, anu, simulireba SenarCunebisaTvis, aqamde muSaobda da realuri Sedegebic mohqonda. magram simulaciur orbitas aqvs erTi mniSvnelovani Tviseba; imdenad, ramdenadac is

orbitaa, misgan Tavis daRweva did sirTules warmoadgens. anu, saboloo jamSi am
Tavis daRwevam unda gamoiwvios orbitis moSla, masze motriale sagnebis Camovardna anda gaurkveveli mimarTulebiT gacureba uhaero sivrceSi. anu, simulaciuri sistemis ngreva arsebuli Zalauflebis (ara aqvs mniSvneloba, Tu rogori Zalauflebaa)

dekonstuqcias gamoiwvevs. rogorc erTxel aRniSna parlamentis Tavmjdomarem, saqarTvelos kapitali aris

demokratia. am frazaSi naTlad Cans saqarTvelos xelisuflebis, anu demokratiuli mmarTvelobis tragizmi, romelic, SeiZleba iTqvas, valdebuli iyo miemarTa

simulirebisaTvis. orbita, romelic albaT Tavis wreSi sul ufro da ufro met elements da struqturas iTrevs, aris, saqarTvelos, rogorc erT-erTi Tanamedrove saxelmwifos, arsebobis erTaderTi safuZveli, saqarTvelosi, romelic Rirsia miiRos dasavluri daxmareba. ra Tqma unda, sadRac unda arsebobdes am orbitis moSlis survili, magram es Zalian saxifaTo saqmea: simulacia sastikad iZiebs xolme Surs gamoaSkaravebisaTvis.

XI. simulaciur socialur sistemaTa Sedegebi pesimisturi daskvnebi am TavSi Tavis piks aRwevs. imdenad, ramdenadac am Tavis Semdeg wigni kidev grZeldeba, mkiTxvels unda gauCndes imedi, rom bolos da bolos, happy end-is msgavs rames mainc waawydeba. yovel SemTxvevaSi, mxolod ramdenime gverdiRaa darCenili, da am teqstis kiTxvis aq gawyveta namdvilad ar Rirs.
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, saqarTveloSi arsebobs socialur-politikuri sistemis

simulaciurad qcevis safrTxe da realoba. magram, meore mxriv, SeiZleba vinmem ikiTxos: mere ra? Tu sxvanairad ar gamodis, vicxovroT jerjerobiT simulaciur samyaroSi. odesme es yvelaferi Seicvleba da normaluri cxovrebac daiwyeba. magram saqarTvelos SemTxvevaSi aris erTi faqtori, romelic mTlianad Secvlis Cvens

warmodgenil suraTs: saqarTveloSi demokratiuli marTvis sistemis da socialuri

60

fenebis simulireba daiwyo maSin, rodesac saxelmwifo jer kidev ar iyo gamosuli komunisturi struqturebis fsiqologiuri da konstruqciuli batonobisagan. mediaciuri institutebis da meqanizmebis simulireba daiwyo ara sasurveli procesis (am SemTxvevaSi demokratiuli sistemis Camoyalibebis) wina etapze, aramed,

komunisturi struqturebis bazisze. amitom, simulaciuri sistemebis da orbitebis ukan imaleba ara arara 31, aramed gayinuli da umoZrao socialisturi sistema, romelic nel-nela, imis gamo, rom Zveli mkvebavi wyaroebi aRar asazrdoebs, ingreva da uCinardeba. amitom mediaciis instituciebi simulaciur pirobebSi saocrad waagaven maT sabWoTa analogiebs (gansxvaveba isaa, rom iq, im dros simulacia ar xdeboda). isini

gadaiqcnen ar mediaciebad, aramed gzavnilebad. faqtiurad imad, rasac mediaciuri instituti warmoadgenda sabWoTa periodSi. Tu gavixsenebT afxazeTSi oms, rodesac masmedia faqtiurad ufaso informatoris funqcias asrulebda mowinaaRmdegisaTvis, da gadavxedavT dRevandel periods, rodesac mediaciuri institutebi politikuri

