Wu, Y.-L., Tao, Y.-H., P.-C.

Yang, The use of unified theory of acceptance and use of technology to confer the behavioral model of 3G mobile telecommunication users, Journal of Statistics and Management Systems, Vol.11, No.5, 919–949, 2008

Investigating the consumer behavior of T a i w a n ’ s 3G mobile telecommunication services
Yu-Lung Wu1, Yu-Hui Tao2, Pei-Chi Yang1 1 Department of Information Management, I-Shou University: ISU96-01-14 No.1, Sec 1,Syuecheng Rd.,Dashu Township Kaohsiung County 840 wuyulung@isu.edu.tw, 2 Department of Information Management, National University of Kaohsiung Kaohsiung (833, Taiwan) ytao@nuk.edu.tw Abstract A l t h o u g hT a i w a n ’ s3 Gs e r v i c e ss t a r t e di t so p e r a t i o ni n2 0 0 3 , t h em a i np r o f i t source for every telecommunication company is still the cheaper fees of airtime minutes. Therefore, this study is directed on how these companies design the m a r k e t i n gt a c t i c sc l o s e rt ot h ec o n s u m e r s ’ n e e du n d e rt h ed u a l i n f l u e n c e so ft h e d e c r e a s i n gi n d i v i d u a l ’ sc o n t r i b u t i o na n dt h el o wu tility rate, as well as how to i m p r o v ec u s t o m e r s ’ w i l l i n g n e s st oa d o p t3 Gm o b i l et e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o ns e r v i c e s . Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) is used as the model to carry out the investigation of expert interview a n dc o n s u m e r s ’ survey. This study f o u n dt h a t t h e f a c t o r s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l yi n f l u e n c e dt h e “ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” i n c l u d e “ p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a n c y , ” “ s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e , ” a n d “ f a c i l i t a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , ” w h i l e t h e t r a d i t i o n a lk n o w n“ e f f o r te x p e c t a n c y ”d i dn o t .Mo r e o v e r ,t h r e e non-assumed relationships were discovered during the Structural Equation Model analysis, which helped to revise the UTAUT model for the adoption of 3G telecommunication services in Taiwan. T h er e s u l t so ft h i ss t u d yc a nb eh e l p f u l t oT a i w a n ’ sm o b i l e telecommunication companies to adjust their corporate strategies and tactics for providing customer-oriented 3G services to both existing and potential customers, such that the overall 3G market can be expanded as well as a win-win situation for the 3G industry and their consumers can be achieved. Key words - 3G Mobile Telecommunication, Unified Theory of Acceptance and

Use of Technology (UTAUT), Structural Equation Modeling

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and thus deserves a further investigation o nt h ec o n s u m e r ’ sa d o p t i o nb e h a v i o rregarding 3G mobile service adoption.000 users in the third quarter of 2006. the global application of 3G has just officially started in 2005. besides Japan and Korea. 1989. limited to the software and hardware abilities of 2G cell phones. The behavioral intention that is adopted to discuss technology acceptance is always the an emergent topic in contemporary management (Davis. 1993. there were 3. Davis et al. 1997. which only accounts for 5% to 10% of t h e p r o f i t o f T a i w a n ’ s mobile telecommunication industry (Institute for Information Industry,2006a) In the p a s t . and then 6% by Chunghwa Telecom and Taiwan Mob i l e . cell-phone number users had reached 2. the mobile value-added services have been at a low level at the same time. Jackson et al. 1999). game and friend-meeting are the most popular mobile value-added services besides messaging. A m o n gT a i w a n ’ s m o b i l ed a t as e r v i c e s . Even when facing such a great business opportunity of huge market. the number of global mobile telecommunication users will surpass 5 billion in 2015.. 1991. In the past.000 users for 3G data services and PHS users in the third quarter of 2006. Meanwhile. Mykytyn & Harrison. The annual output value of global mobile telecommunication market has already reached US$700 Billion. which reflects that the current mobile services has not been widely accepted by the consumers.840. data and video services. Because Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) has the best explanatory power in behavior for information technology. 2006). 1989).2970. In contrast. Mathieson. and this value continued to grow with 10 % every year (GSM Association. the cell phone was unable to send information rapidly and safely.I.. The above figures show that the numbers of cell-phone and mobile Internet of Taiwan usage have always kept at a high level. and the popularity of cell-phone number was up to 100%. picture and ring tone downloading. the coverage of the mobile network has already reached 80% of the global population.. it is used as the . Liao et al. This is a general bottleneck faced by the worldwide mobile phones suppliers. which is three times the current number. 1989. which is twice of the number in 2000. but also offer diversified services. which accounted for 42.. T a i w a n ’ s c e l l p h o n em a r k e t i s r e l a t i v e l ys m a l l o nt h ed a t as e r v i c e s . the highest one is 8% by Far EasTone. In Taiwan. among the technology acceptance models (Davis. 1997. Now the 3G cell phone can not only greatly improves the deficiency of data transmission speed of 2G cell phones. F o r u s e r ’ s contribution to data-service profit. Igbaria et al.7% of the total users of network Internet. INTRODUCTION According to the latest research report of GSM Association. such as voice.

but the 1G. 2005-2 0 1 0 ” . the so-called third generation mobile telecommunication system is the mobile telecommunication system that combines the multimedia communications. II.2006). the purpose of this study verifies the suitability of UTAUT under the background of mobile telecommunications. such that customers can have the best quality of receiving environment in any place and any time (S. In t e r m s o f t h e u s e r p o p u l a t i o n . “ Wo r l d w i d e C e l l u l a r U s e r Forecasts. Strategy -4- .C. audio-visual. 2002). and reaches 3. using habits. and video conference. BACKGROUND INFORMATION A.5 billion users before the end of 2010. In addition. Zeng.main framework in this study. According to the investigation report of Global System for Mobile Entertainment Services Market of Informa Telecoms & Media. 2G.. copes with many kinds of media.8 billion in 2006.5 billion by the end of 2006. understands consumers ’ relevant factors of behavioral intention with regard to mobile telecommunications service. video conference.3 billion by 2011 (Informa Telecoms et al. the Global System for Mobile Entertainment Services Market is up to US$18. such as picture. The current situation of 3G mobile telecommunication industry Mobile telecommunication system continuously progresses with the a d v a n c e m e n t o f t e c h n o l o g ya n dt h eu s e r s ’ d e m a n d s t o w a r d s t r a n s m i s s i o ns p e e d and application services. and offers diversified information services including Internet surfing. t h e n e wr e s e a r c hr e p o r t . and the connection between service types and key successful factors in order to serve as the reference for the marketing strategies of mobile telecommunications subscribers and the customer relationship management. In particular. such as wireless communication and global Internet. 3G that this study mentioned are also the classifications of the current mobile telecommunication system according to their transmission speeds and applications. 2005). In order to identify the adoption factors of 3G mobile service issues. The third generation of mobile telecommunication system must possess enough bandwidth and transmission speed in order to offer this kind of multimedia service (Topology Research Institute. and focuses on d i f f e r e n t u s e r s ’ characteristics. and mobile e-commerce. A noteworthy point is that the mobile telecommunication system is not only evolved and developed unilaterally. and it is expected to be up to US$39. b y S t r a t e g y A n a l y t i c s Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k S t r a t e g i e s S e r v i c e points out that the global mobile users will be up to 2.

