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Chemical affinity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export Languages ‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ Česky Dansk Contents [hide] 1 Modern conceptions 2 Thermodynamics 3 History 3.1 Geoffroy's 1718 affinity table 4 See also 5 References 6 Notes 7 External links

In chemical physics and physical chemistry, chemical affinity is the electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species are capable of forming chemical compounds.[1] Chemical affinity can also refer to the tendency of an atom or compound to combine by chemical reaction with atoms or compounds of unlike composition.

Modern conceptions


In modern terms, we relate affinity to the phenomenon whereby certain atoms or molecules have the tendency to aggregate or bond. For example, in the 1919 book Chemistry of Human Life physician George W. Carey states that, "Health depends on a proper amount of iron phosphate Fe3(PO4)2 in the blood, for the molecules of this salt have chemical affinity for oxygen and carry it to all parts of the organism." In this
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Deutsch Eesti Ελληνικά Español ‫ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ‬ Français Italiano ‫עברית‬ Nederlands 日本語 Norsk bokmål Plattdüütsch Polski Русский Svenska ไทย Українська Edit links antiquated context. chemical affinity is sometimes found synonymous with the term "magnetic attraction". also refer to a "law of chemical affinity". the Belgian mathematician and physicist Théophile de Donder derived a relation between affinity and the Gibbs free energy of a chemical reaction. up until about 1925. and for changes of state of non-equilibrium systems (where A ≠ 0). saying. History open in browser PRO version [edit] pdfcrowd.[2] That is. It follows that affinity is positive for spontaneous reactions. In 1923. "All chemical reactions drive the system to a state of equilibrium in which the affinities of the reactions vanish. Ilya Prigogine and Defay in Chemical Thermodynamics (1954) defined chemical affinity as the rate of change of the uncompensated heat of reaction Q' as the reaction progress variable or reaction extent ξ grows infinitesimally: This definition is useful for quantifying the factors responsible both for the state of equilibrium systems (where A = 0). Ilya Prigogine summarized the concept of affinity. Many Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API ." Thermodynamics [edit] The present IUPAC definition is that affinity A is the negative partial derivative of Gibbs free energy G with respect to extent of reaction ξ at constant pressure and temperature. Through a series of derivations. it can be proven that the following relation holds: With the writings of Théophile de Donder as precedent. de Donder showed that if we consider a mixture of chemical species with the possibility of chemical reaction.

in his famed 1789 Traité Élémentaire de Chimie (Elements of Chemistry). Many attempts have been made at identifying its origins.[5] Physical chemistry. According to Prigogine. [9] the term was introduced and developed by Théophile de Donder. and earlier. and reference to "natural attraction" is from 1616. John Mayow. the influential 1923 textbook Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Reactions by Gilbert N. a term that was used by the 18th century chemistry lecturer William Cullen.[10] Goethe used the concept in his novel Elective Affinities. Isaac Newton. [7] Whether Cullen coined the phrase is not clear. philology. was one of the first branches of science to study and formulate a "theory of affinity". [8] Antoine Lavoisier. Johann Glauber.. [4] The majority of such attempts. more generally. historically. Affinity theories were used in one way or another by most chemists from around the middle of the 18th century into the 19th century to explain and organise the different combinations into which substances could enter and from which they could be retrieved. The broad definition. Later. etc. The idea of affinity is extremely old. 1600 in discussions of structural relationships in chemistry. and was used in particular by the Swedish chemist Torbern Olof Bergman throughout his book De attractionibus electivis (1775). (1809) open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. The name affinitas was first used in the sense of chemical relation by German philosopher Albertus Magnus near the year 1250. except in a general manner.[3] as well as. but his usage seems to predate most others. end in futility since "affinities" lie at the basis of all magic.[6] The modern term chemical affinity is a somewhat modified variation of its eighteenth-century precursor "elective affinity" or elective attractions. the ″tendency to combine″ of any pair of substances. those as Robert Boyle. refers to Bergman’s work and discusses the concept of elective affinities or attractions. is that chemical affinity is that whereby substances enter into or resist . although it rapidly became widespread across Europe. According to chemistry historian Henry Leicester. thereby pre-dating science. and Georg Stahl put forward ideas on elective affinity in attempts to explain how heat is evolved during combustion reactions. [4] The term affinity has been used figuratively since c. has referred to the "force" that causes chemical reactions."Chemical affinity". Lewis and Merle Randall led to the replacement of the term "affinity" by the term "free energy" in much of the English-speaking world. used generally throughout history. however. however.

which were first presented to the French Academy in 1718 and . Geoffroy's name is best known in connection with these tables of "affinities" (tables des rapports ). was published in 1718 by the French chemist Étienne François Geoffroy. w here each column below the header is ranked by degrees of "affinity". which was based on displacement reactions.Geoffroy's 1718 affinity table [edit] The first-ever affinity table. prepared by collating observations on the actions of substances one upon another. as shown below: Geoffroy's Affinity Table (1718): At the head of the column is a substance w ith w hich all the substances below can combine. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. These were lists.

Patterns of Congruence and Divergence among 18th Century Affinity Theories. J. R.31 (chemical affinity is described as an "unknown force"). vol. See also Chemistry [edit] Chemical reaction Chemical bond Electronegativity Electron affinity Étienne François Geoffroy — Geoffroy's 1718 Affinity Table Valency Affinity chromatography Affinity electrophoresis References [edit] 1.Britannica 1911 2. 7th ed. 2 vols.R. New York: Dover Publications.pdf 3. Inc. until displaced by the profounder conceptions introduced by Claude Berthollet.Prigogine. p. ^ On the variety of affinity theories.. 299. 1975 8. ^ Chemical Affinity . A System of Chemistry. Pg. A Short History of Chemistry. (1966). (1831). ISBN 2-88124-583-8. ^ I. 4. H. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. The Origins of Chemistry. ^ Thomas Thomson. and they retained their vogue for the rest of the century. ^ IUPAC Green Book and Gold Book in . From being to becoming. ISBN 0-48665977-1 7. (1971). (1980). VDM Verlag Dr Muller Aktiengesellschaft. ^ Malthauf. Affinity and Matter – Elements of Chemical Philosophy 1800-1865 . Variations on a Theme. ^ See Arthur Donovan. San open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. London. Edinburgh. see Georgette Taylor. Trevor. Philosophical Chemistry in the Scottish Enlightenment. ^ a b Levere. 5. 2008 9. ^ Partington. Time and Complexity in the Physical . 6.showing the varying degrees of affinity exhibited by analogous bodies for different reagents. (1937). 1. P.

you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. L'affinité. "Establishment and Development of the Idea of Chemical Affinity" Scientific Ideas . (1911). Principles and the Narrative of Affinity Categories: Physical chemistry This page w as last modified on 8 March 2013 at 11:46. Cambridge University Press. Ed. ed.1920 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Presentation Speech by Gerard – Essay Review Elements. .H. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.Freeman and Co 10. Chemical Affinity and Absolute Zero de Geer .. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Mobile view open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. a non-profit organization.). External links [edit] . ^ de Donder.Fracisco: W. Paris: Gauthier-Villars Notes [edit] This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm. Inc. T. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Pierre Van Rysselberghe. Hugh. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. additional terms may apply. By using this site. History of William Whewell. (1936).

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