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Chapter 3

Designing 3-D Land Seismic Surveys

What is 3-D seismic?

closely spaced 2-D lines of sources and receivers that

cover an area

Why 3-D seismic?

3-D migration enhances the horizontal resolution by

collapsing diffractions from all directions.

3-D migration eliminates misties over dipping

reflectors.

It presents a more detailed image of the subsurface.

Introduction

Introduction

Migration Misties

Terminology

inline: direction parallel receiver lines

crossline: direction perpendicular to receiver lines (not

necessarily parallel to source lines)

(CMP) bin: a small rectangle (or square) that contains all the

traces which belong to the same CMP

box (unit cell): area bounded by two adjacent receiver lines

and two adjacent source lines

patch (template): area of all live receivers recording from the

same source

Introduction

Introduction

(Cordsen et al., 2000)

RI

SI

(Modified after

Cordsen et al., 2000)

Factors controlling 3-D land survey design

(independent variables)

1. Target depth and lateral size

2. TWTT and RMS velocity to target

3. Interval velocity immediately above target

4. Shallowest depth of interest

5. Maximum expected dip angle

6. Fold of good 2-D data recorded in the area previously

7. Dominant and maximum usable frequencies at target

8. Target dip angle

9. Interval velocities of weathering and subweathering layers

10. TWTT and RMS velocity to deepest event of interest

11. Interval velocity of deepest event of interest

12. NMO stretch of target

13. TWTT and RMS velocity of prominent multiple (if any)

Controlling Factors

Controlling Factors

Example

Target depth = 2,000 m

Target lateral size = 300 m

TWTT to target = 1.5 s

RMS velocity to target = 2,700 m/s

Interval velocity immediately above target = 4,200 m/s

Shallowest depth of interest = 500 m

Maximum expected dip angle = 20

Fold of good 2-D data recorded in the area previously = 30

Dominant frequency at target = 50 Hz

Maximum usable frequency at target = 70 Hz

Target dip angle = 20

Interval velocity of weathering layer = 1,000 m/s

Interval velocity of subweathering layer = 2,000 m/s

TWTT to deepest event of interest = 2.5 s

RMS velocity to deepest event of interest = 4,000 m/s

Interval velocity of deepest event of interest = 5,500 m/s

NMO stretch of target = 50%

TWTT and RMS velocity of prominent multiple = 1.0 s and 1,000 m/s

Survey Parameters

Parameters of 3-D land survey design

(dependent variables)

1. Migration aperture (apron)

2. Record length

3. CMP Bin Size

4. X

min

5. X

max

6. CMP Fold

7. CMP Fold taper

Survey Parameters (cont.)

1. Migration aperture (apron) is affected by:

1. Fresnel zone:

- defined as the portion of a reflector from which reflected

energy can reach a detector within half a wavelength

from the first reflected energy.

- Radius of first Fresnel zone:

V

RMS

: RMS velocity to reflector

T

0

: zero-offset TWTT to reflector

f

d

: dominant frequency at reflector

d

RMS F

f

T

V R

0

2

1

) ( ~

Survey Parameters (cont.)

1. Migration aperture (cont.):

1. Fresnel zone (cont.):

(Cordsen et al., 2000)

Survey Parameters (cont.)

1. Migration aperture (cont.):

2. Diffracted energy:

- Scattering angles of 30 contain 95% of the diffracted

energy. Therefore, migration aperture should be X

DE

:

Z: target depth

Z Z X

DE

58 . 0 30 tan = =

Survey Parameters (cont.)

(modified after

Cordsen et al., 2000)

1. Migration aperture (cont.):

2. Diffracted energy (cont.):

30 scattering angle

Survey Parameters (cont.)

1. Migration aperture (cont.):

3. Migration lateral displacement:

- Migrating a point on a dipping reflector moves the point

in the updip direction a lateral distance D

X

:

Z: target depth

u: maximum expected dip

u tan Z D

X

=

Rule: choose the migration aperture as

the largest of R

F

, X

DE

, and D

X

.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

1. Migration aperture (cont.):

- Example:

- This means that we have to extend the survey area by

1160 m in the updip direction.

m D

X

728 20 tan ) 2000 ( = =

m R

F

234

50

5 . 1

) 2700 )( (

2

1

= ~

m X

DE

1160 ) 2000 )( 58 . 0 ( = =

m D X R Max Apron Migration Selected

X DE F

1160 ) , , ( _ _ = =

Survey Parameters (cont.)