interesebis subieqtTa mier erTmaneTisaTvis gagzavnil Selocvebs32, xolo saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, poziciis dafiqsirebis meqanizms warmoadgenen, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom mmarTveloba sWirdeba biujetiT acxovrebs fsevdo mediaciur institutebs, da sxva romlebic mas

sakuTari

mdgomareobis

gansamtkiceblad,

faqtebs,

romlebic

struqturulad simulaciis CarCoebSi jdebian, davinaxavT, rom im procesebs, romlebic saqarTveloSi mimdinareoben, ganviTareba ar uweriaT. anu, simulaciuri orbita yvelafers da erT wertilSi yinavs33. miT umetes, rom arsebuli Zalauflebis mier warmoebuli simulaciuri orbita formalurad emTxveva gayinul da ngrevad

socialistur marTvis sistemas. Tu amas davumatebT, rom saqarTveloSi sazogadoebrivi sivrce vera da ver Camoyalibda, rogorc informaciulad Sekruli organizmi, miviRebT, rom saqarTvelom arsebul viTrebaSi da SesaZleblobebSi im piks miaRwia, romlis iqiT wasvla SeuZlebelia. xelisuflebis gancxadeba, rom man qveyanaSi stabilurobas miaRwia, absoluturad sworia, magram tragikuli interpretaciiT: es stabiluroba niSnavs nebismieri

31

ara is, risi ganviTarebac unda yofiliyo is, risi simulirebac xdeba.

32

da ara sazogadoebisaTvis. gzavnili iqamde ar aRwevs, radganac misamarTi ucnobia da rCeba

mokiTxvamde.
33

ufro sworad, erTi wertilis garSemo aqvavebs. 61

mimarTulebiT moZraobis gayinvas da maradiul trials erTsa da imave, ukve Seqmnil, arsebul CarCoebSi da sazRvrebSi.

XII. moCvenebis saSiSroeba avtori saTaurs ara marto am nawilis Sinaarsis gamo amsgavsebs 1999 wlis erT-erT yvelaze ufro popularul kinofilms. jorj lukasma varskvlavTa omebis I epizodi IV nawilis ekranze gamosvlidan TiTqmis 20 wlis Semdeg gadaiRo. mTlianad wignTan es Tavi iseTive damokidebulebaSia, rogorc nawilebi:

varskvlavTa omebis

70-iani wlebis

droindeli da wlevandeli

mxolod mTlianad wignis daweris Semdeg gaxda SesaZlebeli am Tavis momzadeba, rogorc teqnologiurad da informaciulad, aseve konceptualuradac: es Tavi calke, wignis ukve arsebuli teqstis gareSe, martiv politikur-politologiur publikacias daemsgavseboda. XII.1. SehficeT! (Seqspiri, hamleti, I moqmedeba) ar arsebobs keTili moCveneba: hamletis mamis aCrdili, romelic TiTqosda dadebiTad gamoiZios ganawyobs mkvleloba mkiTxvels, da aiZulebs hamlets tragedia, warsulSi romelic dabrundes, personaJebis

ganaxorcielos

totaluri ganadgurebiT gamoixateba, saqmis gamgrZeleblebad rCebian mxolod msaxurebi da axlo ucxoeTSi xangrZlivad namyofi xalxi.
rogorc ukve vTqviT, centri da regioni (anu, pirveli da meore centrebi)

simulaciebSi ar CamorCebian erTmaneTs.

magram, gansxvavebiT pirveli centrisagan,

romelic Tavs aCvenebs, rom mis ukan raRac aris, meore centri piriqiT iqceva: is cdilobs daumtkicos saqarTvelos mosaxleobas, rom mis ukan araferia, yovel

SemTxvevaSi araferi maindamainc gansxvavebuli imisagan, rac pirveli centris zurgs ukan imaleba. sinamdvileSi iq 70 wlis ganmavlobaSi kargad cnobili da gancdili sinamdvilea Casafrebuli. meTodebi, romliTac meore centri, amjerad ukve sxva

opoziciuri partiebiT gamagrebuli, moqmedebs, erTi SexedviT arafriT ar gansxvavdeba pirveli centris mier warmoebuli aqtivobebisagan. magram es mxolod iq, sadac meore centrs uSualod xeli ar mouwvdeba da sadac meore centris gamaerTianeblis

