EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The need for consumer protection arises due to the helplessness of the consumers. They don‘t exercise their rights due to lack of awareness. Exploitation in market place happens in various ways. E.G-sometimes traders indulge in unfair trade practices such as when shopkeepers weight less than what they should or when traders add charges that were not mentioned before or when adulterated goods are sold. • The main aim of consumer protection is to provide better and all round protection to consumers. • The six consumer rights were included in the Consumer Protection Act 1986. Consumer movement in the present form came into being only in the 1930's in the West and only in the 60's in India. The basic objectives of consumer movement world wide are as follows : • • • To provide opportunity to the consumers to buy intelligently J - Recognition of reasonable consumer requests 6 Protection against fraud, misrepresentation, unsanitary and unjust products • Participation of consumer representatives in management of aspects affecting • • consumers Promoting consumers interests

The basic reason for the development of consumer movement in India are different from those in the West. In western countries, consumer movement was the result of post-industrialisation affluence-for more information about the merits of competing products and to influence producers especially for new and more sophisticated products. In India, the basic reasons for the consumers movement have been:  Shortage of consumer products; inflation of early 1970's.  Adulteration and the Black Market.  Lack of product choices due to lack of development in technology  Thrust of consumer movement in India has been on availability, purity and prices The factors which stimulated the consumer movement in recent years are:  Increasing consumer awareness  Declining quality of goods and services  Increasing consumer ,expectations because of consumer education  Influence of the pioneers and leaders of the consumer movement.  Organised effort through consumer societies

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE .

 To take up activities such as conducting seminars. . advertisement. (for creating awareness among the consumers about) the unfair trade practices adopted by the unscrupulous traders and service providers. leaflets. visual display. purity. standard and price of goods and types of services available in the market.  To collect information about the quality. workshops. 1986 is to protect the interest and safeguard the rights of the consumers which are as follows:   To promote consumer awareness among the people of the country. To protect the rights of the consumers in the State and make them aware of their duties (while purchasing.RESEARCH OBJECTIVE The main objective of the Consumer Protection Act. various goods and availing services)  To create awareness among the consumers about the Consumer Protection Act 1986 and other related Acts / Provisions through which grievances of consumers can be redressed. brochures programmes in electronic media etc. quantity. potency. consumer camps.  To render consultancy and advisory services to the consumers and Consumer Organization‘s to enable them to assert consumer rights and to pursue remedies. booklets. for creating awareness generation about rights responsibility for the consumer.  To seek redressal in the matter of unfair trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers through provisions of law.  To organize library facilities where reference material on consumer rights will be available for reference of general consumers and consumer activists and other who interest on the subject. awareness camps.

Enforcement of consumer legislation. consumer activists and members of general public having interest in protection of consumer rights. To prepare and publish publicity material such as books. . access to a variety of goods and services at competitive prices  Right to be heard and to be assured that consumers' interests will receive due consideration at appropriate forums  Right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices and unscrupulous exploitation of consumers  Right to consumer education.  Right to be protected against the marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property  Right to be informed about the quality. periodicals. standard and price of goods or services so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices  Right to be assured . Education and awareness. journals. quantity.   Establishment of the National Consumer Agency on a statutory basis Updating and consolidating consumer legislation and repealing some old consumer laws   Transposing the EU Directive on Unfair Commercial Practices (UCPD) To take up such other activities as may be incidental to or is required for furtherance of the above objectives.  To function as a State level resource center for voluntary consumer organizations. Advocacy and research. brochures to create awareness among the general people of Orissa on consumer rights. potency. wherever possible . purity.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .

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Research can be classified into two broad categories. a. Basic Research Applied Research Market Research is systematic and objective study of problems relating to the market of goods and services. Research starts with the question or problem. Research Design:  Type of study  Source of data  Data collection mode Exploratory Primary Structure questionnaire . Marketing research is the systematic design. reporting of data and finding the relevant solutions for a specific marketing situation or problem faced by the company. Its purpose is to find out the answers to question through the application or scientific method. It is systematic and intensive study directed to word a more complete knowledge of the subject study.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Various authors have defined it in different way. It is an important tool to study consumer opinion. It may be emphasized that it is not restricted to many particular area of marketing. collection. The systematic and objective search for an analysis is to get the information relevant to the identification and solution of any problems in the field of marketing. Marketing Research is a key of education and analyzes the competitors‘ product positioning and how to gain competitive advance stage. but is applicable to all phases of aspect. b.

In this marketing research survey. And the open-ended questions allow the respondents to answer in their own words. . Statistical Tools:  Pie charts  Tables:  Technological Tools:  Ms. Close ended questions refer to provide two or more possible alternatives to the respondent.Excel  Ms-Word Research Instruments Marketing research has choice of two main research instruments in collecting Primary data. A questionnaire consists of two types of questions close ended and open-ended questions. Tools And Techniques The following tools and techniques were implemented and put to use in order to analyze ably.Sampling Plan: Target population was employees of the various branches including corporate headquarter of The J&K Bank. The questionnaire is the most common instrument used to collect primary data. In our research we have used both types of questions in questionnaire. Sources of Information Both PRIMARY AND SECONDARY data was used for study in questions. This method consists of a set of questions resented to respondents for their answers. I have used a questionnaire method for collecting the data. questionnaire and mechanical devices.

The sources relied upon Ire as under. . b) Verbal information gathered from the target group. Primary Sources a) Written facts and figures collected from target group and other consumers too. and Methods of Contact The method of contact is personal and the respondents are approached with the research instruments. Secondary Sources a) Danikjatgran Website b) Published material in the form of books and periodicals.

INTRODUCTION .

of late. Consumer protection laws are designed to ensure fair trade competition and the free flow of truthful information in the marketplace. We are not doing a favour to a consumer by giving him an opportunity. The laws are designed to prevent businesses that engage in fraud or specified unfair practices . a consumer activist. It is a marketing term which means that consumers are aware of products or services. "A consumer is the most important visitor on our premises. unfortunately cheating by way of overcharging. its characteristics and the other marketing P‘s (place to buy. information. A consumer is someone who can make the decision whether or not to purchase an item at the store. He is not an interruption to our work.Though the first consumer movement began in England after the Second World War. The United Nations in 1985 adopted.INTRODUCTION An individual who buys products or services for personal use and not for manufacture or resale. In this context. safety and to be heard) were recognized. we are on him. is considered as the father of ‗consumer movement‘. . he is the purpose of it. He is doing us a favour by giving us opportunity to serve him. misleading advertisements.marketing. where four basic consumer rights (choice. etc has become the common practice of greedy sellers and manufacturers to make unreasonable profits. March 15 is now celebrated as the World Consumer Rights Day. But. certain guidelines to achieve the objectives of maintaining protection for consumers and to establish high level ethical conduct for those engaged in production and distribution of goods and services. and someone who can be influenced by marketing and advertisements. it is the duty of the government to confer some rights on consumers to safeguard their interest. Consumer awareness is about making the consumer aware of his/her rights. and promotion). price. Ralph Nadar. black . He is not dependent on us. a modern declaration about consumer‘s rights was first made in the United States of America in 1962. Mahatma Gandhi said.

from gaining an advantage over competitors and may provide additional protection for the weak and those unable to take care of themselves. g) Charging more than the Maximum Retail Price (MRP) fixed for the product. Concept of consumer protection: Consumer protection means safeguarding the interest and rights of consumers.. c) Sale of sub-standard goods i. f) Hoarding and black-marketing leading to scarcity and rise in price.e. quality of service lower than the quality agreed upon..e.e. d) Sale of duplicate goods. The most common business malpractices leading to consumer exploitation are given below. it refers to the measures adopted for the protection of consumers from unscrupulous and unethical malpractices by the business and to provide them speedy redressal of their Grievances.e. sale of goods which do not confirm to prescribed quality standards. grade or standard. In other Words.. Consumer Protection laws are a form of government regulation which aim to protect the MADs of consumers. i) Misleading advertisements i. selling something of little value instead of the real product. e) Use of false weights and measures leading to underweight. a) Sale of adulterated goods i. adding something inferior to the product being sold. . advertisements falsely claiming a product or service to be of superior quality.. b) Sale of spurious goods i. j) Supply of inferior services i.e.. h) Supply of defective goods.

the Consumer Guidance Society of India was formed in Mumbai with the object to protect consumers against rising prices of essential commodities. In 1966. Consumer Co-operative Societies like Grahak Panchayat and Government Employees Consumer Stores. testing facilities. He is not dependent on us. The activities of the union include offering legal advice. misleading advertisements. the Indian Standards Institute had arranged a convention at New Delhi. etc has become the common practice of greedy sellers and manufacturers to make unreasonable profits. As per the resolution passed at the convention. In the year 1958. he is the purpose of it. etc. the Consumers Association of India was established in 1959. In the same year on 2nd. to guide and protect Consumer Rights. unfortunately cheating by way of overcharging. Council for Fair Business Practices was formed by leading industrialist like. we are on him.R. .CONSUMER MOVEMENT IN INDIA: Consumers play a vital role in the economic system of a nation because in the absence of effective demand that emanates from them. But. at Ahemadad. They make their purchases directly from producers and sell them at reasonable price to members. 1996. black marketing. of late. J.D Tata and others. "A consumer is the most important visitor on our premises. the economy virtually collapses. He is doing us a favour by giving us opportunity to serve him. We are not doing a favour to a consumer by giving him an opportunity. The Consumer Education and Research Centre were formed in 1978. Mahatma Gandhi said. The Indian Consumer Union was established in 1971. arranging lectures and seminars. are also formed to protect consumers. it is the duty of the government to confer some rights on consumers to safeguard their interests. In this context. He is not an interruption to our work.

Only in urban areas like Mumbai. they may also provide additional protection for the weak and those unable to take care of themselves. the consumer movement is gaining some prominence. lack of active support from political parties and other members of the society. There is hardly any consumer movement in rural areas. and to the formation of consumer organizations. etc. For example. Kolkata.The growth of consumer movement in India is very slow due to several reasons such as. etc. Consumer protection laws are a form of government regulation. Other organizations that promote consumer protection include government organizations and self-regulating business organizations such as consumer protection agencies and organizations. which help consumers make better choices in the marketplace and get help with consumer complaints. which aim to protect the rights of consumers. Consumer protection is linked to the idea of "consumer rights" (that consumers have various rights as consumers). Delhi. consistent with economic efficiency. . Consumer protection can also be asserted via non-government organizations and individuals as consumer activism. Consumer interests can also be protected by promoting competition in the markets which directly and indirectly serve consumers. general attitudes of the public. illiteracy of Indian consumers. Consumer protection consists of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers as well as fair trade competition and the free flow of truthful information in the marketplace. Better Business Bureaus. a government may require businesses to disclose detailed information about products—particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue. the Federal Trade Commission. The laws are designed to prevent businesses that engage in fraud or specified unfair practices from gaining an advantage over competitors. such as food. but this topic is treated in competition law. ombudsmen.

HISTORY .

for sculpturist. . Sellers passing off inferior products as superior were fined eight times the value of articles thus sold. woollen or embroidered in 7 days. Failing this they had to pay fine. it was said that he should return washed clothes in a given time period. Consumer protection was part of its ancient culture and formed the core of its administration. Weights and measures used in trade were manufactured only by the official agency responsible for standardization and inspected every few months. profit limit was to be fixed. Even for services timely response was prescribed. The Superintendent of Commerce was to supervise weights and measures. For adulterated things. Thus. then that trade activity was stopped immediately. in India also the origin of the Consumer Movement was in the form of Consumer co-operative India has an ancient history of consumer protection..e. the seller was not only fined but also compelled to make good the loss. i. carpenter. tailor. As in Europe.g. Consumer protection was part of ancient culture and formed the core of its administration. Sale of commodities was organised in such a way that general public was not put to any trouble. But the introduction of boundless commercialization of activities eclipsed the old rich heritage. blue dark coloured in 6 days and silken. Kautilya's 'Arthasasthra' was the basic law of ancient India and the same was strengthened with provisions toprotect consumers. For shortfall in weighinglmeasuring. e. For traders. sellers were fined heavily. for a washerman. rules for the protection of consumer interest were given.HISTORY India has an ancient history of consumer protection. light coloured ones in five days. If high profits (for the ruler) put general public in trouble. washerman.

misrepresentation. the basic reasons for the consumers movement have been:  Shortage of consumer products Adulteration and the Black Market. consumer movement was the result of post-industrialisation affluence-for more information about the merits of competing products and to influence producers especially for new and more sophisticated products. expectations because of consumer education Influence of the pioneers and leaders of the consumer movement Organized effort through consumer societies .  Lack of product choices due to lack of development in technology  Thrust of consumer movement in India has been on availability.CONSUMER MOVEMENT IN THE MODERN PERIOD: Consumer movement in the present form came into being only in the 1930's in the West and only in the 60's in India. unsanitary and unjust products  Participation of consumer representatives in management of aspects affecting consumers  Promoting consumers interests The basic reason for the development of consumer movement in India are different from those in the West. In western countries. purity and prices The factors which stimulated the consumer movement in recent years are: Increasing consumer awareness Declining quality of goods and services Increasing consumer. The basic objectives of consumer movement world wide are as follows :  To provide opportunity to the consumers to buy intelligently  Recognition of reasonable consumer requests  Protection against fraud. In India.