2. Record length (T

R

): It must satisfy the following:

1. It has to include the deepest event of interest (T

d

) and

allow for its:

- NMO correction (+ 0.3 s)

- DMO correction (+ 0.4 s)

- Migration (+ 0.5 s)

2. It has to allow for maximum static shifts (+ 0.1 s).

3. It has to allow for equipment delays (+ 0.2 s)

Rule: choose T

R

T

d

+ 1.5 s.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. Record length (cont.):

Example:

T

R

2.5 + 1.5 > 4.0 s

Choose T

R

= 6.0 s.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

3. Bin size (B):

Its dimensions are: SI/2 x RI/2.

The most preferable bin shape is square.

The S/N ratio is proportional to bin size.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

3. Bin size (cont.): It is affected by:

1. Target size:

Normally, a minimum of three adjacent traces are needed

across a target in order to define it confidently on the

seismic section.

Choose: B

t

target size / 3.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

3. Bin size (cont.):

2. Maximum unaliased frequency:

For a dipping target, the optimum bin size is given by:

V

i

: interval velocity immediately above target horizon

f

max

: maximum frequency at target depth

u: , maximum expected dip angle

Choose: B B

f

to avoid spatial aliasing.

Spatial aliasing limits the usability of highly dipping

events.

u sin 4

max

f

V

B

i

f

=

Survey Parameters (cont.)

3. Bin size (cont.):

3. Lateral resolution:

Choose:

d

/ 4 B

r

d

/ 2

d

: dominant wavelength at target depth

d

= V

i

/f

d

Rule: choose the bin size as the

smallest of B

t

, B

f

, and B

r

.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

3. Bin size (cont.):

Example:

m B

t

100

3

300

= =

m B

f

44

20 sin ) 70 ( 4

4200

=

=

m B m B

r r

42 21

) 50 ( 2

4200

) 50 ( 4

4200

< < = < <

m B SI RI

m m B B B Min B

r f t

60 2

30 30 ) , , (

= = =

= =

Survey Parameters (cont.)

4. X

min

:

- The largest minimum offset in a survey.

- It is the minimum offset that belongs to the CMP bin

at the exact center of a box.

- In an orthogonal survey, it is the box diagonal:

2 2

min

SLI RLI X + =

Rule: choose X

min

to be less than 1 -1.2

of the shallowest depth of interest.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

(Modified after

Cordsen et al., 2000)

RI

SI

4. X

min

(cont.):

RLI

SLI

Survey Parameters (cont.)

4. X

min

(cont.):

- Example:

m X

m X m X

509 ) 360 ( 2

: m 360 SLI RLI Choosing

600 500 500 2 . 1 500 0 . 1

min

min min

= =

= =

< < = < <

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. X

max

:

- The maximum recorded offset in a survey.

- It is half the length of the diagonal of the patch in an

orthogonal survey:

2 2

max

] _ _ [ ] _ _ [ )

2

1

( Dimension Patch Crossline Dimension Patch Inline X + =

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. X

max

(cont.):

S

R

X

max

RLI

SLI

NRL = 9

NSL = 9

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. X

max

(cont.): It is affected by:

1. Target depth:

Maximum offset should be greater than or equal to the

target depth for several processes to work (e.g., velocity

analysis).

Example:

Choose X

max

Z.

X

max

2000 m.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. X

max

(cont.):

2. Maximum allowable NMO stretch:

The stretch introduced by the NMO correction is given

by:

Traces with offsets > X

mute

at the target horizon will be

muted.

(Note: See aspect ratio in a later section for more details.)

NMO RMS mute

RMS

NMO

S V T X

V T

X

X S

2

2

) (

0

2 2

0

2

~

~

Choose X

max

< X

mute

.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. X

max

(cont.):

2. Maximum allowable NMO stretch:

Example:

m. 4,050 Therefore,

m. 4,050 ) 5 . 0 ( 2 ) 2700 )( 5 . 1 (

, 5 . 0 typical a For

max

<

= ~

=

X

X

S

mute

NMO

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. X

max

(cont.):

3. NMO discrimination:

To discriminate NMO effects, we need an offset X

NMO

:

T

dom

: dominant period at target reflector

Example:

m. 664 Therefore,

. 664 ) 5 . 1 )( 02 . 0 ( 2 ) 02 . 0 ( ) 2700 (

max

2

>

= + =

X

m X

NMO

Choose X

max

> X

NMO

.

