INDEX

abortion, 117, 127–8 academic achievement adolescents’ lack of interest in, 25–6, 27–8, 45–6 and lack of popularity, 118 A. C. Gilbert U-238 Atomic Energy Lab, 79 acne, 115 Act Your Age, 108 Adler, Mortimer J., 30 adoption, 127 Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, The, 114 African Americans, 3, 27, 37, 65, 66, 67, 69–70, 72–3, 74–6, 158 and dating, 119–20 in educational films, 12, 57 effect of middle-class values on, 11–12 and juvenile delinquency, 136, 145 romance magazines for, 113 unwed mothers, 126–7 Agent Zero M toys, 87 aggressive behaviour, 103, 108, 135–6, 141, 149–52 sexual aggression, 116, 117, 150–1 alcohol, 37, 38, 135 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 53 American Basic Science Club Atomic Energy Lab Kit, 79 American Civil War see Civil War American flag, 141 American Girl, An, 67–8 American Girl Reservers, 89 American Heritage Foundation, 96 American Heritage magazine, 91 American Indians, 27, 67, 71–2, 86, 158 American Legion, 1, 90

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American Mercury, 62 American Nautical Cadets, 89 American Revolution, 2, 142 participation of children in, 4–5 American superiority, 56, 57 see also economic prosperity America’s Distribution of Wealth, 58, 59 Anti-Semitism, 67–9 appearance, 21–2, 38, 105, 114–16, 119, 130 Are You Popular?, 21 ‘Are You Ready for Service?’ film series, 99 Armed Forces Day, 89 Ask Me, Don’t Tell Me, 136 assault, 135–6 by girls, 141, 149–52 Atomic Alert (Elementary Version), 84 atomic bomb, 4, 27, 62 and education, 52, 53 and play, 79 see also nuclear war Atomic Bomb game, 78 Atomic Bunny, 80 atomic energy, 53, 96 and sexuality, 116 Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 53 Atomic Knights, 80 Atomic Mouse, 80 Atomic Rabbit, 80 atomic weapons see nuclear weapons automobiles, 21, 39, 120–1, 136 and American freedom, 28 ownership as proof of US superiority, 59 bad behaviour see misbehaviour Bakwin, Dr Harry, 36 Barbie doll, 113 Barbie’s Dream House, 111

– 187 –

188

The Politics of Childhood in Cold War America child-rearing methods and juvenile delinquency, 36, 139–40, 144, 145–8, 148–9 natural, 28, 29 permissive, 29, 36, 37 pre-WWII, 18–19, 26 Soviet, 31–2, 33 Children’s Crusade Against Communism trading cards, 87 cholos, 121 chores, 104–6 Christianity and capitalism, 60 and democracy, 94 and segregation, 73–4 Christmas, 33–4, 84, 85, 88, 94–5 church activities for adolescents, 119 Cindy Goes to a Party, 130 civil defence, 81–4 civil rights movement, 37, 73–4, 158 and communism, 73–4 Civil War, 3, 5–6, 91–2, 142 reconciliation between North and South, 91–2 class mobility, 70–1 and dating, 121 classroom design, 46 clothing, 92, 103, 110, 115, 119, 121, 149 Coblenz, William A., 96 codes of conduct for teenagers, 37–8 Coleman, James S., 46 collective child rearing, 32, 35 colleges, 21 comic books, 80, 83, 85, 110, 113, 132 communism and the civil rights movement, 73–5 fears of, 32–3, 94 influence in US schools, 62, 63–4 and juvenile delinquency, 140 nature of, 29 Communism (film), 61 Communist Party, 1, 85, 89 and African Americans, 73 and Christmas, 85, 88 communist propaganda, 65 in US schools, 62, 63–4 Communist Youth League see Young Communists League