(aRoZinebis kavSiris) reitingi ar gamoiyureba, rogorc diqtatoruli reJimis mier warmoebuli ricxvi.
62

anu,

meore

centric im ki

iseve

simulaciuri romelic meTodebiT

meTodebiT pirveli da

moqmedebs

(SeiZleba

ufro Tavis mxriv,

aqtiuradac) teritoriaze

teritoriaze, sul sxva

centris

ganmgeblobaSia, es, erTis

wesebiT

muSaobs.

ganapirobebs mosaxleobis mudmivi SiSis qveS yofnas, da, meores mxriv, gansazRvravs arCevnebis demokratiul Sedegebs _ rodesac mosaxleobis 80 % 34 xmas regionSi gabatonebul Zalas aZlevs. anu, am SemTxvevaSi Cven aSkarad fantomTan gvaqvs saqme, romelic cdilobs mTel qveyanas Tavi moaCvenos, TiTqos iseTive simulaciebis mwarmoebelia, rogorsac pirveli centri awarmoebs, xolo Tavisi mxare kargad gamocdili diqtatorul-sabWouri

qseliT aqvs dafaruli. aSkaraa, rom saarCevno Sejibri gaimarTeba moCvenebas da simulacias Soris. moCveneba,

romelic, rogorc es legendebidan da Tqmulebebidan viciT, TavisTavad ararealuria da usxeulo, magram, meqanizmia. bneli Zalebis gzavnili da warsulSi dabrunebis maiZulebeli

XIII.2. isev Sena xar... bebero Txunelav? (Seqspiri, hamleti, I moqmedeba) XX saukunemde moCvenebebi cnobilni iyvnen, rogorc aucileblad da gardauvlad simarTlis dasasrulis mTqmelebi magaliTze da swori gzis Tu mimaniSneblebi. ra gzisken Tumca, miuTiTebs tragediis saSualo

kargad

Cans,

statistikuri moCveneba. pirvelad akutagava riunoskem gaakeTa mniSvnelovani garRveva moCvenebologiaSi da moyva, Tu rogor usircxvilod ityuebian

moCvenebebi uRran tyeSi.

meore

centri,

romelic

simulaciis

saburvelSi gaxveuli

moCvenebaa,

warmatebiT

arwmunebs saqarTvelos mosaxleobas, rom misi gamarjvebis da xelisuflebaSi mosvlis SemTxvevaSi araferi ar gauaresdeba da, ubralod, Canacvleba ganxorcieldeba.

Canacvlebaze aRebuli moCvenebiTi kursi yvelaferSi Cans, evropis regionTa sruliad arapolitikur, da SeiZleba iTqvas, arasamTavrobo kavSiriSi gaerTianebiT dawyebuli (rac meore centris winasaarCevnod mowveuli strategebis mier interpretirebulia,

34

es ricxvi, rogorc es msoflio praqtikaSia cnobili, mxolod diqtatorul da, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, erTpirovnul mmarTvelobaze miuTiTebs. 63

rogorc evrosabWos analogi), meore centris winasaarCevno plakatebiT damTavrebuli, romlebzec abaSiZe ucnaurad waagavs SevardnaZes. moCvenebis mier Canacvlebaze aRebuli kursi komikurobamde imeorebs mmarTveli partiis struqturebs da moqmedebebs: maT aqvT iseTive axalgazrduli kavSiri, iseve exmarebian inteligencias, iseve cdiloben daarwmunon mosaxleoba maTi partiis qarizmatuli lideris arsebobaSi, iseve axdenen reliqturi figurebis wamyvan poziciebze dasmas, iseve cdiloben axalgazrdobis gadmobirebas ucxoeli momRerlebis da ansamblebis CamoyvaniT, iseve cdiloben mWidro urTierToba daamyaron eklesiasTan da sxva. magram es mxolod saerTo teritoriaze da/an - mTeli mosaxleobis dasanaxad. TavisTan isini sxvagvarad iqcevian. aWaraSi arsebuli situacia, iqneba es totaluri policiuri kontroli Tu