B . 41 networks 850.870~0.The present using condition of 3G telecommunications service in Taiwan With respect to the development of 3G telecommunication services in Asia. it also has a gap with Hong Kong and Singapore (Institute for Information Industry. the consumers are charged for about US$15 per month for the service of watching TV though the cell phone. the transmitting rate of 3G technology increases from 384bps to 2Mbps. the industry of the mobile telephone will produce the service profit of US$800 billion. electronic comic. Take South Korea as another example.135 14 countries.845 0.945~1.000 VIBO Telecom WCDMA 1.809 37 countries 300.945~1.125~2.960 2. are put forward successively. though the first 3G subscriber (Asia Pacific Telecom) in Taiwan set up the 3G services earlier than the subscribers in Hong Kong and Singapore.135~2.Analytics also predicts that in the following ten years.000 -5- . and Hong Kong have already set up 3G services before June of 2005.025 2.015~2. 3G technology will be commercialized successively.020~2.020 2. but the 3G services of the main 3G subscribers started to operate continually until May 2005.000 Taiwan Mobile Co.000 Far Eastone Telecom WCDMA 1. mobile music.000 X 990.960~1. Korea.150 25 countries. For example. 22 networks 300.135 Asia Pacific Telecom CDMA 2000 0. In addition. Table 1 – The general situation of 3G mobile telecommunication s u b s c r i b e r s ’ s y s t e m s in Taiwan 3G mobile telecommunicati on companies System Frequency bands(GHz) 3G image roaming The number of Chunghwa Telecom WCDMA 1.915~1. since the third quarter of 2006 in Japan. the starting time of Taiwan had not only fallen behind Japan and Korea. the 3G user population has already been up to 57 million.825~0. set up the 3G services until December 2005 (Table 1). mobile game.935 2.975 2. WCDMA 1. such as e-book. and the last subscriber. the 3G subscribers of Japan.150 5 countries. etc. 2006).135~2. 9 networks 490.960 2. so that the potential multimedia network services.125~2. mobile TV (audio-visual steam). Singapore. The market of 3G becomes gradually clear in other countries.. With the gradual progress of technology and the mobile device of downloading. VIBO Telecom.

420. 2007). This polarized response has been shown on the -6- . but the fact is not so. which is still incomparable with 20% in Japan and Korea(Institute for Information Industry. marketing service and operational models. the 3G users in the forth quarter of 2006 has increased 157.5% more than the same period of last year. In addition. the number of users broke 3. A c c o r d i n gt o“ T h eb e h a v i o r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o no f t h eu s a g eo f T a i w a nm o b i l ed a t a s e r v i c e ”c o n d u c t e db yt h eI n s t i t u t ef o rI n f o r m a t i o nI n d u s t r y . However. but they are currently not satisfied in the actual applications. The third generation of communication service has the same advantage of the traditional e-commerce as well as the unique service characteristics and value-added benefits.2001). terminal device. the profit of Taiwan mobile data service accounts for only 8. If the companies of the third generation of communication s e r v i c ec a nu n d e r s t a n dt h ec o n s u m e r s ’ b e h a v i o r o f u s i n g3 Gs e r v i c e si nd e p t h . the number of 3G users has increased 2. the mobile telecommunication users of Taiwan shift to 3G specifications progressively.000.3% of average profit per user.7% comparing to last season. Thus it can be seen that the increasing power of 3G users is considerable. B. The cell phone subscribers in Taiwan are full of expectation towards mobile value-added services. then they can not only promote the quality of communication service. the success of mobile value-added service market must be established under the prerequisites of complete customers. which is only relatively fair compared with 2004 and 2005.3G users in November 2006 The time of setting up commercial service July 2005 September 2005 July 2005 December 2005 September 2003 Source of materials: Telecommunication Bureau(2006/12) However.000. i n v e s t i g a t i n gt h ec u s t o m e r s ’b e h a v i o ro fu s i n g3 Gs e r v i c e sc a ni m p r o v et h e effective customer service and expand the using market (R. but also can o b t a i n a b u n d a n tc o n s u m e r s ’i n f ormation (N. t h ep o p u l a r i t yo f mobile data service for Taiwanese was 59% in 2006. Nohria. and none of above-mentioned conditions can be dispensed with. Accordingly. In other words. the growth was astonishing. service platform. Green. 2002). content. until the forth quarter of 2006. the number of 3G of users has increased 26.097. the mobile data service has not been significantly improved as the rapidly growth of 3G user population. Compared with the end of 2005.

it also brings them into the dimensions that are -7- . TAM2 has omitted behavioral attitude (ATU) because ATU does not have significant influential effect towards BI and actual system usage (AU). and then predicts and explains the user’ sbehavior of accepting information technology (Venkatesh. a n dt h e yc l a i m e dt h a t “ S o c i a l i n f l u e n c e ”a n d “ C o g n i t i v ei n s t r u m e n t a l ”a r et h et w om a i nv a r i a b l e st h a ti n f l u e n c eu s e r s ’ consciousness. thus. a n d the entire model has 49% of explanatory p o w e r f o r “ B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n ” . Therefore. Venkatesh and Davis (2000) have proposed a new structure. the more important thing is that TAM2 expands the study field to the internal parts of actual enterprises. In other words. b u t q u e s t i o n s s u c ha s “ w h i c hf a c t o r s w o u l di n f l u e n c e u s e r s ’ p e r c e p t i o n ”h a v en o t b e e nd i s c u s s e d . this is the main purpose of this study. attitude and desire when using the technology. At the same time. 1995a). the researcher can understand the external factors th a t a f f e c t r e s e a r c h e r ’ s i n t e r n a l faith. L e g r i se t a l . Besides forward extending the TAM framework and improving the completeness of theory. which a r e “ J o bR e l e v a n c e ” . T A M2 . ( 2 0 0 3 ) s u g g e s t e dt h a t other variables should be added to TAM so as to provide a more complete model structure. i t s method is simple a n dc l e a r . so as to propose Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). the latter includes four dimensions. “ V o l u n t a r i n e s s ”a n d“ I m a g e ” . The purpose of TAM is to simplify TRA and provide a generalization model that possesses theoretical foundation & parsimony and the tools that a manager uses. it can be regarded as TRA and then applied to explain the specific model that is adopted by information technology (Taylor & Todd. The reason why TAM is generally valued and adopted by researchers is b e c a u s ei t u s e su s e r s ’ p e r c e p t i o nt oi n f e r B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n( B I ) d i r e c t l y . 2003). The Evidence-based study shows that the explanatory power of two forward e x t e n d i n g v a r i a b l e s w i t h r e g a r d t o “ P e r c e i v e d U s e f u l n e s s ” h a s r e a c h e d 5 1 %. w h i c he x t e n d sf o r w a r d .content and application of the mobile value-added services and paying desire. “ O u t p u t Q u a l i t y ” .w h i c ha r e“ S u b jective n o r m ” . It also allows the manager to use TAM to weigh the introduction of new technology. et al. The former includes three dimensions .。So. C. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Davis (1989) uses Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) from Fishbein & Ajzen (1975) as the foundation and cooperates with the application situation that is used by information system. how to u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n s u m e r s ’ d e m a n d s a n d i n t e n t i o n / b e h a v i o r a n d t h e nb r i n go u t t h e c o n s u m e r s ’ a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o no f m o b i l e s e r v i c e s .. “ R e s u l t D e m o n s t r a b i l i t y ” a n d“ P e r c e i v e d E a s eo f U s e ” .

