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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................2 Chapter I Gerund as Non-Finite Forms of the verb ..........................................................................4

...........................................................................................................5 1.1 Gerund as non-finite form of the verb ....................................................................6


1.1.1History..................................................................................................................................9 1.1.2Peculiarities of form and usage. Gerund versus Verbal Noun .........................................10 1.1.3. The gerundial constructions.............................................................................................16 CHAPTER II Syntactical functions of Gerund................................................................................18

3.1 The functions of the verbals in the role of subject................................................18 3.2 The functions of the Gerund as object..................................................................19 3.4 Gerund functions as an Adverbial Modifier..........................................................21 3.5 . Functions of Gerund as Attribute.......................................................................23
CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................................................24 Bibliography.......................................................................................................................................26

INTRODUCTION
English grammar has been thoroughly studied by grammarians from different countries: Crystal, D., Idem, Thomson, A.J., Fowel,W.S.,(The UK), Melenciuc D., (Moldova), Paidos M., Levichi, L., Nicolescu, A. (Romnia), D.Bloch, Kaushanskaya, Ganshina M.A, Vasilevskaya, Gordon E.M., Krylova I.P.(Russia) etc. In addition, their valuable contribution to this science is manifested through a treatment of a particular part of it from the point of view of contrasting it with their mother tongue counterpart. There have been revealed many disputable theories regarding the Gerund. The non-finite forms of verb appear in the works of different grammarians under diverse names. Thus, Bloch names them verbids, Kaushanskaya, Gordon, Melenciuc etc. verbals. In this paper we will use the term verbals. The consideration of the English verbals in their mutual comparison, puts forwards some points of structure and function worthy of special notice. The central point of our analysis will be the very lexico-grammatical identification of Gerund and its reference with functions, which it bears. The ground for raising this problem is quite substantial due to Gerund duality. Appeal is naturally made to the alternating use of the possessive and the commonobjective nounal element in the role of the subject of Gerund (mostly observed in carious object positions of the sentence). The purpose of the course paper is to analyze the syntactical functions of Gerund in English. The objects for analysis are the examples with Gerund from the literary works David Copperfield by Charles Dickens, The Moon and Sixpence by W. Somerset Maugham, and The Myth of the Blue Train by Agatha Christie. The element of investigating the respective problem consists in establishing and explaining in a detailed and clear way the means and practical use of its functions in English. The methods of research to be used in this paper are analysis, synthesis and comparison. This course paper consists of two chapters.
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Chapter I comprises two subchapters that deal with general characteristic of Gerund as non-finite forms of the verb. They represent a theoretical approach to lexicogrammatical properties of Gerund. Chapter II includes the functions and syntactical characteristics of Gerund.

Chapter I Gerund as Non-Finite Forms of the verb


(General characteristic of non-finite forms of the verb) The aim of this chapter is to present the various points of view taken from diverse sources concerning Gerund and to give it an appropriate characteristic: We shall begin with various definitions and points of view of some grammarians who have studied this subject intensely. Gerund: "the English verbal noun in -ing that has the function of a [noun] and at the same time shows the verbal features of tense, voice, and capacity to take adverbial qualifiers and to govern objects" [12] A gerund, a verbal noun that most frequently acts as a direct object or predicate nominative. For example, in the following sentence, jumping is a participle: "The jumping boy received many unpleasant complaints." In this sentence, on the other hand, jumping is a gerund: "Jumping can cause wounds." M. Bloch put an important point of view forward: Non finite forms of the verb are intermediary in many of the lexico grammatical features between the verb and the non-processual parts of the speech. Their mixed features are revealed in the principal spheres of the part of speech characterization, i.e. in their meaning, structural making combinability, and syntactic functions. Ganshina M.A., Vasilevskaya N.M. also consider that the characteristic traits of the noun finite forms consists in the fact that they have a double nature, nominal and verbal. Their tense distinctions, are not absolute, but relative; the form of a verbal does not show whether the action it denotes refers to the present, past or future; it shows only whether the action expressed by finite verb or prior to it. It should be mentioned that all the non-finite forms can form predicative constructions, i.e. constructions consisting of two elements, a nominal (noun or pronoun) and a verbal (participle, gerund, infinitive); the verbal element, i.e. in a relation of the sentence. In most cases, predicative constructions form syntactic units, serving as one part of the sentence. Concerning the Gerund categorical forms, they are differently interpreted by various linguists: some linguistic schools think that all the verbal forms ending in
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ing should belong to ing forms. Thus, Blokh mentions the fact that in the American linguistic tradition which can be traced back to the school of descriptive linguistics the two forms are recognized as one integral ing. To these points of view, many other linguists have adhered. Other scholars think that present participle and gerund represent different homonymous non-finite categorical, each of which is fulfilling quite specific functions. Among the second group of linguists, discrepancies have appeared as to how to differentiate between the functions of the gerund and participle and their depending on their formal combination with certain syncategorematic lexical units.