The first stage of movement was more representational in nature. Achievements of Consumer movement : Some interesting developments which are helping the consumer movement include.Stages of Development of the Consumer Movement The Consumer Movement today is undergoing a silent revolution. to make consumers aware of their rights through speeches and articles in newspapers and magazines and holding exhibitions. . However. But the path to reach this stage has not been easy. direct action had its own limitations. role in hastening the process of passing the Consumer Protection Act. that led to the third stage of professionally managed consumer organisations. It has been a struggle against bad business which always put profit before fairness in transactions. litigation and laboratory testing. From educational activities and handling complaints. i. It has played a. Full-fledged courses have been introduced in management and Law courses. The Act enshrines the consumer rights and provides for setting up of quasi-judicial authorities for redressal of consumer duputes. This act takes justice in the socio-economic sphere a step closer to the common man. Developments taking place in the field of consumer education and some noticeable Changes that have place among business organizations and their associations or Federations. it ventured into areas involving lobbying. Consumer Protection is being incorporated in the courses at different levels In schools and colleges. 1986 which has led to the fourth stage. The movement is bringing qualitative and quantitative changes in the lives of people enabling them to organise fhemselves as an effective force to reckon with.. picketing and demonstration.e. This gave good results.The second stage was direct action based on boycotting of goods. Thus. for instance business sector has started taking notice and co-operating with the movement.

Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and FICCI have evolved a code of ethics for their activities. Railways. Regional Advisory Committees for Indian Airlines Services all have representatives of the various consumer organisations. The nationalised banks are observing 15th of every month as the 'Customer Grievance Day. consumers get full opportunity to participate in policy making aspects. regulatory departments of Preventions of Food Adulteration. Income Tax Departments. railways. Petroleum Product Department. The Advertisement Standard Council of India (ASCI). of more than 20 years standing. Weights and Measures Department. Sansad Marg. Central and State (Government) Consumer Protection Councils. Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (ICCI) has set up a Consumer Business Forum which meets once a quarter in different cities of the country. They deal with complaints relating to hawks.A number of large organizations have set up Consumer Grievance Cells as an in-house Redressal mechanism. Petroleum Companies. have also initiated setting up of public grievance cells. insurance. The Government of India has set up a separate Directorate called Directorate of Public Grievances at Sardar Pate1 Bhavan. Thus. . they will cover all the ministries. Quality Control Institutions like Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and AGMARK. Supplies of Food and Drugs. All stock exchanges in the country have also set up similar cells. pensions and related matters. Another significant achievement of the consumer has been the representation given to consumer organisations on the policy making bodies (regulator machinery) of governments and Advisory Welfare Committees of big business organisations and the service sector. district or zone. New Delhi. Railway Commuters Welfare Committees. Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) has set up claims Review committees at the zonal and central levels. is also trying to help in the redressal of complaints against business from individual consumers or groups. Banks. In the long run.' where an aggrieved consumer can walk into the top managers' offices in their respective town. The Council of Fair Business Practices.

or unfair trade practice. With its success. and not to repeat it.  Discontinue the restrictive.  Provide for adequate cost to the aggrieved party.  Withdraw the hazardous goods from being offered for sale and not to offer them for sale. Consumer grievance cells have been launched by important organisations andcorporations. Its contribution to the passing of Consumer Protection Act. Consumers are represented on a number of consumer welfare committees set up by various organisations.  Replacement of defective goods with new goods of similar description which shall be free from any defect. it took over to direct action and.  Payment of compensation for any loss or injury suffered by the consumer. The labour of dedicated individuals and groups who have fought relentlessly for consumers rights through the decades has not been in vain after all.  Return of price paid by the consumer. . One can say that the consumer movement in India has come of age. in its present form in India. At present. then to testing and litigation. there are about 1000 organisations all over the country. Consumer movement. came into being only in the 1960's with the formation of Consumer Guidance Society of India in 1966 in Bombay. Both business and bureaucrats have started taking consumers seriously. has been a historic achievement. 1986 The Act provides following remedies to an aggrieved consumer:  Removal of defects in goods or deficiency in service. From simple awareness generation. 1986. the consumer movement spread over to fight for availability. THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT. purity and standard prices of commodities.It appears that the time has come when consumers in India can hope to be 'The King' in the market place very soon.

Under this law. and to the National Commission for more than Rs 100 lakhs. and third at national level known as 'National Commission'. Interestingly. CONSUMER AWARENESS IN OTHER COUNTRY In India.com now (Decidebuddy.com). Appeal could be filed to the State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commissions and after that to the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (NCDRC). The procedures in these tribunals are relatively less formal and more people friendly and they also take less time to decide upon a consumer dispute when compared to the years long time taken by the traditional Indian Judiciary. many effective judgement have been passed by some state and National Consumer Forums.com play a vital role in helping consumers articulate their concerns and resolve their problems as well.The Consumer Production Act provides for a three tier system of redressal Agencies: one at district level known as District Forum. Consumer protection law or consumer law is considered an area of law that regulates private law relationships between individual consumers and the . Organisations like Decidebay. to the 'State Commission' between Rs 20 lakhs and Rs 100 lakhs. if any. Consumer Protection Act of 1986 is the law governing consumer protection. Akosha. In recent years. is up to Rs 20 lakhs. A complaint is to be made to the district forum of the concerned district where the value of goods and services and compensation. second at state level known as 'State Commission'. there is provision for appeals against the orders of a particular redessal forum by the aggrieved party before the next higher echelon and even from the findings of the National Commission before the Supreme Court.com and Mouthshut. Separate Consumer tribunals have been set up throughout India in each and every district in which a consumer [complaint can be filed by both the consumer of a goods as well as of the services] can file his complaint on a simple paper without paying any court fees and his complaint will be decided by the Presiding Officer of the District Level.

The Australian Securities and Investments Commission has responsibility for consumer protection regulation of financial services and products. Family. pricing. provided the basis from which consumers could bring products liability actions prior to the enactment of the CPL. privacy rights. It's a way of preventing fraud and scams from occ service and sales contracts. In the current cabinet of Angela Merkel. fraud. utility turnoffs.84. misrepresentation. Consumer protection covers a wide range of topics. The second book of the Code. Australia In Australia.businesses that sell those goods and services. personal loans that may lead to bankruptcy. Germany A minister of the federal cabinet is responsible for consumer rights and protection (Verbraucherschutzminister). Rights over Things. bill collector regulation. the Book of Obligations. When issuing public warnings about products and services. Obligations. . the issuing authority has to take into account that this affects the supplier's constitutionally protected economic liberty (article 12 Basic Law. unfair business practices. The Republic of China Civil Code contains five books: General Principles. 71 BVerwGE 183). Republic of China (Taiwan) Modern Chinese law has been heavily influenced by European civil law systems. including but not necessarily limited to product liability. consolidation. and Succession. see Bundesverwaltungsgericht (Federal Administrative Court)Case 3 C 34. particularly German and Swiss law. this is Ilse Aigner. and other consumer/business interactions. the corresponding agency is the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission or the individual State Consumer Affairs agencies.

in a 1997 critical study. Consumer Direct may direct a very large number of complaints to the OFT to be considered as a systemic complaint. . is bound by the consumer protection directives of the EU. favoritism towards consumer protection groups.The Consumer Protection Law (CPL) in the Republic of China (Taiwan). it is emerging as an independent area of law. individual complainants are unable to be told whether their case is being investigated or not. where domestic law is in question. as member state of the European Union. According to the Pacific Rim Law & Policy Association and the American Chamber of Commerce. Complaints need to be made to Consumer Direct who will provide legal advice to complainants. 1994. restitution or even criminal law. and the compensation liability defense. the CPL's various problems. The Office of Fair Trading will then investigate. Due to restrictions within the Enterprise Act 2002. consumers cannot directly complain to the OFT. 1994 and effective on January 13. In many circumstances. contract. The OFT can also be engaged by consumer groups e. the matter judicially treated as tort. must be addressed before the CPL becomes a truly effective piece of legislation that will protect consumers" United Kingdom The United Kingdom. reporting any unsafe products/services and periodically reviewing the legislation. In very rare cases. impose an injunction or take the matter to litigation.g. the law has been criticised "Although many agree that the intent of the CPL is fair. Domestic (UK) laws originated within the ambit of contract and tort but. The Consumer Protection Commission of Executive Yuan serves as an ombudsman supervising. Consumer Protection issues are dealt with when complaints are made to the Director-General of Fair Trade. or re-direct the individual complaint to Trading Standards for investigation. However. specifically protects the interests and safety of customers using the products or services provided by business operators. as promulgated on January 11. with the influence of EU law. such as ambiguous terminology. coordinating.

This leads to a problem in that these examples of legislation are clearly designed to deal with individual complaints but the OFT will only deal with systemic complaints and will ignore individual complainants redirecting them back to Consumer Direct. The Office of Fair Trading also acts as the UK's official consumer and competition watchdog. undertakings and enforcements are located at. Many of the consumer protection laws e. but investigation work.The Consumers Association or the statutory consumer protection body Consumer Focus .g. municipal level by Trading Standards departments. General consumer advice can be obtained from Consumer Direct or via a local branch of the Citizen's Advice Bureau. such as this one which appears in all automotive repair shops in California . and at a local. Consumer complaints against companies are not published. The OFT rarely prosecute companies. The OFT is one of the bodies responsible for enforcing these rules. with a remit to make markets work well for consumers. preferring a light touch regulation approach. Distance Selling Regulations 2000 or Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999 (14 years ago) are actually UK implementations of EU directives.via a super complaint. however. United States Consumer protection laws often mandate the posting of notices.

Department of Justice. In addition. For example. the California Department of Consumer Affairs regulates about 2. At the state level.In the United States a variety of laws at both the federal and state levels regulate consumer affairs.3 million professionals in over 230 different professions. Illinois. Delaware and Minnesota have legislated requirements that contracts be written at reasonable readability levels as a large proportion of contracts cannot be understood by most consumers who sign them. For example Florida. The deceptive trade practices prohibited by the Uniform Act can be roughly subdivided into conduct involving either a) unfair or fraudulent business practice and b) untrue or misleading advertising. partly because of rigorous advocacy and lobbying by groups such as Utility Consumers' Action Network [4].S. Civil Code § 1750 et seq. and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. Uniform Act §3(b). Federal consumer protection laws are mainly enforced by the Federal Trade Commission and the U. Truth in Lending Act. . Fair Credit Billing Act. Other states have been the leaders in specific aspects of consumer protection. the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Cal. and Nebraska. Consumer Federation of California and Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. through its forty regulatory entities. but not limited to. California encourages its consumers to act as private attorneys general through the liberal provisions of its Consumers Legal Remedies Act. The Uniform Act contains a private remedy with attorneys fees for prevailing parties where the losing party "willfully engaged in the trade practice knowing it to be deceptive". the majority of states have a Department of Consumer Affairs devoted to regulating certain industries and protecting consumers who use goods and services from those industries. Delaware. Maine. many states have adopted the Uniform Deceptive Trade Practices Act including. Also. in California. California has the strongest consumer protection laws of any US state. Among them are the federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act.

a) Right to Safety It is the right of the consumers to be protected against goods and services which arehazardous to health or life. (iii) right to choose.RIGHTS OF CONSUMERS John F. the Consumer Protection Act. the former USA President. Thus. (iv) right to be heard. These rights are (i) right to safety. The same is true of electrical appliances with sub-standard material. Kennedy. Only recently. For example. there were mass protests and boycott of soft drinks due to presence ofhazardous pesticides beyond permissible limits. right to safety is an important right available to the consumer which ensures that the manufacturers shall not produce and sell sub-standard and dangerous products. (v) right to redress and (vi) right to represent. in his message to consumer had given six rights to consumers. 1986 has also provided for the same rights to consumers. defective vehicles could lead to serious accidents. These rights had paved the way for organised consumer movement in the USA and later it spread all over the world. . Let us have a brief idea about these rights of consumers. (ii) right to be informed. In India.