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camping, 98 capitalism, 56, 59, 60 cars see automobiles Catechetical Guild Society of St Paul, 85 Catholic Church, 75, 89 Catton, Bruce, 91 Central High School, 74–5 Chance to Play, A, 136 chaperones, 38 Cheerios, 103 chewing gum, 33 Chicago Crime Prevention Bureau, 140 child care advice books, 18 child care facilities lack of in United States, 34 in Soviet Union, 34

Bates, Daisy, 75 Batman, 132 Beaser, Herbert, 141 beauty see appearance Bell, Bernard Iddings, 50 Bell Products Atomic Geiger Counter, 79 Benefits of Looking Ahead, The, 107–8 Bestor, Arthur E., 50 Betsy Wetsy, 111 bicycle, 59 birth control see contraception Blood of Dracula, 116 B’nai Brith, 68 board games, 78, 80, 83, 113 bomb shelters, 81–5 books, 113 Boys Beware, 133 boys clubs, 144–5 Boy Scouts, 89, 99 Boy with a Knife, 145, 147 bras, 115 breasts, 115 Bronfenbrenner, Urie, 35 Two Worlds of Childhood: US and USSR, 35, 56–7 Brown v. Board of Education, 73–4 Brown, Minnie Ray, 75 Build Your Vocabulary, 109 Bully, The, 136, 144, 146–7

Index condoms, 126 conduct codes see codes of conduct for teenagers conformity to the group American adults, 38 American children, 19–20, 25–6, 27–8, 29–30, 27 and dating, 120 and educational mediocrity, 27–8, 44–5 and totalitarianism, 28 consumption, 19, 20 Soviet children, 28, 30, 35, 61 consumption and dating, 118, 120–2 lessons on, 49–50 and the other-directed society, 19 Continental, The, 114 contraception, 36 Copper Romance, 113, 119–20 cooking, 48, 104, 105 coonskin caps, 86 corporations, 102, 106–7, 137–8 cosmetics, 110, 115 Crockett, Davy, 86 curfews, 31, 38, 143, 148 Dagwood Splits the Atom, 80 dances, 22, 23, 119 dancing, 49, 50, 122, 136 Date with Your Family, A, 105 dating and African Americans, 119–20 and appearance, 114–15 and Catholics, 119 and consumption, 118, 120–2 dating advice, 38, 110, 113, 118–19 girls’ role in, 118 lessons given in school, 49 parents’ role in, 122 and permissive child-rearing methods, 30–1 and play, 113 preparation of children for, 117–18 and prestige, 114 and social status, 120, 121–2 Davis, Sid, 133 Davy Crockett, 86 Day of Thanksgiving, A, 93–4

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Easy-Bake oven, 111 Eby, Kermit, 98 economic prosperity, 58–9, 93 effect on education, 50 influence on democracy, 28 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 58, 74 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 109 emotional control, 108, 118 emotional immaturity, 108 English classes, 49, 50 English literature, 55 entertaining at home, 30–1, 37, 38, 119, 122 Essay on Self-Reliance, 109

Dean, James, 147 decorating, 105–6, 111, 112 Delinquent Daughters, 150, 152, 154 democracy and Christianity, 94 and decision making, 47–8 and home economics, 112 influence on teaching methods, 47 lessons on, 47, 56, 57 as a natural phenomenon, 28–9 and Thanksgiving, 93 Despotism, 61 détente, 156 Developing Self-Reliance, 104, 107, 108–9 Deutsch, Helene, 128 Dewey, John, 48 Diary of Anne Frank, The, 67 Dirksen, Everett, 129 discipline, and peer group, 26–7 discrimination, 65, 68–70, 72, 75 Disneyland, 156 Disneyland (television series), 86 dog tags, 82 dollhouses, 111 dolls, 111 see also Barbie doll Dow, Tony, 114 draft, 98 dress see clothing drinking see alcohol driving lessons, 50 drug use by youth, 11, 37, 140 Duck and Cover, 81–2, 84 Dulles, John Foster, 80