1.1 Gerund as non-finite form of the verb The gerund is the non-finite form of the verb, which combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun. The gerund serves as the verbal name of a process and its substantive quality is strongly pronounced. Namely, the gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or its pronominal equivalents (expressing the subject of the verbal process), and it can be used with prepositions. [1:108]. Here it is appropriate to make a comparison with the infinitive in order to understand better gerund characteristics as non-finite verb. The gerund cannot perform the function of the paradigmatic verbal headform, because first it is more detached from the finite verb than the infinitive semantically, tending to be a far more substantival unit categorially. Then, as different from the infinitive, it does not join in the conjugation of the finite verb. Unlike the infinitive, it is a suffixal form, which makes it less generalized than the infinitive in terms of the formal properties of the verbal lexeme (although it is more abstract in the purely semantic sense). Finally, it is less definite than the infinitive from the lexico-grammatical point of view, being subject to easy neutralizations in its opposition with the verbal noun in -ing, as well as with the present participle. Therefore, the gerund is no rival of the infinitive in the paradigmatic head-form function. [1:108] The general combinability of the gerund, like that of the infinitive, is dual, sharing some features with the verb, and some features with the noun. The verbtype combinability of the gerund is displayed in its combining, first, with nouns expressing the object of the action; second, with modifying adverbs; third, with certain semi-functional predicator verbs, but other than modal. Of the noun-type is the combinability of the gerund, first, with finite notional verbs as the object of the action; second, with finite notional verbs as the prepositional adjunct of various functions; third, with finite notional verbs as the subject of the action; fourth, with nouns as the prepositional adjunct of various functions.
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The gerund, in the corresponding positional patterns, performs the functions of all the types of notional sentence-parts, i.e. the subject, the object, the predicative, the attribute, the adverbial modifier. [1:109] E.g.. : Knowing at what time his wife did her shopping, he (Gerund subject position) if he denied bringing the pictures to Dirk Stroeve. (Gerund direct object position) She could not give her mind to pressing wild flowers in Pauline's botany book. (Gerund addressee object position) David began by drawing our attention to that serious matter. (Gerund prepositional object position) Seeing is believing. (Gerund predicative position) Fancy the pleasant prospect of listening to all the gossip they have in store for you! (Gerund attributive position) He could not push against the furniture without bringing the whole lot down. (Gerund adverbial of manner position) One of the specific gerund patterns is its combination with the noun in the possessive case or its possessive pronominal equivalent expressing the subject of the action. This gerundial construction is used in cases when the subject of the gerundial process differs from the subject of the governing sentence-situation, i.e. when the gerundial sentence-part has its own, separate subject. [1:109] E.g.: Mr. Barkis's wooing, as I remember it, was altogether of a peculiar kind. How can she know about the Richard' being related with this immoral affair? The possessive with the gerund displays one of the distinctive categorial properties of the gerund as such, establishing it in the English lexemic system as the form of the verb with nounal characteristics. As a matter of fact, from the point of view of the inner semantic relations, this combination is of a verbal type, while from the point of view of the formal categorial features, this combination is of a nounal type. It can be clearly demonstrated by the appropriate transformations, i.e. verb-related and noun-related re-constructions. [1:110]
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Eg.: I can't stand his criticizing artistic works that are beyond his competence. (T-verbal ->He is criticizing artistic works. T-nounal His criticism of artistic works.) Besides combining with the possessive noun-subject, the verbal ing-form can also combine with the noun-subject in the common case or its objective pronominal equivalent. E.g.: I read in yesterday's paper about the hostages having been released. This gerundial use as presenting very peculiar features of categorial mediality will be discussed after the treatment of the participle. The formal sign of the gerund is wholly homonymous with that of the present participle: it is the suffix -ing added to its grammatically (categorially) leading element. Like the infinitive, the gerund is a categorially changeable (variable, demutative) form; it distinguishes the two grammatical categories, sharing them with the finite verb and the present participle, namely, the aspective category of retrospective coordination (perfect in opposition), and the category of voice (passive in opposition). Consequently, the categorial paradigm of the gerund of the objective verb includes four forms: the simple active, the perfect active; the simple passive, the perfect passive. E.g.: taking having taken being taken having been taken. The gerundial paradigm of the non-objective verb, correspondingly, includes two forms. E.g.: going having gone. The perfect forms of the gerund are used, as a rule, only in semantically strong positions, laying special emphasis on the meaningful categorial content of the form.