Table 2 – The discussion of relevant individual behavioral acceptance models and theories Theory 1. Venkatesh has finished a review in accordance with the relevant studies over the years. Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT).closely related to the business. each of the models also had been verified in its own field and category respectively.Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) Subjective Norm Perceived Behavioral Control -8- . The discussion of the eight relevant individual behavioral acceptance models and theories is shown in Table 2. Social Cognitive Theory(SCT).Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Perceived Ease of Use Subjective Norm Extrinsic Motivation 3. Motivational Model (MM).Motivational Model (MM) Intrinsic Motivation Attitude Toward Behavior 4. addressing the new framework of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology(UTAUT). salary. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Wi t ht h e v i g o r o u s d e v e l o p m e n t o f T A M2 ’ s r e l e v a n t s t u d i e s . such as Job Relevance. he found out the previous evidence-based models have their own characteristics.Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) Core Structure Attitude Toward Behavior Subjective Norm Perceived Usefulness Definition The positive or negative feeling that an individual has towards certain behavior An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors The degree that the user believes that using the information system can improve work performance The degree that an individual believes its easy to use the system An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors User has the feeling to perform some actions because of some activities. improvement of work. not because of any obvious stimulus The positive or negative feeling that an individual has towards certain behavior An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors The restriction that an individual has 2. Combined TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB). Model of PC Utilization(MPCU). m o r e a n dm o r e external variables that focus on different fields have been brought up. and advertisement User has the feeling to perform certain behaviors because he wants to. hence he integrated the eight models from previous documents: TRA. D. Its theoretical structure is shown in Figure 1. TAM.

The judgment ability that an individual .Attitude Toward Behavior Subjective Norm 5. The individual expectancy is related to the result of behavior. especially personal respect and achievement feeling.Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) Compatibility Results Demonstrability Voluntariness of Use 8.Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) Affect Towards Use Social Factors Facilitating Conditions Relative Advantage Ease of Use Image Visibility 7. The substantial result of using new system includes the things that are visible and can be expressed by languages. demand.Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) Outcome ExpectationsPerformance Outcome ExpectationsPersonal Self-efficacy -9- experienced from inside and outside towards his behavior The positive or negative feeling that an individual has towards certain behavior An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors The restriction that an individual has experienced from inside and outside towards his behavior The degree that the user believes that using the information system can improve work performance The degree that the system can strength e n a n i n d i v i d u a l ’ s w o r k performance The degree that the system is difficult to understand and use The result will be somewhat benefited in the future An individual feels joyful. and experience. The internalization of individual towards team culture and the agreement with the group The subjective factor that makes people feel it is easy to take action under a certain environment The degree of using new method and can do better. The user experiences the innovation of the new system and begins to have voluntariness and freedom. The degree that using new system can stre n g t h e n o t h e r s ’ i m p r e s s i o n The degree that one can observe different users to use the new system in the organization The degree that user feels the new system is in chorus with the value of existence. happy. The performance expectancy is related to the result of behavior. The degree of using new system and make people feel difficult to use. especially the performance expectancy that is related to work. depressed and detesting towards s certain behavior.Combined TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB) Perceived Behavioral Control Perceived Usefulness Job-fit Complexity Long-term Consequences 6.

1. a n d“ Voluntariness o f U s e ” . Personal interest towards a special behavior The anxiety or emotional response that an individual has when performance behavior is involved. and four control variables.10 - . (2003) UTAUT model integrates the issues that are mentioned in the relevant documents into four main core determinants: Performance Expectancy (PE). Source of the materials: Venkatesh. UTAUT model Source of the materials: Venkatesh et al. Its four main dimensions are shown in Table 3.Affect Anxiety has when using a kind of technique to complete a specific work or assignment. et al. “ E x p e r i e n c e ” . (2003) Fig. Effort Expectancy (EE). Social Influence (SI). Facilitating Conditions (FC). Table 3 THE FOUR CORE DETERMINANTS OF UTAUT UTAUT Determinant The Sub-Determinant Perceived Usefulness Performance Expectancy/PE Extrinsic Motivation Job-fit Relative Advantage Outcome Expectations Effort Expectancy/EE Perceived Ease of Use Complexity The Source of Integrated Model TAM/TAM2/C-TAM-TPB MM MPCU IDT SCT TAM/TAM2 MPCU . which are “ G e n d e r ” . “ A g e ” .

and wireless network (Hong-Chang Zhang. (2003) thinks that the purpose of UTAUT model is to offer the manager with using tools. Research Model and Hypothesis Development A.11 - . . Ming-Hong Siao. it is more effective than any of the models that are known before. the control variables are in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e U T A U Tm o d e l ’ s v a r i a b l e s . i n c l u d i n g g e n d e r . such as mobile commerce (Carlsson et al. the framework of this study can be integrated and shown in Fig. The Study Framework Synthesizing the above-mentioned literature reviews. 2005). 2004). e x p e r i e n c e . Mei-Chi Lai. and the use of UTAUT model has become more extensive in recent years.. . online learning (Yi-Yuan Zeng. and the study problem of this study takes user’ s desire and behavior as the core. and level of education is added. The external variables are formed by the four core determinants in UTAUT model. From the previous test result. a g e .(Ease of Use Subjective Norm Social Influence/SI Social Factors Image Facilitating Conditions/FC Perceived Behavioral Control Facilitating Conditions Compatibility IDT TRA 、 TAM2 、 TPB/DPTB 、 C-TAM/TPB MPCU IDT TPB/DTPB、C-TAM-TPB MPCU IDT Source of the materials: Venkatesh et al. so this study uses UTAUT model as the theoretical foundation of this study. voluntariness of use. it is no longer confined to the discussion of the use of information system. 2006). the manager can use UTAUT to weigh the introduction of new technology and predict & e x p l a i nt h eu s e r ’ sb e h a v i o ro f accepting information technology. 2. one found that the explanatory power of this UTAUT model is up to 70% with regard to technology using behavior. III.(2003) Venkates et al.2006. Cang-Yi Guo.

