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Adverbial Clause

An adverbial clause is a clause that has a function as an adverb so it describes or adds to the meaning of a verb(verb modifier), an adjective and another adverb. Example : I went to party yesterday. I went to the party on Sunday. I went to the party before I left for Calgary. first yesterday as an adverb, on Sunday as an adverb phrase and before I left for Calgary is an adverb clause or adverbial clause. An adverbial clause is a dependent clause with subject and verb, an adverb clause also find a subordinate conjuction that keeps the clause from expressing a complete thought. So, an adverbial clause can answers the question How?, When? and Why?. There are the seven type of adverbial clause based on the meaning of their conjunction.

1. Adverb Clause of time


These clauses are used to say when something happens by referring to a period of time or to another event. These clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctions when, whenever, while, as, before, after, till, until, since , as soon as, by the time, no sooner than, etc Example: Shut the door before you go out. While she was walking home, she met her old friend. By the time I arrive, Citra will have left. No sooner had she entered than he gave an order. I will stay with you until your mother comes home.

2. Adverb Clause of Place


These clauses are used to talk about the location or position of something. This clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctions where, nowhere, anywhere, whenever etc Example : They sat down whenever they could find empty seats. The guard stood where he was positioned. Where there is a will, there is the way. He travels wherever he likes.

3. Adverb Clause of Contrast (or Concession)


These clauses are used to make two statements, one of which contrasts with the other or makes it seem surprising. This clauses are introduced by subordinate

conjunctions although, though, even though, whereas, even if, in spite of, as the time , despite etc Uses : 1. Although, Though & Even though + a clause (Subject + Verb) 2. In spite of & Despite + a noun, a pronoun/V-ing 3. In spite of & Despite are almost the same in usage. Example : as the time you were sleeping, we were working hard. He is very friendly, even if he is a clever student. Though she is poor, she is happy. Although Gerry has a Masters degree, he works as a store clerk. Despite the bad taste, they eat all the eggs. Concession can have an initial an a final position ( before or after main clause) Although he has plenty of money, he doesnt spent much. He doesnt spent much, although he has plenty of money. Contrast can also be expressed with the adverb though . when though is used as an adverb, it always appears at the end of the sentence. We were at the school together. I havent seen her for 2 years though. Contrast can also expressed with adverb (however), coordinating conjunction (but, yet) and preposition (despite and in spite of) . Example : In spite of feelling ill, she come to work.

4. Adverb Clause Of Manner


These clauses are used to talk about someone's behaviour or the way something is done. This clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctions as, how, like,in that, as though, as if etc Example : Please do as I have told you. You may finish it how you like. That dog is walking around like he owns the place. He cries as if he were mad. He speaks as though he were the boss.

5. Adverb Clause of Purpose and Result


These clauses are used to indicate the purpose and the result of an action. Usually indicated by subordinate conjunctions (in order) that, so that, in the hope that, to the end that, lest etc Example : They went to the move early (in order) to find the best seats.

He is saving his money so that he may take a long vacation. I am working night and day in the hope that I can finish this book soon.

6. Adverb Clause of Cause and Effect


These clauses are use to indicate relationships between cause and effect. There some example about how to make adverbial clause of cause and effect. a) Use formula (So + adj/adv + that)and (such + adj/a + noun + that) It was so cold yesterday that I didnt want to swim. The student so badly that he was dismissed from the class. It was such an interesting book that he couldnt put it down. She has such exceptional abilities that everyone is jealous of her. b) Use a preposition ( because of, due to, due to the fact that) Due to the cold weather, we stayed home. c) Use a conjunction ( because, since, that, as, as long as, inasmuch as) Because he was sleepy, he went to bed. Inasmuch as the two government leaders could not reach an agreement, the possibilities for peace are still remote. d) Use transition words like therefore, consequently Edi failed the test because he didnt study. Edy didnt study. Therefore, he failed the test. Edy didnt study. Consequently, he failed the test.

7. Adverb Clause of Condition These clauses are used to talk about a possible or counterfactual situation and its consequences, usually use conjunctions like if, even if, unless, in the even that (or in even that), in case, provided (that), on condition that, if only, suppose (that) etc. Example : In case a robbery occurs in the hotel, the management must be notified at once. She would forgive her boyfriend, if only he would come back to her. Unless you run fast, you will miss the train.

Modifying Phrases
a) Some adverb clauses may be changed to modifying phrases. The way is the same changing adjective clause: Omit the subject and the be form of the verb of the dependant clause If there is no be form of a verb, omit the subject and change the verb to -ing adverb clause cant be changed to a modifying clause because the two clauses have different subjects

Example : Adverb clause : Before I left for work, I ate breakfast. Modifying phrase : before leaving for work, I ate breakfast. While Frank was reading, he felt very upset. While reading, Frank felt very upset. Sometimes while in modifying phrases is omitted but the -ing phrase at the beginning of the sentence gives the same meaning (= during the same time). Example : While he was reading, he felt very upset. While reading, he felt very upset. Reading, he felt very upset. b) Expressing cause and effect relationships in modifying phrases. Because is not used in a modifying phrase. It is omitted, but the resulting phrase expresses a cause and effect relationship. Because he worked, he didnt come to attend the speech. Working, he didnt come to attend the speech. Often an -ing phrase at the beginning of a sentence gives the meaning of because. Because she has moved, she doesnt remember the way to the market. Having moved, she doesnt remember the way to the market. Having + past participle gives the meaning not only of because, but also of before.

Dian Nita Citra D Gregorius Bagas Intan Nuroniyah Lilis Triyowati

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Program Study Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF BRAWIJAYA


December, 2011

Example : Adverb clause : Before I left for work, I ate breakfast. Modifying phrase : before leaving for work, I ate breakfast. While Frank was reading, he felt very upset. While reading, Frank felt very upset. Sometimes while in modifying phrases is omitted but the -ing phrase at the beginning of the sentence gives the same meaning (= during the same time). Example : While he was reading, he felt very upset. While reading, he felt very upset. Reading, he felt very upset. c) Expressing cause and effect relationships in modifying phrases. Because is not used in a modifying phrase. It is omitted, but the resulting phrase expresses a cause and effect relationship. Because he worked, he didnt come to attend the speech. Working, he didnt come to attend the speech. Often an -ing phrase at the beginning of a sentence gives the meaning of because. Because she has moved, she doesnt remember the way to the market. Having moved, she doesnt remember the way to the market. Having + past participle gives the meaning not only of because, but also of before.

Task ! 1. try to make 5 sentences using an adverbial clause! 2. make a sentence using despite and in spite of! 3. make a sentence using sothat and suchthat

Presented By Group 9 : Dian Nita Citra D Gregorius Bagas Intan Nuroniyah Lilis Triyowati