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Network engineering for mobile networks

Salah Eddine El Ayoubi Orange Labs


salaheddine.elayoubi@orange.com
2013

outline

objective: ensuring QoS in mobile networks coverage in mobile networks dimensioning radio interface for capacity

Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

coverage targets

mobile operators have to ensure complete coverage:


minimize white zones cover villages as well as cities cover routes

limited coverage of any base station:


limited power loss due to propagation

Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

cellular networks
each base station covers a cell / sector large cells required to reduce costs, however:
degraded QoS at cell edge: coverage problems many users served: capacity problems

Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

What is spectrum ?
radio waves are characterized by their frequency, measured in Hertz (Hz) spectrum is the continuous aggregation of these frequencies f1 f2 f3

30 MHz

300 MHz

3 GHz

30 GHz

VHF

UHF

SHF

the operator buys an amount of frequency from the regulator of each country
a set of contiguous frequencies is called a carrier each operator has a limited number of carriers each carrier has a limited capacity in terms of number of users that can be served, as we will see next
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Operator dilemma
coverage is not the only criterion:
QoS in coverage areas is important

QoS includes:
access rate good communication probability throughput

operator target:
ensure coverage target and QoS with lowest costs

operator dilemma:
low cost -> large cells -> more users in each cell -> more spectrum needed spectrum is limited and too costly

Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

example of network deployment

exercise

Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

Challenges related to spectrum

f1

f2

f3

30 MHz

300 MHz

3 GHz

30 GHz

VHF

UHF

SHF

frequency=speed of light / wavelength different challenges when using different frequency bands large frequency -> small wavelength -> low penetration of obstacles low frequency -> large wavelength -> large antennas needed
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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

Main guidelines when managing spectrum


Frequencies that are usable for cellular networking are between 400 MHz and 5 GHz Low frequencies are used when there is a need for large coverage, e.g. in rural areas. High frequencies are used when there is a need for large capacity, e.g. in urban areas.
coverage

Coverage frequencies

Capacity frequencies

Coverage too small

Terminal too big

400

1000

5000

Frequency (MHz)

Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

High demand

Limited resource

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

How to share spectrum

f3

f3

f1

f1

f2

f3

f1

f2

f2

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

outline

objective: ensuring QoS in mobile networks coverage in mobile networks dimensioning radio interface for capacity

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

link budget
link budget objective
maximum distance between a user and its serving base station while guaranteeing a given quality of service

equipment parameters

propagation model

received signals

SINR

cell range

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Salah Eddine EL AYOUBI June 2010

equipment parameters
determine gains and losses due to equipments.

antenna gain GA:


directivity of antenna amplifies the signal in some directions.

feeder loss LF:


due to the cable between amplifier and antenna.

for an emitted power Pmax:

Pmax GA useful power = LF


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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

propagation model
link budget objective
maximum distance between a user and its serving base station while guaranteeing a given quality of service

equipment parameters

propagation model

received signals

SINR

cell range

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Salah Eddine EL AYOUBI June 2010

use of propagation models

Ptx pathloss pathloss C I

Ptx

Serving BS

Interfering BS

propagation models allow to compute:


The received signal power ( coverage maps) The interfering power ( QoS maps)

a propagation model is the first building block of (almost) any radio planning tool

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

path loss models


free space propagation
4D 4Df Pathloss = = c
2 2

only valid for line of sight, without multimulti-path these conditions are not met in cellular networks

statistical models (e.g. Okumura-Hata)

Pathloss[dB ] = A + B log(D ) with 20 B 40

e.g. urban environment

simple models with A & B statistically tuned for typical environments (urban, etc.) no geographical data required useful for dimensioning
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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

received signals
link budget objective
maximum distance between a user and its serving base station while guaranteeing a given quality of service

equipment parameters

propagation model

received signals

SINR

cell range

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Salah Eddine EL AYOUBI June 2010

received signals
for a user situated at distance d from a base station:

Pmax GA received power = LF PL(d )


PL(d)=path loss at distance d

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

SINR
link budget objective
maximum distance between a user and its serving base station while guaranteeing a given quality of service

equipment parameters

propagation model

received signals

SINR

cell range

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Salah Eddine EL AYOUBI June 2010

interference in the dowlink


interference is received by the mobile from the base stations: it depends on the position of the mobile in the cell cell-edge users are subject to higher interference because they are closer to interferers.

observations:
the origin of interference is well defined. the intensity of this interference is to be calculated.

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

interference in the uplink


interference is received by the base station from the mobiles in adjacent cells: it is independent from the position of the mobile in the cell. it depends on the distribution of mobiles in interfering cells.

observations:
the average interference is uniform for all mobiles. the position of interferers is unknown.