This study only has one test because it is designed to survey participants at different stages of the temporal dimension all at once.because Venkatesh et al.. which includes Performance Expectancy. The Study Framework B. Each dimension is defined referring to relevant documents.The major differences between this study and the original UTAUT study (Venkatesh et al. and Facilitating Conditions. Finally.2. 1996).. b e c a u s e t h e u s e r ’ s “ f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n ” w ith regard to that software will change with t i m e .F o rt h et e m p o r a ld i m e n s i o n . education is added into the control variable group because it is conjectured to be relevant as the other control variables in mobile communication adoption. Social Influence. 2003) lie in the temporal dimension and the connotation of d e t e r m i n a n t sb y“ e x t e r n a lv a r i a b l e s ” . (2003) focused on the specific application software to train the same participant. Effort Expectancy. External variables Performance Expectancy Effort Expectancy Social Influence Facilitating Conditions Behavioral Intention Use Behavior Control Variables Gender Age Experienc e Education Voluntariness of Use Fig. t h i s c a n b e u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f “ u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e ” t o w a r d s e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t . the explanation is as follows: (1) Performance Expectancy/PE I t r e f e r st o“ t h ed e g r e et h a t t h eu s e rb e l i e v e st h a t u s i n gt h ei n f o r m a t i o n . The Study Dimensions This study uses the four main dimensions of UTAUT.12 - . “ u s i n ge x p e r i e n c e ” i nt h i s s t u d y r e f e r s t ot h e i n d i v i d u a l ’ s using habit in the past (Venkatesh et al. Also. it was required to carry out three tests in three periods of time before and after training. T h e r e f o r e . and the control variables.

T a y l o r &T o d d( 1 9 9 5 ) f o u n do u t “ s u b j e c t i v en o r m ”w o u l dr e a l l y . “ social factor” (MPCU). C-TAM/TPB). a n d “ public image” (IDT). which are “ subjective norm” (TRA.13 - . thereafter through the discussions of a lot of scholars. (2003) believes that the diligent expectation of an individual towards the use of system would be somewhat different because of gender and age. Venkatesh et al. w h i c h a r e “ c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f e a s y t o u s e ” ( T A M/ T A M2 ) . V e n k a t e s hh a s arranged three sub-dimensions from the documents in the past. therefore. “ s y s t e m a t i c c o m p l e x i t y ” ( MP C U ) . the male worker or young worker who pursues performance will be more outstanding than other groups. Venkatesh et al. and from the previous studies. whether it is easy for the user to use 3G mobile telecommunication to access Internet. relative advantage (IDT). for instance: whether the operation of cell-phone functions is clear and easy to be understood. TAM2. (2003) thinks that expected e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e f e r s t o “ a b l e t o o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e w a r d sa f t e r u s i n gt h es y s t e m ” . a n d “ o p e r a t i n g s i m p l i c i t y ” ( I D T ) .s y s t e m c a n i m p r o v ew o r k p e r f o r m a n c e ” . and expectancy to the achievement (SCT). this was first proposed by Fishbein & Ajzen (1975) in TRA. different results have also appeared. T h i s m e a n s t h a t w h e t h e r t h e d e s i g n o f information system can allow the user to use it easily or not is one of the key factors of accepting information technology. The so-c a l l e d“ s u b j e c t i v en o r m ”r e f e r st o“ ac e r t a i nk i n do f i m a g eo f t h e p a r t y t h a t i s g i v e n b y t h e p e o p l e a r o u n dh i m ” . (2) Effort Expectancy/EE I t r e f e r s t o “ T h e e a s i n e s s t h a t a n i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k s o f w h e n u s i n g t h e s y s t e m ” . but these influences will be reduced as the using experience increases. external motivation (MM). o r “ p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t h o wt h e p a r t y s h o u l dd o ” . (3) Social Influence/SI I t r e f e r st o“ t h ed e g r e et h a t a ni n d i v i d u a l s e n s e st h a t t h ep e r s o nw h oi s i m p o r t a n tt oh i mt h i n k st h a t h es h o u l du s et h en e ws y s t e m ” . work correlation (MPCU). women or old people are usually more significant. which are Perceived Usefulness (TAM/TAM2/C-TAM-TPB). one could know that the influence that the difference between Gender and Age has towards performance expectancy is relatively significant. TPB/DPTB. all of these are the factors that determine whether the system is easy to use or not.“ S u b j e c t i v en o r m ”w i l lu r g et h ep a r t yt op r o d u c et h ep o i n to f behavioral intention (BI). Venkatesh has arranged three sub-dimensions from the documents in the past.V e n k a t e s h h a sa r r a n g e d f i v e sub-dimensions from the documents in the past.

. if use gender to distinguish. (2003) considers the purpose of experience. including the support of computer software and hardware or the assistance on systematic operation (Venkatesh et al. Therefore.make party produce the behavioral intention. V e n k a t e s h has arranged three sub-d i m e n s i o n s f r o mt h e d o c u m e n t s i n t h e p a s t . 2000).C -TAM-T P B ) . women workers will be easily influenced by the attitudes of senior managers and colleagues.A m o n gt h e m . t h e s t r o n go r w e a ks t r e n g t ho f “ s u b j e c t i v e n o r m ”i sc l o s e l yr e l a t e dt ot h ee n v i r o n m e n t t h a t t h ed i s c u s s i o ns u b j e c t i si n . cooperating situation means that the organization and technical framework support the user to use the system. Venkatesh et al.. et al. In addition. and user is to emphasize that there is difference between personal acceptance and the strategy of using IT under different situation.a n d“ c o m p a t i b i l i t y ”( I D T ) . w h i c hi st h eu s e r ’ sj u d g m e n to fa b l et oo p e r a t et h es y s t e mo rn o t . after using for a while. But these influences would usually happen only at the beginning of use. In conclusion. Experience and age are the interfering factors between cooperating situation and behavior. and Mathieson (1991) & Davis et al (1989) believed that the relationship between them is not significant.“ c o m p a t i b i l i t y ”i st h ec o n s i s t e n c yo fs y s t e m a n d organization value. social influence does not have significant influence on behavioral intention.14 - . social influence has very significant influence towards old workers. (4) Facilitating Conditions/FC I tr e f e r st o“ t h ed e g r e eo fs u p p o r t i n gt h a ta ni n d i v i d u a lf e e l sf r o mt h e organizational and technical relevant equipment towards sys t e mu s e ” . According to the view of Davis (Davis et al. Venkates et al. (2003) believes the relationship between social influence and use intention would be influenced by the interfering factors such as gender. age. one must consider these interfering factors and correct the implemented strategy appropriately. “ Public image”r e f e r s t o“ the party thinks a certain image helps to maintain or improve his own position in the group” (Moore and Banbasat. 1991). w h i c h a r e “ t h e c o n t r o lo fc o n s c i o u sb e h a v i o r ” ( T P B / D T P B . Thompson et al. age. . . 2003. “ p r o m o t i n gc o n d i t i o n ” r e f e r s t ot h e t e c h n o l o g ya s s i s t a n c e t h a t i s p r o v i d e db yt h e o b j e c t i v ee n v i r o n m e n t .“ p r o m o t i n g c o n d i t i o n ”( MP C U ) . It arranges the sub-dimensions of UTAUT’ s e a c h d i m e n s i o n a n d t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s .t h es o -called “ c o n t r o l o fc o n s c i o u sb e h a v i o r ”r e f e r st ou s e r ’ ss e l f -efficacy to the system in g e n e r a l . 1 9 8 9 ) . gender. because the image or impression that the party hopes to establish is usually related to role model that the group identifies. so there is significantly positive relation between the so-called “ public image”a n d“ role model identificat i o n ”(Venkatesh. 1991). experience and use voluntarily..