1.1.1 History The gerund is a descendant of the Old English verbal noun and the present participle; hence its double nature and its noun and verb characteristics. In the Old English period the verbal noun had the endings -ing, -ing; in Middle English the ending was -ing(e). The present participle in Old English had the ending -ende which in Middle English was replaced by -inge as the result of a confusion of constructions with the verbal noun and the participle. .Thus the verbal noun and the participle became merged into one form ing(e), the modern ing. As the result of the blending of the two forms, the verbal noun in -ing began to develop verbal characteristics under the influence of the participle. In constructions where in Middle English and in Early Modern English the verbal noun, like any other noun, was preceded by the definite article and followed by the preposition of (He thanked him for the saving of his life. Compare: He thanked him for the preservation of his life.), the article as well as the preposition of were gradually dropped, the ing-form taking the noun following as its direct object (He thanked him for saving his life), thus crystallizing into a new form, the gerund. The following example; show the gradual transition from the verbal noun to the gerund; the ing-noun still retains the article, but the preposition has already disappeared: E.g.: Its there for the talking. The hardest part is the waiting. Later on the gerund, becoming more and more verbal, developed tense distinctions and the passive voice, and preserving still its syntactical characteristics of a noun assumed largely the dynamic force of a verb. The gerund has both verb and noun characteristics.[4:268]

1.1.2

Peculiarities of form and usage. Gerund versus Verbal Noun

Word derived from a verb stern by the suffix ing may be used in variety of meanings and functions, according to the context in which they occur. In the first place, such words may be used as Verbal Nouns, i.e. as nouns with a verbal meaning. Reading and writing are nowadays widespread acquirements; Im fond of smoking.

In addition to its verbal meaning, such a form in -ing may have verbal function: it may take an object or be qualified by an adverb. I am fond of smoking a pipe. He educated himself by reading widely.

Noun in ing with verbal meaning, or with verbal meaning and functions combined, are called Gerund. In group like: A human being, the Chrysler Building, and the former being synonymous with house or edifice such noun are not called Gerunds.[14] Gerund has Verbal Characteristics: A Grammar Category of Time and Voice. Active voice Gerund: I enjoy learning English. Perfect Gerund: He denies having taken the books. Passive Voice Gerund: He cant stand being interrupted.

He was punished by being sent to bed without any supper. I remember being taking to Yarmouth as a small child.
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Perfect Gerund: The safe showed no signs of having touched. He denies having been invited to the party.

As a rule, Gerund expresses an action. Simultaneous with the action of predicative verb (exception the situation when Gerund is preceded by prepositions: before or after). The teacher enjoyed taking the children to the museum last Sunday. Perfect Gerund denotes a prior action to Predicative verb. This can be used instead of the Present from of the Present form of the Gerund when we are referring to a past action: He was accused of deserting his ship; or: deny. He denies having seen her. They denied having been there. He was accused of having deserted his ship.