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

SINR calculations

collisions decrease the Signal to Interference Ratio (SINR):

received power SINR = received interference + noise


a lower SINR means a larger Bit Error Rate (BER):
degraded QoS

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cell range
link budget objective
maximum distance between a user and its serving base station while guaranteeing a given quality of service

equipment parameters

propagation model

received signals

SINR

cell range

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Salah Eddine EL AYOUBI June 2010

maximal cell range


for a good reception, the SINR must be larger than a target:
SINR>SINRtarget

for a given cell range R, calculate the SINR at cell edge:


SINR(R) for a larger R, SINR degrades as received power becomes lower compared to noise

the optimal cell range is the largest R so that


SINR(R)>SINRtarget

in general, the limiting link for coverage is the uplink as mobiles have low emitted powers.

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

example coverage of a cell

exercise

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

outline

objective: ensuring QoS in mobile networks coverage in mobile networks dimensioning radio interface for capacity

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

Erlang-like capacity
need to install resources:
that insures a Quality of Service (QoS) for users example: number of frequency carriers per cell

user perceived QoS includes:


blocking rates for real-time calls download time for FTP-like users

this is called Erlang-like capacity:


reference to mathematician Agner Krarup Erlang

example Erlang-B law.

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Erlang-B law
Erlang table probability of call loss:
100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5

B
0.0001 0.001 0.01

c B=blocking rate E=traffic intensity C= number of circuits Each call uses one circuit

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85

A simple Erlang calculator can be found at:

http://perso.rd.francetelecom.fr/bonald/Applets/erlang.html

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the race for bit rates in mobile networks


Mobility

1995

2000

2005

2012

Wide Area Mobility

HSDPA HSDPA GSM GPRS EDGE EDGE UMTS UMTS HSUPA

HSPA HSPA ++

LTE

4G? 4G?

Mobile DVB-x TV 802.16m


Short range Mobility

B3G

Fixed Fix Wimax


Fixed

WLAN WLAN

Data Rate
10kbps 100kbps 1Mbps 10Mbps 100Mbps

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

outline

objective: ensuring QoS in mobile networks coverage in mobile networks dimensioning radio interface for capacity
GSM UMTS LTE

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

GSM operation
the spectrum assigned to GSM is divided into sub-bands of 200 KHZ each. the subbands cannot be used in adjacent cells
due to inter-cell interference a frequency reuse map is necessary

1/3 of sub-bands used in each cell

1/7 of sub-bands used in each cell a transmitter (a dedicated amplifier) is necessary for each subband in the cell.
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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

Time Division Multiple Access operation


several frequency sub-bands of 200 KHZ each each sub-band is allocated for different users at different times the time frame of 4.62 ms is divided into 8 time slots
but the transmitter serves up to 7 users (one TS for signalling)

Transmitters

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Time slots

example capacity of a GSM cell

exercise

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

outline

objective: ensuring QoS in mobile networks coverage in mobile networks dimensioning radio interface for capacity
GSM UMTS physical layer capacity calculations LTE

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

Code Division Multiple Access


everybody transmits at the same time-frequency resources. each transmitter has its own code the receiver decodes the signal and views the others' signals as residual interference.

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

spreading process

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downlink spreading codes


Walsh code: W(0,1) = 1 W(0,2) = 1, 1 W(1,2) = 1,-1 W(0,4) = 1, 1, 1, 1 W(1,4) = 1,-1, 1,-1 W(2,4) = 1, 1,-1,-1 W(3,4) = 1,-1,-1, 1 W(0,8) = 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 W(1,8) = 1,-1, 1,-1, 1,-1, 1,-1 W(2,8) = 1, 1,-1,-1, 1, 1,-1,-1 W(3,8) = 1,-1,-1, 1, 1,-1,-1, 1 W(4,8) = 1, 1, 1, 1,-1,-1,-1,-1 W(5,8) = 1,-1, 1,-1,-1, 1,-1, 1 W(6,8) = 1, 1,-1,-1,-1,-1, 1, 1 W(7,8) = 1,-1,-1, 1,-1, 1, 1,-1

orthogonal codes, as synchronous transmissions problem: multipath propagation that introduces delays

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

UMTS capacity constraint

power of base station limited by Pmax admission control constraint:


n

(P
i =1

max

+ Pmax Fi + N 0 qi ) M i Pmax PCom

intra-cell interference noise intra-cell interference

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

capacity calculations

Exercise

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

general capacity calculation

admission control constraint indicates that there is a resource (power) shared by users of different demands (position+service). traffic c,i (Erlang) in zone i for class c. multi-Erlang analysis is suitable:

1 Pr[ M 1,1 ,..., M C ,n ] = G

c =1 i =1

c,i M c ,i
M c ,i !