marketing decisions and any grievances of the consumers. it implies a right to be assured of satisfactory quality of service at a fair price. Now-a-days. (d) Right to be Heard The rights to safety. The consumer must be provided with adequate and accurate information about quality. Thirdly. this right means that consumers have a right to be consulted by Government and public bodies when decisions and policies are made affecting consumer interests. information and choice will be frivolous without the right to be heard. . Now-a-days the manufacturers provide detailed information about the contents of the product. Such information helps the consumers in their buying decision and use of the product. whenever possible. standard and the price of the goods and services. postal service and electricity supply etc. Broadly speaking. on the label and package of the product. access to a variety of goods and services at competitive prices. However. date of expiry.(b) Right to be Informed The right to be informed is an important component of consumer protection. its quantity. incase of monopolies like railways. quantity. date of manufacturing. purity. This right has three interpretations. dealers and advertisers bout their opinion on production. If the market has enough varieties of products at highly competitive prices. consumers have a right to be heard by manufactures. (c) Right to Choose The right to choose provides that the consumer must be assured. maximum retail price. etc. most of the top manufacturers and firms have set up consumer service cells to attend to consumers‘ complaints and take appropriate steps for their redressal. Also. the buyers have an opportunity of wide selection. precautions to be taken.

state and national levels. RESPONSIBILITIES OF CONSUMERs: (a) Be quality conscious To put a stop to adulteration and corrupt practices of the manufacturers and traders. grade. and protect themselves against fraudulent. It has also set up a proper mechanism for their redressal at district. labeling. Wool mark. The Consumer Protection Act has duly provides for a fair settlement of genuine grievances of the consumers. Hallmark etc. deceitful and grossly misleading advertisement. it is the duty of every consumer to be conscious of the quality of product they buy. quality etc. (f) Right to Consumer Education It means the right to receive knowledge and skill to become informed consumer. If required. and (iv) the procedure to be followed by consumers while making complaints. while making the purchases. of the goods and services. . They are expected to impart information and knowledge About (i) the relevant laws which are aimed at preventing unfair trade practices. In This direction the consumer associations.(e) Right to Seek Redressal The consumers have been given the right of redressal of their grievances relating to the performance. (ii) the ways and means which dishonest traders and producers may adopt to deceive the consumers. (iii) insistence on a bill or receipt at the time of purchase. Eco-mark. educational institutions and the policy makers Can play an important part. Agmark. FPO. etc. They should look for the standard quality certification marks like ISI. Effective consumer education leads to an increased level of consumer awareness and help them to enforce their rights more effectively. the product must be repaired / replaced by the seller/ manufacturer.

stamped and dated. (d) Collect proof of transaction The consumer should insist on valid documentary evidence (cash memo/invoice) relating to purchase of goods or availing of any services and preserve it carefully. (e) Consumers must be aware of their rights The consumers must be aware of their rights as stated above and exercise them while buying goods and services. you can ask for Redressal of your grievances. The consumer must preserve them till the warrantee/guarantee period is over.(b) Beware of misleading advertisements The advertisement often exaggerates the quality of products. price. if need be. It is the duty of consumers to obtain these documents and ensure that these are duly Signed. the same should be brought to the notice of the sponsors and the appropriate authority. This would enable the consumers to make the best choice within the limit of their own resources. In this regard. In case there are discrepancies. Hence. it is the responsibility of a consumer to insist on getting all information about the quality of the product and ensure himself/herself that it is free from any kind of defects. For example. after sales service etc. durability. Such proof of purchase is required for filing a complaint. the consumers should not rely on the advertisement and carefully check the product or ask the users Before making a purchase. you must file a proper . (f) Complaint for genuine grievances As a consumer if you are dissatisfied with the product/services. For this purpose he/she should compare their quality. In case of durable goods the manufactures generally provide the warrantee/guarantee card along with the product. (c) Responsibility to inspect a variety of goods before making selection The consumer should inspect a variety of goods before buying the goods and service.

If the manufacturer/company does not respond. This practice should be avoided. then you can approach the forums. (g) Proper use of product/services It is expected from the consumers that they use and handle the product/services properly. people tend to reckless use of the product. . It has been noticed that during guarantee period. But your claim must state actual loss and the compensation claim must be reasonable. thinking that it will be replaced during the guarantee period.claim with the company first. At no cost fictitious complaints should be filed otherwise the forum may penalize you.

1986.  Right to Choose: To be assured. transparency and accountability in the entire manufacturing and services sector. State and District levels to promote and protect the consumer rights. that perhaps cannot be paralleled anywhere else in the World. Government has accorded top priority to ‗Consumer Education. in all sectors whether Private. Public or Co-operative. An aware consumer not only protects himself from exploitation but induces efficiency. wherever possible. consumer protection councils have been established at Central. Realising the importance of consumer awareness. access to a variety of goods and services at competitive prices. India is a country. They are:  Right to Safety: To be protected against the sale of goods and services which are spurious/ hazardous to life. As per the Act.  Right to be heard: To be heard and to be assured that the interest would receive due consideration at appropriate fora. The most important milestone in Consumer Movement in the country has been the enactment of the Consumer Protection Act. which has taken a lead in introducing progressive legislation for consumer protection. . The Act has set in motion a revolution in the field of consumer rights.  Right to information: To know the quality. weight and the price of goods/services being paid for. 1986 The Act enshrines all the consumers rights which are internationally accepted.‘Jago Grahak Jago’ An enlightened consumer is an empowered consumer. The Act applies to all goods and services unless specially exempted by the Central Government. Consumer Protection Act. Consumer Protection and Consumer Awareness. quantity. so that one is not cheated by unfair trade practices.

Thirdly. He is not an interruption in our work . evolving standards for different products to enable the consumers to make an informed choice about different products. The Consumer Protection Act enacted in 1986 has been recognised as one of the finest basis of legislation enacted in any part of the world and India can boast of being the only country having such specialised legislation for consumer protection. improved specific standard terminology (glossary of terms). State and District level for hearing cases raised by consumers. We are not doing him a favour by serving him. He is doing us a favour by giving us the opportunity to serve him. Secondly. The standards are set generally by Government or inter-Governmental bodies but world wide it is being recognised that voluntary establishment of standards plays an equally important role for protecting consumers. The CPA has a three tier. Standards which are the essential building block for quality play a key role in consumer protection. 1986 was processed and enacted in India soon after the UN declaration. Basic Framework for Consumer Protection Consumer protection initiatives by the Government hinge on 3 basic parameters. consumer . codes of practice or test methods or management systems standards.  Gandhiji in the light of the above rightly said about consumer and his rights as the following: “A customer is the most important visitor on our premises. He is not dependent on us. Firstly ensuring a legal framework that comprises of Consumer Protection Act. simple. Standard could be on technical requirement (specifications).” It was therefore most appropriate that the Consumer Protection Act. Right to Seek Redressal: To seek legal redressal against unfair or restrictive trade practices or exploitation. We are dependent on him.he is the purpose of it. quasi judicial machinery at the National.  Right to Consumer Education: To have access to consumer education.

the rural and remote areas have been given top priority. redressal and enforcement of Consumer Protection Act as a priority agency for action by the Deptt.08. National Action Plan on Consumer Protection Consequent upon the 50th National Development Council Meeting. Planning Commission has identified consumer awareness. 409 crores has been approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs on 24.awareness and education is the main building block for consumer protection. the Government has endeavoured to inform the common man of his rights as a consumer. Consumer Awareness Scheme in the XI Plan The Consumer Awareness Scheme for the XI Plan amounting to a total of Rs. In a big country like India.01. educating the consumers remains a gigantic task. Through the increased thrust on consumer awareness in the XI Five Year Plan. given the scenario of economic disparity and level of education and ignorance. Government has taken up number of activities and schemes in creating . The allocation for consumer protection activities was significantly enhanced in the last 2 years of the X Plan. The slogan ‘ ’ has now become a household name as a result of publicity campaign undertaken in the last 3 years. of Consumer Affairs. This scheme has been formulated to give an increased thrust to a multi media publicity campaign to make consumers aware of their rights. As part of the consumer awareness scheme.

Alternate Dispute. A folder entitled ―Consumer Awareness Mission‖ containing the salient features of Consumer Protection Act 1986. Nukkad Nataks and also through the State Governments at grass root level. weights and measures. Redressal system. Consumer Resource kit as well pocket calendars and posters is being distributed during various events such as IITF. The publicity material relating to consumer awareness has also been translated in regional languages and is being disseminated to various State Governments. Nukkad Nataks are being performed in consultation with Song & Drama .55 lakhs post offices. Multi Media Publicity Campaign As part of the Multi Media publicity campaign. damaged product and redressal system. adulteration.R. Publicity through electronic medium by telecast of video spots of 30 seconds duration on various consumer related issues such as Grievance Redressal system. Short Measurement. A bigger plan of partnership with the Department of Posts to use the vast network of postal department for spreading the message of consumer awareness has been chalked out Calendars containing the message of consumer awareness are being displayed through the vast network of 1. Issues pertaining to rural and remote areas have been given prominence in the various advertisement spots. the activities being undertaken are: Publicity through print media using news paper advertisements. (Maximum Retail Price). The Department in consultation with the Department of Post has disseminated consumer awareness messages through Meghdoot Post cards to reach far-flung rural areas including North East States. Telecast of advertisement in North Eastern states in Regional languages of 20 seconds and 30 seconds duration on various consumer related issues such as M.consumer awareness in the country as part of this Consumer Awareness Scheme.P. Rights of Consumers etc. to educate the consumers about their rights and responsibilities. The Department through Printed Literature is also creating awareness. Expiry date on medicine. ISI Hall-Mark. MRP.

to 5-30 P. on all the working days (Monday—Saturday). More than 1000 programmes in all the States/UTs have been organised to create awareness at grass root level.M.nic. Employment News. In order to reach maximum number of consumers. The advertisements being brought out by the Department are also being displayed on the website of the Ministry www.division of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting .in. Indo-Pak Series.M. Kurukshetra. which is the largest selling career weekly of its kind occasionally publishes articles that are of interest to youngsters in keeping them informed about their rights. Indo. The timing of toll free number facility is available to consumers from 9-30 A. A pilot project National Consumer Help Line initiated can be accessed through a Toll Free Number 1800-11-4000 which is being operated by Delhi University for counselling the Consumers to redress their grievances. Indo-Australia Series. The youngsters are using the internet in a big way for various purposes and also happen to be major consumers. Aajkal and their regional editions. Through the various advertisements pertaining to Department of Consumer Awareness adequate publicity has been given to National Helpline so that the affected consumers could seek guidelines/counselling through the national helpline. a major initiative is being taken to spread consumer awareness through the online medium. Advertisements are being carried in journals of Publication Division such as Yojana. India is a country with more than 70% population being under 35 years. The advertisements of Department are also published regularly in Employment News/Rojgar Samachar so that the youth of the country are made aware of their consumer rights. the Department has telecast video spots containing consumer related information during the popular sports events such as Tri-series cricket tournament. Bal Bharti. Realizing this. Focussed articles on consumer awareness are being published in these magazines keeping in view their target readership.fcamin.England Cricket Series etc. . the flagship publication of Publication Division.

The provision for grant in-aid/support to States/UTs has been one of the key components of the Consumer awareness scheme. Ministry of Urban Development (for real estate sector) and HRD (for education sector) are being planned. .Participation in India International Trade Fair Keeping in view the large number of visitors to India International Trade Fair. ISI. FICCI. campaigns with Reserve Bank of India. Similarly. the Department displayed its activities through a stall in IIPA. Hall Marking and other issues of consumer interest was distributed free of cost. Special scheme on assistance to State Governments/UTs Considering the fact that active involvement of State Governments in awareness campaign is crucial in taking forward the movement to rural. Weights & Measures. A joint campaign with National Pharmaceuticals Product Authority is being devised to educate consumers about the various issues concerning pharma industry. State/UT Governments have been actively associated in expanding the area of consumer awareness. Publicity material regarding main provisions of Consumer Protection. In fact the effectiveness of the scheme is enhanced by the involvement of States/UTs/PRIs. The Department had run a joint campaign with Bureau of Energy Efficiency to educate people about energy conservation by having awareness of the BEE star labels. Standardisation. Joint Campaign ‗ ‘ has become the focal theme through which issues concerning the functioning of almost all Government Departments having a consumer interface can been addressed. To achieve this objective joint campaigns have been undertaken/are being undertaken with a number of Government Departments. remote and backward areas. On the spot guidance was also given to consumers during the Trade Fair.

folders. ‘Jago Grahak Jago’ is thus an initiative which empowers consumers by making them aware about their rights as well as the Grievance. and magazines etc. video. calendars. The Future Roadmap The multi media publicity to educate consumers and make them aware about their rights will have a long lasting impact not only on the end consumers but also on the entire manufacturing and services sector। The scheme will go a long way in introducing greater accountability and transparency in the services provided by the public as well as private sector since the end user i।e। a consumer will be educated and aware enough to ask for best possible services in return of his hard earned money. to the State Governments/UTs for distribution through panchayats in the rural areas.The Department of Consumer Affairs provided publicity material such as posters. . audio.