15 - . take Gender as an example. Age. especially the young female who is lack of the experience of using computer. a lot of studies point out the influence of different dimensions towards BI is related to Gender. f e m a l ei s m o r e significant than male. UTAUT further cross-analyzes the roles of other relevant variables (such as Age). Experience and Voluntariness of Use. For example. C. i nS I ’ s i n f l u e n c et o w a r d s B I . especially under involuntary situation and the older female who is lack of the experience of using computer. the result of study finds out the complex interaction of two or more variables will make the influence even more significant.(5) Moderators Besides the above-mentioned four core determinants. et al.. 2003). and in the mean time because female cares about o t h e r s ’ p o i n t o f v i e wm o r e . then young male is more significant than other groups. Hypothesis 2 . s o S o c i a l I n f l u e n c e ( S I ) i s m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t ( V e n k a t e s h and Morris. female is more significant than male. maybe SI has more significant influence towards older age employees. In the influence of “ Effort Expectancy”(EE) towards BI. if adding Age factor. Study Assumptions According to the structure of this study. just like the influence that Performance Expectancy (PE) has towards Behavioral Intention (BI). There is no lack of the discussions of these variables in the previous relevant studies. in case of only considering Gender. and the intensity of this influence will decrease progressively with the accumulation of use experience (Venkatesh. the variables are divided into external variables and control variables in order to establish the following assumptions: (1) External Variables Hypothesis 1 –The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think t h a t “ p e r f o r m a n c ee x p e c t a n c y ”w i l l l i f t t h e“ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ”of the 3G mobile telecommunication services. Hypothesis 3 . male is more significant than female.The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think t h a t “ e f f o r t e x p e c t a n c y ”w i l l l i f t t h e“ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ”o f t h e3 G mobile telecommunication services. there are still four significant moderators in the theoretical structure of UTAUT: Gender.The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think t h a t “ s o c i a l e x p e c t a n c y ”w i l l l i f t t h e “ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” o f t h e3 G . female is more significant than male. i nP E ’ s i n f l u e n c et o w a r d s BI. 2000).

mobile telecommunication services. including the questions for external variables. Questionnaire Design and Data Collection I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n s u m e r s ’ d e m a n d s a n d i n t e n t i o n / b e h a v i o r .16 - . Hypothesis 9 – Experience has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services.The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think t h a t “ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” w i l l l i f t t h e “ u s e b e h a v i o r ” o f t h e 3 Gm o b i l e telecommunication services. The tables that this study use mainly adopt the table of technology acceptance model that is developed by Davis (1989) and the items that are a r r a n g e df r o mV e n k a t e s he t a l ’ sU T A U Tm o d e l ( 2 0 0 3 ) s oa st os e r v ea st h e foundation. Hypothesis 8 – Voluntariness of Use has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services. Hypothesis 10 – Education has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services. because the questionnaire content of UTAUT relies mainly o ni n v e s t i g a t i n g“ t h ef o l l o w -u pB e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o no f d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d ” . 2. thus. Then interviews were conducted with related units of five domestic 3G mobile telecommunication companies for possible modifications of the final questionnaire. the question about content validity does not exist. The questionnaire was initially designed in accordance with the operational definitions referre di n“ 2 0 0 6WMI SG l o b a l Mo b i l eI n t e r n e t I n v e s t i g a t i o n ”i s s u e db yI n s t i t u t ef o rI n f o r m a t i o nI n d u s t r yi n 2006. the questions for behavioral intention. Hypothesis 5 . D. Hypothesis 4 . The questionnaire was divided into three sections. t h i s . this study used the questionnaire method to examine the framework of this study. a n d then brin g o u tt h e c o n s u m e r s ’a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f 3 G m o b i l e telecommunication service. Hypothesis 7 –Age has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services. and the questions for use behavior. Control Variables Hypothesis 6 –Gender has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services.The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think t h a t “ f a c i l i t a t i n gc o n d i t i o n s ” w i l l l i f t t h e “ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” o f t h e 3G mobile telecommunication services. In the part of Behavioral Intention.

4 questions have been deleted. besides s u b s t i t u t i n gw i t h t h ep r o p e rw o r d si na c c o r d a n c ew i t h t h es u b j e c t ’ s characteristics. in Effort Expectancy. The retrieved questionnaires are analyzed using SPSS15. in Behavioral Intention. plus another 102 valid responses distributed on-the-spot of telecommunications companies. 12 questons have been deleted. and spending less than 15 minutes on 3G services.5 15.4 38.5 100 28. and the retrieval rate of questionnaire is 100%. living in metropolitan area. having over five years of telephone experience. it investigates the whole acceptance that the users have with regard to the use of every area of 3G mobile telecommunication services.8 65. working professionals. The user profile is summarized in Table 4. Table 4 The user profile Variables Sex Male Female Total Under 17 17-25 26-35 36-45 Over 46 Total Students . so in Use behavior.9 . 3 questions have been deleted. this study sends 40 questionnaires out at random so as to carry out the pretest of the small sample.6 100 0. After completing the tables. t h e questionnaire content of Behavioral Intention would refer to TAM2. in the acceptance of Use behavior.d o e s n o t c o r r e s p o n dt ot h e s u b j e c t ’ s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s s t u d y . in Social Influence 4 questions have been deleted. the content has not been revised additionally. which summed up to 394 valid responses altogether.5 17. there are 29 questions in the formal question table. paying over 400 NT$ monthly fees. 40 questionnaires have been retrieved. T h e r e f o r e . and the questions in the pre-questionnaire are deleted through factor analysis. between 26-35 age group. 5 questions have been deleted.0 software.7 0. in Facilitating Conditions. thus. In the end. this study has received 292 valid responses via online questionnaire lasted for 3 weeks. 1 question has been deleted. Because the study object of this study is mainly the consumer who is already using 3G telecommunication services. Finally. which indicates majority of them were male.17 - Categories Age (year) Occupation Frequency 242 152 394 2 70 258 62 2 394 114 Percentage (%) 61. the pre-questionnaire is produced according to the definitions of this study structure’ s s t u d yv a r i a b l e s a n dthe questionnaire content of relevant documents. In Performance Expectancy. above college degree level.

