max
= 30 + A + B + C (A  Angularity, B  Grading, C  N blows)
Clay soils
In the long term,
clays behave as
granular soils
exhibiting friction
and dilation.
Concrete Basements
7 Calculation of lateral earth pressures
Examples:
1. Active pressures
2. Atrest pressures
3. Surcharge from
imposed loads
4. Surcharge from
pad foundation
5. Compaction
pressures
Concrete Basements
8 Design for Ultimate Limit State
EQU Equilibrium Limit State
STR & GEO Structural and geotechnical Limit States
Combinations 1 and 2
F
for ground water
o Normal
F
= 1.35
o Most unfavourable
F
= 1.20
Structural design
o As normal elements
o 3D nature of design
Concrete Basements
9 Design for Serviceability Limit State
Control of cracking
9.1 Causes of cracking and general principles of crack control
9.2 General principles of crack control and minimum reinforcement
9.3 Sequence for verification of cracking
9.4 Test for restraint cracking
9.5 Minimum reinforcement
9.6 Crack widths and watertightness
9.7 Crack width calculations
9.8 Crack control without direct calculation
9.9 Deflection control
9.10 Minimising the risk of cracking
Concrete Basements
9 Design for Serviceability Limit State
9.1 Causes of cracking and general principles of crack control:
9.1.1 Early thermal effects
9.1.2 Autogenous and drying shrinkage
9.1.3 Restraints
9.1.4 Cracking due to restraint (early thermal and shrinkage
effects)
9.1.5 Cracking due to flexure
9.1.6 Cracking due to combinations of restraint and loading
Assumed that target limiting crack widths will give satisfactory
performance
9.2 General principles of crack control and minimum reinforcement
Provision of minimum reinforcement does not guarantee any
specific crack width. It is simply a necessary amount presumed by
models to control cracking; but not necessarily a sufficient amount
to limit actual crack widths.
Concrete Basements
9 Design for Serviceability Limit State
9.3 Sequence for verification of cracking
8 Design for ULS
9.4 Check whether section is likely to crack
9.5 Check minimum reinforcement
9.6 Determine limiting crack width
9.7 Calculate crack width
9.7.1 Crack width and crack spacing, w
k
= s
r,max
c
cr
Crack inducing strain:
9.7.2 c
cr
due to edge restraint and early thermal effects.
9.7.3 c
cr
due to edge restraint and long term effects
9.7.4 c
cr
due to end restraint
9.7.5 c
cr
due to flexure (and applied tension)
9.7.6 c
cr
due to a combination of restraint and loading
Concrete Basements
9 Design for Serviceability Limit State
9.4 Test for restraint cracking
A section will crack if:
c
r
= R
ax
c
free
= K[([o
c
T
1
+c
ca
) R
1
+ ([o
c
T
2
R
2
) + c
cd
R
3
]
> c
ctu
where
K = allowance for creep
= 0.65 when R is calculated using CIRIA C660
= 1.0 when R is calculated using BS EN 19923
o
c
= coefficient of thermal expansion (See CIRIA C660 for values). See Table A6 for typical values
T
1
= difference between the peak temperature of concrete during hydration and ambient
temperature C (See CIRIA C660). Typical values are noted in Table A7
c
ca
= Autogenous shrinkage strain value for early age (3 days: see Table A9)
R
1
, R
2
,
R
3
= restraint factors. See Section A5.6
For edge restraint from Figure L1 of BS EN 19923 for short and longterm thermal and long
term drying situations. For basewall restraint they may be calculated in accordance with
CIRIA C660. Figure L1 may be used with CIRIA C660 methods providing an adjustment for
creep is made (See Figure A2 and note).
For end restraint, where the restraint is truly rigid 1.0 is most often used, for instance in infill
bays. This figure might be overly pessimistic for piled slabs.
T
2
= longterm drop in temperature after concreting,
C. T
2
depends on the ambient temperature
during concreting. The recommended values from CIRIA C660 for T
2
are 20C for concrete cast
in the summer and 10C for concrete cast in winter. These figures are based on HA BD
28/87
[60]
based on monthly air temperatures for exposed bridges. Basements are likely to
follow soil temperatures so T
2
= 12C may be considered appropriate at depth.
c
cd
c
ctu
=
=
drying shrinkage strain, dependent on ambient RH, cement content and member size (see BS
EN 199211 Exp. (3.9) or CIRIA C660 or Table A10). CIRIA C660 alludes to 45% RH for internal
conditions and 85% for external conditions.
tensile strain capacity may be obtained from Eurocode 2 or CIRIA C660 for both short term and
long term values
Concrete Basements
9 Design for Serviceability Limit State
9.5 Minimum reinforcement
A
s,min
= k
c
k A
ct
(f
ct,eff
/f
yk
)
where
k
c
=
=
A coefficient to account for stress distribution.