the national standards body of India.and (ii)IS number on top of the ISI mark which signifies the number of the Indian Standard for the particular product. This is a punishable offense by the law. developed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). the former name of the Bureau of Indian Standards..mentioned as IS:xxxx on top of the mark. that is. The mark certifies that a product conforms to the Indian Standard. like many of the electrical appliances viz. . The name ISI is an abbreviation of Indian Standards Institute. wiring cables. The ISI mark is mandatory for certain products to be sold in India. affixing ISI marks on the product without actually getting certified.ISI mark ISI mark is a certification mark for industrial products in India. The ISI mark is by far the most recognized certification mark in the Indian subcontinent. but the practice is common. heaters. But in the case of most other products it is voluntary. automotive tyres etc. kitchen appliances etc. LPG valves. and other products like portland cement. It is very common in India to find products with fake ISI marks. LPG cylinders. Fake ISI marks usually do not carry (i) the mandatory 7-digit license number(written as CM/Lxxxxxxx) required by BIS. electric motors. switches.

recollected the original naming question with the comment: "I recently read that the name ISO was chosen because 'iso' is a Greek term meaning 'equal'. the organization promotes worldwide proprietary. based on the Greek word isos (ἴσος. the organization adopted ISO. meaning equal). 1947. English and French. as the universal short form of its name. and it is usually referred to by this short-form name.However. French. .International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (French: Organisation internationale de normalisation. and their use is restricted. The organization's logos in two of its official languages. Founded on February 23. Name and abbreviation The three official languages of the ISO are English. is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Willy Kuert. one of the founding delegates. tr. There was no mention of that in London!" The logo and the name ISO are both registered trademarks. include the word ISO. Recognizing that its initials would be different in different languages. and commercial standards. Switzerland. Russian: Международная организация по стандартизации. Myezhdunarodnaya organizatsiya po standartizatsii). industrial. The organization states that ISO is not an acronym or initialism for the organization's full name in any official language. widely known as ISO. It has its headquarters in Geneva. and Russian.

each one representing one country.The organization today known as ISO began in 1926 as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA). It was disbanded in 1942 during World War II but was reorganized under its current name. when delegates from 25 countries met at the Institute of Civil Engineers in London. Each committee and subcommittee is headed by a Secretariat from one of the member organizations. yyyy is the year published. ISO also publishes technical reports. International standards are designated with the format ISO[/IEC] [/ASTM] [IS] nnnnn[-p]:[yyyy] Title. subcommittees. ISO.  Subscriptions from member bodies ("the national body most representative of standardization in its country"). International Standards and other publications ISO's main products are international standards.700 technical committees. whose focus was mainly mechanical engineering. The bulk of the work of ISO is done by the 2. and Title describes the subject. technical specifications. p is an optional part number. and working groups. the new organization officially began operations in February 1947. IEC for International Electrotechnical Commission is included if the standard results from the work of ISO/IEC JTC1 (the ISO/IEC . where nnnnn is the number of the standard. in 1946. Financing ISO is funded by a combination of:  Organizations that manage the specific projects or loan experts to participate in the technical work. publicly available specifications. and guides.  Sale of standards. technical corrigenda. These subscriptions are in proportion to each country's gross national product and trade figures. ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards.

except TR prepended instead of IS in the report's name. Such as references and explanations. Generally. The date and IS are not used for an incomplete or unpublished standard and may under some circumstances be left off the title of a published work. The naming conventions for these are the same as for standards. in IEC may be a 'dual logo' publication published in collaboration with an external organization". Technical reports are issued when a technical committee or subcommittee has collected data of a different kind from that normally published as an International Standard. Publicly Available Specifications may be "an intermediate specification. usability improvements.Joint Technical Committee). . or limited applicability extensions. published prior to the development of a full International Standard. Examples:  ISO/IEC TR 17799:2000 Code of Practice for Information Security Management  ISO/TR 19033:2000 Technical product documentation — Metadata for construction documentation Technical specifications can be produced when "the subject in question is still under development or where for any other reason there is the future but not immediate possibility of an agreement to publish an International Standard". or. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) is used for standards developed in cooperation with ASTM International. Corrigenda (plural of corrigendum) are amendments to existing standards because of minor technical flaws. Both are named by convention similar to Technical Reports. for example:  ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation — Reference designation system — Part 1: General application rules  ISO/PAS 11154:2006 Road vehicles — Roof load carriers ISO sometimes issues technical corrigenda.

ISO Guides are meta-standards covering "matters related to international standardization". ISO/IEC PRF 18018) IS .g..Approved new Work Item (e. ISO/IEC DIS 14297) FDIS ..Final Committee Draft (e.g.Draft International Standard (e.New Proposal Amendment (e. Here are some abbreviations used for marking a standard with its status:   PWI .g.g. ISO/IEC NP 23007)         AWI .. ISO/IEC WD 27032) CD .g. ISO/IEC FCD 23000-12) DIS .g. ISO/IEC FDIS 27003) PRF .Proof of a new International Standard (e.Committee Draft (e..g. They are named in the format "ISO[/IEC] Guide N:yyyy: Title".Final Draft International Standard (e...g.New Proposal / New Work Item Proposal (e.these are issued with the expectation that the affected standard will be updated or withdrawn at its next scheduled review.Working Draft (e.. ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/NP Amd 3) ..International Standard (e.. ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007) Abbreviations used for amendments: NP Amd .g.Preliminary Work Item NP or NWIP .. ISO/IEC AWI 15444-14) WD . ISO/IEC CD 23000-5) FCD . for example:  ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004 Standardization and related activities — General vocabulary  ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996 General requirements for bodies operating product certification Standardization process A standard published by ISO/IEC is the last stage of a long process that commonly starts with the proposal of new work within a committee.g.

Final Proposed Draft Amendment / Draft Amendment (e.Technical Report (e. ISO 11092:1993/WD Amd 1)  CD Amd / PDAmd .Technical Specification (e. ISO/DTS 11602-1) PAS . ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Cor 1:2008) Guide .g. ISO/IEC DTR 19791) TS .Draft Technical Specification (e.g. IWA 1:2005) Cor . ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/CD Amd 6)  FPDAmd / DAM (DAmd) . ISO/IEC 138181:2007/FDAmd 4)   PRF Amd ..Final Draft Amendment (e.g. ISO 12639:2004/PRF Amd 1) Amd . ISO/TS 16949:2009) DTS .. ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Amd 1:2007) Other abbreviations          TR .g....g.Technical Corrigendum (e.g... ISO/TTA 1:1994) IWA .a guidance to technical committees for the preparation of standards International Standards are developed by ISO technical committees (TC) and subcommittees (SC) by a process with six steps:  Stage 1: Proposal stage .. ISO/IEC TR 19791:2006) DTR . ISO/IEC 14492:2001/AWI Amd 4)  WD Amd .Working Draft Amendment (e. AWI Amd .g.Approved new Work Item Amendment (e.Committee Draft Amendment / Proposed Draft Amendment (e.g..(e.g.g..g.Technology Trends Assessment (e.Draft Technical Report (e.Amendment (e..g.Publicly Available Specification TTA .g.. ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003/FPDAmd 1)  FDAM (FDAmd) ...International Workshop Agreement (e.g.

NP Amd/TR/TS/IWA 20 Preparatory Working stage draft(s) AWI. PRF. PDAmd (PDAM). Subcommittees may have several working groups. AWI Amd/TR/TS.      Stage 2: Preparatory stage Stage 3: Committee stage Stage 4: Enquiry stage Stage 5: Approval stage Stage 6: Publication stage The TC/SC may set up working groups (WG) of experts for the preparation of a working drafts. PDTS DIS. FPDISP. which can have several Sub Groups (SG). WD. FDAmd (FDAM). FCD. FPDAmd. Stages in the development process of an ISO standard Associated Stage document name Preliminary Preliminary stage Proposal stage work item New work Abbreviations Description Stage code 00 PWI 10 item proposal NP or NWIP. CD Amd/Cor/TR/TS. WD Amd/TR/TS CD. DTS (CDV in IEC) 50 Approval stage Final draft International Standard FDIS. PDTR. DAmd 30 Committee Committee stage Enquiry stage draft(s) 40 Enquiry draft (DAM). PRF Amd/TTA/TR/TS/Suppl. DTR. FDTR .

Cor 95 It is possible to omit certain stages. Cor 90 ISO TR. This is in the form of a standard but is kept internal to working group for revision. some of the working groups (e.g. IWA.g. The first document that is produced for example for audio and video coding standards is called a verification model (VM) (previously also called a "simulation and test model"). a working draft (WD) is produced. if there is a document with a certain degree of maturity at the start of a standardization project. When a working draft is sufficiently solid and the working group is satisfied that it has developed the best technical solution to the problem being addressed. SC29 and JTC1 respectively in the case of Moving Picture Experts Group . TS. When a sufficient confidence in the stability of the standard under development is reached.. MPEG) usually make open request for proposals—known as a "call for proposals". Amd. Amd. When the scope of a new work is sufficiently clarified. it becomes . IWA.  The first step—a proposal of work (New Proposal) is approved at the relevant subcommittee or technical committee (e. In this procedure a document is submitted directly for approval as a draft International Standard (DIS) to the ISO member bodies or as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if the document was developed by an international standardizing body recognized by the ISO Council.ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11). TS. A working group (WG) of experts is set up by the TC/SC for the preparation of a working draft. for example a standard developed by another organization.60 Publication International stage Review stage Withdrawal stage  Standard ISO TR. ISO/IEC directives allow also the so-called "Fast-track procedure"..

Successive committee drafts may be considered until consensus is reached on the technical content. within a period of two months. representative (and the International Electrotechnical Commission's via the U. which publishes it as the International Standard. charge for most draft copies of documents in electronic format. however.  The CD becomes final committee draft (FCD) if the number of positive votes is above the quorum. it is then sent to the P-members of the TC/SC (national bodies) for ballot. care must be taken using these drafts as there is the possibility of substantial change before it becomes finalized as a standard.S. It is approved for submission as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC are in favour and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative.   ISO document copyright ISO documents are copyrighted and ISO charges for copies of most. When it is reached. the text is finalized for submission as a draft International Standard (DIS). If it is required. ISO will then hold a ballot with National Bodies where no technical changes are allowed (yes/no ballot).committee draft (CD). National Committee) are made freely available. After approval. The text is then submitted to national bodies for voting and comment within a period of five months. Although useful.S. . ISO does not. Some standards by ISO and its official U. The final text is sent to the ISO Central Secretariat. only minor editorial changes are introduced into the final text. It is approved as an International Standard (IS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC is in favour and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative.

In addition to the Central AGMARK Laboratory (CAL) in Nagpur. The entire system of Agmark. The present AGMARK standards cover quality guidelines for 205 different commodities spanning a variety of Pulses. Agmark Laboratories The Agmark certification is employed through fully state-owned Agmark laboratories located across the nation which act as testing and certifying centres. Agricultural and Marketing Advisor to the Government of India. . Amritsar. exposed to receiving less for their produce from dealers than its true worth. Guntur. The system was designed to benefit local growers throughout India who were. including the name. Each of the regional laboratories is equipped with and specializes in the testing of products of regional significance. The term agmark was coined by joining the words 'Ag' to mean agriculture and 'mark' for a certification mark. This term was introduced originally in the bill presented in the parliament of India for the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act. Kanpur. Fruits & Vegetables. Essential Oils. in the absence of a certification as to quality. New Delhi. Bhopal). Cereals. from 1934 to 1941. He was supported by a staff of several hundred. Rajkot. Kochi. Hence the product range that could be tested varies across the centres. Kolkata. Vegetable Oils.Agmark AGMARK is a certification mark employed on agricultural products in India. Jaipur. was created by Archibald Macdonald Livingstone. there are Regional AGMARK Laboratories (RALs) in 11 nodal cities (Mumbai. assuring that they conform to a set of standards approved by the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection. an agency of the Government of India. and semi-processed products like Vermicelli.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The AGMARK is legally enforced in India by the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act of 1937 (and ammended in 1986). Chennai.

the term hallmark can also be used to refer to any distinguishing characteristic or trait. Nevertheless.and silversmiths. the maker/sponsor's mark and the year of the marking. To be a true hallmark. silver and in some nations. the hallmark is made up of several elements including: a mark denoting the type of metal. patron saint of gold. In England. many nations require. Prerequisites to hallmarking Notwithstanding the hallmarking systems themselves. Thus. if metal fineness is claimed even though there is no official hallmarking scheme in that country. the hallmark is only applied after the item has been assayed to determine that its purity conforms not only to the standards set down by the law but also with the maker‘s claims as to metallurgical content. as a prerequisite to official hallmarking. the year of marking commences on May 19. a stamp of '925' by itself is not.S. Systems In some nations. In a more general sense. the Feast Day of Saint Dunstan. Distinguishment Hallmarks are often confused with "trademarks" or "maker's mark". in nations with an official hallmarking scheme. gold. Responsibility marks are also required in the U. Historically. Hallmarks are not the mark of a manufacturer to distinguish his products from other manufacturers‘ products. strictly speaking. palladium.Hallmark A hallmark is an official mark or series of marks struck on items made of precious metals—platinum. which is the function of trademarks or makers' marks. a hallmark. it must be the guarantee of an independent body or authority that the contents are as marked. hallmarks were applied by a trusted party: the 'guardians of the craft' or nowadays by an assay office. . such as the UK. that the maker or sponsor itself mark upon the item a responsibility mark and a claim of fineness. but is rather an unattested fineness mark. Hallmarks are a guarantee of certain purity or fineness of the metal as determined by formal metal (assay) testing.