0 1. the more the common factors between variables and the more suitable to undertake factor analysis.2 27.9 100 83.18 - .6 15.0 4.7 100 3.9 10.8 2.1 91.9 100 9.Education Region Use phone time (year) The monthly phone rates (NT$) The daily average amount of time spent online 3G IT industry Manufacturing Financial and insurance/ real estate industry Mounties Services Medical industry Media / advertising industry Others Total Foreign countries High school / grade University / specialist Over Institute Total North Central Southern Eastern Islands region Total Less than a year 1-2 3~4 Over 5 years Total Under 200 201-400 401-600 601-1000 Over 1001 Total 0-15 minutes 16-30 minutes 31-60 minutes Between 1 and 2 hours Between 2 and 3 hours Over 3 hours Total 44 26 16 46 90 8 4 46 394 14 158 188 34 394 114 42 228 4 6 394 2 6 24 362 394 38 60 108 86 102 394 328 20 12 10 8 16 394 11.6 4. According to the views of Banning and K a i s e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) .1 3.1 100 Source of the materials: Arranged by this study IV.0 2.1 47.5 6. 9 . the higher the value of KMO.4 21. .7 8.1 11. t h e K MOv a l u e s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e a l l h i g h e r t h a n 0 .5 2.8 25. THE STUDY ANALYSIS AND RESULT A.0 1.6 100 28.5 100 0.0 11. i t m e a n s t h a t i t i s “ v e r y suitable for fa c t o r a n a l y s i s ” .2 6.7 57. Factor Analysis KMO is Kaiser-Meyer-Oilskin measure of sampling adequacy.5 1.9 1. 8 .7 22.6 40.2 5. i f t h e v a l u e o f K MO i s h i g h e r t h a n0 .

I have new experience in using 3G mobile 0.932 Questions in Questionnaire Factor loading Cronb a c h ’ α value 0.824 SI 0. Table 5 . 9 5 2 1 .19 - .000 3 0.505 PE 0. SPSS15 software is used in order to adopt Principal Component Analysis to undertake factor analysis to the 29 questions.897 FC 0.K MOa n d B a r t l e t t ’ s T e s t Study variables KMO measure of sampling adequacy Approximate B a r t l e t t ’ s Test of Sphericity Chi-square Distribution Degree of freedom Significance 3 0. q u e s t i o n sB I -1 to BI-3 belong to the question group of measuring Behavioral Intention (BI). questions UB-3 to UB-1 belong to the question group of measuring Use behavior (UB).935 .000 3 0. representing the common factors exist between the relevant matrixes of population.925 EE 0. In addition.000 6 0. so they are suitable for factor analysis(Table 5). Table 6 – The result of factor analysis Ques Factor tion Cod e PE PE1 I think it is useful to use 3G mobile telecommunication service.000 6 0.936 10.000 16.so they are suitable for factor analysis.712 BI 0. questions PE-1 to FC-4 belong to the q u e s t i o ng r o u po f“ e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s ” . First. and then retest of Reliability Analysis is carried out to these three parts. one can find that they all reach the level of significance.000 3 0.755 12.529 25. from B a r t l e t t ’ sT e s t o f Sphericity.935 PE2 0. 29 questions are divided into three parts in accordance with UTAUT model. and the result shows C r o n b a c h ’ s α= 0 .349 15.808 Source of the materials: Arranged by this study In the Questionnaire of this study.690 18. the result is shown in Table 6.9661 UB 0.

900 SI SI4 0.913 0.893 SI3 0.926 0.20 - 0.904 0.888 0.927 PE5 0.telecommunication service PE3 3G mobile telecommunication service includes a lot of information that is relevant to my work I think 3G mobile telecommunication service can satisfy the demand from work I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service can bring some recreation to my work I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service can bring convenience to my work To some of my work.932 PE6 0. it is essential to use 3G mobile telecommunication service I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service can lift my work efficiency I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service can lift my work quality I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service can produce innovativeness for my work I think it is easy to understand 3G mobile telecommunication service I think the using interfaces of 3G mobile telecommunication service is easy to be familiar with I can be skilled at the use method of 3G mobile telecommunication service very quickly The people around me think that I should use 3G mobile telecommunication service I will discuss the feeling of using 3G mobile telecommunication service with family and friends My family and friends can influence me to use 3G mobile telecommunication service I think not able to use 3G mobile telecommunication service is really a kind of falling behind phenomenon I think it is an admirable thing for me to be able to use 3G SI5 mobile telecommunication service to engage in various kinds of relevant activities I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service SI6 can help me to maintain or improve my own position in the group FC FC1 When I want to use 3G mobile telecommunication service.929 PE8 0.926 0.923 PE9 PE1 0 EE1 0.794 . .811 EE3 0.729 0.883 SI1 0.902 SI2 0.810 0.896 0.929 PE4 0.773 EE EE2 0.927 PE7 0.

859 0. “ S o c i a l I n f l u e n c e ”a n d“ F a c i l i t a t i n gC o n d i t i o n s ”a st h ei n d e p e n d e n tv a r iables.0 software is used to adopt maximum likelihood to undertake overall model fitness test with regard to each dimension. more convenient and faster than using 2G system I would want to use 3G mobile telecommunication service because of some activities.21 - . and “ B e h a v i o r a lI n t e n t i o n ”a n d“ Use behavior” a r ei n d e p e n d e n tv a r i a b l e s . Analysis of Structural Equation Modeling According to the above-mentioned of the establishments of UTAUT model. the path change of each variable is based on the Modification Indicators (MI) that is recommended by SEM for data analysis.903 BI3 0.896 BI BI2 0.χ 2i s4 7 9 . A f t e rr e v i s i n gt h em o d e l .786 BI1 0. 7 3 2 . “ E f f o r t E x p e c t a n c y ” .885 0.966 Source of the materials: Arranged by this study B.720 0.00 which is .P -value is 0. so as to improve the explanatory power of the model towards the actual behavior. I am glad to use 3G mobile telecommunication service I will continue to use 3G mobile telecommunication service in the future Overall speaking. the experience that I used 3G mobile telecommunication service in the past is happy 0. friends) FC4 I think using 3G system to surf the Net is better. Modification Indicators revise or delete the content of each variable. measuring variables and weighing indices. Internet.a l s o “ B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n ” i s i n t e r m e d i a r y v a r i a b l e .I can search and connect to the Internet easily FC2 I can easily obtain the relevant knowledge of using 3G mobile telecommunication service Once I have encountered difficulty with the use of 3G FC3 mobile telecommunication service.924 UB1 0. AMOS7. And then.833 0. using 3G mobile telecommunication UB UB2 service to engage in various kinds of activities makes me feel satisfied UB3 Overall speaking. I can use the information from various areas to solve the problems (books. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) i su s e dt oc l a s s i f i e d“ P e r f o r m a n c eE x p e c t a n c y ” .849 0. propaganda and fashion trend If the rate is reduced. the effect of using 3G mobile telecommunication service makes me feel satisfied Overall speaking.801 0.

