# Lecture 05

Examples
UCF
Example 109 (1)
Assume that vector field exists in a region surrounding the origin of a
spherical coordinate system. Find the value of the closed-surface integral
over the unit sphere.
UCF
Example 109 (2)
Solution:
The closed-surface integral is given by
In this integral, we have used the differential surface area in spherical coordinates
that has a unit vector a
r
the a
u
or a
|
directions, their contribution to this surface integral would be zero,
since the scalar product of these terms will be equal to zero.
( )
2
0
2
0
2
0 0
sin 4
A
r d d A
r
| t u t
| u
u u | t
= =
= =
| |
· = · =
|
\ .
}} } }
r r
A ds a a

2
sin d r d d u u | =
r
s a
UCF
Example 110 (1)
Assume that the vector field
is defined in a region
Find the value of the closed-surface integral
over the surface of this region.
1 3 x s s , 2 4 y ÷ s s and 1 2 z ÷ s s
2
5 4
x y z
xy xy z = + + A a a a
·
}}
A ds

UCF
Example 110 (2)
Solution:
The region has six surfaces. On the front surface, x=3 and is the only
component perpendicular to that surface. Therefore,
3
2 2
2 4 2
1 2 1
| |
5 3 15
4 ( 2)
| 15 15 270
2
front x x
front
d A dydz
ydydz ydydz
d ydydz dz
=
÷ ÷ ÷
· =
= × =
÷ ÷
· = = =
}} } } }
A s
A s
On the back surface, x=1 and is the only component perpendicular to that
surface. Therefore,
1
2 2
2 4 2
1 2 1
| | ( )
5 1 5
4 ( 2)
| 5 5 90
2
back x x
back
d A dydz
ydydz ydydz
d ydydz dz
=
÷ ÷ ÷
· = ÷
= ÷ × = ÷
÷ ÷
· = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
}} } } }
A s
A s
UCF
Example 110 (3)
On the right surface, and is the only component perpendicular to that surface.
Therefore,
4
2
2 2
2 3 2
1 1 1
| |
4 16
3 1
| 16 16 192
2
right y y
right
d A dxdz
x dxdz xdxdz
d xdxdz dz
=
÷ ÷
· =
= × =
÷
· = = =
}} } } }
A s
A s
On the left surface, and is the only component perpendicular to that surface.
Therefore,
2
2
2 2
2 3 2
1 1 1
| | ( )
( 2) ( ) 4
3 1
| 4 4 48
2
left y y
left
d A dxdz
x dxdz xdxdz
d xdxdz dz

÷ ÷
· = ÷
= × ÷ ÷ = ÷
÷
· = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
}} } } }
A s
A s
UCF
Example 110 (4)
On the top surface, and is the only component perpendicular to that surface.
Therefore,
2
4 3
2 1
| |
4 2 8
| 8 96
top z z
top
d A dxdy
dxdy dxdy
d dxdy
=
÷
· =
= × =
· = =
}} } }
A s
A s
On the bottom surface, and is the only component perpendicular to that
surface. Therefore,
1
4 3
2 1
| | ( )
4 ( 1)( ) 4
| 4 48
top z z
top
d A dxdy
dxdy dxdy
d dxdy

÷
· = ÷
= × ÷ ÷ =
· = =
}} } }
A s
A s
The closed surface integral can be obtained by the summation of the above six
surface integrals as:
270 90 192 48 120 60 468 d · = ÷ + ÷ + + =
}}
A s

UCF
Example 111 (1)
Find the volume of a cylinder that has a radius a and a length l.
UCF
Example 112
Find the total charge within a volume defined by
1 5, /6 / 2, / 4 3 / 4 r t u t t | t s s s s s s
if the charge density is given as:
cos
v
r µ | =
/2 5
2
/4 /6 1
cos sin 39 6
v
V
Q dv r r dr d d
t t
t t
µ | u u | = = · = ÷
}}} } } }
Solution:
UCF
Example 113
Assume that there exists a surface that can be modeled with the equation
( )
2 2
x y
z e
÷ +
= .
Calculate Vz at the point (x =0, y =0). In addition, use MATLAB to illustrate the
profile and to calculate and plot this field.
Solution:
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
x y x y
z xe y e
÷ + ÷ +
V = ÷ ÷
x y
a a . At the point (x =0, y =0), Vz =0.
UCF
Example 114
Find the divergence of the vector A =3xa
x
+xy
2
a
y
÷ 2xye
–z
a
z
at the point (1, ÷1, 2).
Solution:
Using equation (1.95), we find
( )
( ) ( )
2
3 2
3 2 2
z
z
x xy xye
x y z
xy xye
÷
÷
c c c
V· = + ÷
c c c
= + +
A