1.0 for pure tension.
When cracking first occurs the cause is usually early thermal effects and the whole section is likely
to be in tension.
k =
=
A coefficient to account for selfequilibrating stresses
1.0 for thickness h < 300 mm and 0.65 for h > 800 mm (interpolation allowed for thicknesses
between 300 mm and 800 mm).
A
ct
= area of concrete in the tension zone just prior to onset of cracking. A
ct
is determined from section
properties but generally for basement slabs and walls is most often based on full thickness of the
section.
f
ct,eff
== f
ctm
mean tensile strength when cracking may be first expected to occur:
for early thermal effects 3 days
for longterm effects, 28 days (which considered to be a reasonable approximation)
See Table A5 for typical values.
f
yk
=
=
characteristic yield strength of the reinforcement.
500 MPa
[1]
CIRIA C660 Recent research
[61]
would suggest that a factor of 0.8 should be applied to f
ct,eff
in the formula for crack
inducing strain due to end restraint. This factor accounts for longterm loading, insitu strengths compared with laboratory
strengths and the fact that the concrete will crack at its weakest point. TR 59
[62]
concludes that the tensile strength of
concrete subjected to sustained tensile stress reduces with time to 6070% of its instantaneous value.
The area of reinforcement obtained using this value may well
need increasing during the remaining design process
Table 9.2 Tightness Classes
Concrete Basements
9 Design for Serviceability Limit State
9.6 Crack widths and watertightness
Tightness Classes notes:
Concrete Basements
9 Design for Serviceability Limit State
9.6 Crack widths and watertightness
Concrete Basements
9 Design for Serviceability Limit State
9.6 Crack widths and watertightness recommendations
Table 9.4
Summary of crack width recommendations
Construction
type
a
and water
table
Expected
performance of
structure
Crack width requirement Tight
ness
Class
w
k
mm
Flex
ural
w
k,max
[9]
Restraint/
axial
w
k,1
[10]
A
Structure itself is not
considered watertight
Design to Tightness class 0 of BS EN 19923. See
Table 9.2. Generally 0.3 mm for RC structure
0 0.30 0.30
e
B high
permanently high
water table
Structure is almost
watertight
Design to Tightness class 1 of BS EN 19923. See
Table 9.2. Generally 0.3 mm for flexural cracks
but 0.2 mm to 0.05 mm for cracks that pass
through the section
1 0.30
b
0.05 to
0.20
(wrt h
d
/h)
B variable
fluctuating water
table
Structure is almost
watertight
Design to Tightness class 1 of BS EN 19923. See
Table 9.2. Generally 0.3 mm for flexural cracks
but 0.2 mm for cracks that pass through the
section
1
c
0.30
b
0.20
B low
d
water table
permanently below
underside of slab
Structure is watertight
under normal conditions.
Some risk under
exceptional conditions.
Design to Tightness class 0 of BS EN 19923. See
Table 9.2. Generally 0.3 mm for RC structures
0
c
0.30 0.30
C
Structure itself is not
considered watertight
Design to Tightness class 0 of BS EN 19923. See
Table 9.2. Generally 0.3 mm for RC structure.
Design to Tightness Class 1 may be helpful for
construction type C
0
(1)
c
0.30
(0.3)
0.30
e
(0.05 to 0.20
or 0.20)
Key b Where the section is not fully cracked) the neutral axis depth at SLS should be at least x
min
(where x
min
> max {50 mm or 0.2 section
thickness}) and variations in strain should be less than 150 10
6
.
Concrete Basements
9 Design for Serviceability Limit State
9.7 Crack width calculations
9.7.1 Crack width, w
k
= s
r,max
c
cr
where
s
r,max
= Maximum crack spacing = 3.4c + 0.425 (k
1
k
2
 /
p,eff
)
c
cr
= Crackinducing strain
= (Restrained strain effect of crack formation)
over 2 debonding lengths
= (Mean strain in steel mean strain in concrete)
over 2 debonding lengths
= (c
cs

c
cm
). . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
where
c = nominal cover, c
nom
k
1
= 0.8
(CIRIA C660 suggests 1.14)
k
2
=
=
=
1.0 for tension (e.g. from restraint)
0.5 for bending
(c
1
+ c
2
)/2c
1
for combinations of bending and tension
 = diameter of the bar in mm.
p,eff
= A
s
/A
c,eff
A
c,eff
for each face of a wall is based on {0.5h; 2.5(c + 0.5); (h x)/3}
where
h = thickness of section
x = depth to neutral axis.