optional. fineness was more or less standardized in the major European nations . The use of hallmarks. A series or system of five marks has been found on Byzantine silver dating from this period though their interpretation is still not completely resolved. Hallmarking in the Late Middle Ages However. additional. such as Poland. at first.In other nations. there was no distinction among silversmiths and goldsmiths who were all referred to as "orfèvres". on silver has a long history dating back to the 4th century AD and represents the oldest known form of consumer protection." In this period. from the Late Middle Ages. These have the effect of easing import obligations among and between the member states. augmented by a responsibility mark (known as a sponsor's mark in the UK). before the good could be offered for public sale. At one time. under the auspices of the state. Hence the responsibility mark is still known today in French as le poinçon de maître literally "the maker's punch. History of hallmarking Ancient Byzantine hallmarks The control or inspection of precious metals was an ancient concept of examination and marking. Signatory countries have a single representative hallmark which would be struck next to the Convention mark which represents the metal and fineness. regardless of who made the item. the French word for goldsmith. the hallmark is a single mark indicating metal and fineness. By the age of the Craft Guilds. Among a group of nations which are signatories to an international convention known as the Vienna Convention on the Control of the Fineness and the Hallmarking of Precious Metal Objects. hallmarking was administered by local governments through authorized assayers. The Master Craftsman was responsible for the quality of the work that left his atelier or workshop. yet official marks may also be struck by the assay office. by means of inspection stamps (punch marks). These assayers examined precious metal goods. the authorized examiner‘s mark was the ―master‘s mark‖ which consisted frequently of his initials and/or the coat of arms of the goldsmith or silversmith.

with the Goldsmiths Statute of 1260 promulgated under Etienne Boileau. Perhaps this .(writ: France and England) at 20 karats for gold and 12 to 13 lots (75% to 81%) for silver. Modern hallmarking in Europe appears first in France. the mark for use on silver works. his successor. A standard for silver was thus established. In 1313. (In the UK the use of the term "hallmark" was first recorded in this sense in 1721 and in the more general sense as a "mark of quality" in 1864. This entity was headquartered in London at Goldsmiths' Hall from whence the English term "hallmark" is derived. for King Louis IX. after having consulted with a council of eight Masters Goldsmiths from Geneva. only precious metal watch cases must be hallmarked. In 1327 King Edward III of England granted a charter to the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths (more commonly known as the Goldsmiths' Company). marking the beginning of the Company's formal existence. France Hallmarking is Europe's earliest form of consumer protection. but the standards could only be partly enforced owing to the lack of precise analytical tools and techniques. (Today in Switzerland. along with specific punches for each community's smiths. In 1275. King Philip III prescribed.5% pure silver) and must be assayed in this regard by 'guardians of the craft' who would then mark the item with a leopard's head. Provost of Paris.) Switzerland In 1424. Although gold was certainly used for articles. the French Archbishop Jean de Brogny. England In 1300 King Edward I of England enacted a statute requiring that all silver articles must meet the sterling silver standard (92. by royal decree. Philippe IV "the Fair" expanded the use of hallmarks to gold works. enacted a regulation on the purity and hallmarking of silver objects following the French standards for application in Geneva. the regulation was silent on gold standards and its hallmarking.

The Sterling standard was restored in 1720. allowing the accurate dating of any hallmarked piece. At this time. a higher standard of silver. The hallmarking of other items including silverware and jewelry is optional. known as the Britannia standard (95. the date letter system was established in France.8% silver) was made compulsory in Great Britain to protect the new coinage which was being melted down by silversmiths for the silver. adding accountability to the two systems. the date letter system was introduced in England.) Augmentations in France and England  In 1355.  In 1697.attests to the significance of watches to the Swiss economy.  In 1478. which are assayed and found to be in conformity by the qualifying office of a signatory . Modern hallmarks Hallmark for gold In the modern world. in 1973 a core group of European nations signed the Vienna Convention on the Control of the Fineness and the Hallmarking of Precious Metal Objects. individual maker marks were introduced in France. Those articles. in an attempt at standardizing the legislation on the inspection of precious metals and to facilitate international trade. the Assay Office was established in Goldsmiths' Hall. which concept was later mirrored in England in 1363.  In 1427.

for gold. Israel. The most significant item currently up for debate is the recognition of palladium as a precious metal. Some member nations recognize palladium as a precious metal while others do not. the Netherlands. including: Austria. for platinum. Finland. Cyprus. Similarly. Great Britain. Latvia. receive a mark. with the consent all the current member states.Poland The Polish hallmarks 1963-1986 . This mark is recognized in all the other contracting states. standards and enforcement vary considerably. Complete international hallmarking has been plagued by difficulties. Other nations monitor the activities of the Convention and may apply for membership. (See list of nations below). Switzerland and Ukraine (see links below). Polish . Ireland. Norway. Sweden. on two intersecting circles.country. known as the Common Control Mark (CCM). Hungary. Lithuania. The multi-tiered motif of the CCM is the balance scales. the terms of the convention may be amended. a diamond shape and for silver a mark in the shape of the Latin letter "M". superimposed. because even amongst countries which have implemented hallmarking. attesting to the material's fineness. the Czech Republic. Many nations monitor the Vienna system and procedures are in place to allow additional nations to join the Vienna Convention. making it difficult for one country to accept another's hallmarking as equivalent to its own. Poland. Portugal. Denmark.

palladium.Hallmarks for gold. Official Polish hallmarks between 1963–1986 French . The French hallmarks 1838-1919 not official French mark head of horse for jewellery and watches from 18k gold made in the French provinces between 1838-1919 UK . platinum and silver from Poland.France The French hallmarks 1798 .1972 Official French Hallmarks used between 1798 and 1972 for gold and silver.

the Yorkshire rose of Sheffield. the leopard's head of London. The bottom example shows the extra marks that can also be struck. The latest changes in 1999 were made to the UK hallmarking system to bring the system closer into line with the European Union (EU). the assay office mark. These are shown in the top of the two example hallmarks. Examples of British hallmarks for 925 silver. the compulsory part of the UK hallmark consists of the sponsor or maker's mark. a recognised metal under the Convention. The Hallmarking Act was amended in July 2009 to include palladium from January 2010 . As it now stands. The Hallmarking Act 1973 made Britain a member of the Vienna Convention as well as introducing marking for platinum. and the standard of fineness (in this case silver. and in this example. All four remaining assay offices finally adopted the same date letter sequences. which was only available for the years 1999 and 2000. the date letter is no longer a compulsory part of the hallmark.The assay office marks . indicating Sterling silver. the date mark (lowercase a for '2000'). and the castle of Edinburgh. 925 parts in 1000).from left to right. The bottom example bears the Yorkshire rose mark for the Sheffield Assay Office. Note: that under this latest enactment. the anchor of Birmingham. the lion passant. the 'Millennium mark'.

platinum or palladium watches cases made in Switzerland or imported into Switzerland. Under the current law. near the Maker's Responsibility Mark and his indication of purity. (Fr. the official Hallmark. Distinctive symbol: Biel / Bienne B Basel * Chiasso T Geneva G La Chaux-de-Fonds C Le Noirmont Zurich Z These symbols will appear in place of the "X" on the ear of the St. hallmarking was undertaken at the local level by the Swiss cantons.Switzerland The Swiss hallmark used since 1995 for all metals and all fineness The Swiss hallmarks used on the watch cases Although hallmarking in the Swiss territories dates back to Geneva in the 15th century there was no uniform system of hallmarking in Switzerland until 1881. on all gold.) there shall be affixed. there was uniformity throughout the nation. With the introduction of the Swiss system of hallmarking in 1881. J . silver. Bernard dog. Before that time. the head of a Saint-Bernard dog (illustrated below).

which have voluntary hallmarking systems. Spain and the United Kingdom without further testing. Punches are made in straight shank or ring shank. The . Finland and Sweden. The Dutch government markets their assay services/office as the "Jewellery Gateway in and to Europe." The Netherlands' hallmarks are also recognized in other E. have been striking hallmarks since at least 1814. the hallmarks are 'struck' using steel punches. however. suitable for tiny pieces of jewelry to large silver platters. all precious metal goods may be stamped with the Common Control Mark of the Vienna Convention. France. The other one is located in Joure. countries and thus can be sold in Austria. the former for normal punching with a hammer. The Netherlands' hallmarks are also recognized in Belgium. Swiss hallmarking for other articles such as jewelry and cutlery is optional. the Dutch publish a book entitled "Netherlands' Responsibility Marks since 1797" (in three volumes and in the English language) illustrating all the responsibility marks registered there since that time. the Dutch require the registration and use of Responsibility Marks. Ireland. who are members of the International hallmarking Convention.Only precious metal watch cases must be hallmarked. Denmark. Netherlands The Dutch.U. Punches are made in different sizes. Marking techniques Punching Traditionally. Like many other nations. silver and palladium as precious metals.v. One of the 2 Dutch assay offices is located in Gouda between the Amsterdam and Rotterdam Airports. gold. This is significant since producers that exported precious metal good to the Netherlands would have been required to register their marks. and the latter used with a press to mark rings.The Dutch recognize platinum. In addition to the Swiss hallmark. called Edelmetaal Waarborg Nederland b. Portugal. perhaps somewhat unique.

2D and 3D laser marking. Where required to be hallmarked. Methods of assay Precious metal items of art or jewelry are frequently hallmarked (depending upon the requirements of the laws of either the place of manufacture or the place of import). In the past the assay was conducted by using the touchstone method but currently (most often) it is done using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). 2D laser marking burns the outline of the hallmarks into the object. and that offcuts from sprues are often used for assay. The most exact method of assay is known as fire assay or cupellation. which would be damaged or distorted by the punching process. XRF is used because this method is more exacting than the touchstone test. while 3D laser marking better simulates the marks made by punching. causing some distortion of the article being marked. For this reason. Laser marking A new method of marking using lasers is now available. semi-finished precious metal items of art or jewelry pass through the official testing channels where they are analyzed or assayed for precious metal content. which is especially valuable for delicate items and hollowware. Laser marking works by using high power lasers to evaporate material from the metal surface. Two methods exist. the assayer is actually testing to determine that the fineness of the product conforms with the statement or claim of fineness that the maker has claimed (usually by stamping a number such as 750 for 18k gold) on the item.problem with traditional punching is that the process of punching displaces metal. Laser marking also means that finished articles do not need to be re-finished. many articles are sent unfinished to the assay office for assay and hallmarking. While different nations permit a variety of legally acceptable finenesses. . This method is better suited for the assay of bullion and gold stocks rather than works or art or jewelry because it is a completely destructive method. This means that refinishing of the article is required after hallmarking.

the alloys separated and constituents weighed. when this method is employed for the assay of jewelry. for example. for which sampling by destructive means.000. It typically has an accuracy of 2-5 parts per thousand and is well-suited to the relatively flat and large surfaces. but totally destructive. or cupellation. assay method is the fire assay. It is not indicated. For example if a single manufacturer deposits a lot of rings or watch cases. Since this method is totally destructive. . as in hallmark assaying.Touchstone The age-old touchstone method is particularly suited to the testing of very valuable pieces. A rubbing of the item is made on a special stone. while most are assayed using the non-destructive methods a few pieces from the lot are randomly selected for fire assay. since the color variation among white gold alloys is almost imperceptible. In this process the article is melted. Fire assay The most elaborate. such as scraping.. It is a quick technique taking about three minutes. and the results can be automatically printed out by the computer. Differences in precious metal content as small as 10 to 20 parts per thousand can often be established with confidence by the test. It is not indicated for use with white gold. however. It also measures the content of the other alloying metals present. X-ray fluorescence The modern X-ray fluorescence is also a non-destructive technique that is suitable for normal assaying requirements. cutting or drilling is unacceptable. it is also known as cupellation and can have an accuracy of 1 part in 10. As applied to gold bearing metallics. it is done under the guise of random or selective sampling. treated with acids and the resulting color compared to references. for articles with chemical surface treatment or electroplating.