0

2

2 T T T V X

dom dom RMS NMO

+ =

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. X

max

(cont.):

4. Multiple cancellation:

In order to cancel prominent multiples, we need an offset

X

mult

:

V

mult

: RMS velocity of multiple, T

mult

: zero-offset TWTT of multiple

Example:

mult dom dom mult mult

T T T V X 4

2

+ =

Choose X

max

> X

mult

.

m. 283 Therefore,

. 283 ) 0 . 1 )( 02 . 0 ( 4 ) 02 . 0 ( ) 2700 (

max

2

>

= + =

X

m X

mult

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. X

max

(cont.):

5. AVO effects:

If AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analysis is

expected, larger offsets should be used.

For a maximum incidence angle of 30, the offset

required for AVO analysis X

AVO

is given by:

Example:

3

0

T V

X

RMS

AVO

=

Choose X

max

> X

AVO

.

m. 2,338 , therefore m, 338 , 2

3

) 5 . 1 )( 2700 (

max

> = = X X

AVO

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. X

max

(cont.):

Rule: choose X

max

to satisfy all these criteria.

Example:

m 4,050 m 338 , 2

max

< < X

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. X

max

(cont.):

Example:

When choosing the number of receiver lines and number of

receivers per line, we have to choose them such that the resulting

inline and crossline patch dimensions are divisible by RLI and SLI.

For example:

1- Choose a patch consisting of 11 receiver lines each with 61

active receivers.

2- Inline patch dimension = 60(60) = 3600 m.

3- Crossline patch dimension = 10(360) = 3600 m.

4- Number of channels = 11(61) = 671.

m X 2546

2

3600

3600 3600 )

2

1

(

2 2

max

= = + =

Survey Parameters (cont.)

5. X

max

(Example cont.):

S

R

X

max

RLI = 360 m

SLI = 360 m

NRL = 11

NR = 61

Survey Parameters (cont.)

6. Fold:

It is the number of traces in a CMP bin.

Stacking M traces enhances the S/N by .

Rule: choose the 3-D total fold to be

0.5-1 of the fold of good 2-D data.

M

)

dimension patch inline

)( ( Fold Inline

2

1

SLI

F

I

= =

)

dimension patch crossline

)( ( Fold Crossline

2

1

RLI

F

X

= =

X I

F F F = = Fold Total

Survey Parameters (cont.)

6. Fold (cont.):

- Example:

5 )

360

3600

)( ( Fold Inline

2

1

= = =

I

F

5 )

360

3600

)( ( Fold Crossline

2

1

= = =

X

F

25 5 5 Fold Total = = = F

30 15 ) 30 )( 1 ( ) 30 )(

2

1

( < < = < < F F

Survey Parameters (cont.)

7. Fold taper:

It is the area around the edges of the full-fold area

where the fold builds-up from minimum to full-fold.

Rule: choose the fold taper to be of

patch dimension.

4

dimension patch inline

Taper Fold Inline = =

I

FT

4

dimension patch crossline

Taper Fold Crossline = =

X

FT

Survey Parameters (cont.)

7. Fold taper (cont.):

- Relation between migration aperture and fold taper

(Cordsen et al., 2000)

Survey Parameters (cont.)

(Cordsen et al., 2000)

7. Fold taper (cont.):

- Relation among areas covered by acquisition,

processing, and interpretation

Survey Parameters (cont.)

7. Fold taper (cont.):

Example:

m FT

I

900

4

3600

Taper Fold Inline = = =

m FT

X

900

4

3600

Taper Fold Crossline = = =

Aspect Ratio

It is defined as:

Narrow-azimuth patches have R < 0.5, while wide-

azimuth patches have R > 0.5.

Narrow-azimuth patches are good for analyzing DMO,

AVO, and lateral heterogeneities.