a n d“ s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e / u s e b e h a v i o r ” .046.96) 1. which means that the overall model fitness is good.i n c l u d i n g “ p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a n c y / u s e b e h a v i o r ” .057 0. In another word. w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t .05 >0. the assumption of the cause and effect model diagram that this study addressed had obtained the statistical support.993. A G F I i s 0 .192 6. R ME S Av a l u ei s 0.993 >2 >0. 9 4 0 .22 - Critical Ratio 7.233 *** Significance Yes No Yes .980. NFI value is 0. 9 9 0 . thus the assumption of causal model that is mentioned by this study has obtained statistical support. the path diagram of the model fitted well with the actual observed data.419 0. which means that the overall model fit was good.239 P-value *** 0.362 . these three non-a s s u m e dv a r i a b l e s ’ r e l a t i o n s h i p sw e r ea d d e dt ot h es t u d y framework. The result is shown in Table 7.90 >0.90 <0.90 >0.05 (does not reach significant standard) 2 χ and its degree of freedom Test Statistic 2 χ value Data of Test Result 479.732(p=0. Table 7 – Fit indices Fit Standard or Threshold Value P>0.“ e f f o r t e x p e c t a n c y / u s e b e h a v i o r ” . all fit indices ’ d e t e r m i n a t i o n s h a dr e a c h e dt h e desirable standard.990 0. The fit indices of all judgments have already reached the standard.940 0.046 0.62 0. G F I v a l u ei s 0 .980 0. So.020(>1.90 Goodness of fit index(GFI) Adjusted goodness of fit index(AGFI) Root mean square error of approximation(RMSEA) Normed fit index (NFI) Non-normed fit index(NNFI) Source of the materials: Arranged by this study After modifying the model. The modified study framework with SEM statistics is shown in Table 8 and fig 3. 6 2 .000) 2.s i g n i f i c a n t . Moreover. and NNFI value is 0. some non-assumed variab l e s ’ r e l a t i o n s h i p s . χ 2 / d f i s 2 . namely the fitness between the path plot of the model and the actual observed information is good. Table 8 – Revised SEM study structure The Relationship of Variables PE→ BI EE→BI SI →BI Path Coefficient 0.

01.001 Figure 3 – The SEM analytical structure that does not consider the control variables Among the 5 hypotheses.362*** 0.054 -2.05.FC →BI FC →UB BI →UB PE→UB EE→UB SI →UB 0. T h i s r e v e a l s a n important but uncommon insight for 3G mobile communication services that o n l y “ e a s e o f u s e ” i s n o t e n o u g h t o a t t r a c t t h e u s e r s .621 *** * *** *** * *** Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes ** p-value < 0. only hypothesis 2 was disproved.179 0.154 6.212 1.529 0.141 0.141* 0.243*** UB 0. The direct interpretation of this result was that for users of 3G mobile communication services.53*** 1. *** p-value < 0. .001 Source of the materials: Arranged by this study PE 0.228*** 0.747 2. ** p-value < 0. their "effort expectancy" did not significantly influence t h e i r ” b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” .228 -0.459 3.23 - .18*** SI The study has been FC assumed The study has not been assumed *represents p value <0. T h i s i sa ni n t e r e s t i n gc h a r a c t e r i s t i co f 3 Gm o b i l e communications services since most other technology adoption models credited t h ei n f l u e n c e o f “ e a s eo f u s e ” f a c t o r o n“ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” .243 3.063 5.42*** BI EE 0.01,*** represents p value <0.05,** represents p value <0.

“ a g e ” .24 - P-value ** ** *** *** * ** *** *** *** *** *** *** ** *** ** *** ** *** *** Significant Ratio Female >Male Female > Male Male Female > Male Female > Male Male >Female Male >Female Over the age of 36 Over the age of 36> under the age of 35 Over the age of 36 Over the age of 36 Over the age of 36 Medium voluntariness > high voluntariness Low voluntariness > high voluntariness > medium voluntariness High voluntariness > medium voluntariness High voluntariness > medium voluntariness Medium voluntariness > high voluntariness Medium voluntariness > high voluntariness High voluntariness > medium Gender Age . 9.36 0.74 0.73 0. experience.27 0. age.C. thus their influential degree towards “ Behavioral Intention”a n d“ U s eB e h a v i o r ”i s varied.53 0.46 0. In accordance with the above-mentioned result.55 0.75 0.75 0. a n d “ v o l u n t a r i n e s s o f u s e ” .30 0. 8.17 0.“ e d u c a t i o n ” . “ a g e ” . but they are controlled by different conditions (gender. a n d“ v o l u n t a r i n e s s o f u s e ” t oa n a l y z e t h e r e s u l t w i t hr e g a r dt ot h e entire path coefficients. and 10 are proved. the result is shown in Table 9. “ e x p e r i e n c e ” .31 .28 0.52 0.30 0.56 0. it shows that the external v a r i a b l e s ’i n f l u e n c et o w a r d st h ed e g r e eo fa c c e p t a n c eo f3 G m o b i l e telecommunication service (Behavioral Intention and Use behavior) would have s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n t c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s . and education). “ e d u c a t i o n ” . i n c l u d i n g“ g e n d e r ” . Influences of control variables This s t u d yf o c u s e so nI n t e r n e tu s e r ’ s“ g e n d e r ” .29 0. This s t u d ya l s of i n d s o u t t h e f o u r f a c t o r s ’ i n f l u e n c e t o w a r d s “ Behavioral Intention” a n d “ a c t u a l u s e ” h a s r e a c h e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t was proven in the previous documents. Table 9 – The SEM study structure of control variables Control Variables The Relationship of Variables PE BI SI BI FC BI PE UB EE UB SI UB BI UB PE BI FC BI EE UB SI UB BI UB PE BI SI BI FC BI Voluntariness of Use PE UB EE UB SI UB BIUB Path Coefficient 0. voluntariness of use. t h u s H y p o t h e s e s 6 .26 0. 7.22 0. “ e x p e r i e n c e ” .

