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Electric power is a natural physical phenomenon, a fundamental type of energy which mankind has learned to create and control for its benefit. Electricity is always energy produced by converting some other form of energy (heat, mechanical motion, solar light, or moving wind, etc.) into electric power. Electricity has two advantages over other forms of energy that have led to its wide popularity. First, it is flexible: it can be transformed into heat, light, mechanical motion, radio signals, television images, and stereo sound. Second, it is very controllable: it can be turned on and off in a millionth of a second, and metered out precisely, from an amount so little that it would hardly move one grain of sand a tenth of a millimeter, to quantities that can power entire nations. This chapter is a basic “layman’s tutorial” on electricity, electric power, and the basics of electrical power engineering. It discusses electricity, electric power, and some of the fundamental concepts used in electric utility systems at an introductory level. Occasionally it glosses over messy details if they are not needed to explain the fundamental “big picture.” Persons with an electric utility company who do not have an engineering background may find it useful in understanding the basics of their company’s product. Engineers and others who know power may find it useful in helping explain basic power concepts to those new to the field and for preparing non-technical presentations to community groups, etc. It begins with a discussion of the basic concepts of voltage, current, power, and electric power flow. VOLTAGE, CURRENT, AND POWER Electricity has two fundamental components, the current, or amount of electrical flow, and the voltage, or electrical pressure pushing the electric flow. Together, voltage and current determine the amount of power − the rate at which useful work or light can be produced: Power = voltage × current Energy used is measured in terms of power times the duration of use. One kilowatt used for one hour is a kilowatt-hour, abbreviated as kWh, or kWhr
ALTERNATING CURRENT There are two types of electric power, direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). In direct current systems, the electricity constantly moves in one (direct) direction. It can be thought of as flowing like water through a pipe. The voltage is analogous to water pressure, always pushing in one direction, and in DC systems, current, like water flow in a pile, always moves in that one direction. Almost every electric utility system in the world uses a different type of electricity: alternating current, abbreviated as AC. In an AC power system, both the voltage and the current in all electric equipment oscillate, as shown in Figure Voltage and current alternate back and forth at the same rate, many times a second. Although it might seem that the resulting power would be worth little because it pushes and then pulls back so soon afterward, this is not the case. For one thing, electricity moves so fast, at nearly the speed of light, that it can travel more than 1,500 miles in 1/120th of a second (the standard duration of a single one of those oscillating pulses), a distance great enough to span the route from power generator to power consumer, anywhere on this planet. Beyond that, many electric appliances are indifferent to the direction of current flow. An electric water heater, for example, produces heat whenever current flows through its filament in either direction. It does fine with AC current. So do most other electrical devices. It doesn’t matter to them that the AC power is fluctuating in direction, because power flow is a bit different than water flow: the oscillating nature of AC power actually provides power very efficiently. The physics works out and the equipment works, even if it is a bit difficult to fathom without a lot of mathematics involving complex variables. The rate of oscillation of the electricity in a power systems around the world is either 50 or 60 cycles per second (50 or 60 hertz – oscillation rate is named after an early electrical scientist, Hertz). “American” type systems oscillate at 60 hertz, “European” type systems at 50 hertz. Both work just as well, and neither frequency is noticeably better than the other, despite what one might hear from heavily opinionated “experts.” Anytime one finds an engineer who insists one is substantially better than the other it will turn out that he or she “grew up” on that type of system and has a rather narrow understanding of the other type of system’s capabilities.
Although both DC and AC power are electricity, they act very differently in some ways. Each has certain advantages and disadvantages over the other in different situations, but on balance AC power is considered the more useful, and in some ways a bit safer. With respect to safety, DC power is far harder to stop when something goes wrong − as in an accident or equipment failure that leads to a short circuit. Because AC power changes voltage back and forth many times a second, there is always a brief instant – all that is needed – when the power is not moving and a circuit breaker can effectively break a short circuit current. The same cannot be said for DC, which means circuit breakers for DC are, other things being equal, bigger, heavier, and, to the authors, not quite as preferable as using AC power. More important, though, AC power allows the use of a transformer − a nearly foolproof device that can change voltage wherever it is needed (transformers are explained later in this chapter). Transformers enable power engineers to use high voltage when necessary − as when moving great amounts of power long distances from generator to city − and then conveniently lower voltage to a safer, more efficient, and more useful level for home and business use. By comparison, changing the voltage level of DC power is arduous, inefficient, and unreliable, meaning that a DC utility system could never function as efficiently as an AC power system. For these reasons, all electric utilities worldwide operate at either 60 or 50 cycles per second (3,600 or 3,000 cycles per minute.)
Fig; Alternating current (AC). Voltage and current in an electric system oscillate at 50 times (European) or 60 times (American) per second. AC power provides certain advantages for use in electric utility systems.