At the point (1, ÷1, 2) this gives V • A =3 ÷ 2 ÷ 2e
÷2
=0.7293.
UCF
Example 115
Find the divergence of the vector field
( )
2
e
µ o
µ
µ
÷
= A a , where o is a constant.
Solution:
Fromequation (1.96), we have
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
1 1 1 1
2 2
2 1
A e e e
e
µ o µ o µ o
µ
µ o
µ
µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ µ µ o o
µ
o
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
c c
| | | |(
V· = = = ÷
| |
(
¸ \ . \ .¸ c c
(
| |
= ÷
|
(
\ .
¸ ¸
A

UCF
Example 116
Evaluate both sides of the divergence theorem for the vector field
2
5 4
x y z
xy xy z = + + A a a a defined in the region 1 3 x s s , 2 4 y ÷ s s and
1 2 z ÷ s s .
Solution:
Using equation (1.95), we find
( ) ( ) ( )
2
5 4
5 2 4
xy xy z
x y z
y xy
c c c
V · = + +
c c c
= + +
A

The volume integral is given by
2 4 3
1 2 1
(5 2 4) 468
V
dv y xy dx dy dz
÷ ÷
V · = + + =
}}} } } }
A
The closed-surface integral has already been calculated in Example 1.10. We have
468
S
· =
}}
A ds

As we expected, the two answers are the same.

UCF
Example 117
Find the curl of the vector field
( )
2
e
µ o
|

÷
= A a , where o and e are constant

Solution:

Fromequation (1.107), the curl is given by
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
1
0 0
1
0 0 e
2 1
z
z
z
z
e
e
µ |
µ o
µ o
µ |
µ o
µ
µ µ |
µ eµ
µ
µ
µ
e
o
÷
÷
÷
c c c
V× =
c c c
c
(
= + + eµ
(

¸ ¸
(
| |
= ÷
|
(
\ .
¸ ¸
a a a
A
a a a
a

UCF
Example 118 (1)
UCF Example 118 (2)
Matlab
Solutions:
0
x
A =
0
y
A =
2 2
9 x y + =
0 3
3 0
2 check stokes's theorem
0 0,
2
x y
arc
xy x
d d d A dx A dy
xydx xdy
= ÷
= + + = +
= + ÷
} }
} }
x y
A a a
A l A l A l

2
9 x ÷
2
9 y ÷
2
3 9
0 0
[ , , ]
( )
x y z
y
z
B B B
d dxdy B dx dy
÷
= V× =
= =
}} }} } }
z
B A
B S B
=
n z
a a
UCF
Example 119 (1)
2
2
min max min max min max
min 1 min
m 2 max
min 3
20
(sin sin(2 ) )
1)
2) ( )
for a closed region defined as , ,
:
, ,
, ,
, ,
z
n
ax n
n
z
d
dV
z z z
NOTE
d d dz
d d dz
d d d
µ |
µ µ
µ µ
|
| |
µ
µ µ µ | | |
µ µ µ |
µ µ µ |
| | µ
= + +
·

s s s s s s
= = ÷ = ÷
= = = ÷
= = ÷ = ÷
}}
}}}
D a a a
D S
D
a a S a
a a S a
a a S

m 4
min 5
max 6
, ,
, ,
, ,
ax n
n z z
n z z
z
d d dz
z z d d d
z z d d d
|
| |
| | µ
µ µ |
µ µ |
= = =
= = ÷ = ÷
= = =
a
a a S a
a a S a
a a S a
UCF
General Orthogonal Coordinate System
v
3
v
1
v
2
UCF
Differential Length
Cartesian coordinate system Cylindrical coordinate system
Spherical coordinate system
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z
v = [x y z]
h = [1 1 1]
v = [r theta phi]
h = [1 r r*sin(theta)]
v = [rho phi z]
h = [1 rho 1]
UCF
Differential Operators
The gradient of a scalar field
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 1 V V V
V
h v h v h v
c c c
V = + +
c c c
a a a
The divergence of a vector field
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2
1 2 3 1 2 3
1
Fh h F h h F h h
h h h v v v
(
c c c
V· = + +
(
c c c
¸ ¸
F
The curl of a vector field
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3 1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
1
h h h
h h h v v v
h F h F h F
c c c
V× =
c c c
a a a
F
The Laplacian of a scalar field
2
2 3 3 1 1 2
1 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
1 h h h h h h V V V
V V
h h h v h v v h v v h v
(
| | | | | |
c c c c c c
V = V V = + +
( | | |
c c c c c c
(
\ . \ . \ .
¸ ¸

UCF MatLab Vector Analysis Tools
Integration
•int1D, int2D, int3D (numerical)
Coordinate and Field Transformation
•car2cyl, car2sph, cyl2car,
cyl2sph, sph2car, sph2cyl (coordinate,numerical)
•Scar2cyl, Scar2sph, Scyl2car,
Scyl2sph, Ssph2car, Ssph2cyl (field, symbolic)
Differentiation