Perfect Gerund is used more rarely than Gerund, it especially appears after verb

With other verbs as: to remember, excuse, forgive, thank and after prepositions: on, after, without, the report of priority can be expressed also by the Gerund. I cant remember doing this exercise before. I cant remember having done this exercise before. - I thank him for helping me. - I thank him for having helped me. As usual passive sense of the Gerund is expressed by Passive form. The children enjoyed being taken to the museum. But, to express Passive sense after verbs: want, need, require, deserve, and after adjective worth, it is used Active Gerund. Your shoes need mending. That young man will require looking after.
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Your house badly wants painting. What is worth doing is doing well.

Usage of Gerund
I. after prepositions, such as: after, before, by for, from, on, etc., which show relation of tense, cause, mod, etc. On waking up, he found himself in a hospital ward. Read your paper again before handing it in. Youll get ticket for parking here. She keeps healthy by keeping a strict diet II. after parts of speech, which are followed obligatorily by certain prepositions: a) Noun with obligatorily preposition: - doubt + about; Cause, reason +for; Belief, confidence, delight, experience, faith, interest, luck, pride + in; Charge, favor, habit, hope, intention, opportunity + of; Contribution, objection, opposition + to; etc. He has a lot of experience in foreign language teaching.

b) Abstractive and Past Participles with obligatory preposition angry, anxious, certain, enthusiastic, happy, optimistic, pleased, sure, worried + about; angry, astonished, bad, clever, delighted, expert, good, pleased, skilful, surprised + at; excellent, famous, responsible, sorry, suitable, useful + for; consistent, correct, diligent, experienced, expert, fortunate, helpful, interested, hate, prompt, quick, right, show, successful + in; afraid, ashamed, aware, capable, certain, conscious, convinced, fond, guilty, proud, tired + of; I am delightful at her winning the first prize.
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I am used to getting up early.

c) Verbs with obligatory preposition: to complain, dream, learn, worry + about; to aim, hesitate + against; to begin, conclude, end + by; to apologize, care +for; to prevent, recover, refrain, retire + from; to believe, consist, delight, participate, succeed + in; to agree, concentrate, congratulate, count, decide, focus, insist, live, rely + on; to agree, contribute book forward, object, resort t to; to agree + with. Eg.: I dont agree to your leaving earlier than the others. I object to your leaving earlier than the others. I wont hear of buying a new TV set. III. The Gerund is used after the noun use in expression: it is no use or there is no use and after adjective worth. E.g.: This book is worth reading. Its no use trying to mend the vacuum cleaner. IV. After transitive verbs: admit, avoid, consider, deny, detest, dislike, escape, fancy, finish, fie up, cannot help, keep (on), don t mind, miss, postpone, practice, put off reset, risk, cannot stand, stop, suggest, etc. E.g.: You must avoid being like in future. He has given up smoking. V. After the verbs that express a mental activity: to forget, remember, understand; or feelings: cannot bear, dream, hate, like, love, neglect, prefer, regret, etc., alternately with the Infinitive. E.g.: I remember being disappointed.
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I hate their arriving late. VI. After the verbs, which show a process: to plan, try, undertake; beginning: to begin; duration: to continue; or the end of action: to cease, in alternation with Infinitive. E.g.: They started continued } comparing notes.

The Long Infinitive and the Gerund has same nounal and verbal common characteristics, because they can: c)have Subject: I want you to go first. I cant stand Torn interrupting me all the time; Direct Object: I intend to read this tomorrow. I remember spending a holiday with them. Adverbial: We want to go to the theatre. He had the benefit of studying at a University. d) be the same functions in sentence: Subject, Predicative: To see her, is to like her. Seeing is believing. Direct Object: I have to swim in to the sea. I love swimming. Prepositional Attribute: He has no desire to go. He has no intention of going. Gerund versus Verbal Noun The verbal noun It is known that the gerund has the same ending ing similar to the verbal noun. Let us point out differences between the gerund and the verbal noun and give some instances in order to make cited points comprehensive.[4:276] The main points of difference are as follows: Like all verbals the gerund has a double character nominal and verbal.
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The verbal noun has only a nominal character. The Gerund is not used with an article. The verbal noun may be used with article. The making of a new humanity cannot be the privilege of a handful of bureaucrats. I want you to give my hair a good brushing. The Gerund has no plural form. The verbal noun may be used in the plural.[4:276] Our likings are regulated by our circumstance. The Gerund of a transitive verb takes a direct object. He received more and more and more letters, so many that he had given up reading them. A verbal noun cannot take a direct object; it takes a prepositional object with the preposition of. [4:277] Mean while Gwendolen was rallying her nerves to the reading to the paper. The gerund may be modified by an adverb. Drinking, even temperately, was a sin. The verbal noun may be modfied by an adjective. [4:277] He took a good scolding about cladding Sid.