Since voltage and current in an AC power system vary many times a second, they are usually measured in terms of the RMS value − root mean square − a mathematical term for computing their average value over time in the way that is most useful in electric measurement. RMS value is about 80% of peak value, so that when one says a typical household wiring system is 120 volts, this means it usually peaks during each cycle at more than 150 volts, while averaging about 120 volts. What is really important, though, is the RMS value, the average produced through each cycle, which is representation of the power it can provide. IS ELECTRICITY SAFE? Any source of energy − a tank of propane stored behind a rural farmhouse, a large millwheel, a windmill, or an electric line − is a potential hazard that can injure and even kill if misused. Electricity is no different, but it is a particularly safe form of energy when handled according to standard safety precautions, such as those in the National Electric Safety Code. One reason it is safe is that it is so controllable, but a big challenge in keeping it safe is that it can act quickly, essentially at the speed of light. Automatic equipment can detect most leaks, called short circuits or faults, and “shut down” the electrical flow before substantial damage is done. Although not completely fail-safe, such circuit breakers and ground fault detectors are quite effective, and combined with sound design, good maintenance, and safe practices make electricity quite safe. TYPICAL RANGES OF VALUES A typical light bulb uses 60 watts − 1/2 amp at 120 volts. A toaster uses about 1,000 watts − a bit more than 8 amps at 120 volts; a television 240 watts − two amps at 120 volts; a large central air conditioner or heat pump 6,000 watts − 25 amps at 240 volts. As previously noted, large amounts of power are often measured in kilowatts − units of 1,000 watts − and larger amounts, still, in megawatts − a million watts. The cumulative demand of a large city or state might be measured in billions of watts − gigawatts.
Cumulatively, metropolitan Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, uses about 8 gigawatts of power during the peak period of electric usage. In almost all cases, whether inside a home or on the utility system, the number of volts being used in any application is greater than the number of amps. Voltage used in homes and most businesses worldwide is somewhere between 100 and 250 volts depending on local standards, but the wires for running the current through the walls to each outlet in a home will be sized to carry a maximum of about 15-25 amps. The same is true throughout a utility power system, a large transmission line might operate at 345,000 volts while carrying 2000 amps. Again, far more volts are used than amps. The fact that more volts are used than amps is not due to any fundamental physical reason − remember volts and amps are arbitrarily chosen units of measurement. It simply turned out that the most efficient use of electricity, as engineers have learned to design it, usually calls for about one hundred times as many volts as amps. This is a useful rule of thumb. RANGES FOR VOLTAGE The power flowing through most houses and buildings in the United States is between 110 and 120 volts, in Europe about 230 to 250 volts, and in Japan 100 to 105 volts. The differences exist because these countries each established a different standard when the electric industry started there. Voltage levels in this range (100-250 volts) provide enough power for typical small appliances like TVs, microwave ovens, etc., and even large equipment like air conditioners and water heaters. What is important for good operation is that the appliances be designed to run at the voltage level standard used locally, e.g., appliances intended for 250 volt operation in France would not work well if plugged into sockets in Japan, where they would get only 40% of the voltage they need to function. Electric utilities use a higher voltage in their systems as they move power from one location to another. The more power that must be moved, the higher the voltage used. Large transmission lines, built with wires hung from big, lattice-like steel towers, typically run at voltages of from 100,000 to 750,000 volts. Local distribution lines, built on poles or buried under the street, usually operate at around 10,000 volts.
VOLTAGE LEVELS All European and most African and Asian countries use a supply that is within 10% of 230 V, whereas Japan, North America and some parts of South America use a voltage between 100 and 127 V. A distinction should be made between the voltage at the point of supply (nominal system voltage) and the voltage rating of the equipment (utilization voltage). Typically the utilization voltage is 3% to 5% lower than the nominal system voltage; for example, a nominal 208 V supply system will be connected to motors with "200 V" on their nameplates. This allows for the voltage drop between equipment and supply. Voltages in this article are the nominal supply voltages and equipment used on these systems will carry slightly lower nameplate voltages. Voltage tolerances are for steady-state operation. Momentary heavy loads, or switching operations in the power distribution network, may cause short-term deviations out of the tolerance band. In general, power supplies derived from large networks with many sources will be more stable than those supplied to an isolated community with perhaps only a single generator. The choice of utilization voltage is governed more by tradition than by optimization of the distribution system. In theory a 230 V distribution system will use less conductor material to deliver a given quantity of power. Incandescent light bulbs for 120 V systems are more efficient and rugged than 230 V bulbs, while large heating appliances can use smaller conductors at 230 V for the same output rating. Practically speaking, few household appliances use anything like the full capacity of the outlet to which they are connected. Minimum wire sizes for hand-held or portable equipment is usually restricted by the mechanical strength of the conductors. One may observe that both 230 V system countries and 120 V system countries have extensive penetration of electrical appliances in homes. National electrical codes prescribe wiring methods intended to minimize the risk of electric shock or fire. Many areas using (nominally) 120 V make use of three-wire, single-phase 240 V systems to supply large appliances. Three-phase systems can be connected to give various combinations of voltage, suitable for use by different classes of equipment. Where both single-phase and three-phase loads are served by an electrical system, the system may be labelled with