190

The Politics of Childhood in Cold War America Gung-Ho Commando Outfit, 77 guns, 98–9 toys, 77, 78–9, 89 gymnasts, 155–7 hair care, 110, 115 hairspray, 115 ‘Hammers and Sickles’, 88 Hargis, Billy James, 73 Harvey, Paul, 62–3 Higgins, Lois, 140 Hiroshima, 62 Hispanic Americans, 27, 72–3, 158 history education, 50, 55–8 Hitler, Adolf, 7, 129 Hitler Youth, 7 Holocaust, 69 home economics, 18, 50, 111–13 home improvement projects, 102, 104, 106 Home Protection Exercises, 84 homework, 105 homosexuality, 128–30, 132–4 see also gay rights Homosexuals, The (television special), 129 Hoover, J. Edgar, 85, 140 household chores see chores How Brotherhood Builds Democracy Project, 65–6 How Do You Know It’s Love?, 124 How to be Well Groomed, 105, 110 How to Keep a Job, 109 How to Keep What We Have, 71–2 How to Lose What We Have, 60 Hungarian uprising, 29, 63, 85 hunting, 98 Husky, Ferlin, 88 hydrogen bomb, 27, 54, 55 Ideal Countdown, 77 Ideal Flying Boxcar and Combat Team, 78 Ideal Sky-Sweeper Anti-Aircraft Truck, 78 I Led 3 Lives, 85 immigrants, 17, 27 Improve Your Personality, 22–3 industrialization and child rearing, 17–19 informing see tattling inner-directed personality, 17, 19, 27 ‘In Our Hands’ film series, 60, 71

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gangs, 136, 143 girl gangs, 141, 148–53 Ganus, Clifton L., Jr, 59, 60 garter belts, 115 gay rights movement, 158 Geiger counters, 53, 79 gender role rejection, 124, 128–32, 148–51, 153–4 Getting Ready Physically, 99 GI Bill, 12–13 Gilbreth, Lillian, 18 Gilligan’s Island, 86–7 Gitlow, Ben, 1 going steady, 122–4 Good Sportsmanship, 107 government, 20 Greene, Janet, 88 grooming, 22, 24, 105, 110, 114–15 of Soviet children, 31, 41 see also appearance

fallout shelters see bomb shelters falsies, 115 family education classes see life-adjustment training Family Life, 105, 106 family life classes in colleges and universities, 49 see also life-adjustment training Father Knows Best, 87, 93, 121–2 Faubus, Orval, 74 FBI, The (television series), 85 Fears of Children, 103 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 63, 140 Federal Civil Defense Administration, 83 feminist movement, 36–7, 158 flag salute, 58, 63 Fletcher, Bishop Albert L., 75 foreign language education, 43, 55–6 in the Soviet Union, 43 Fourth of July, 67, 89 Freedom to Learn, 63 Freedom Train, 96–7 Freud, Sigmund, 131–2 Freudian theory, 131–2 Friedenberg, Edgar Z., 45–6 Coming of Age in America, 45 Fun of Being Thoughtful, The, 104

Index Inside the Atom, 80 invasion of United States by Soviet Union, 32–3 ‘I Speak for Democracy’ essay contest, 29, 97–8 Is This Tomorrow?, 85 Jews, 67–9 celebration of Christmas in school, 94–5 discrimination against see anti-Semitism Jimmy Jet, 77 jobs see work Johnny Reb toy canon, 92 Kelly, Douglas M., 36 Kelly Longitudinal Study, 137 Khrushchev, Nikita, 32, 35, 85, 96 Kinsey, Alfred, 130 kissing, 38–9 Komsomol see Young Communists League Korbut, Olga, 155–6 Korean War brainwashing of US soldiers, 57, 104 see also ‘Are You Ready for Service?’ film series Kornfeder, Joseph, 1 Ku Klux Klan, 61, 75 Kusan KF-110 toy train, 77