mosaxleobis uflebrivi mdgomareobis warmoudgenlad dabali done, aSkarad miuTiTebs, rom moCveneba, anu aCrdili, romelic winasaarCevnod daiareba saqarTveloSi, rogorc yvela moaruli politikuri aCrdili, komunistur-diqtatoruli mmarTvelobisaa,

romelic saqarTvelos erT calke aRebul regionSi rom ganxorcielda. aSkaraa, rom aCrdilis mier miTiTebul gzaze dadgomiT, saqarTvelo ukan daiwyebs moZraobas, da yvela is elementi da piroba, romelic dRes arsebobs35 (iqneba es biujetis investiciuri gamagreba, sxva finansuri daxmarebebi, Tu demokratiulobis elementebi, romlebic, marTalia, mxolod tivtiveben simulaciur sivrceebSi), miT ufro gauCinardeba, rac ufro davuaxlovdebiT warsuls da Canacvldeba yofili ufrosi Zmis moCvenebiTi daxmarebiT da Zalian realuri CareviT. simulacia, rogorc aRvwereT, yinavs da orbitul cirkulaciaSi agdebs qveyanas da socialur struqturebs. moCvenebis miyola da misTvis dajereba saocrad waagavs tragediis siuJets da tragikulad damTavrdeba (miT umetes, ukve rom warsulze tragediis qveTavi

orietirebulma siuJetSi36).

nacionalisturma rodesac

xelisuflebam

erTxel

Cagvagdo

maSin,

simulaciuri

orbitidan

gamosavali

(ix.

gamosavali), Tumca Zalian rTuli, arsebobs. warsulSi dabrunebidan (romelic Cvens


SemTxvevaSi komunistur-diqtatoruli wyobis aRdgomas niSnavs) gamosavali ki mxolod tragediis finalia, sadac, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, da rogorc hamletis siuJeti
35

da romlis aucilebeli piroba, jerjerobiT, samwuxarod, swored simulaciisaTvis iZuleba da am simulaciis mier Seqmnili garemoa. 36 amitomac, ar aris moulodneli, rom meore centris aliansSi iseTma partiebmac moiyares Tavi, romlebic yofil nacionalistur xelisuflebasTan an aqtiurad TanamSromlobdnen, an misi warmomadgenlebi iyvnen. 64

gveubneba, yvela kvdeba da mxolod msaxurebi da axlo ucxoeTSi xangrZlivad namyofi xalxi rCebian.

bunebrivia, mkiTxvels gauCndeba kiTxva, rom Tuki aseTi saSiSroebis winaSe vdgavarT, ra saWiro iyo simulaciaze avtoris mTeli da mis mwarmoeblebze moCvenebasa da amdeni wera, da mis ratom ar mizezi,

dafiqsirda

yuradReba

gamomwvevebze.

romelmac wigni swored ase, da ara sxvagvarad gaawyo, aris is, rom avtori eZebda da hgonia (albaT yovlad usafuZvlod), rom ipova simulaciebis orbitidan gamosavali, xolo moCveneba, rac ar unda saSiSi iyos, yovelTvis qreba an Zalas kargavs, Tuki ici rom moCvenebaa da arafers gaakeTeb misTvis sasicocxlo Zalebis misaniWeblad37 . moCvenebas mxolod maSin aqvs Zala da mxolod maSin iwvevs tragedias, Tu dagvarwmuna, rom is marTlac arsebobs da simarTles gvelaparakeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom am konkretuli moCvenebis gaCenaSi arsebul simulaciur sistemebs didi wvlili miuZRviT38, misi safuZveli socialur sistemebSi da maT ganviTarebaSi ki ara, Cvens crurwmebSi, cru imedebSi da SiSSi Zevs. Sesabamisad, rodesac moCveneba Zalas ikrebs da xiluli xdeba, misi arsebobisaTvis gamomwvevebi Cven ufro varT, vidre misi gaCenis ramdenime Segnebuli msurveli, Tundac es iniciatori sxva saxelmwifo iyos. amitom, moCveneba wignis gverdebis zustad im raodenobas imsaxurebs, ramdenic misTvisaa daTmobili. Tumca, avtori fiqrobs, rom esec bevria.