both voltages such as 120/208 or 230/400 V, to show the line-to-neutral voltage and the line-to-line voltage. Large loads are connected for the higher voltage. Other three-phase voltages, up to 830 Volts, are occasionally used for special purpose systems such as oil well pumps. Following voltage harmonization all electricity supply within the European Union is now nominally 230 V ± 10% at 50 Hz . For a transition period (1995–2008), countries who previously used 220 V will use a narrower asymmetric tolerance range of 230 V +6% −10% and those (like the UK) who previously used 240 V use now 230 V +10% −6%. Note that no change in voltage is required by either system as both 220V and 240V fall within the lower 230 V tolerance bands (230 V ±6%). In practice this means that countries such as the UK that previously supplied 240 V continue to do so, and those that previously supplied 220 V continue to do so. However equipment should be designed to accept any voltages within the specified range. Large industrial motors (say, more than 250 HP or 150 kW) may operate on medium voltage. On 60Hz systems a standard for medium voltage equipment is 2300/4160V whereas 3300V is the common standard for 50Hz systems. HIGHER VOLTAGE HAS MUCH MORE “CLOUT” THAN LOW VOLTAGE Voltage has a squared relation to capability: double the voltage and the power delivered increases by a factor of four, not two. As a result, slightly increased voltages have much more dramatic effects than might be expected. A light bulb designed for 120volt operation will produce very intense light if connected to 240 volts, but will burn out in a matter of minutes from overheating. The 240- volt appliances used on special circuits in a home do not have access to two times the power available from normal 120-volt electrical outlets − they are being provided with the potential for four times the power. CONSTANT VOLTAGE SYSTEMS As discussed above, if a light or motor needed more power the additional power could be supplied by increasing the voltage, or the current, or both voltage and current, to the device. Although this is the case, electric power systems throughout the world are designed to keep the voltage as nearly constant as possible, and change the power
delivered by varying only the current flow. Thus, the electric power delivered to a typical house in the United States is provided to the house at around 110 to 120 volts (with a limited amount that is at double that voltage, for large uses like electric dryers). This voltage is supplied whether the house is using no power, or a great deal of it. What varies, as power used inside the house varies, is the current drawn from the power system, zero amps if no power is used, and perhaps 90 amps if 11 kW is being used, which is about the peak demand of a typical small home with its air conditioners, water heater, refrigerator, and lights and appliances. In fact, in modern power systems, as demand goes up, voltage actually goes down, an inevitable consequence of the rules of electrical flow. But not by much. The rules of nature make it impossible to keep voltage absolutely constant in a power system as the demand for power varies, although engineers can reduce that tendency through various means, all of which cost money. Most power systems are quite good in this regard, despite being designed to provide low cost power, but voltage will vary by perhaps as much as six percent from times of peak to times of minimum demand. Still, those extremes represent typically a six to one (600%) change in demand. A 6% change in voltage is not much in response. The really important point is that power engineers design the electric utility systems so that voltage at any one point stays as close to constant as possible. Their goal is to make the power system appear electrically as a voltage source, i.e., an unchanging supply of constant voltage regardless of the amount of power demanded. Knowing that this will be the case, engineers of electrical equipment and appliances − motors, heaters, industrial pressure pumps, blenders, microwave ovens, garage door openers, and video games − can design them so that they will vary the current they draw as their power needs change. All of those devices, and everything else that uses electricity, would have to be a bit more complicated, and thus slightly more expensive, to make them work as evenly and safely, if both voltage and current could, or did, vary.
ELECTRIC LOAD The term load means the electrical demand of an appliance connected to and drawing power from the electric utility system to accomplish some task, e.g., opening a garage door, or converting that power to some other form of energy such as light or heat. Electrical loads are usually rated by the level of power they require, measured in units of volt-amperes, called watts. Large loads are measured in kilowatts (thousands of watts) or megawatts (millions of watts). Many appliances are also rated by how much of the enduse product they produce. For example, an incandescent light bulb might be rated at 75 watts and 1,100 lumens of light, a lumen being a measure of light output, while a fluorescent light tube might be rated at 60 watts and 1,250 lumens output. Similarly, an air conditioner might be rated at 2,400 watts and 2,650 BTU, or British Thermal Units, an amount of heating or cooling output. While the groups of devices shown in Figure all have roughly the same electric load, they will not all use the same amount of power during a day, because they operate on different schedules. Of those shown, probably the pair of refrigerators would use the most energy, because they operate around the clock.