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1.1.3. The gerundial constructions 1. Sometimes the gerund is preceded by a possessive pronoun or a noun in the possessive case: E.g.: We insisted on his being present there. I insist on Marys (her) going there. In this construction the relation between the noun (or pronoun) and the gerund is that of a secondary object and secondary predicate his arriving. Such a construction may have the function of a complex subject, predicative, object, attribute, etc. [5:116] E.g.: The boys (his) arriving so late was a surprise. (complex subject.) "I have no objection to your nursing him." (complex direct object.) She wondered at his caring for things like that... (complex prepositional object) There was little likelihood of his meeting anybody at that tune. (complex attribute.) How did you get our without his seeing you? (complex Adverbial modifier.) A gerundial complex used as subject is often introduced by an anticipatory it: E.g.: It was quite unexpected his coming back so soon. It is not worth while your It Perhaps its of no use my mentioning it at present. It was not of the least use my trying to look wise. 2. If the noun which precedes the gerund cannot be used in the possessive case, the common case is used: E.g.: He did not recollect such a thing having happened to him before. Meanwhile, the rain came down in a steady torrent, and the lower part of the town vas under water, owing to the river having overflowed. In Modern English, there is a tendency to use the common case even with such nouns that may be used in the possessive case, and to use the objective case of personal pronouns: [5:117] E.g.: I remember my brother-in-law oing for a short sea trip once for the benefit oi his health.
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going there to-day.

On Mr. Brown calling to him to come in, he found himself in a little room... You must forgive me coming at such an hour... The umbrella strained and pulled and I felt us driving along with it. The ing-form when preceded by a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case has a function intermediate between that of participle I and the gerund. E.g.: I rely on John (him) doing it in time. On the one hand this construction is closely connected in meaning with the gerundial construction I rely on Johns (his) doing it in time: on the other hand it reminds is of the participle construction (Accusative with the Participle): [5:117] E.g.: I saw John (him) doing it. Such a thingform may be called a half-gerund. 3. The gerund of such verbs as to be, to get, to become, to remain, etc. is often used with the help of a-link-verb and is followed by a predicative: [5:117] E.g.: Just before dinner he was told of Sirs. Stormners not being well Wont you sit down? she said. You must forgive our being at work. you ll excuse my being busy.

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CHAPTER II Syntactical functions of Gerund


3.1 The functions of the verbals in the role of subject Verbals are verbs that function as another part of speech. Gerund, which is a verb that always functions as a noun. We will discuss about this type. The verbals may be used in various syntactic functions. A single gerund occurs as subject but seldom; in most cases we find a gerundial phrase or a gerundial construction. Syntactically they has function as the subject of a sentence: Playing basketball takes up too much of her time. Jogging is a healthy activity. Camping is the ideal way to spend a holiday. Avoiding difficulties is not my method.