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Lauchner, A. H., 50–1 Leave it to Beaver, 114, 116 lesbians, 128, 132–3 see also homosexuality ‘Let’s Keep the Communists Out’, 88 Liberty Day, 89 Library of Science Radiation Detector Kit, 79 life-adjustment training, 49–50 criticism of, 50 life skills classes see life-adjustment training Lincoln, Abraham, 6 birthday observance in schools, 90–1 Lionel Aerial Target Car, 78 Lionel Turbo-Missile-Firing Car, 78 Little Miss Revlon, 115 Little Rock, Arkansas, 74–6 Loyalty Day, 89 Lynd, Albert, 50

McCarthy, Joseph, 129 Make Mine Freedom, 57, 58, 59, 61, 73 makeup see cosmetics malt shops, 23, 24, 61, 126 Mao Zedong, 87 Markizova, Gelya, 8 marriage preparation for, 49, 111–12, 123 as women’s destiny, 111 Marx, Karl, 63 masculinity threats to following World War II, 102 massive retaliation, 80–1 mass society, 28 mathematics education, 43, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 55 in the Soviet Union, 43 Mattel Agent Zero M toys, 87–8 Mattel Lie Detector game, 87 Mattel Secret Sam, 87 Mattel Spy Detector game, 87 May Day, 89 menstruation, 130 Mexican Americans, 73, 121, 145 middle class advice literature, 11–12 audience for popular culture, 12 characters in educational films, 12 corporate employment, 102, 106–7, 109 socioeconomic status, 12, 18 status in a desirable date, 120–2 values as subject of instruction, 12, 13 military service, 98 preparation for, 99 Miller, A. L., 129 Minh, Ho Chi, 87 Molly Grows Up, 130 Moment of Decision, 147 momism, 102 Mosinee, WI, 1 motherhood preparation for, 111, 112 mothers as danger to sons, 102, 103–4, 147–8 Mother’s Day, 67 movies, 38 Munsters, The, 87 music, 37 Mystery Date, 113

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The Politics of Childhood in Cold War America Parent Teacher Association (PTA), 31–2 and the spread of communist ideology, 61, 63 parties, 24, 25, 26, 37, 130 adult supervision at, 37, 38 peer group, 19–20, 21–2, 23, 24–6, 38, 46, 122 importance of among adults, 38 importance in Soviet Union, 28, 35 regulation of adolescent behaviour, 26–7, 31 permissive child rearing, 29–31, 36–7 criticism of , 36–7, 50 and juvenile delinquency, 36 loss of parental control, 37 and nudity, 29 and sex, 29 and student protest, 37 personality, 22–3 inner-directed, 17, 19, 27 other-directed, 19–20, 22, 26, 27 shyness, 20–1, 23 Pestalozzi, Johan Heinrich, 48 Philbrick, Herbert A., 85 physical appearance see appearance physical education, 49, 99 Pioneer Palaces, 35 pioneers, 8, 35, 65 Plato, 30 Pledge of Allegiance, 58 Polaris Nuclear Sub, 78 ‘Poor Left-Winger’, 88 popularity, 20–2, 38 and appearance, 114 lack of, 21, 22–3, 118 pornography, 140 Porter Atomic Energy Lab Kit, 79 posture, 114 potty training, 18, 29 Practicing Democracy in the Classroom, 46–7 premarital pregnancy, 120, 124, 125–8, 154 result of poor parenting, 124 premarital sex, 117, 120, 124, 125, 135, 152 see also sexual delinquency President’s Scientific Research Board, 51 Preston, Terry, 88 progressive education, 48–9 and communism, 50, 52 criticism of, 50, 52