Fig; Household appliances
AVAILABILITY AND SERVICE INTERRUPTIONS The most dramatic power quality problem for most electric consumers is an interruption of service. For some reason, be it failure of equipment, damage to lines by a wind storm, a tree falling on a line, or a car hitting a utility pole, flow of electric power is interrupted. Lights go out, motors cease to operate, heaters stop heating, and electric circuits cease to function, causing everything from minor nuisances to major inconveniences. Service interruptions in most power systems in developed countries are rare. Throughout the United States, the average electric consumer suffers about two interruptions per year, with “lights out” lasting about one and one-half hours, total. This means average availability is 99.983%, equal to 8,758.5 hours over 8,760 hours per year. TRANSIENT VOLTAGE INTERRUPTIONS Power flow does not have to be completely interrupted in order for equipment operation to be stopped. An important quality that power must have is a reasonable level of voltage regulation all power systems worldwide are designed to provide a stable, constant source of voltage, from which appliances can draw power as needed. Power is of little use to customers unless it is supplied at the proper voltage, and unless that voltage is Reasonably constant. If voltage strays too high, equipment is damaged. If it drops too low, equipment will stop working, and motors like those in refrigerators and air conditioners may fail. (The motors try to compensate for the low voltage by working harder, overheat as a result, and burn out.) Voltage problems occur on a power system if the local distribution equipment does not have sufficient capacity to serve the load (low voltage), or if that equipment is not operating properly (high voltage). These types of problems are generally very rare, but when they occur, they last for minutes, hours, or even days. Somewhat more common, and nearly impossible to eradicate completely, are transient voltage problems. If electric lines are struck by lightning, and various control equipment, i.e., lightning arresters, fails to stop it, lightning spikes of very short duration may flow through the power system and damage nearby equipment.
If there is a sudden failure of one of the system’s components, there can be momentary voltage sag, lasting a second or less, before it is taken off the system and voltage is restored. Sometimes, when a large electric motor is starting, it will cause momentary voltage flicker on nearby circuits and houses. This often produces a flickering or brief dimming of lights. Transient voltage deviations may not cause a problem if they are of sufficiently short duration or if the voltage does not drop too low or rise too high. However, electrical equipment, like computers, robotic control systems, and digital clocks, is very sensitive to even brief voltage sags or spikes. For example, even a 50% drop in voltage for a half second will cause many computers to lose their memory and digital clocks to forget the time. VOLTAGE SPIKE In electrical engineering, spikes are fast, short duration electrical transients in voltage (voltage spikes), current (current spike), or transferred energy (energy spikes) in an electrical circuit. Fast, short duration electrical transients (over voltages) in the electric potential of a circuit are typically caused by • • • • • • • • lightning strikes power outages tripped circuit breakers short circuits power transitions in other large equipment on the same power line malfunctions caused by the power company Electromagnetic pulses (EMP) with electromagnetic energy distributed typically up to the 100 kHz and 1 MHz frequency range. Inductive spikes
In the design of critical infrastructure and military hardware, one concern is of pulses produced by nuclear explosions , whose nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) distribute large energies in frequencies from 1 kHz into the Gigahertz range through the atmosphere. The effect of a voltage spike is to produce a corresponding increase in current (current spike). However some voltage spikes may be created by current sources. Voltage would increase as necessary so that a constant current will flow. Current from a discharging inductor is one example. For sensitive electronics, excessive current can flow if this voltage spike exceeds a material's breakdown voltage, or if it causes avalanche breakdown. In semiconductor junctions, excessive electrical current may destroy or severely weaken that device. An avalanche diode, transient voltage suppression diode, transil, varistor, ove voltage crowbar, or a range of other over voltage protective devices can divert (shunt) this transient current thereby minimizing voltage. While generally referred to as a voltage spike, the phenomenon in question is actually an energy spike, in that it is measured not in volts but in joules; a transient response defined by a mathematical product of voltage, current, and time. Voltage spike may be created by a rapid buildup or decay of a magnetic field, which may induce energy into the associated circuit. However voltage spikes can also have more mundane causes such as a fault in a transformer or higher-voltage (primary circuit) power wires falling onto lower-voltage (secondary circuit) power wires as a result of accident or storm damage. Voltage spikes may be longitudinal (common) mode or metallic (normal or differential) mode. Some equipment damage from surges and spikes can be prevented by use of surge protection equipment.
LOW VOLTAGE Low voltage is an electrical engineering term that broadly identifies safety considerations of an electricity supply system based on the voltage used. While different definitions exist for the exact voltage range covered by "low voltage", the most commonly used ones include "mains voltage". "Low voltage" is characterized by carrying a substantial risk of electric shock, but only a minor risk of electric arcs through air. The above mentioned problems due to over voltage and under voltage on electrical appliances are minimized using simple circuit. This circuit is protecting from over voltages/under voltages.