XIII. saxelmwifo sazogadoeba (arsebobs Tu ara gamosavali?) XIII.1. Sesavali am Tavs avtori iwyebs ise, rogorc albaT es wigni unda daewyo. pirveli monakveTi savsea im debulebebiT, romlebic mkiTxvelTa garkveul nawils mouvidoda TavSi, da amitom, ase ganwyobili39 adamiani faqtiurad xaxamSrali rCeba.

37

Tanac, komunistur da diqtatorul reJimebze Zalian bevri wignia dawerili. meore centrSi gansakuTrebuli araferi xdeba: yvelaferi ukve bevrjer gamocdili, gaTamaSebuli da dagegmilia. 38 SeiZleba iTqvas, rom arsebulma simulaciebma yvelaferi gaakeTes, rom am moCvenebis warmoSobis msurvelebs gza gaxsnodaT. 39 ix. Sesavali wignis struqturaSi, sqolio #1. 65

aq ukve politikis analizidan mivadeqiT iluziebis msxvrevis sferos, rac yovelTvis aCens sindisis qenjnis ganwyobas. am SemTxvevaSi avtori movalea mcire imedi mainc datovos, Tundac imisaTvis, rom misi wigni ase Tu ise gavrceldes, ar CaiTvalos pesimistur wuwunad da, rac mTavaria, gamomcemlobam daubeWdos. Cvens qveyanaSi am wignis interpretacia mravalnairadaa SesaZlebeli. arsebul

situaciaSi is iseTive molodinebis orbitas aRZravs, rogorsac arsebuli simulaciuri sistemebi moiTxoven. anu, am wigniT aRZruli ganwyoba Tu azri mravalnairi SeiZleba iyos. magaliTad: 1. avtori ganawyenebulia xelisuflebaze, da am gziT iZiebs Surs; 2. es wigni aris dasavluri sociologiuri azris erTi momentis meqanikuri gadmotana da amitom ar aris swori; 3. wigni cxovrebaze da sazogadoebaze gaborotebuli adamianis dawerilia; 4. wigni gaugebaria politikosebisaTvis, xolo specialistebma es isedac ician; 5. avtors unda, rom novatori iyos politikis analizis saqmeSi, magram ar gamodis; 6. avtors unda xelisuflebis (anda opoziciis) yuradReba miiqcios; da yvelaferi igive, oRond sawinaaRmdego niSniT Tqmuli da kidev mravali sxva versia.

XIII.2. gamosavali avtoris mier aRwerili, da, misive mtkicebiT, arsebuli, viTarebidan gamosavali aris saxelmwifo sazogadoeba. avtori erTi SexedviT meqanikurad anacvlebs

saxelmwifo eris cnebas saxelmwifo sazogadoebis cnebiT da cdilobs


SesaZlebeli naTeli momavaliwarmoaCinos. magram, sabolood is mainc ar Ralatobs sakuTar Tavs da yvelafers konkretuli adamianebis gadawyvetilebaze da gadwyvetilebis miRebis survilze afuZnebs.
gamosavali arsebuli simulaciuri orbitidan isev da isev mediaciur meqanizmebTanaa dakavSirebuli. imdenad, ramdenadac ar arsebobs erTiani sainformacio sivrce, arc politikuri SemTxvevebis warmoebis wesi arsebobs da ar xorcieldeba marTvis sistemis mTeli qveynis teritoriaze gavrceleba. saqarTvelo SeiZleba warmovidginoT, rogorc patar-patara sociumebis tivtivi uhaero sivrceSi, rodesac maTi kavSiri erTmaneTTan mxolod SemTxveviTia. mediaciuri instituciebi upirveles yovlisa gansazRvraven

saxelmwifo sazogadoebis (ara saxelmwifo eris - nacion deta) arsebobas.