A consumer may be a person or group.e.[2] A typical legal rationale for protecting the consumer is based on the notion of policing market failures and inefficiencies. In the absence of effective consumer demand. dedicated to assist in consumer education and decision making. There are also various non-profit publications. an aggregated commodity item with little individuality other than that expressed in the decision to buy or not to buy. they are talking about the person as consumer. such as a household. as well as incorporation of consumer education into school curricula. and Which? in the UK. . As such. there is a trend in marketing to individualize the concept. such as Consumer Reports and Choice Magazine. permission marketing. Concern over the interests of consumers has also spawned much activism.Consumer A consumer is a person or group of people who are the final users of products and or services generated within a social system. marketers have started to engage in personalized marketing. when business people and economists talk of consumers. As of all potential voters are also consumers. not corporations or businesses) and excludes commercial users. The concept of a consumer may vary significantly by context. consumer protection takes on a clear political significance. and the definition of consumer is often restricted to living persons (i. such as inequalities of bargaining power between a consumer and a business. and mass customization. Economics and marketing The consumer is the one who pays to consume the goods and services produced. although a common definition is an individual who buys products or services for personal use and not for manufacture or resale. However. Typically. producers would lack one of the key motivations to produce: to sell to consumers. Instead of generating broad demographic profiles and psycho-graphic profiles of market segments. consumers play a vital role in the economic system of a nation. Law and politics The law primarily uses the notion of the consumer in relation to consumer protection laws.

entity or organization purchasing a commodity for commercial reasons are exempted from any benefits of this act. and most consumers manage to resolve problems with products and services in this way. Consumer complaints are usually informal complaints directly addressed to a company or public service provider. which consists of a formal legal process (see the article on complaint). Consumer complaint A consumer complaint or customer complaint is ―an expression of dissatisfaction on a consumer‘s behalf to a responsible party‖ (Landon. If the grievance is not addressed in a way that satisfies the consumer.In India. It can also be described in a positive sense as a report from a consumer providing documentation about a problem with a product or service. These and similar organizations in other countries accept for consumer complaints and assist people with customer service issues. Consumers however rarely file complaints in the more formal legal sense. some modern business consultants urge businesses to view customer complaints as a gift. the consumer sometimes registers the complaint with a third party such as the Better Business Bureau and Federal Trade Commission (in the United States). business and media organisations. Indian case law has quite a few references on how to distinguish a consumer from a customer. 1980). Public reaction While use of the term consumer is widespread among governmental. many individuals and groups find the label objectionable because it assigns a limited and passive role to their activities. . In fact. but it sometimes requires persistence. Only consumers are protected as per this act and any person. Furthermore. as do government representatives like attorneys general. the Consumer Protection Act 1986 clearly differentiates a consumer as consuming a commodity or service either for his personal domestic use or to earn his livelihood.

Consumer news and advocacy websites often accept and publish complaints. and market fluctuations. The activists and consumers in the movement hope to provide security and healthy standards for employed consumers. The state should protect against profiteers. media activism. Notable consumer organizations include Public Citizen. better quality. Eileen Hoats. the making of consumer complaints. the United Kingdom. and provide information about arbitration schemes. Virginia H. The advent of Internet forums has provided consumers with a new way to submit complaints. environmentally friendly. particularly regarding the sale of financial services.In some countries (for example Australia. Publishing complaints on highly visible websites increases the likelihood that the general public will become aware of the consumer's complaint. Kessel. unemployment. is governed by statute (law). and Consumer Federation of America. Internet forums in general and on complaint websites have made it possible for individual consumers to hold large corporations accountable in a public forum. and many countries of the European Community). Frances Perkins. Marc Kasky. Richard M. petitioning the government. Consumer activism Goals include making goods and services available to consumers safer. and organizing interest groups. The ideal goal is to push consumers to question the morality of a purchased product's origins. Knauer. . Consumers Union. Consumer movements challenge social order and transform it through the propagation of ideologies of consumption in hopes of dramatically changing mainstream views. Ralph Nader. Peter A. disease. Notable consumer activists include Carol Foreman. Consumer activist tactics can include boycotts. publish written procedures for handling customer dissatisfaction. The statutory authority may require companies to reply to complaints within set time limits. Michael Pertschuk. and more readily available. Peyser.

and feminist movements. Conceptions of Consumer movement Three elements are necessary. These can include the selling of dangerous vehicles. and the broadcasting of the differences between the activists and most people. Activist members do not only target corporations and attempt to change their behavior. and inhumane working conditions. their adversary. Consumer movements developed as a form of resistance against marketing and industrial practices. and focus on accelerating the growth of reflective thinking about consumption. and totality. Most behavior was found to be focused on assigning positive meanings of awakening to the collective identity of activists. capitalism. including the lesbian and gay. The ideology of this social movement reflects that of other social movements in that their goal. Consumers are cast in the social movement as common people.Periods of Consumer Movements Sociologist Rao denotes three eras of consumer movements in the United States: the antiadulteration movement. Totality is the indication that objectives will be achieved through struggle. the use of deceptive advertising. Organizing Consumer Movements Meetings of consumer movements may include encouraging reflexivity. while the activists are those leading them into the conflict with business executives and elites. and the legal activism era. for the ideology of a social movement: identity. and their members are all publicly made available and seen. the discussion of how consumerism is viewed by the activists and by the target audience. opposition. Identity is the self and collective identity of the members of the social movement. . the rise of nonprofit consumer watchdog organizations. Some meetings falter from accomplishing set goals. civil rights. according to Touraine. Opposition is the identification and description of the adversary. This conception has been appropriate for the other movements. but they seek to elevate the awareness of consumers collectively with the purpose of altering consumer culture. such as organizing leafleting activities.

The Opponent: Corporate Elites The ability to have a visible. and despicable target for an enemy allows for unification and mobilization of activists. to protest and get their message heard. Activist accounts describe these people as unreflective and unwilling to ―consider‖ their habits and lifestyles. Metaphors may also be used to emphasize these comparisons. Activists may also target multiple corporations and describe them as their rival. They may be believed to not insert moral or social ideas into their consumption. The activists themselves may be described as dominating and oppressive to the consuming public. may also be used to help motivate others to join in the struggle. such as David and Goliath. including the idea that consumers are submissive to corporations. Religious terms. new political opportunities and resources become available to the group. This process allows the activist to leave their own selves behind with the smaller issues that concern them and move beyond to attain a sense of connection with others around the world. Other perceptions of customers are also expressed by activists. By gaining this control. Images of detachment and distance are common emotions felt by the activists when compared to non-activists in this state. and routine in their thoughts of consumption.Protests are used by the activists in the social movement in order to gain political influence. ignorant. This allows for more mobilization by supporters. The growth of a social awareness is often linked to spiritual awareness. View of Consumers Some activists perceive the consumer public as unthinking. who can use them for their benefit. Links have been by those within the social movement between the temptations provided by the corporate opponents and the weaknesses of public consumers. . Revelations Most activists were at one point similar to the people they are now reaching out to get support from and attention. clear. both inside and outside the group.

Criticism Opponents of consumer activism often represent business interests. Many of the suits have been successfully defended as exercises in free speech. Consumers react to the movement‘s message as one of elitist and overzealous. However.Consumers Seen as Adversaries The consuming public has the potential to become involved in the activists‘ cause. this same public is often described as selfish and lazy by the social movement‘s members. Dialogue amongst the activists also helps distinguish the members from the consumers. Some cases against consumer activists have been dismissed under anti-SLAPP laws. Conversations may contain stereotypical constructions that help with this differentiation. Some businesses have brought lawsuits against consumer groups for making negative comments about their products or services. . while others interpret their goals as attempts to limit free choices of the public.

Malpractices of Businessmen: Fraudulent. A mechanism is needed to prevent misleading advertisements. It includes all the measures aimed at protecting the rights and interests of consumers. A system is required to protect them from unscrupulous businessmen. Consumers often get defective. inferior and substandard goods and poor service. Certain measures are required to protect the consumers against such malpractices. survival and growth of business is not possible without the support and goodwill of consumers. 3. safety and utility of products. Deceptive Advertising: Some businessmen give misleading information about quality. It is necessary to protect consumers from such exploitation by ensuring compliance with prescribed norms of quality and safety. Illiteracy and Ignorance: Consumers in India are mostly illiterate and ignorant. 4.Protection of Consumer Rights Consumer protection means safeguarding the rights and interests of consumers. producers and traders are organized and powerful. They are at the mercy of businessmen. Freedom of Enterprise: Businessmen must ensure satisfaction of consumers. Unorganised Consumers: In India consumers are widely dispersed and are not united. 5. 6. On the other hand. They do not understand their rights. Spurious Goods: There is increasing supply of duplicate products. It is very difficult for an ordinary consumer to distinguish between a genuine product and its imitation. If business does . In the long run. Consumers need protection due to the following reasons: 1. unethical and monopolistic trade practices on the part of businessmen lead to exploitation of consumers. 2. Consumers are misled by false advertisement and do not know the real quality of advertised goods.

Methods of Consumer Protection There are four main methods of protecting the interests of consumers: 1. 3. They can take organized action and put pressure on businessmen to adopt fair trade practices. Trusteeship: Businessmen are trustees of the society's wealth. Government Regulations: The State can ensure consumer protection through legislative. 4. Legitimacy for Existence: Business exists to satisfy the needs and desires of consumers. sell only when they meet the needs of consumers. Government intervention and regulatory measures will grow to curb unfair trade practices. Business Self-regulation: The business community itself can help in achieving consumer protection and satisfaction through self -discipline. in the long run. Goods will. Trade associations and chambers of commerce can check unfair trade practices used by some businessmen. The laws enacted by the Government must be strictly enforced by the executive. 8. He should not allow unscrupulous businessmen to cheat him. they should use this wealth for the benefit of people. Consumers' Associations: Consumers should form voluntary associations.not protect consumers' interests. Businessmen can regulate their own behaviour and actions by adopting higher ethical standards. These associations can educate and awaken consumers. 2. Some of these laws are as follows: . 7. Government of India has enacted several laws to protect the interests and rights of consumers. Consumer Self-help: Every consumer must be alert as self-help is the best help. Goods are produced with the purpose of selling them. executive and judicial actions. He should educate himself and know his rights. Therefore.

 The Essential Commodities Act, 1955 which aims to regulate and control the production, supply and distribution and prices of essential commodities.  The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 which aims to check adulteration in food items and eatables.  The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 which seeks to ensure purity and quality in drugs and cosmetics.  The Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1956 which aims at ensuring that consumers get the right weight and measurement in products.  The Household Electrical Appliances (Quality Control) Order, 1976 which seeks to ensure safety and quality in the manufacture of electrical appliances.  The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 which seeks to provide speedy and inexpensive redressal to the grievances of consumers. Role of Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) The Bureau of Indian Standards, empowered through a legislative Act of the Indian Parliament, known as the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986, operates a product certification scheme. Till date it has granted more than 30000 licenses to manufacturers covering practically every industrial discipline from Agriculture to Textiles to Electronics. The certification allows the licencees to use the popular ISI mark, which has become synonymous with quality products for the Indian and neighbouring markets over the past 40 years. The Bureau‘s predecessor, the Indian Standards Institution began operating the Product Certification Scheme in 1955. About 13000 licenses are currently in operation covering about 1000 products.

BIS and Consumer Awareness
The consumer movement in India is as old as trade and commerce. Even in Kautilya‘s Arthashastra, there are references to the concept of consumer protection against exploitation by the trade and industry with respect to quality, short weight and measurement, adulteration etc. Till recently, there was no organized and systematic movement for safeguarding the interests of consumers. The ordinary citizen today depends on products, design and construction of which he or she may not understand. In this situation, reassurance is an overriding need; reassurance that the product is reliable and will meet the expectations of the consumers in terms of performance, safety, durability etc.

Need For Consumer Awareness
It has been observed that the people for, whom various schemes have been taken up by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), in fact, do not get benefit as expected. This is mainly because they are not fully aware of these schemes and their benefits. Also, only knowledgeable and alert consumers aware of their rights and responsibilities can protect themselves effectively. The need of the hour is, therefore, to educate the common consumers particularly those in rural areas who are more susceptible to exploitation. Once they are educated and made aware of the schemes that have been drawn up for their benefit and also the redressal forum that is available, the benefit of various schemes, in true sense, will reach the common consumers of the country. It is, therefore, our bounden duty to play our part jointly and effectively in disseminating various schemes to the common consumers of the country. In this regard, the role of the voluntary consumer organizations, consumer activists, non-governmental organizations, educational institutions and media cannot be ignored

Formulation of National Standards
BIS is engaged in formulating Indian Standards laying down parameters for the products and services. These Standards are prepared by Technical Committees that are represented by experts from various fields including scientists, technologists, manufacturers and consumers. BIS seek and encourage participation of consumer organizations in formulation of national standards.