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION: This circuit protects refrigerators as well as other appliances from over and under-voltage. Operational amplifier IC LM324 (IC2) is used here as a comparator. IC LM324 consists of four operational amplifiers, of which only two operational amplifiers (N1 and N2) are used in the circuit. The unregulated power supply is connected to the series combination of resistors R1 and R2 and pot meter VR1. The same supply is also connected to a 6.8V zener diode (ZD1) through resistor R3. Preset VR1 is adjusted such that for the normal supply of 180V to 240V, the voltage at the non-inverting terminal (pin 3) Of operational amplifier N1 is less than 6.8V. Hence the output of the operational amplifier is zero and transistor T1 remains off. The relay, which is connected to the collector of transistor T1, also remains de energized. As the AC supply to the electrical Appliances is given through the normally closed (N/C) terminal of the relay, the supply is not disconnected during normal operation. When the AC voltage increases beyond 240V, the voltage at the non-inverting terminal (pin 3) of operational amplifier N1 increases. The voltage at the inverting terminal is still 6.8V because of the zener diode. Thus now if the voltage at pin 3 of the operational amplifier is higher than 6.8V, the output of the operational amplifier goes high to drive transistor T1 and hence energize relay RL. Consequently, the AC supply is disconnected and electrical appliances turn off. Thus the appliances are protected against over-voltage. Now let’s consider the under-voltage condition. When the line voltage is below 180V, the voltage at the inverting terminal (pin 6) of operational amplifier N2 is less than the voltage at the non-inverting terminal (6V). Thus the output of operational amplifier N2 goes high and it energizes the relay through transistor T1. The AC supply is disconnected and electrical appliances turn off. Thus the appliances are protected against under-voltage. IC1 is wired for a regulated 12V supply. Thus the relay energizes in two conditions: first, if the voltage at pin 3 of IC2 is above 6.8V, and second, if the voltage at pin 6 of IC2 is below 6V. Over-voltage and undervoltage levels can be adjusted using presets VR1 and VR2, respectively.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION ABOUT CIRCUIT COMPONENTS • • • • • • • • • • Step down single phase transformer (230v/12v AC ,1A) Integrated Circuit 7812 Integrated Circuit LM324 operational amplifier. Capacitors (470 µF, 0.1 µF, 0.1 µF). Resistors(33k,10k,6.8k,1k,10k,10k,6.8k,1k)ohms. Pot meters (VR1=47k, VR2=47k) ohms. Diodes (D1-D6) IN4007, Red led Transistor BC547 Zener diodes (6.8v,6v). Relay (12v, 200Ohms).
STEP DOWN SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER (230V/12V AC ,1A): A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors — the transformer's coils or "windings". Except for air-core transformers, the conductors are commonly wound around a single iron-rich core, or around separate but magnetically-coupled cores. A varying current in the first or "primary" winding creates a varying magnetic field in the core (or cores) of the transformer. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the "secondary" winding. This effect is called mutual induction. If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will flow from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is in proportion to the primary voltage (VP), and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary to the number of turns in the primary as follows:
By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making NS greater than NP, or "stepped down" by making NS less than NP. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of national power grids. All operate with the same basic principles, although the range of designs is wide. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits, transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical. BASIC PRINCIPLES The transformer is based on two principles: firstly, that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and secondly that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The changing magnetic flux extends to the secondary coil where a voltage is induced across its ends A simplified transformer design is shown to the left. A current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability, such as iron; this ensures that most of the magnetic field lines produced by the primary current are within the iron and pass through the secondary coil as well as the primary coil. INDUCTION LAW The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday's law of induction, which states that:
where VS is the instantaneous voltage, NS is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ¢ equals the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the
Figure; An ideal step-down transformer showing magnetic flux in the core. A magnetic field line, the flux is the product of the magnetic field strength B and the area A through which it cuts. The area is constant, being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core, whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer, the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals
Taking the ratio of the two equations for VS and VP gives the basic equation for stepping up or stepping down the voltage
IDEAL POWER EQUATION If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow, electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. Ideally, the transformer is perfectly efficient; all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. If this condition is met, the incoming electric power must equal the outgoing power. Pincoming = IPVP = Poutgoing = ISVS TRANSFORMER UNIVERSAL EMF EQUATION If the flux in the core is sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding between its rms Voltage of the winding E, and the supply frequency f, number of turns N, core crosssectional area a and peak magnetic flux density B is given by the universal EMF equation:
LAMINATED STEEL CORES
Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies typically have cores made of high permeability silicon steel. The steel has a permeability many times that of free space, and the core thus serves to greatly reduce the magnetizing current, and confine the flux to a path which closely couples the windings. Early transformer developers soon realized that cores constructed from solid iron resulted in prohibitive eddy-current losses, and their designs mitigated this effect with cores consisting of bundles of insulated iron wires.
Later designs constructed the core by stacking layers of thin steel laminations, a principle that has remained in use. Each lamination is insulated from its neighbors by a thin nonconducting layer of insulation. The universal transformer equation indicates a minimum cross-sectional area for the core to avoid saturation. The effect of laminations is to confine eddy currents to highly elliptical paths that enclose little flux, and so reduce their magnitude. Thinner laminations reduce losses, but are more laborious and expensive to construct. Thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers, with some types of very thin steel laminations able to operate up to 10 kHz.
Figure; Laminated core transformer showing edge of laminations at top of unit. One common design of laminated core is made from interleaved stacks of E-shaped steel sheets capped with I-shaped pieces, leading to its name of "E-I transformer". Such a design tends to exhibit more losses, but is very economical to manufacture. The cut-core or C-core type is made by winding a steel strip around a rectangular form and then bonding the layers together. It is then cut in two, forming two C shapes, and the core Assembled by binding the two C halves together with a steel strap. They have the advantage that the flux is always oriented parallel to the metal grains, reducing reluctance. A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. When power is then reapplied, the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remaining magnetism is reduced, usually after a few cycles of the applied alternating current. Over current protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. On transformers connected to long, overhead power transmission lines, induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core and operation of transformer protection devices.