Wide-azimuth patches are good for velocity analysis,

static correction, and multiple attenuation.

dimension patch Inline

dimension patch Crossline

= R

Example: R = 3600/3600 = 1.00.

Aspect Ratio (cont.)

Wide-azimuth survey Narrow-azimuth survey

Modified after (Cordsen et al., 2000)

Aspect Ratio (cont.)

The 85% rule:

- X

mute

defines a circle, while X

max

defines a rectangle.

- If we inscribe the X

mute

circle inside an X

max

rectangle, we record 27%

more traces than we need (i.e., area between X

mute

circle and X

max

rectangle will be muted).

- If we inscribe the X

max

rectangle inside the X

mute

circle, we miss recording

36% of our data (i.e., area between X

max

rectangle and X

mute

circle will not

be muted but not recorded because its outside our patch).

- An optimum compromise is the 85% rule defined as:

- Choose inline patch dimension = 0.85 * X

mute

.

- Choose crossline patch dimension = 0.85 * inline patch dimension.

- Therefore; R = 0.85.

Aspect Ratio (cont.)

X

mute

Area recorded but muted

(27% of patch area)

Area not recorded but was not to be muted

(36% of mute area)

Aspect Ratio (cont.)

The 85% rule (cont.):

(Cordsen et al., 2000)

Field Layouts

Displays

X

min

distribution within a box

X

min

Modified after (Cordsen et al., 2000)

Field Layouts

Displays (cont.)

Offset distribution within bins

Offset

Offset

Modified after (Cordsen et al., 2000)

Field Layouts

Displays (cont.)

Offset distribution in a row of bins

Offset

Bin #

Modified after (Cordsen et al., 2000)

Field Layouts

Displays (cont.)

Azimuth distribution within bins

(Cordsen et al., 2000)

Field Layouts

Full-fold Layout

Layout full scale

Layout zoomed

X

min

distribution

Offset distribution in bins

Offset distribution in a bin row Azimuth distribution in bins

Modified after (Cordsen et al., 2000)

Field Layouts

Orthogonal Layout

Layout full scale Layout zoomed

X

min

distribution Offset distribution in bins

Offset distribution in a bin row Azimuth distribution in bins

Modified after (Cordsen et al., 2000)

Field Layouts

Non-orthogonal Layout

Layout full scale

Layout zoomed

X

min

distribution Offset distribution in bins

Offset distribution in a bin row

Azimuth distribution in bins

Modified after (Cordsen et al., 2000)

Field Layouts

Brick Layout

Layout full scale Layout zoomed

X

min

distribution

Offset distribution in bins

Offset distribution in a bin row Azimuth distribution in bins

Modified after (Cordsen et al., 2000)

Field Layouts

Zigzag Layout

Layout full scale

Layout zoomed

X

min

distribution Offset distribution in bins

Offset distribution in a bin row Azimuth distribution in bins

Modified after (Cordsen et al., 2000)

Field Layouts

Star Layout

Layout full scale

Layout zoomed

X

min

distribution Offset distribution in bins

Offset distribution in a bin row Azimuth distribution in bins

Modified after (Cordsen et al., 2000)

Field Layouts

Random Layout

Layout full scale

Layout zoomed

X

min

distribution Offset distribution in bins

Offset distribution in a bin row Azimuth distribution in bins

Modified after (Cordsen et al., 2000)

1. Receiver lines are laid parallel.

2. Source lines are laid parallel in a direction orthogonal to receiver lines.

3. An area of receivers (patch) is selected (e.g., 4 receiver lines with 480

receivers each).

4. Source at patch edge is shot and recorded.

5. Next source on the same source line (going inside the patch) is shot and

recorded by the same current patch.

6. Keep shooting until all sources within the current patch lying on the

same source line are finished. This is one salvo.

7. Roll over one source-line interval and begin recording the next salvo.

8. Keep doing this until the end of the current receiver lines. This is one

swath.

9. Roll over in the crossline direction half the patch size and begin

recording the next swath.

10. Keep doing this until the whole survey is finished.

Swath Shooting Method

(Orthogonal Survey)

Swath Shooting Method

(Continued)

Salvo1

Salvo2

SP # 1

SP # 2

SP # 3

SP # 4

SP # 4

SP # 3

SP # 2

SP # 1

Swath2

Swath1

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