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Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, 84 Olympic Games, 156–7 Soviet preparation of child athletes, 33, 156 organization men, 106–7 other-directed personality, 19–20, 22, 26, 46 and inability to compete with Soviet Union, 27 in Soviet Union, 28 other-directed society, 27–8 influence on education, 46, 49 Soviet Union as, 28 Other Fellow’s Feelings, The, 142–3 Outsider, The, 23–4 Ovaltine, 103 paedophiles, 132–3 parades, 89 parental anxiety, 27 Parents Committees in the Soviet Union, 32–3, 42

nail polish, 110, 115 naptime, 18, 29 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 74, 75 National Association of Secondary School Principals, 50 National Defense Education Act (NDEA), 55, 56 National Education Association, 53, 54, 63 National Education Program, 58, 59 National Science Foundation (NSF), 52–3, 54, 55 Native Americans see American Indians ‘natural’ style of American child rearing, 28, 29 Nazism, 19, 67 Nelson, Ricky, 114 New York City Board of Education, 65 Nike missile, 78 Nixon, Patricia, 42 Nixon, Richard, 155 nuclear reactor toys, 79 nuclear war, 80–1, 141 Nuclear War board game, 80 nuclear weapons, 43, 53, 62

Index progressivism and communism, 63 Project Yankee Doodle Secret Rocket Test Center, 77 propaganda see communist propaganda Prosser, Charles A., 48 public speaking, 49, 109–10 punctuality, 108, 109 radiation, 53 rape see sexual assault Reagan, Ronald, 10, 156 rebellion by American youth, 28, 141–2 rebels in American culture, 141–2 Red Nightmare, 32–3 religion, 55, 58, 60, 95 Christianity and capitalism, 60 Christianity and democracy, 94 and preparation for military service, 99 in Soviet Union, 96 religious discrimination, 61 Responsibilities of American Citizenship, 57, 61–2 Retton, Mary Lou, 156 Rickover, Hyman, 54 Riesman, David, 17, 19, 27, 47 Right or Wrong, 143 risk-taking behaviour, 103 Roberts, Clarence, 75 Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, The, 86 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 30, 48 Russia see Soviet Union school desegregation, 64, 73–6, 145 Schools at War Program, 6 science education, 43, 48, 49, 50, 51–5 in the Soviet Union, 43, 51 science kits, 79 scientific management of children, 18–19, 36 Scottsboro Boys, 73 Sears Super Spy Attaché Case, 87 Secure the Blessings, 47, 59, 69 Selective Service Act, 98 self-control, 30, 108 self-esteem for boys, 118 self-reliance, 104, 107, 108–9

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Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency, 135, 140 Seventeen, 95–6, 123 Seventeenth Summer, 113 sewing, 48, 105, 106 sex clubs, 152–3 sex education, 49 parents’ role in, 117–18 for young children, 117–18 sexual aggression, 116–17, 118 sexual appearance, 116 sexual assault, 117 by girls, 141, 150–1 sexual behaviour control of, 110, 117, 118 dangers of, 116 girls’ duty to control, 110, 117, 118–19 kissing, 38–9 at parties, 37 and popularity, 21 premarital sex, 36 regulation of by parents, 37 regulation of by teens, 38–9 see also kissing games sexual delinquency, 148, 152–3 sexual humour, 119 sexual play, 37 sexual revolution, 36 sexually transmitted diseases, 36, 124–6 Sharing Work at Home, 105–6 Show-Off, The, 26 Shy Guy, 23 Skousen, W. Cleon, 104 Smith, Samuel Harrison, 5 smoking, 38, 126 Snob, The, 25, 45 snobbishness, 25, 26 Social Class in America, 70–1 social science education, 55, 56 Social-Sex Attitudes in Adolescence, 117–18, 130–31, 132 social studies education, 56 songs anti-communist, 88–9 Civil War, 91– 2 Sound-O-Power Military Rifle, 77 Soviet Professional Manpower: Its Education, Training and Supply, 54