Distribution transformers can achieve low no-load losses by using cores made with low-loss high permeability silicon steel or amorphous (non-crystalline) metal alloy. The higher initial cost of the core material is offset over the life of the transformer by its lower losses at light load. APPLICATIONS A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires. Wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore low-current) form for transmission and back again afterward, transformers enable economic transmission of power over long distances. Consequently, transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry, permitting generation to be located remotely from points of demand. All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. Transformers are also used extensively in electronic products to step down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain. In the above circuit using only 230v/12v AC,1A step down transformer. The transformer also electrically isolates the end user from contact with the supply voltage. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record player s to the input of amplifiers. Audio transformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a single pair of wires. Transformers are also used when it is necessary to couple a differentialmode signal to a ground-referenced signal, and for between external cables and internal circuits.
In electronics, an integrated circuit (also known as IC, microcircuit, microchip, silicon chip, or chip) is a miniaturized electronic circuit (consisting mainly of semiconductor devices, as well as passive components) that has been manufactured in the surface of a
thin substrate of semiconductor material. Integrated circuits are used in almost all electronic equipment in use today and have revolutionized the world of electronics. A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, bonded to a substrate or circuit board. Integrated circuits were made possible by experimental discoveries which showed that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum tubes, and by mid20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components. The integrated circuit's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography and not constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, much less Material is used to construct a circuit as a packaged IC die than as a discrete circuit. Performance is high since the components switch quickly and consume little power (compared to their discrete counterparts), because the components are small and close together. As of 2006, chip areas range from a few square mm to around 350 mm², with up to 1 million transistors per mm². INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 7812 It Is Integrated Circuit Of 78 Series. Its Voltage Is 12v. It is the ic used to regulate the secondary side voltage of the transformer after rectification. Main purpose of this regulation is providing to trip the relay. The main functions are: • Asserting reset output during power-up, power-down and brownout conditions for μP system;
• • • •
Detecting power failure or low-battery conditions with a 1.25V threshold detector; Watchdog functions; Manual reset.
Application Power-supply circuitry in μP systems
Manual-Reset: (CMOS). Active low. Pull low to force a reset. Reset remains asserted for the duration of the Reset Timeout Period after MR transitions from low to high. Leave unconnected or connected to VCC if not used. Vcc Power Supply: Reset is asserted when V CC drops below the Reset Threshold Voltage (VRST ). Reset remains asserted until VCC rises above VRST and keep asserted for the duration of the Reset Timeout Period (TRS) once VCC rises above VRST. GND Ground Reference for all signals.
Active-Low Reset Output (Push-Pull or Open-Drain).It goes low when Vcc is below the reset threshold. It remains low for about 200ms after one of the following occurs: Vcc rises above the reset threshold (V RST ), the watchdog triggers a reset, or low to high. RESET The inverse of INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LM324 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER An operational amplifier, which is often called an op-amp, is a DC-coupled high gain Electronic voltage amplifier with differential inputs and, usually, a single output. Typically the output of the opamp is controlled either by negative feedback, which largely determines the magnitude of its output voltage gain, or by positive feedback, which facilitates regenerative gain and oscillation. High input impedance at the input terminals (ideally infinite) and low output impedance (ideally zero) are important typical characteristics Modern designs are electronically more rugged than earlier goes from
Implementations and some can sustain direct short circuits on their outputs without damage. The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. Other types of differential amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op-amp, but with 2 outputs), the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from 3 op-amps), the isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation amplifier, but which works fine with commonmode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op-amp), and negative feedback amplifier (usually built from 1 or more op-amps and a resistive feedback network). CIRCUIT NOTATION The circuit symbol for an op-amp is shown to the right, where: • • • • • V + : non-inverting input V − : inverting input Vout: output VS + : positive power supply VS − : negative power supply The power supply pins (VS + and VS − ) can be labeled in different ways (See IC power supply pins). Despite different labeling, the function remains the same — to provide additional power for amplification of signal. Often these pins are left out of the diagram for clarity, and the power configuration is described or assumed from the circuit.
Figure ; Circuit diagram symbol for an op-amp A single sided supply op-amp is one where the input and output voltages can be as low as the negative power supply voltage instead of needing to be at least 2 volts above it. The result is that it can operate in many applications with the negative supply pin on the opamp being connected to the signal ground, thus eliminating the need for a separate negative power supply.