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

outline

objective: ensuring QoS in mobile networks coverage in mobile networks dimensioning radio interface for capacity
GSM UMTS LTE

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

outline: LTE

physical layer capacity calculations use case: mobile TV

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

LTE context and E-UTRAN requirements


Expected performance (based on analysis and simulations)
Peak rate (Downlink) (in 20 MHz, FDD) Peak rate (Uplink) (in 20 MHz, FDD) Average cell spectrum efficiency (downlink) Average cell spectrum efficiency (uplink) User plane latency (two way radio delay) Connection setup latency 144 Mbit/s 56 Mbit/s (71 Mbit/s for 64QAM) 1.72 b/s/Hz/cell (8.6 Mbit/s in 5 MHz) 0.7 b/s/Hz/cell (3.5 Mbit/s in 5 MHz) ~ 10 ms < 50 msecs (dormant->active) < 100 msecs (idle ->active) 2 Tx and 2 Rx antennas, 64 QAM modulation, code rate 5/6 1 Tx antenna, 2 Rx antennas 16 QAM modulation, code rate 5/6 2 Tx and 2 Rx antennas MIMO transmission with linear receiver 2 Tx and 2 Rx antennas No Multi-user - MIMO Assumptions: FDD, 30% retransmissions

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

the 3M of LTE Multi-carrier


Frequency dimension Allow for spectrum flexibility and higher bandwidths. Data rate = Bandwidth [Hz] x Spectrum efficiency [bps/Hz]

Multi-antenna (MIMO)
Spatial dimension Higher spectrum efficiencies Information Theory: Max. spectrum efficiency increases linearly with the number of antennas.

Multi-Layer
Cross-layer optimization (PHY, MAC, RLC) Packet oriented radio interface Low latencies and higher spectrum efficiencies.

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

multi-carrier the frequency dimension Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)


Facilitates equalization at the receiver Divides bandwidth in narrowband sub-carriers

OFDM Access (OFDMA) provides flexibility for resource allocation Time-frequency resources can be allocated to data and control channels
Frequency L1/L2 Control User A User B

Spectrum allocation 1.25 - 20 MHz

Time

1ms sub-frame (LTE DL)


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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

Multi-antenna the spatial dimension (1/2) MIMO increases spectrum efficiency

NTX

NRX

Theoretical Maximum: Spectrum Eff. = min(NTX, NRX) x Single antenna Eff.

Yes but
Additional antenna branches are costly especially on the terminal side Achievable rates highly depend on propagation conditions Mobile feedback required for high rates -> limitation of supported speeds

Different and adaptive solutions required depending on the deployment scenario (coverage vs. rate trade-off).
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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

Multi-antenna the spatial dimension (2/2) multi-antenna mechanisms in E-UTRAN downlink


Space diversity for improved robustness of common control channels and for users with high speed and/or low rate Beamforming for coverage limited deployments Spatial multiplexing for high rates near the base station Adaptive selection of number of layers. Spatial multiplexing of users in scenarios with high user density and low rate traffic
C) Spatial multiplexing -> Increased throughput D) Multi-user beamforming (SDMA) -> Increased capacity A) Transmit diversity -> Increased robustness B) Beamforming -> Increased coverage

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

Multi-layer Fast packet scheduling Cross-layer design (Layer 1 Layer 2)


Fast fading Transmission time user throughput Fixed ressource allocation User 1

~
Achievable Throughput

Circuit oriented and layered design

Time
global throughput Multi-user diversity gain bad Time good

User 2

Fast fading

~
Achievable Throughput

User 1 Intelligent scheduling with feedback User 2

Packet oriented and cross layer design

Usage of terminal feedback for resource allocation and phy-layer configuration Cross-layer mechanisms already implemented in HSDPA. Extension to frequency adaptive scheduling and adaptive MIMO transmission
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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

no intra-cell interference, but inter-cell interference remains an issue

no intra-cell interference as chunks are orthogonal inter-cell interference is due to collisions between chunks used in different cells

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

link budget for throughput calculations


link budget objective
maximum distance between a user and its serving base station while guaranteeing a given quality of service

equipment parameters

propagation model

received signals

SINR

throughput

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Salah Eddine EL AYOUBI June 2010

link level curves


provide throughput vs SNR curves according to:
multiple antenna use (SISO, MIMO) channel model (AWGN, Vehicular A, ..) speed

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

main output is the throughput versus distance


stand-alone user throughput as a function of the distance to the base station

Max throughput
DL Cell Throughput versus Distance 18000 16000 DL Cell Throughput (Kbps) 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0,000

0,050

0,100 0,150 Distance (Km)

0,200

0,250

Throughput @ cell edge

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interference calculations

Exercise

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outline: LTE

physical layer capacity calculations use case: mobile TV

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

how can link budget help capacity analysis?


link budget gives the throughput vs distance:
throughput depends on position

cell can be decomposed into rings:


To simplify analysis Homogeneous throughput in each ring
DL Cell Throughput versus Distance 18000 16000 D LC ell Throughput (K bps) 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0,000

0,050

0,100 0,150 Distance (Km)

0,200

0,250

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

voice traffic: multi-Erlang analysis


Consider voice traffic
Calls arrive with Poisson rate Stay in communication for an average time T=3min Require each 20 Kbps, or are blocked otherwise.