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The Politics of Childhood in Cold War America Steve Canyon’s Jet Helmet, 77 student protest, 11, 37 suburbs, 121 houses, 122 Suzy Homemaker toy appliances, 111 syphilis, 125–6 tattling, 143–4 Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 18 Teeny Tiny Tears, 111 television, 32–3, 55, 85–6, 103, 116 Teller, Edward, 27–8, 44 Thanksgiving, 67, 75, 92–4 ‘They Locked God Outside the Iron Curtain’, 88 ‘This Godless Communism’, 85 Thorndike, Edward L., 48 Till, Emmett, 65 tolerance lessons in, 28–9, 44, 56, 65–71 tomboys, 130 Topper Toys, 111 totalitarianism, 28 Trace, Arthur S., Jr, 43, 51–2, 55–6 What Ivan Knows that Johnny Doesn’t, 43, 51–2, 55–6 trading cards, 87 Treasure Chest of Fun and Facts, 85 Truman, Harry, 51 UNESCO, 62–3 UNICEF, 62 United Nations, 62–3, 65 Universal Military Training and Service Act, 98 universities, 20 upward mobility see class mobility unwed mothers, 120, 126–7 uranium, 78, 79 US Children’s Bureau, 135, 148 US flag see American flag US Office of Education, 97 USSR see Soviet Union Valentine’s Day, 90 Veda Board, 113 venereal disease see sexually transmitted diseases

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Soviet Union, 4, 10, 19 American visitors’ observations, 33, 41, 42 atheism, 58, 96 boarding schools, 32, 34, 35, 156 child rearing, 8, 28, 30, 31, 32, 35, 42 children’s books, 8 children’s diet, 41 Christmas, 33–4 educational inferiority, 41 educational superiority, 27–8, 42–3, 44 food, 41 foreign language education, 43 and juvenile delinquency in the US, 140 as a mass society, 28 nurseries, 32, 34 orphanages, 32 Parents Committees, 31–2, 42 political education of children, 31, 32, 43–4, 56–7, 61 punishment of children, 42 racial policies, 65 schools, 31–2, 41–3, 51 science education, 43, 51 sports, 33 summer camps for children, 35 teachers, 41 technological superiority, 43, 54 treatment of children of political dissidents, 32 spies, 86–7 Spillane, Mickey, 116 Spock, Dr Benjamin, 29, 132 Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, 29 criticism of, 36–7 support for, 30 see also permissive child rearing sports, 27, 55 sportsmanship, 107 Sputnik, 54, 55 spy kits, 87 square dancing, 49 Stalin, Joseph, 1, 60 love of children, 8 political purges, 32 Starting Now, 99 steady dating see going steady

Index Veterans’ Day, 89–90 Victory girls, 34, 116 Vietnam War, 11, 37, 157–8 Violent Years, The, 140–1, 150, 151, 152–3 virginity, 117 vocational education, 49, 55 Voice of Democracy essay contest, 29, 97–8 Washington, George, 5 birthday observance in schools, 57, 90–1 Webster, Noah, 5 weddings as form of play, 113 lessons on planning, 49 Wertham, Frederic, 132 What About Juvenile Delinquency?, 136, 143 What About Prejudice?, 69–70 What It Means to be an American, 28 What Ivan Knows that Johnny Doesn’t, 43, 51–2, 55–6 Why Study Home Economics?, 112 Why Study Science?, 53–4 Why Vandalism?, 144 Why We Respect the Law, 136 Wilson, Woodrow, 3 women in the defence industry during World War II, 34, 101, 138 as emasculating force, 102 in Soviet Union, 34 women’s rights movement see feminist movement Wonder Woman, 132

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yard work, 104, 105 YMCA, 62 You and Your Work, 109 Young Communists League, 1, 33 Young Pioneers see Pioneers Youth for Service programme, 145 zoot suits, 73, 121

work careers for boys, 106 careers for girls, 110, 112–13 preparation of boys for, 106–9 working class child-rearing methods, 19 in educational films, 12 educational goals, 13 prosperity following World War II, 12–13 suburbs, 12–13 world government, 62, 63 World War I, 3 World War II child care in US during, 34, 139 effects on gender roles in US, 101–2, 138–9 effects on juvenile delinquency, 135, 139–40 effects on Soviet Union, 34 participation of American children in the war effort, 6–7 participation of German children in the war effort, 7–8 participation of Soviet children in the war effort, 8–9

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