44 0.51 0.39 0. expanding cell-phone function differences and creating demand motive have very important influence in the mobile telephone development of new generation.68 0.24 0. Conclusion of study In the development of 3G. the practicability of system is still the major influential factor that influences the users to use technological service. u n d e r t h es i t u a t i o nt h a t t h eu s e r s ’ d e g r e eo f f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n towards that software would change as time passes.45 0. And also. For this reason. and .001 VI . but it is important to know how to offer more application content services and software to more and more 3G users.Conclusion and Suggestions 1.35 0.44 0.39 0.53 0.01,*** represents p value <0.05,** represents p value <0.20 0. The m a i np u r p o s eo f t h i s s t u d yf o c u s e s o nd i f f e r e n t u s e r s ’ c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .PEBI SI BI FC BI Experience PE UB EE UB SI UB BIUB PE BI SI BI FC BI Education PE UB EE UB SI UB BI UB 0. the most important business opportunity is no longer the cell-phone hardware only.59 0. and the connection between service types and key successful factors in order to understand the structure of current users and serve as the reference for the marketing strategies of mobile telecommunications subscribers and the customer relationship management. a n di t s ’ i n f l u e n c et o w a r d s “ r e c r e a t i o n ”i s g r e a t e r . The important conclusions of this study are generalized and shown as follows: (1)Wi t h r e g a r d st o t h eu s e r s ’“ P e r f o r m a n c e E x p e c t a n c y ” o f3 G m o b i l e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o ns e r v i c e s . UTAUT is used to measure the influence of using Experience towards each dimension.25 - .21 ** *** *** * * * ** * *** *** * * *** *** voluntariness 1 to 5 years > more than 5 years Less than 1 year> more than 5 years 1 to 5 years Less than 1 year > 1 to 5 years > more than 5 years More than 5 years> 1 to 5 years 1 to 5 years > more than 5 years > less than 1 year More than 5 years> 1 to 5 years University or above Vocational School or below > university or above Vocational School or below > university or above University or above University or above Vocational School or below > university or above University or above *represents p value <0. u s i n gh a b i t s .i th a sp o s i t i v ei n f l u e n c et o w a r d s“ B e h avioral I n t e n t i o n ”a n d“ U s eb e h a v i o r ” . In 3G mobile telecommunication services.51 0.

S e c o n d l y . a n d i t s ’ i n f l u e n c e t o w a r d s “ s y s t e mc o m p l e t e n e s s ” i s greater. that is to say the better the connection quality is. w e b s i t e ’ s connection quality will influence the desire of consumers’ use.system that is easy to operate is the important basic ability for the use of 3G mobile value-added services.Consumers’family. i t h a s p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c et o w a r d s “ U s eb e h a v i o r ” . T h e r e f o r e .26 - . it is easy to attract consumers to use 3G service naturally. c o n s u m e r s ’ preferences towards 3G services would not influence their satisfaction for 3G mobile telecommunication service. 2. Consequently. (3) Wi t hr e g a r d s t ot h eu s e r s ’ “ S o c i a l I n f l u e n c e ” o f 3 Gm o b i l et e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n services. and consumers can change telecommunication s u b s c r i b e r a n d c e l l p h o n e b r a n d e a s i l y . it ha sp o s i t i v ei n f l u e n c et o w a r d s“ B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n ” a n d “ U s e b e h a v i o r ” . but because of objective factors. some consumers think that not able to use 3G mobile telecommunication service is really a kind of falling behind phenomenon. and 3G Internet connection quality can extend the time & place that consumers use and solve the urgent demand. it n e e d s t op r o v i d e t h e l a t e s t i n f o r m a t i o ni m m e d i a t e l yi no r d e r t oa t t r a c t c o n s u m e r s ’ use.Study Limitations Although this study strives to be perfect.Every telecommunication subscriber combines the favorable measures that the terminal device offers. because the functions of 3G services are far more than 2G service functions. and then it can influence the consumers’ d e s i r e t o use and use frequency. H o w e v e r . the user will be more willing to use that website. (4)Wi t h r e g a r d s t o t h e u s e r s ’ “ B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n ” o f 3 Gmobile telecommunication s e r v i c e s . the . In addition. t h u s c o n s u m e r s ’ initiatives are stronger than before. it has p o s i t i v ei n f l u e n c et o w a r d s“ B e h a v i o r a lI n t e n t i o n ”a n d“ U s e b e h a v i o r ” . w h i l et h ei n f l u e n c eo f “ r e d u c e dr a t e ”i sg r e a t e r . w e b s i t e ’ ss y stem must be accurate. friends can influence them to use 3G mobile telecommunication services. the recreation that 3G mobile telecommunication services brings will improve the consumers’ d e s i r e t ouse 3G services as well. the behaviors and manners of the family or friends around the c o n s u m e r s w o u l d a l l i n f l u e n c e t h e c o n s u m e r s ’ d e s i r e t o u s e 3G telecommunication services. System completeness is also the important factor that influences the c o n s u m e r st ou s et h es e r v i c e . this is because 3G service is a kind of technical service product. (2)Wi t h r e g a r d s t o t h e u s e r s ’“ F a c i l i t a t i n g C o n d i t i o n s ” o f3 G m o b i l e telecommunication services.

Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. M. 279-302. . . and also this study mainly distributes network questionnaire. and the newly added external variables also have positive significant effect. . they can think of adopting the theories of different technology acceptance and weighing models. D . in order to u n d e r t a k e t h e s t u d y o f a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e u s e r ’ s b e h a v i o r a l m o d e l t o w a r d s 3 Gm o b i l e telecommunication services further. ” Ma n a g e m e n t S c i e n c e (35:8) 1989. a n d Wa r s h a w . a n d C a v a y e .27 - . http://www. the questionnaires are distributed to the consumers who have used the 3G services of each telecommunication subscriber. N . (1975). ” MI S Quarterly (21:3) 1997. (2) In sample selection.informatm. (3) Because this study does not focus on the primitive technology acceptance model to undertake discussion.tw/find/home. p p . F . Informa Telecoms & Media. “ U s e r A c c e p t a n c e o f C o m p u t e r T e c h n o l o g y : AC o m p a r i s o n o f T w o T h e o r e t i c a l Mo d e l s . Adoption of Mobile Devices/Services– Searching for Answers with the UTAUT. MA. Z i n a t e l l i . L . But it is sure that the model that this study constructed still has certain explanatory power towards the use intention of mobile value-added services.org. pp. P . D a v i s . ” MI SQ u a r t e r l y ( 1 3 : 3 ) 1 9 8 9 . . . . C r a g g . P . Ajzen. Attitude. R . Fishbein. “ P e r c e i v e d U s e f u l n e s s . . M. A . When the follow-up researchers discuss the same subject. “ P e r s o n a l C o m p u t i n g Acceptance Factors in Small Firms : AS t r u c t u r a l E q u a t i o n Mo d e l . & I. 3 1 9 -340. Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: IEEE Computer Society Press. D . D a v i s . R . the result of study may be unable to be completely applicable to all groups.following limitations still exist: (1) The design of questionnaire mainly uses the tables o f U T A U Tm o d e l a n dt h e nr e v i s e s& t e s t st h et a b l e ss oa st od i s c u s st h eu s e r s ’ behavioral model towards the acceptance of 3G mobile telecommunication services. because of limited manpower. B a g o z z i . Because the main users of Internet are mostly students. GSM Association(2006): 4539 http://www. References Christer Carlsson & Joanna Carlsson & Kaarina Hyvonen & Jussi Puhakainen & Pirkko Walden(2006). a n d U s e r A c c e p t a n c e o f I n f o r m a t i o n T e c h n o l o g y . P e r c e i v e d E a s e o f U s e .find. pp. 2006.Boston. P . M.aspx?page=news&id= I g b a r i a . 982-1003.com/ itmgcontent/icoms. Frost & Sullivan. F . Dec. Belief. it is impossible to compare the strengths and weaknesses between the explanatory powers of the model that is constructed by this study and primitive models. Addison-Wesley.

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