66

dRes saqarTveloSi, da albaT ara marto saqarTveloSi, aramed axali demokratiis bevr qveyanaSi, dgas ara saxelmwifo eris, anda, rogorc uwodeben xolme,

saxelmwifoebriobis Camoyalibebis, aramed, saxelmwifo sazogadoebis yofna-aryofnis sakiTxi. saxelmwifoebriobis Camoyalibeba sakmaod amorfuli ramea imisaTvis, rom misi formirebis programa daiweros, magram ideologiurad sakmaod gamarTulia imisaTvis, rom daupirispirdes faSizm-nacionalizms da damatebiTi argumenti gaxdes qveynis mmarTvelobis demokratiulobisa da dasavleTze orientaciis dasamtkiceblad. saxelmwifo sazogadoeba niSnavs upirveles yovlisa erT sainformacio sistemaSi da, Sesabamisad, erT politikur sistemaSi mcxovreb xalxs. yvelaze ufro frTxili eqspertuli arsebobs. saxelmwifo sazogadoeba niSnavs informaciuli teqnologiebis mxriv met-naklebad erTnairad uzrunvelyofil qveynis teritorias. rac Tavis mxriv uzrunvelyofs informaciis yvela mimarTulebiT warmarTul nakads rogorc samTavrobo, aseve arasamTavrobo doneebze. saqarTveloSi aseTi rame mxolod Canasaxovani formiT SeiniSneba. saxelmwifo sazogadoeba ar niSnavs, rom is iseve unda iyos struqturirebuli, mkacrad omebamde stratificirebuli arsebuli da erTganzomilebiani saxelmwifo rogorc I da II msoflio maqsimalur SefasebebiTac ki, saqarTveloSi erTiani politikuri sistema ar

sazogadoebebi.

sazogadoeba

iZleva

saSualebas Seiqmnas mikrosociumebi da neo-traibebi mTeli qveynis maStabiT, imdenad, ramdenadac is ki ar awesebs sazogadoebriv ideologias, aramed uwyveti

sainformacio nakadebis saSualebiT auqmebs mas. saxelmwifo sazogadoeba sakuTari sainformacio sivrciT da mravalferovani da konkurentuli teqnologiebis danergvisaTvis xelis SewyobiT uzrunvelyofs

sakuTar usafrTxoebas; im safrTxis ganeitralebas, romelic SeiZleba principulad usasrulo raodenobis mikro-sociumebis da interesis jgufebis gaCenam gamoiwvios. saxelmwifo sazogadoeba ar niSnavs moqalaqeebis mTeli speqtris dainteresebas politikuri cxovrebiT, magram is uzrunvelyofs adamianTa im aucilebel

raodenobas, romlebic, Cumi da TavisTavad nagulisxmevi SeTanxmebis safuZvelze sazogadoebis danarCen wevrebTan, wyveten qveynis politikur sakiTxebs, anu,

monawileoben arCevnebSi.

67

XIII.2.1. mcire gadaxveva sazogadoebrivi xelSekruleba dRes avtori cdilobs sakuTari wvlili Seitanos sazogadoebrivi xelSekrulebis Tanamedrove gagebaSi, magram miRebuli Sedegi sakmaod sakamaToa. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es SemoTavazebuli interpretacia imTaviTve igulisxmeboda sazogadoebrivi xelSekrulebis TeoriaSi da am mozrdili pasaJiT axali araferia naTqvami.

sazogadoebrivi xelSekrulebis Teoria XVIII saukuneSi warmoiSva da igi dResac miCneulia, saxelmwifo-sazogadoebis urTierTobis erT-erT yvelaze ufro misaReb da momuSave Teoriad. am swavlebis mixedviT saxelmwifo aris sazogadoebrivi

xelSekrulebis obieqti. saxelmwifo iqmneba maSin, rodesac sazogadoeba xelSekrulebis safuZvelze sakuTari marTvis da sakuTari simdidreebis gankargvis uflebas gadascems adamianebis garkveul jgufs, romlebic marTaven saxelmwifo biurokratiul sistemas da amave dros angariSvaldebulni arian sazogadebis winaSe. Tu sazogadoebis wevrebs ar moswonT arsebuli marTva, isini uflebamosilni arian daarRvion xelSekruleba arsebul mmarTvelobasTan da gaaformon xelSekruleba sxva jgufTan. am xelSekrulebis moqmedebis yvelaze ufro naTeli gamoxatva aris arCevnebi xelisuflebis yvela doneze da sazogadoebrivi kontrolis meqanizmebi, romlebic arCevnebidan arCevnebamde amowmeben marTvis sistemis muSaobas. kontrolis Sedegebi sabolood gavlenas axdens arCevnebis Sedegebze.