Example: 2 rings
1 Mbps for cell center, 500 Kbps for cell edge One cell center (edge) user occupies 2% (4%) of the resources Admission control constraint: 2*Kcenter+4*Kedge<100

Multi-Erlang analysis can be used to assess capacity:


Several classes corresponding to the number of rings Gives blocking rates

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

best effort traffic: average cell throughput


Consider best effort traffic
Calls arrive with Poisson rate Stay connected until transmitting a file of average size 1 Mbits

Example: 2 rings
1 Mbps for cell center, 500 Kbps for cell edge One cell center (edge) user stays in average 1 second (2 seconds) in the cell until transmitting its file the time necessary for the two users to transmit their files is 1+2=3 seconds Within these three seconds, the volume of data transferred is equal to 2 files= 2 Mbit. The average throughput of the cell is then: T=2 Mbit/3 second=667 Kbps

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

best effort traffic: Arithmetic versus harmonic mean


The arithmetic mean of the throughput is:
Tarith=(1 Mbps+0.5 Mbps)/2=750 Kbps

This is different from the average throughput calculated previously. However, this corresponds to the harmonic mean:
Tharm={[(1 Mbps)-1+(0.5 Mbps)-1]/2}-1=667 Kbps

This harmonic mean gives larger weights for cell edge users as they stay longer in the cell The harmonic mean is convenient to measure the cell throughput

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

best effort traffic: Harmonic mean calculations


DL Cell Throughput versus Distance 18000 16000 D LC ell Throughput (K bps) 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0,000

0,050

0,100 0,150 Distance (Km)

0,200

0,250

Represents the maximal traffic that can be carried by the cell. Used since the paper of Bonald el al., 2003.

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

best effort traffic: Processor sharing


Objective:
Estimate QoS for a given traffic

Data users share the remaing resources


not used by streaming and voice ones (priority to streaming/voice) Fair in time, but not fair in throughput

Processor sharing analysis can be used to assess capacity:


Several classes corresponding to the number of rings Gives average individual throughput at each position of the cell.

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general model with a service mix


predict the QoS based on marketing traffic forecasts. determine the number of resources needed to ensure a target QoS.
streaming traffic multi-Erlang data traffic category distribution PS data QoS streaming QoS

throughput pdf (link budget)


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outline: LTE

physical layer capacity calculations use case: mobile TV

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

Use case: TV traffic


mobile TV traffic expected to explode
TV traffic evolution 8 7
6

unicast too greedy in resources:


spectrum resources

carriers of 5 MHz

Erlang

5 4 3 2 1 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

15

0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

broadcast solution
Point to Multipoint is the solution adapt to radio conditions QPSK 1/2 16QAM 1/2 16QAM 3/4 64QAM 3/4

transmit with QPSK advantage: simple drawback: suboptimal

transmit with 16QAM advantage: optimal drawback: needs feedback

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

total broadcast: Single Frequency Network


if every body is watching TV
why not cooperating all base stations?

Interference is seen as a multipath propagation drawback: tight synchronization between cells is needed
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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

Delay and multipath impact


Weight function for the constructive portion of a received SFN signal:

w(delay ) = 1 if 0 delay TCP w(delay ) = TCP + Tu delay Tu if TCP < delay < TCP + Tu

w(delay ) = 0 if TCP + Tu < delay


w(delay) 1

Tcp

Tu+Tcp

delay

Take into consideration of multipath propagation in the calculation

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

SINR calculation
Based on the weight function w() and the multipath table, the following equation for calculating average SINR per subcarrier for a MBSFN user M(r, ) in cell 0 is derived: DL N 6

j = 0 p =1

w( d ( M , j ) + dm ( p )) rm ( p) Psubc PLDL M,j PLDL M,j

SINRsubc ( M ) =
where:

j = 0 p =1

DL (1 w( d ( M , j ) + dm ( p )) ) rm ( p ) Psubc

+ N th

Shadowing is also to be considered.


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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

comparing mobile TV deployment strategies


when TV traffic increases
unicasting it will be disastrous on other services single-cell broadcast (PtM) with modulation adaptation is a good intermediate solution total broadcast (MBSFN) is the best solution

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering

comparing mobile TV deployment strategies

exercise

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Salah Eddine Elayoubi Mobile Network Engineering