sm
cm
= 0
sm
cm
= 0
S
r,max
S
0
S
0
S
0
S
0
Consider a crack in a section:
c
sm
 c
cm
sm
cm
= 0
sm
cm
= 0
S
r,max
S
0
S
0
S
0
S
0
c
ctu
Strain
Plan (or section)
Strain in reinforcement
Strain in concrete
sm
cm
= 0
sm
cm
= 0
S
r,max
S
0
S
0
S
0
S
0
Concrete Basements
sm
cm
= 0
sm
cm
= 0
S
r,max
S
0
S
0
S
0
S
0
sm
c
s
cm
= 0
sm
c
s
cm
= 0
S
r,max
S0 S0 S0 S0
s
r,max
w
k
= s
r,max
c
cr
Concrete Basements
9 Design for Serviceability Limit State
c
cr
= Crackinducing strain = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.2 Early age crackinducing strain
c
cr
= K[o
c
T
1
+c
ca
 R
1
0.5 c
ctu
9.7.3 Long term crackinducing strain
c
cr
=K[([o
c
T
1
+c
ca
) R
1
+([o
c
T
2
R
2
) + c
cd
R
3
] 0.5 c
ctu
9.7.4 End restraint crackinducing strain
c
cr
= 0.5o
e
k
c
kf
ct,eff
[1 + (1/o
e
) /E
s
9.7.5 Flexural (and applied tension) crackinducing strain
c
cr
= (c
sm
c
cm
) = [o
s
k
t
(f
ct,eff
/
p,eff
) (1 + o
e
p,eff
 /E
s
c
cr
> 0.6 (o
s
)/E
s
Concrete Basements
9 Design for Serviceability Limit State
9.8 Crack control without direct calculation
dont do it!
9.9 Deflection control
As normal design
9.10 Minimising the risk of cracking
9.10.1 Materials use cement replacements, aggregates with low ac, avoid high strength concretes
9.10.2 Construction construct at low temperatures, use GRP or steel formwork, sequential pours
9.10.3 Detailing use small bars at close centres, avoid movement joints, prestress?
Concrete Basements
10 Worked Example
Concrete Basements
10 Worked Example
Commentary:
In slab 53T : end restraint critical
In walls 10T: edge restraint critical
Iterations required/ refinements: f
ct,eff
, o
e
, o
ct
= 0.8, end restraint, concrete,
construction methodology
Use CIRIA C660 rather than BS EN 19923
Concrete Basements
11 Specification and construction details
11.1 Specification:
BS EN 13670
NSCS / NBS
ICE specification for piling and embedded retaining walls
11.2 Joints
Construction joints
Water stops
11.3 Miscellaneous
Kickers
Formwork ties
Membranes & coatings
Admixtures & additives
Service penetrations
Drainage
Underpinning
11.4 Inspection, remedials & maintenance
Preformed strips PVC, black steel
Waterswellable water stops
(Re) injectable epoxy water bars
Concrete Basements
12 Case studies
Concrete Basements
References
Concrete Basements
Appendix A: Design data
A1 Combination factors
A2 Design angle of shearing resistance
A3 Pressure coefficients K
ad
and K
pd
A4 Bending moment coefficients for rectangular plates
A5 Design data for crack width formulae
A5.1 f
ctm
( f
ct,eff
), mean tensile strengths of concretes
A5.2 o
c
, coefficient of thermal expansion
A5.3 T
1
, difference between the peak temperature of concrete
during hydration and ambient temperature C
A5.4 c
ca
, autogenous shrinkage strain
A5.5 c
cd
, drying shrinkage strain
A5.6 R, restraint factors
A5.7 c
ctu
, tensile strain capacity of concrete
A5.8 Moduli of elasticity of concrete Ecm and modular ratio, a
e
Concrete Basements
Appendix B: Neutral Axes and SLS stresses
B1 Neutral axis at SLS (cracked
section and no axial stress)
B2 SLS stresses in concrete,
c
and
reinforcement,
s
(cracked
section and no axial stress)
B2.1 Singly reinforced section
B2.2 Doubly reinforced section
B3 SLS stresses in concrete,
c
, and
in reinforcement,
s
due to
flexure and axial load (cracked
section)
Concrete Basements
This guide covers the design and
construction of reinforced concrete
basements and is in accordance with
the Eurocodes.
The aim of the guide is to assist designers of
concrete basements of modest depth, i.e.
not exceeding 10 metres. It will also prove
relevant to designers of other underground
structures. It brings together in one
publication the salient features for the
design and construction of such water
resisting structures.
The guide has been written for generalist
structural engineers who have a basic
understanding of soil mechanics.
Concrete
Basements
Guidance on the design and
construction of insitu concrete
basement structures
Thank you