The LM324 (released in 1972) was one such op-amp that came in a quad package and became an industry standard. In addition to packaging multiple op-amps in a single package, the 1970s also saw the birth of op-amps in hybrid packages. These op-amps were generally improved versions of existing monolithic op-amps and were without a doubt the best op-amps available. As the properties of monolithic op-amps improved, the more complex hybrid ICs were quickly relegated to systems that are required to have extremely long service lives or other specialty systems. RECENT TRENDS Recently supply voltages in analog circuits have decreased (as they have in digital logic) and low voltage opamps have been introduced reflecting this. Supplies of ±5V and increasingly 5V are common. To maximize the signal range modern opamps commonly have rail-to-rail inputs (the input signals can range from the lowest supply voltage to the highest) and sometimes rail-to-rail outputs. PIN DIAGRAM Lm 324 consists of four operational amplifiers.
USE IN ELECTRONICS SYSTEM DESIGN
The use of op-amps as circuit blocks is much easier and clearer than specifying all their individual circuit elements (transistors, resistors, etc.), whether the amplifiers used are integrated or discrete. In the first approximation op-amps can be used as if they were ideal differential gain blocks; at a later stage limits can be placed on the acceptable range of parameters for each op-amp. Circuit design follows the same lines for all electronic circuits. A specification is drawn up governing what the circuit is required to do, with allowable limits. For example, the gain may be required to be 100 times, with a tolerance
of 5% but drift of less than 1% in a specified temperature range; the input impedance not less than 1 megohm; etc. A basic circuit is designed, often with the help of circuit modeling (on a computer). Specific commercially available op-amps and other components are then chosen that meet the design criteria within the specified tolerances at acceptable cost. If not all criteria can be met, the specification may need to be modified. A prototype is then built and tested; changes to meet or improve the specification, alter functionality, or reduce the cost, may be made. CAPACITORS A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric. When a voltage potential difference exists between the conductors, an electric field is present in the dielectric. This field stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the plates. The effect is greatest between wide, flat, parallel, narrowly separated conductors. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, which is measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. The conductors and leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage. The properties of capacitors in a circuit may determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of a resonant circuit, power dissipation and operating frequency in a digital logic circuit, energy capacity in a highpower system, and many other important aspects. Electronic symbol
THEORY OF OPERATION
A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. The nonconductive substance is called the dielectric medium, although this may also mean a vacuum or a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. A capacitor is assumed to be self contained and isolated, with no net electric charge and no influence from an external electric field. The conductors thus contain equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces, and the dielectric contains an electric field. The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them
Sometimes charge buildup affects the mechanics of the capacitor, causing the capacitance to vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes:
In SI units, a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device. ENERGY STORAGE Work must be done by an external influence to move charge between the conductors in a capacitor. When the external influence is removed, the charge separation persists and energy is stored in the electric field. If charge is later allowed to return to its equilibrium position, the energy is released. The work done in establishing the electric field, and hence the amount of energy stored, is given by
In the above circuit using Capacitors (470 µF, 0.1 µF, 0.1 µF) main purpose of these capacitors gives ripple free DC output. RESISTORS
A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component designed to oppose an electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in proportion to the current, that is, in accordance with Ohm's law: V = IR Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits. They are extremely commonplace in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel/chrome). The primary characteristics of resistors are their resistance and the power they can dissipate. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance. Less well-known is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current flow, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical resistance depends upon the materials constituting the resistor as well as its physical dimensions; it's determined by design. Resistors can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits, as well as integrated circuits. Size, and position of leads (or terminals) are relevant to equipment designers; resistors must be physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating their power
Figure; Three resistors Symbol
In the above circuit using Resistors(33k,10k,6.8k,1k,10k,10k,6.8k,1k)ohms. POT METERS
A potentiometer is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used (one side and the wiper), it acts as a variable resistor or Rheostat. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as a volume control of a radio. Potentiometers operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers, for example, in a joystick. A linear taper potentiometer has a resistive element of constant cross-section, resulting in a device where the resistance between the contact (wiper) and one end terminal is proportional to the distance between them. Linear taper describes the electrical characteristic of the device, not the geometry of the resistive element. Linear taper potentiometers are used when an approximately proportional relation is desired between shaft rotation and the division ratio of the potentiometer; for example, controls used for adjusting the centering of (an analog) cathode-ray oscilloscope.
Figure; A typical single turn potentiometer Symbol
In the above circuit using Pot meters (VR1=47k, VR2=47k) ohms.