It ends in ing as well all gerunds do. Here, it functions as the subject of the sentence, and when the subject of the sentence is a gerundial phrase, it is the sometimes placed after the predicate. Then the sentence begins with the anticipatory it. E.g.: E.g.: It is no use crying over split milk. Her favorite fantasy is playing basketball for UConn. The gerund form can further identity a noun when they play the role of Noun Complement and Appositive: E.g.: Her one burning desire in life, playing basketball for UConn, seemed a goal within reach. Gerund may exhibit all the syntactic properties of a noun. Thus, it may be preceded by an article, a possessive or demonstrative pronoun, a noun in the genitive, or an adjective, or followed by noun-adjunct with of (or another preposition). Gerund can appear as a Subject Complement:

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3.2 The functions of the Gerund as object The Gerund can also have an object. This object, like a direct object, will also answer the questions, whom or what. Running the store is hard work. Running the store is the subject of the sentence. It is the Gerund phrase used as Noun. Store is the object of the gerund. Running what? The store. [13] It is not uncommon to find gerunds taking Object of a Preposition: E.g.: She wrote a newspaper article about dealing with college recruiters She thanked her coach for helping her to deal with the pressure. Noun with syntactical function of a) Attribute E.g.: . . .a discreet smile of greeting. The occasion of the coming of Don Juans two sons was not only the return of Don Manuel... b) Direct Object E.g.: ... the importance of preserving the faith in its purity. ... the traffic prevented us from speaking. A direct object is the receiver of action within a sentence, as in The traffic prevented us from speaking. However, there is the distinguishing between a direct object and object complement. E.g.: Dirk loves reading good stories. This gerund phrase acts as direct object of loves. Within the phrase itself is a second direct object. E.g.: Bertha enjoys hiking. Hiking is the gerund. In this position, it functions as the direct object of enjoys. c) Indirect Object E.g.: . . . the Mac Andrews will pay for their schooling. Beatriz at that age was pay, passionately pond of dancing. She had a real passion for reading.

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The Gerund with function of Indirect Object can be regarded as: Verb with such syntactical functions: Indirect Object, Adverbial ModifIer of Cause, compound Part of Predicate, Attribute Clause; and as Noun syntactical function Indirect Object. E.g.: I cannot blame him for taking step, which was forced upon him by I never ceased to be fascinated by their persistence in eating buttered He put forward the ridiculous argument that there was nothing more disgraceful in baking bead than in plugging a barren field or pressing olives. 3.3 Predicative functions of Gerund Basically, the rest of the sentences or clauses other than the subject; it usually has a verb, and thus indicates some action, but may have other functions such as modifying the subjects. E.g.: Strickland is going downtown. Stopping at a red light is always a good idea. Gerund and Gerundial construction with functions of: Adverbial Modifier of Manner E.g.: And talking of money. .. .and wondering if the fault is mine... Participle with function of: Attribute, Direct Object, Adverbial Modifier and Subordinate Clauses E.g.: E.g.: E.g.: E.g.: Shes raving about your book. It was pleasing to him to think that the grandeur of the reception On the other hand, Don Manuel had never communicated with them And this news slightly disconcerting to me personally because I had
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circumstances

arranged for them... excepted when he was intriguing to the order of Calatrava.... written from the country to Mrs. Strickland, announcing my return.

The gerund as part of a compound verbal predicative with verbs and phrases, denoting modality forms part of a compound verbal modal predicate. E.g.: E.g.: but relative. 3.4 Gerund functions as an Adverbial Modifier Without modifiers, sentences would be no fun to read. Carefully chosen, well placed modifiers allow your writing to express your unique slang on the situation you are capturing with words. The Gerund that syntactically appears as Adverbial Modifier of Manner As an adverbial modifier of manner the Gerund is used with the prepositions by or in E.g.: ... and finished by repeating the story. Of their elders some, by imitating the antics of youth.... ... Thus not only rendering a service to God, but also edifying the people. I tried to conceal my embarrassment by handing round cups of tea. As an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances the Gerund is preceded by the preposition without E.g.: herself.... He seldom comes without bringing them anything, and soon they were able to eat meat every day that the Church allowed it. As adverbial modifier of purpose, the gerund is chiefly used with the preposition for. E.g.: without E.g.: He has no right to come bothering you and father without being invited. . . . one side of the room was used for dancing. As an adverbial modifier of condition the gerund is preceded by the preposition .. . without thinking she slithered down the stair on her backside, helping Joseph could not help admiring the man. Verb with the similar function: .. . he broke of and began gnawing at his nail. The Gerund as Predicative

Like the tense distinctions of all the verbals, those of the participle are not absolute