Certification Schemes
a) Product Certification: BIS operates Product Certification Scheme that is governed by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 and Rules and Regulations framed there under. Presence of Standard Mark on product indicates conformity to the relevant Indian Standard. Before granting licence to any manufacturers, BIS ascertains the availability of required infrastructure and capability of the manufacturer to produce and test the product conforming to the relevant Indian standard on a continuous basis. Samples are also drawn from the production line as well as from market and got tested in independent laboratories to ensure their conformance to the relevant Indian Standard. i. Mandatory Certification: The BIS Certification Mark Scheme is essentially voluntary in nature. However, keeping consumer‘s interests in view, the Central Government has made BIS Certification Scheme compulsory for items meant for mass consumption, consumer safety, health and energy conservation. As on date 133 products have been covered under the Mandatory Certification Scheme. These orders have been issued under the various acts like Essential Commodities Act, PFA Act, etc. ii. Hallmarking of Gold Jewellery: Hallmarking of Gold Jewellery is a Purity Certification Scheme of BIS. Hallmarked Jewellery has to go through stringent norms of manufacture and quality control. Hallmarked Jewellery is assessed and marked by BIS recognized Assaying & Hallmarking Centres only. The Hallmark indicates that the Jewellery articles have been

BIS logo is marked on BIS Hallmarked Jewellery along with fineness (that is 916 for 22 carat). iv. one for the foreign manufacturers and the other for Indian importers. Eco Mark Scheme: BIS is operating Eco Mark Scheme for labeling of household and other consumer products which meet certain environmental criteria along with quality requirements prescribed in relevant Indian standards. It may. BIS also operates following System Certification Schemes. for example letter ‗B‘ denotes year 2001 and logo of BIS certified jeweller/jewellery manufacturer. A&HMC‘s logo (Assaying & Hallmarking Centre‘s Mark) — where the Jewellery has been assayed & hallmarked. 1986 and has been accredited by Raad Voor Accreditatie (RVA). Under . Certification Schemes for Imported Goods: BIS also operates two Certification Schemes for imported goods. The schemes for foreign manufacturer at present are being centrally operated through Central Marks Department at Headquarters and schemes for Indian importers are operated by respective ROs/BOs under whose jurisdiction Indian importer falls. (b) System Certification: In addition to Product Certification Scheme. The Schemes are essentially similar to BIS Product Certification Schemes for domestic industry barring slight modifications necessary for operation of such schemes. only foreign manufacturers can seek BIS license and for products other than 133 products both foreign manufacturer and Indian importers can seek BIS license. This scheme is governed by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act. Netherlands. iii.independently tested and assures that it conforms to the marked fineness. Code letter that is year of hallmarking of Jewellery as decided by BIS. be noted that in case of 133 products covered under mandatory certification. I. Quality System Certification: BIS is operating Quality System Certification Scheme against IS/ ISO 9000 series of standards. however.

this scheme, the capability of supplier of goods or services is certified to IS/ISO 9000 series of Standards for ensuring the quality of goods and services satisfying the customer as relevant to the particular contracts entered into between the respective parties. II. Environmental Management System Certification: BIS is operating EMS Certification Scheme against IS/ISO 14000 series of Standards. III. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Scheme: BIS has also launched Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) Certification Scheme against IS 15000 to ensure consistent high quality of food safety, compliance with regulations, international acceptance, global competitiveness and total customer satisfaction for the food processing units. Types of Licensing Although, the scheme itself offers voluntary licensing, the Government of India, on considerations of public health and safety, and mass consumption has enforced mandatory certification of 135 products through orders issued from time to time under various Acts. While the Bureau continues to grant licenses only on application, the enforcement of compulsory certification is done by the notified authorities. Given later in this document is a list of items brought under mandatory certification, together with the corresponding Indian Standard Number and the authorities responsible for enforcing the orders. Under separate arrangements with statutory agencies some products have been placed under special certification schemes of lot or batch inspection, carried out by BIS Inspecting officers. A majority of gas cylinders and valves are certified through such schemes. Under agreement with UNICEF, deep well hand-pumps, a critical potable water supply source for rural areas, is also licensed under a lot inspection scheme. For all other products, the manufacturer is permitted the right to self certify the products after ascertaining its conformity to the Standard licensed for.

Through its surveillance operations, the bureau maintains a close vigil on the quality of goods certified. Provision exists for sub-contracting certification surveillance activities to competent agencies in specific areas. Some steel products, rubber products and electronic products are presently under such surveillance agreements. Operational Areas The BIS Product Certification Scheme is open to manufacturers in all countries without discrimination. However, overseas certification is carried out after a suitable mutual recognition agreement has been signed with the respective country. While a license can be granted for any Indian Standard specifying product characteristics, which is amenable to certification, the broad areas of technologies now under certification are: Textiles Chemicals and Pesticides Rubber and Plastic products Cement and concrete products Basic metals and fabricated metal products Machinery and equipment\Electrical, electronics and optical equipment Automotive

components Agriculture, food, beverages and tobaccos Leather products Wood products Paper and pulp products Testing instruments Building materials Pumping, irrigation, drainage and sewage equipment Operating Principles. The BIS Product certification Scheme operates in an impartial, nondiscriminatory and transparent manner. The documents stating the powers, rights and responsibilities of BIS and the affected sectors of society are published by the Government of India as the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986, Rules and (Certification) Regulations, 1988. A compilation of these, together with the licensing procedure has also been published by the BIS and can be purchased from Director (Sales), Bureau of Indian Standards, 9 B. S. Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110 002, India for Rs.25. The specific rules for operating a license are given in another document called the Scheme of Testing and Inspection (STI), described later. Procedures provide for maintaining a very high degree of confidentiality and integrity among its personnel who perform certification related tasks. A body called the Certification Advisory Committee composed of

person from varied sectors like manufacturers, consumers, Government agencies and industries associations reviews the performance of the scheme and advises on key policy issues. Internally, a senior functionary designated as Additional Director General (Marks) is responsible for ensuring that the scheme operates within the framework of the rules and procedures established. Resources The finances of the bureau are self-managed, with certification operations accounting for more than 80 percent of the revenue. The BIS employs a staff complement of engineers, scientists and statisticians to cater to all its fields of operations. They are trained into evaluation and assessment techniques to a high degree of professional competence. All preliminary and surveillance inspections are carried out by qualified personnel only. BIS has set up eight laboratories in different cities of India for testing samples of products taken during preliminary and surveillance operations. In addition, independent laboratories that have demonstrated ability and a quality system complying with ISO Guide 25 have been recognized for testing of samples drawn. The certifications scheme operates through a network of 17 Branch Offices set up in state capitals or major industrial towns and 5 regional offices overseeing the work of the Branch Offices. PREREQUISITES FOR GRANT OF LICENCE Application The procedure for grant of BIS Certification Marks License begins with filing the application in the prescribed application form (Form I) by the manufacturer desirous of obtaining the license. A license is granted for varieties of products covered under a given Indian Standard. The forms along with the application fee of Rs.1000 are required to be submitted to the Branch Office under whose jurisdiction the manufacturing unit is located. Overseas applicants may approach the Director, Central Marks Department at BIS Head Quarters, New Delhi.

or any proposed to be used. Testing charges have to be paid by the applicant as per the laboratories rate schedules. which should be called within a month of registration. together with an undertaking to follow the scheme approved by BIS after grant of License f) An undertaking to pay the prescribed marking fee from the date of grant of license) An undertaking to follow all terms and condition of grant of license and to suspend marking with immediate effect in the event of suspension or cancellation of licensing) A flow chart describing the sequence of production and inspection stages. A majority of inspections. quality control techniques. Preliminary Inspection Preliminary inspection of the unit is carried out on a mutually agreed date. During the preliminary inspection. (which specifies the control over production . can be completed within a day. facilities available and the technical skills of the personnel are evaluated. if the application is found complete in all respects. it is recorded and assigned a registration number.The following additional documents are required to be submitted with the application: b) c) d) e) Location map of factory and factory layout Documentation authenticating the premises of manufacture List of manufacturing equipment and testing facilities available Scheme of testing and inspection in use. Preliminary visits are charged to the applicant at a uniform rate of Rs 2000 per day. Samples of products are tested and also drawn for testing in BIS or other independent laboratories. depending on the size of unit and complexity of work. Scheme Of Testing And Inspection The Scheme of Testing and Inspection (STI) is a document. During this inspection the firms manufacturing capability and controls. Registration On scrutiny. the Scheme of Testing and Inspection is discussed with the applicant‘s management. The application is acknowledged and the number is conveyed to the applicant for future reference.

d) Acceptance criteria. and the applicant has paid the advance minimum-marking fee. For subsequent applications. the applicability of the available STI is reviewed and changes are made if necessary. g) A clause requiring free replacement of goods in case a complaint in established bonafide.process) to exercise for operating the certification marks license. in process materials and finished products. subject to satisfactory operation of the license. c) Levels of control to be applied. Post certification controls are exercised through surveillance inspections at the . his products conform to the Indian Standard and he maintains a record of tests carried out. Supervisory Controls over Licensee’s Performance After the grant of license. which can be extended on application for further periods of two years at a time. inter alia the following provisions: a) Markings to be applied on the product and the method of applying the Standard Mark. This is prepared by BIS in consultation with the first applicant for the product. e) Frequency of sampling and tests on raw materials. The scope of a license can be extended at any time by adding more varieties covered by the Indian Standard. after due testing. The STI contains. Grant of License A license is granted to the applicant if results of preliminary inspection and independent testing are satisfactory. f) Directions to licensees in the event of quality related problems. b) Definition of control unit. The initial validity of the license is for one year. the manufacturer is authorized to mark his products on condition that he implements the STI fully. control unit wise.

Other Product Certification Schemes Besides the normal product certifications scheme. particularly if the product does not conform to the Indian Standard. The Product categories for which BIS has IECEE acceptance are: cables and chords. Additional controls are maintained by drawing market samples and getting them tested in independent laboratories. installation protective equipment. BIS is the National Authorized Institution and the National Standards Organization under the IEC System of Quality Assessment of Electronic components (IECQ) BIS acts as the surveillance agency for certifications granted by Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) in India. These products should conform to additional requirements specified in the Indian Standards to qualify. The results of inspections and product testing are communicated to the licensee as appropriate with suitable advices. Samples of current production are tested. electronics. BIS also grants licenses to environment friendly products under special scheme and awards the ECO MARK to such products. During these inspections.licensees unit periodically. low voltage high power switching equipment. License is renewed at the end of its validity after a review of past performance. thorough technical auditing of the quality control system is carried out with reference to the STI document. BIS is a National Certifying Body (issuing and recognizing) under the IEC System for Conformity testing and certification of electrical products (IECEE). A license can be suspended or cancelled following serious discrepancies. Marking can be stopped if consistent deficiencies are observed. and also drawn for testing in BIS or independent laboratories. capacitors as components. .

100 Application fee for renewal of License Rs. Section14 or Section 15 shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with a fine. .100 Penalties for spurious marking: Under section 22(1) of the BIS Act 1986. A unit rate is also chargeable concurrently on the quantum of production marked. If the amount calculated on unit rate basis exceeds the minimum marking fee. any person who contravenes the provisions of Section 11.Fees Schedule for grant of license Marking fee A schedule has been drawn giving the marking fee rates for each product.50000 or with both. which is the minimum payable amount per annum. that fees becomes chargeable i) ii) iii) iv) v) Application fee (non-refundable) Rs. Section12.200 Marking fee Variable Annual license fee Rs. The marking fee comprises of a fixed element. which may extend to Rs.500 Testing charges for independent testing Variable Inspection Charges (per day) Rs.

1 : Gender-wise respondent : Male Female : : 72 28 40% Durale product Home Product 60% Interpretation : Most of respondent are male only interested to give the answer of Consumer awareness. Some Females (home maker) has also interested to about the awareness of Consumer Protection. .DATA ANALYSIS Q.

40-50 mostly housewise.2 : Age wise Respondents : 20-25 25-30 30-40 40-50 : : : : 24 40 20 16 5% 9% Durale product Home Product 52% 34% Vehicle Seeds Interpretation : Age-wise respondent 25-30 are highest involved to protect all consumer and 20-25 as youth aware of all this awareness.Q. she knows to consumer awareness how its raising a protection to India. .

some respondent knows ISI Mark and Hallmark..Q. .3 : How do you know about Consumer Awareness : Jago Grahak Jago ISI Mark Hallmark National Schemes Other : : : : : 38 15 12 8 28 7% 5% 8% Durale product 48% Home Product Vehicle Seeds Other 32% Interpretation : Mostly respondent aware about Jago Grahak Jago and other way also know through of friends relatives and other.

34% home products and some to seed and other is also claimed to consumer protection. .4 : Have you claimed any products : Durable Products Home Product Vehicle Seeds Other : : : : : 48 32 8 5 7 7% 5% 8% Durale product 48% Home Product Vehicle Seeds Other 32% Interpretation : Mostly respondent bought and claimed Durable products.Q.