In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal device (thermionic diodes may also have one or two ancillary terminals for a heater). Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow, and most are used for their unidirectional electric current property. The varicap diode is used as an electrically adjustable capacitor. The unidirectionality most diodes exhibit is sometimes generically called the rectifying property. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current in one direction (called the forward biased condition) and to block the current in the opposite direction (the reverse biased condition). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. Real diodes do not display such a perfect on-off directionality but have a more complex non-linear electrical characteristic, which depends on the particular type of diode technology. Diodes also have many other functions in which they are not designed to operate in this on-off manner. CURRENT–VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTIC A diode’s I–V characteristic can be approximated by four regions of operation
Figure; I–V characteristics of a P-N junction diode In the above circuit using Diodes (D1-D6) IN4007, diodes (D1-D4) are used as a rectifier
LEDs are based on the semiconductor diode. When the diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes and energy is released in the form of light. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. The LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2) with integrated optical components to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. LEDs present many advantages over traditional light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size and faster switching. However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. Applications of LEDs are diverse. They are used as low-energy and also for replacements for traditional light sources in well-established applications such as indicators and automotive lighting. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are useful in communications technology. Symbol
In the above protective circuit used red led .In this led connected across the relay coil it is indicates tripping of the relay. TRANSISTOR BC547 In electronics, a transistor is a semiconductor device commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals. A transistor is made of a solid piece of a semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much larger than the controlling (input) power, the transistor provides amplification of a signal. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is used in radio, telephone, computer and other electronic systems. Some transistors are packaged individually but most are found in integrated circuits. BC - Small signal transistor ("all round")
Transistors are commonly used as electronic switches, for both high power applications including switched-mode power supplies and low power applications such as logic gates. BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was the first type of transistor to be massproduced. Bipolar transistors are so named because they conduct by using both majority and minority carriers. The three terminals of the BJT are named emitter, base and collector. Two p-n junctions exist inside a BJT: the base/emitter junction and base/collector junction. "The [BJT] is useful in amplifiers because the currents at the emitter and collector are controllable by the relatively small base current." In an NPN transistor operating in the active region, the emitter-base junction is forward biased, and electrons are injected into the base region. Because the base is narrow, most of these electrons will diffuse into the reverse-biased base-collector junction and be swept into the collector; perhaps one-hundredth of the electrons will recombine in the base, which is the dominant mechanism in the base current. By controlling the number of electrons that can leave the base, the number of electrons entering the collector can be controlled. Symbols
In the above circuit using only Transistor BC547(NPN). ZENER DIODE A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current in the forward direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage". The device was named after Clarence Zener, who discovered this electrical property. A conventional solid-state diode will not allow significant current if it is reverse-biased below its reverse breakdown voltage. When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded, a conventional diode is subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. Unless this current is limited by external circuitry, the diode will be permanently
damaged. In case of large forward bias (current in the direction of the arrow), the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to its junction built-in voltage and internal resistance. The amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor material and the doping concentrations. The device is specially designed so as to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage, the so-called Zener voltage. A Zener diode contains a heavily doped p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material. In the atomic scale, this tunneling corresponds to the transport of valence band electrons into the empty conduction band states; as a result of the reduced barrier between these bands and high electric fields that are induced due to the relatively high levels of dopings on both sides. A reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode at the Zener voltage. For example, a diode with a Zener breakdown voltage of 3.2 V will exhibit a voltage drop of 3.2 V if reverse bias voltage applied across it is more than its Zener voltage. However, the current is not unlimited, so the Zener diode is typically used to generate a reference voltage for an amplifier stage, or as a voltage stabilizer for low current applications. The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the doping process. While tolerances within 0.05% are available, the most widely used tolerances are 5% and 10%.
Figure; Zener diode schematic symbol
characteristic of a Zener voltage of 17 volt.
Figure; Current-voltage diode with a breakdown
In the above circuit using Zener diodes (6.8v,6v).
RELAY A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. Because a relay is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit, it can be considered to be, in a broad sense, a form of an electrical amplifier. BASIC DESIGN AND OPERATION A simple electromagnetic relay, such as the one taken from a car in the first picture, is an adaptation of an electromagnet. It consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke, which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a moveable iron armature, and a set, or sets, of contacts; two in the relay pictured. The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to a moving contact or contacts. It is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function. The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and the circuit track on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) via the yoke, which is soldered to the PCB. When an electric current is passed through the coil, the resulting magnetic field attracts the armature, and the consequent movement of the movable contact or contacts either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was de-energised, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured
to operate quickly. In a low voltage application, this is to reduce noise. In a high voltage or high current application, this is to reduce arcing. If the coil is energized with DC, a diode is frequently installed across the coil, to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to circuit components. Some automotive relays already include that diode inside the relay case. Alternatively a contact protection network, consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series, may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to be energized with AC, a small copper ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. This "shading ring" creates a small out-of-phase current, which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle. By analogy with the functions of the original electromagnetic device, a solid-state relay is made with a thyristor or other solidstate switching device. To achieve electrical isolation an optocoupler can be used which is a light-emitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor.
Figure; Simple electromechanical relay POLE AND THROW Since relays are switches, the terminology applied to switches is also applied to relays. A relay will switch one or more poles, each of whose contacts can be thrown by energizing the coil in one of three ways: • Normally-open (NO) contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a Form A contact or "make" contact. • Normally-closed (NC) contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a Form B contact or "break" contact.
Change-over (CO), or double-throw (DT), contacts control two circuits: one normally-open contact and one normally-closed contact with a common terminal. It is also called a Form C contact or "transfer" contact ("break before make"). If this type of contact utilizes a "make before break" functionality, then it is called a Form D contact.
In the above circuit using relay (12v, 200ohms).It is trips under over/under voltage conditions at that time electrical appliances disconnected from the supply electrical appliances protected from over and under voltages. so
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