dRes ukve SeiZleba vilaparakoT sazogadoebrivi xelSekrulebis sxva mxareze. rogorc cnobilia, arCevnebSi mTeli sazogadoeba aramc da aramc ar monawileobs. rodesac saarCevno komisia acxadebs, rom arCevnebSi monawileoba miiRo mosaxleobis 80 %-ze metma, am dros aSkaraa, rom saqme gvaqvs totalitarul an totalitarulobisken mimarTul mmarTvelobasTan. demokratiul saxelmwifoSi ki Semdegnairi suraTia: kanonis mier gansazRvruli arCevnebSi sazogadoebis monawileobis maqsimumi aris 50 procenti (zogi arCevnebis dros, magaliTad, saqarTveloSi sakrebuloebis arCevnebisas 30). sazogadoebis darCenili nawili arCevnebis procesSi sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo ar erTveba. procents, amasTanave, miviRebT, erTi Tu gaviTvaliswinebT saqme meore gvaqvs nawils Cayris anu, daSvebuli falsifikaciis rodesac xolo

rom nawili

sazogadoebriv andobs

SeTanxmebasTan,

sazogadoebis

mmarTvelobis

arCevnebs,

mmarTvelobas _ am arCevnebis Catarebas. anu, sazogadoeba iyofa orad: isini, vinc xmas

68

aZleven, da isini, vinc ar Rebuloben arCevnebSi monawileobas, anu, mosaxleobis sxva nawils andoben es qveynis SeTanxmeba konkretuli moqmedebs mmarTvelobiTi yvela struqturis rogorobis da

gadawyvetas.

demokratiul

saxelmwifoSi

uzrunvelyofs TviTon sazogadoebis mier sazogadoebis kontrolsac: Tu sazogadoebis darCenili (araaqtiuri) nawili Zalian Sewuxda mmarTvelobiT, is miiRebs monawileobas arCevnebSi da aucileblad moaxdens gavlenas Sedegebze.

(XIII.2. gamosavali - gagrZeleba)


dRes saqarTveloSi aseTi sazogadoeba saerTod ar arsebobs. Sesabamisad, ar arsebobs arc demokratiuli meqanizmebi da sistemebi Zalian ubralo mizezis gamo: ar arsebobs is organizmi, romelze morgebiTac ganisazRvreba marTvis da politikuri sistemebis demokratiuloba-arademokratiuloba. es sistemebi saqarTveloSi arseboben mxolod

deklaraciulad da struqturul doneze, magram maTi gasinjvis da gadamowmebis procesi ar mimdinareobs da verc iwarmoebs arsebul viTarebebSi. Sesabamisad,

saqarTveloSi jerjerobiT ar aris mraval-sociumuri viTareba: saqarTveloSi mikrosociumebisa da neo-traibebis40 arseboba ganpirobebulia ara erTiani saxelmwifosazogadoebis arsebobiT, aramed misi ararsebobiT: imis gamo, rom ar aris erTiani sainformacio da politikuri sivrce, es jgufebi yalibdebian tradiciuli

sazogadoebis (rogorc sabWoTa dros iyo) Sinagani moTxovnilebis gamo. anu, isini, rogorc magaliTad, mecnierebaTa akademia, da jerjerobiT ganaTlebis sistemac,

warmoadgenen ara damoukidebel organizmebs, aramed Zveli sistemidan amoglejil nawilebs.

XIV. iZuleba socialuri realobisaTvis es monakveTi wignis daskvnaa. sabolood mkiTxvelisTvis mainc gaurkveveli rCeba, Tu ra waikiTxa: pesimisturi opusi, Tu politikuri proeqti. albaT, avtoris mizanic es iyo, Tumca, aseT Sedegs keTilSobilurs namdvilad ver daarqmev.
rogorc safuZveli dasawyisSi aris aRvniSneT, mediaciuri da institutebis misgan simulirebis mTavari da

erTiani

sainformacio

gamomdinare

socialuri

politikuri sivrcis ararseboba. Sesabamisad, misi Seqmnaa saWiro. Seqmna, rogorc

40

traibi

inglisuri

sityvaa.

niSnavs

toms.

Tanamedrove

sociologiaSi

gamoiyeneba

sazogadoebis, rogorc mcire jgufebisagan Semdgari erTianobis aRsawerad.