Q.0 75.8 78.6 58.5 Do you purchase the same brand every time? tatistics HOUSE PACKED MOSQUITO CLEANING SOA TOOTHPAST MASAL PICKL REPELLEN PRODUCT P E A E T S N Valid Missin g 80 22 60 42 45 57 35 67 30 72 65 37 Frequency Table SOAP Frequenc y Percent Valid yes no Total Missing .6 100.0 100.4 19.0 .00 System Total Total 20 60 80 20 2 22 102 19.0 21.6 2.0 100.0 Valid Percent 25.0 Cumulative Percent 25.

00 System Total Total 35 25 60 40 2 42 102 34.3 100.7 100.0 .0 Valid Percent 58.9 100.TOOTHPASTE Frequenc y Percent Valid yes no Total Missing .4 55.2 2.0 Cumulative Percent 44.3 41.5 58.9 2.0 PACKED MASALA Frequenc y Percent Valid yes no Total Missing .5 44.6 24.1 53.00 System Total Total 20 25 45 55 2 57 102 19.0 41.6 100.8 39.2 100.0 55.3 24.0 Cumulative Percent 58.4 100.0 Valid Percent 44.

0 65.0 70.9 100.3 16.0 Frequency Percent Valid yes no Total Missing .0 MOSQUITO REPELLENT Frequenc y Percent Valid yes no Total Missing .0 100.4 68.7 100.1 100.9 29.5 4.6 100.0 .6 2.0 Cumulative Percent 83.00 System Total Total 25 5 30 70 2 72 102 24.3 100.00 Total 20 15 35 65 100 20.0 Valid Percent 83.1 42.0 Cumulative Percent 57.0 15.PICKLE Valid Percent 57.0 35.

2 53.7 34.0 Valid Percent 46.4 34.3 2.00 System Total Total 30 35 65 35 2 37 102 29.3 63.0 Cumulative Percent 46.8 100.2 100.0 48% 52% YES NO .HOUSE CLEANING PRODUCTS Frequenc y Percent Valid yes no Total Missing .3 100.0 36.

9 % said that they do purchase the same brand every time.3 % said that they do purchase the same brand every time.3 % said that they do purchase the same brand every time. Pickle: 42.2 % said that they do purchase the same brand every time.1 % said that they do purchase the same brand every time.INTERPRETATION: Soap: 75% of the respondents said that they do not purchase the same brand every time while 25 % said that they do purchase the same brand every time. House Cleaning Products: 53. Overall: 52% of the respondents said that they do not purchase the same brand every time while 48 % said that they do purchase the same brand every time. Mosquito Repellent: 16. Toothpaste: 41. Packed Masala: 55.8% of the respondents said that they do not purchase the same brand every time while 46. .1% of the respondents said that they do not purchase the same brand every time while 44.7% of the respondents said that they do not purchase the same brand every time while 83.9% of the respondents said that they do not purchase the same brand every time while 57.7% of the respondents said that they do not purchase the same brand every time while 58.

0% 35 34.6% 100 100.6 Why do you change your brand? Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N Why change soap * income Why change toothpaste * income Why change packed masala * income Why change pickle * income Why change mosquito repellent * income Why change cleaning products * income 75 Percent 73.4% 70 70.Q.5% N 100 Total Percent 100.3% 65 65.5% N 25 Missing Percent 26.3% 100 100.0% 30 29.1% 54 54.9% 100 100.0% Why change soap * income Cross tabulation income less than 25000 Why change schemes soap trial better quality Total 10 0 10 2600050000 10 0 15 5100075000 4 0 11 more than 75000 Total 5 0 10 29 5 41 20 25 15 15 75 .0% 60 58.0% 46 45.0% 65 63.2% 100 100.7% 100 100.8% 40 41.7% 35 36.

Q7. Why change toothpaste * income Cross tabulation income less than 25000 whychangetoothpaste schemes trial better quality Total 6 0 4 2600050000 18 3 4 5100075000 1 3 11 more than 75000 Total 0 0 10 25 6 29 10 25 15 10 60 .

PACKED MASALA * income Cross tabulation Count income less than 25000 PACKED MASALA schemes trial better quality Total 11 7 2 2600050000 3 0 3 5100075000 4 0 6 more than 75000 Total 0 5 5 18 12 16 20 6 10 10 46 .

PICKLE * income Crosstabulation Count income less than 25000 PICKLE schemes trial better quality Total 10 3 2 2600050000 5 0 5 5100075000 1 0 4 more than 75000 0 0 5 Total 16 3 16 15 10 5 5 35 .

Why change mosquito repellent * income Cross tabulation Count income less than 25000 whychangemosquito trial better quality Total 5 10 2600050000 0 10 5100075000 0 5 Total 5 25 15 10 5 30 .

Why change cleaning * income Cross tabulation Count income less than 25000 whychangecleaning schemes trial better quality Total 10 10 5 2600050000 5 0 5 5100075000 15 0 0 more than 75000 Total 0 5 10 30 15 20 25 10 15 15 65 .

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Toothpaste: The cross tabulation of the reason of changing a brand with the income of the respondent in the toothpaste category shows that there is a change in the reason with increasing income of the respondent.INTERPRETATION: Soap: The cross tabulation of the reason of changing a brand with the income of the respondent in the soap category shows that there is a change in the reason with increasing income of the respondent. 6 out of 10 respondents of income less than 25. . 11 out of 20 respondents of income less than 25.000 say the they change brand due to the promotional schemes while only 0 out of 10 respondents of more than 75.000 category claim so.000 category claim so.000 say the they change brand due to the promotional schemes while only 0 out of 10 respondents of more than 75. Packed Masala: The cross tabulation of the reason of changing a brand with the income of the respondent in the packed masala category shows that there is a change in the reason with increasing income of the respondent.000 category claim so. 6 out of 10 respondents of income less than 25.000 say the they change brand due to the promotional schemes while only 5 out of 15 respondents of more than 75.

000 category claim so. .000 category claim so. House Cleaning Products: The cross tabulation of the reason of changing a brand with the income of the respondent in the house cleaning products category shows that there is a change in the reason with increasing income of the respondent.000 category claim so.Pickle: The cross tabulation of the reason of changing a brand with the income of the respondent in the pickle category shows that there is a change in the reason with increasing income of the respondent. 10 out of 15 respondents of income less than 25.000 say the they change brand due to the better quality while all 5 respondents of more than 75. 10 out of 25 respondents of income less than 25.000 say the they change brand due to the promotional schemes while only 0 out of 15 respondents of more than 75.000 say the they change brand due to the promotional schemes while only 0 out of 5 respondents of more than 75. 10 out of 15 respondents of income less than 25. Mosquito Repellent: The cross tabulation of the reason of changing a brand with the income of the respondent in the mosquito repellent category shows that there is a change in the reason with increasing income of the respondent.

Materials Management Systems for item cost Integrates with InnTap . e. Banquets    Integrates with InnMat .g. Staff meals. for consumption of recipe Interfaces with any other point of sale and materials management systems.Point of Sale. if protocols are available .LIMITATIONS   Maintain the full recipe of each and every dish on your menus Give actual and standard cost of ingredients while entering recipes and get the recipe cost     What if analysis on recipe costing Shift -wise liquor analysis Bifurcation of cost on the basis of Food and Beverage Keep track other Food and Beverage consumption.

 Eliminate.  Allow the person responsible for receiving to check the quantity of delivered goods against a written description of the quality desired  To establish a buying standard for a particular commodity for an establishment. for frequently purchased items.  To obtain a standard product for the production and selling departments can be more accurate.  To inform the receiving clerks and the store-man what to accept. poor service and poor after sales care etc.  Let us all unite to be ware of poor quality. the time that over the telephone or directly to sales persons each time the product is needed  Permit competitive bidding.SUGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION Required those who prepare them to think carefully and document exactly what their product requirements are :  There is a great need of making the consumers aware about their rights. the weekend dinner meal is often a peak time.  Leave no doubt in suppliers‘ minds about what they are quoting on thus reducing or eliminating misunderstanding between supplier and establishment.  To inform the supplier.  In a commercial foodservice.  The Government is also not making sufficient attempts to make the consumers aware. precisely what the purchaser requires. in writing. .  To establish a common denominator between the purchasing officer and the approved suppliers for settling the price of a commodity.  In general the consumers are ignorant about their rights.  Certain rules and regulations are still needed to protect the consumers.

customer participation is much more predictable.  An operation serving primarily a lunch crowd in a business area. master and production must be made by the foodservice manager. The hours between breakfast and dinner in a three meal-a-day operation do not lend themselves to two full shifts. The manager needs to determine the type of work schedule that would be best for the operation.ked per week. a school lunchroom.  Three types of work schedules. and some other foodservice operation. Overtime increases labor costs and should be carefully investigated before approval. it also lists relief assignments for positions when regular workers are off. In a university residence hall foodservice. The shift schedule will indicate the position and hours worked and may indicate the number of days wor. . The master schedules shows days on and off duty and vacations. however may have very low volume in the evening.  Some unusual problems occur in scheduling for a foodservice operation.

medicaments. as well as supervising of prices‘ indication procedure  Supervising of services . cosmetics. that regulate consumer rights. in Latvia. house-hold use chemical substances and chemical products)  Supervising of information about commodities and services. vendors or providers of services. for it to be in compliance with laws and regulations. as well as information given by manufacturers. CRPC main tasks and directions of activity are as follows: 1) Supervising and controlling of the market:  supervising commerce of non-food consumer goods (except medical commodities. so that advertisements are not misleading. so that information given is complete and real. veterinary-pharmaceutical products. Law on the Safety of Goods and Services. To insure implementation of functions entrusted to us.  Supervising of correct determination of food and non-food consumer goods‘ weight and size. Advertising Law. That is why it is essential to everyone that his or her rights are protected while making purchases – so that commodities one buys are safe and do not harm one‘s health or danger one‘s life. because everybody buys commodities and uses services. veterinary medicaments. correct calculation of commodity‘s price. Consumer Rights Protection Centre (CRPC) insures operation of Consumer Rights Protection Law. Law On Information Society Services. as well as other laws and many regulations of Cabinet of Ministers. so that there are no unjust provisions of the contracts and so that consumers can exercise their rights. animal care products.CONCLUSION Consumers Awareness rights is important to all inhabitants.

execution and implementation of warranty obligations .  Organization and coordination of cooperation between supervision and control institutions involved in implementation of state policy about protection of consumer rights and nongovernmental organizations of consumer‘s rights protection.  Accordingly to competence of CRPC. which is improper to provision of the contract. Supervising of e-commerce and e-business – providing of information. so that manufacturer. when unjust or unclear provisions are found in project of the contract or in concluded contract  To verify the consideration of procedure for undertaking. vendor or provider of service changed project of the contract or terminated fulfillment of provisions of contract. To make a decision about fulfillment of lawful demands of consumers. to create. to maintain and to update data base of expertise performers  Providing legal aid to consumers regarding their rights 3) Protection of consumers’ economical interests – supervision of advertising and supervising of contracts’ projects and contracts which consumers conclude with manufacturers. Controlling of organization of commodity‘s or service‘s expertise. 2) Reviewing of consumer complaints about violation of consumer rights. fulfillment of contract. inter alia:  To perform actions planned in laws and regulations. vendors and providers of services  Requiring of fulfillment of lawful demands of consumers  Controlling of procedure how consumer declares claim about commodity or service. vendors and providers of services to comply with consumers rights. etc. inter alia:  Rendering of assistance to consumers in solving of conflicts with manufacturers.

4) 5) Information of consumers and entrepreneurs Supervising of State metrology – supervising of measuring instruments and control of prepacked commodities 6) Representation of consumer right in other fields. rent relations. fulfillment of contract. etc. protecting collective consumer rights in fields. for example.  Protection of consumers‘ collective interests  Protection of air passengers‘ rights  Supervising of e-commerce and e-business – providing of information.  To evaluate compliance with laws and regulations of advertising and to make according decisions. To supervise being in compliance with laws and regulations of crediting contracts. not in direct responsibility of CRPC – use of public services. distance contracts and other contracts  To verify if contracts concluded by consumers include procedure given in laws and regulations for announcement and exploitation of refusal rights  To evaluate compliance with laws and regulations of providing of complex tourism services. (at present not done because of lack of financial resources) . use of construction services etc.

co.nic.gov/ www.ro/pdf/capitoleeng2012/13-Consumer-Protection.in/ ncdrc.htm www.in/ Phillip Kotler Kooper Aswathapa .nz/..consumer-protection../conclusion consumeraffairs.musat..cftc.ncpw.nic.gov/consumerprotection/index.uk/dsg.html www.commerce.govt.gov.../conclusion.au/consumerprotection/ www.in/ businesscasestudies.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOK Marketing Management Research Methodology Human Resource Magazine Value Line Domestic Products Business World Website www.consumeraffairs.wa..consumer.gov..consumer-protection..tn.pdf www.