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As an adverbial modifier of cause, the Gerund is used with the prepositions for, for fear of owing to. E.g.: spite of E.g.: E.g.: E.g.: Participle In addition, it may be met as Participle and Noun with function of Adverbial ModfIer of Manner and Direct Object. E.g.: E.g.: In a minute she returned ushering in a stronger. . .. she knew no other may to amuse the sick girl than by telling her the In spite of being busy, he did all he could to help her. I felt she must have been suffering. When we had done discussing the merits of the latest book.... With the function of Verb: I dared not attend the funeral for fear of making a fool of myself As an adverbial modifier of concession the gerund is preceded by the preposition in

gossip of the city. The Gerund as Adverbial ModifIer of Time: (preceded by the preposition after, before, on, in, at) Gerundial Construction and Gerund as adverbial Modifier of Time E.g.: E.g.: E.g.: E.g.: E.g.: E.g.: On arriving back at the Savoy, he gives a curt-order... On coming to Castle Rodriguez... On reading over that I have written. On turning a corner he come upon a scene of same activity. . . .and after reviewing various possible candidates... . . .and after doing her errand...

Verb also as Adverbial Modifier of Time.

The above examples show that the Gerund preceded by one and the same preposition may be used in different functions: with the preposition without, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances and of condition; with the preposition in, it may perform the function of an adverbial

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modifier of time and of manner; with the preposition for, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose or of cause.

3.5 . Functions of Gerund as Attribute In this function the Gerund is always preceded by a proposition E.g.: E.g.: Strove protruded his pale round eyes with the effort of hearing . . . many Spanish women with advancing years. . . . Lady Prioress had been in the habit of giving Maria Perez work to do... . . .even at the risk of boring the reader... A man of learning and a poet. In most cases, the Gerund might be manifested as Gerund, Noun, Verb, seldom Participle with Syntactical function of: Adverbial Modifiers, Subordinate Clauses, Attribute, Direct and Indirect Object and Predicate. The Gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized preserving at the same time its nominal character. As a natural result of its origin and development the Gerund has nominal and verbal properties. As we noticed the nominal characters of the Gerund are met in different cases with different function. Gerund as attribute with functions of Attribute or Attributive Subordinate Clause.

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CONCLUSIONS The consideration of the English overbids in their mutual comparison, supported and supplemented by comparing them with their non-verbal counterparts, puts forward some points of structure and function worth of special notice. Of special significance for the differential overbid identification purposes the two different types of conversion: the compared forms are subject to, namely, the nounal conversion of the Gerund. After analyzing about 100 examples with Gerund from literary works we have come to a conclusion that there are: - Gerund with the syntactical functions of attribute, direct object, indirect object, predicate. - Gerund functioning as adverbial modifier of manner Gerunds, which syntactically are direct objects, are rendered as: - Noun with the function of direct object - Verbs with the function of predicate - Gerunds functioning as adverbial modifiers of manner Gerunds, which appear as adverbial modifier of manner, are rendered as: Adverbial modifier of manner Predicates Participles

Gerund that syntactically are indirect objects, predicates preserve their function. It should be mentioned that in the process of using the nounal and verbal characteristics of the Gerund are subject to changes for example: the semi dynamic character of the Gerund is transformed into a static character, in most of the cases when the gerund is rendered by means of a noun. The consideration also had revealed Participle I with the function of: Predicate is rendered by means of: Verb functioning as predicate, direct object, attribute.

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Gerund and gerundial construction functioning as adverbial modifier of manner. Participle, noun, parasitological units functioning as attributes, direct objects, adverbial modifiers and subordinate Clauses.

Attribute is transmitted as: Adjective; Participle; Verb; Noun, all of them functioning as attributes and direct objects.

Adverbial modifier of manner is transmitted as: Gerund, functioning as adverbial modifier of manner and of reason Verb, functioning as direct object and predicate Complex object is transmitted as: Gerund with the functions of adverbial modifier of manner and attribute Adverbial modifier of time, purpose and cause is transmitted as: Verb with the function of predicate, adverbial modifier of manner and time, attribute.

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