69

mediaciuri institutebis, aseve sakomunikacio sistemebis doneze. es ki seriozul politikur da ekonomikur investiciebs moiTxovs. politikuri gadawyvetileba Tundac

imis gamoa saWiro, rom Zalauflebis mqone konkretuli politikuri tani Zalauflebis mier simulirebul samyaroSi Tavs kargad grZnobs. aseve kargad grZnoben Tavs

opoziciuri Zalebic, romlebic gamarjvebis, anu viTarebebis maTTvis moxerxebulad gawyobis SemTxvevaSi, iseTive wesiT gaagrZeleben marTvas, ra wesiTac maTi

winamorbedebi marTavdnen. amitom imas, rac arsebuli viTarebidan gamosasvlelad aris saWiro, ufro politikuri investicia SeiZleba davarqvaT. imitom, rom SesaZlebelia, drois romeliRaca momentSi mimdinare procesebma gadawyvetilebis mimRebis winaaRmdegac daiwyos moqmedeba (anu, gadawyvetilebis mimRebma waagos). magram, saboloo jamSi, mogeba sazogadoebis yoveli konkretuli wevrisaTvis uzarmazari iqneba. seriozuli ekonomikuri investiciebi imitom aris saWiro, rom erTiani sainformacio sivrce Tanamedrove teqnologiebs moiTxovs, raSic Tanxebis dabandeba da romlis gavrcelebac saxelmwifo gadawyvetilebis nawili unda gaxdes41. ekonomikuri mxare aseve gulisxmobs sakomunikacio saSualebebis maqsimalur gansaxelmwifoebriobas, rac politikuri kontrolis dakargvas ki ara, aramed, informaciuli nakadebisaTvis

optimaluri gzebis Seqmnas niSnavs. magram, meore mxriv, am gadawyvetilebis miRebis SemTxvevaSic, Znelia iqonio

saxelmwifos imedi, imdenad gamjdaria simulaciuroba mis tanSi. erTiani sainformacio da sakomunikacio sivrce, romelic socialur sivrces gamoiwvevs arsebobisaTvis, Seqmnis SemTxvevaSi TavisTavad gardaqmnis da saxes Seucvlis im

simulaciur mediaciur elementebs, romlebsac is pirdapir ar Seexeba. magaliTad, rodesac masmedia da samoqalaqo sazogadoeba realurad amoqmeddeba, saxelmwifo

dakargavs interess marTlmadidebluri eklesiis finansirebis mimarT, rac bolos da bolos aiZulebs eklesias sayrdeni mrevlSi eZebos. es ki Tavis mxriv, mrevlis mozidvis da avtoritetis amaRlebis motiviT, dRis wesrigSi daayenebs

marTlmadideblur eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris naTesauri kavSirebis mkveTri gawyvetis aucileblobas, da realurad gayofs saxelmwifosa da eklesias. Tu erTiani sivrce Seiqmneba da daiwyeba saxelmwifo sazogadoebis Seqmnis procesi, dRis wesrigSi dadgeba mecnierebisa da ganaTlebis ekonomikis Secvla, rac isev da isev am institutebis saxelmwifo viTarebasTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanis amocaniT iqneba

70

nakarnaxevi. es cvlileba ki am orive sistemis Zireul gardaqmna-reformas gamoiwvevs. Seicvleba policiac da uSiSroebac: misi reliqturi gamoyeneba uSedego gaxdeba, da, amave dros, sxva socialuri jgufebic gaCndebian, romlebic realur sivrceebs da moqalaqeebis realur raodenobebs moicaven. Zalauflebis simulaciebi erTis mxriv iZulebiT, xolo meores mxriv, gadawyvetilebis Sedegad miRebuli produqtia. amitom, maTgan Tavis dasaRwevad, marTalia mZime, magram aucilebeli gadawyvetilebis miRebaa saWiro. saqarTveloSi mxolod ase gaxdeba

SesaZlebeli daiwyos iZuleba socialuri realobisaTvis...

41

imdenad Soreuli perspeqtivaaa saqarTveloSi am sferoSi dabandebuli Tanxebis amoReba 71