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091 Fall Term 2010

Test #2
Wednesday, October 27, 2010 11:05 a.m. 11:55 a.m.

Name: Recitation Instructor:

solution outlines

A complete test consists of 5 questions. Write your answers on these pages. State your assumptions and show calculations that support your conclusions. RESOURCES PERMITTED: PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS, TABLE OF CONSTANTS, AN AID SHEET (ONE PAGE 8" 11"), AND A CALCULATOR. NO BOOKS OR OTHER NOTES ALLOWED. USE OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES STRICTLY FORBIDDEN.

#1 #2 #3 #4 #5

24% 28% 24% 14% 10%

TOTAL 100%

3.091 Fall Term 2010 Test #2

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Problem #1 (24%)

(a) Using proper crystallographic notation, identify the direction and the plane depicted in the above sketches. (6%) (b) Calculate the % unoccupied area of the (011) plane in iridium (Ir). Treat the atoms as hard spheres.


(c) (i) Limiting your consideration to the cubic crystal system, use the information in the sketch below to identify the Bravais lattice. The dots indicate the positions of lattice points in a plane. (3%) (ii) Turns out that this is a crystal of cesium chloride (CsCl). (i) Name the basis and (ii) draw the positions of all the atoms that would lie within the confines of the plane below. Represent atoms as 2-dimensional slices of space-filling spheres. The values of ionic radii are Cs+ = 1.67 and Cl = 1.81 . Your sketch need not be drawn to scale; however, you must convey relative values of the ionic dimensions. (7%)

3.091 Fall Term 2010 Test #2

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Problem #2 (28%)
(a) You have been asked to determine whether an alloy is either brass (copper zinc) or bronze (copper tin). To do so you test a specimen of the mystery alloy by making it the target (anode) of your x-ray generator. In your emission spectrum you observe an M line at a wavelength, , of 2.455 109 m. Is your alloy brass or bronze? The screening factor, , for M radiation is 22.4.


(b) Explain why 22.4 is a reasonable value for the screening factor, , associated with M radiation.


(c) Sketch the emission spectrum (intensity versus wavelength) of the unknown alloy described above. Assume that the x-ray tube is operated at a plate voltage great enough to dislodge K-shell electrons in the target. On your spectrum label the lines associated with K radiation, K radiation, and Bremsstrahlung.


3.091 Fall Term 2010 Test #2

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Problem #2 (continued from previous page)

(d) A crystal of niobium (Nb) is analyzed by x-ray diffraction through exposure to molybdenum (Mo) K radiation, for which K = 0.721 = 7.21 1011 m. Calculate the angle of reflection, , of the lowest-index plane present in the diffractogram. The lattice constant of Nb, a, is 3.39 .


Problem #3 (24%)
(a) The figure below shows the temperature dependence of charge carrier density in silicon (Si) doped with phosphorus (P). In which region, if any, does the material behave as an extrinsic semiconductor? Explain. The value of Eg for Si is 1.1 eV. (4%)

(b) On the same graph, sketch the temperature dependence of the charge carrier density of germanium (Ge) doped with P to a level yielding the same number of carriers per unit volume as the P-doped Si depicted in the figure. No calculation is necessary, but pay attention to relative values of charge carrier density and temperature. The value of Eg for Ge is 0.72 eV. (5%)

logarithmic scale charge carrier density

region 1

region 2


room temperature

3.091 Fall Term 2010 Test #2

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Problem #3 (continued from previous page)

(c) Determine the amount (in grams) of phosphorus (P) that substitutionally incorporated into 1 kg of Ge will establish a charge-carrier concentration of 3.091 1017 carriers/cm3 at room temperature. Assume that all the doping states are fully ionized.


(d) Name the dominant charge carrier in the extrinsic regime of P-doped Ge, and specify whether the material is p- or n-type. (3%) (e) Gallium nitride (GaN) is a semiconductor with a band gap, Eg, of 3.2 eV. Sketch the absorption spectrum of this material, i.e., plot % absorption versus wavelength, . On your plot indicate the value of the absorption edge of GaN. (5%)

3.091 Fall Term 2010 Test #2

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Problem #4 (14%)
(a) Using Lewis notation draw two water (H2O) molecules oriented so that bonding between them is enabled. On your sketch label one primary bond and one secondary bond.


(b) Name the type of primary bonding operative in water. (2%) (c) Name three types of secondary bonding operative in water. (5%)

Problem #5 (10%)
A gas mixture consists of He, H2, and Cl2. Starting from first to last, state the order in which these three substances condense from the gas phase upon cooling from room temperature. Refer to the periodic table for your data. Justify your answer with reference to the operative chemical bonding.