Middle and Late Iron Age Painted Ceramics from Kinet Höyük: Macro, Micro and Elemental Analyses

Author(s): Tamar Hodos, Carl Knappett and Vassilis Kilikoglou Reviewed work(s): Source: Anatolian Studies, Vol. 55 (2005), pp. 61-87 Published by: British Institute at Ankara Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20065535 . Accessed: 11/09/2012 06:36
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Anatolian

Studies 55 (2005): 61-87

Middle and Late Iron Age painted ceramics from Kinet H?y?k: macro, micro and elemental analyses
Tamar Hodos1, Carl Knappett2
3

1 University

of Bristol,
Centre

2 University

and Vassilis Kilikoglou3
of Exeter,
Research, Athens

'Demokritos'

National

for

Scientific

Abstract This article presents the results of scientific analyses on a selection of sherds associated with two kilns from the site of Kinet H?y?k (Hatay). The kilns are dated to the eighth century BC and the end of the seventh century BC. In between these two periods, archaeological evidence suggests a period of occupation by the Neo-Assyrians. The present study assesses the impact of this occupation on the pottery industry at the site using a combined approach of thin section and neutron activation system of local wares. ?zet Bu makale Kinet H?y?k (Hatay) yerle?im alanmdaki iki ocakla baglantili seramik par?alan ?zerine yapilan bilimsel analizlerin sonu?lanni sunmaktadir. Bu ocaklar M.?. sekizinci y?zyila ve yedinci y?zyilm sonuna tarihlenmi?tir. iki d?nem arasmda Ge? Assur yerle?imine i?aret etmektedir. Bu ?ah?ma s?z konusu yerle?imin Arkeolojik deliller bu buradaki ?anak c?mlek end?strisine o?an etkisini ince kesit ve n?tron etkile?im analizleriyle beraber degerlendirmekte bununla birlikte analizlerin sonu?lan, y?resel kaplann yeni bir smiflandirma sistemine de olanak saglamaktadir. analyses. The results of these analyses additionally allow for a new classification

Questions

of trade and manufacture

Age have been among the driving Iron Age, often arship in the Mediterranean the mobility and activities of the Greeks Phoenicians actions.

during the Iron forces of schol linked and to the

little attention has been paid conquests and occupation, to their long-term impact upon local populations. One aim of the present study is to consider this question narrow perspective the admittedly of pottery at two the kilns and their site, using these production associated material as a means of assessing any long term influence the Neo-Assyrian occupation may have from had on the technologies of pottery production at the as such in addition to site, clay paste preparation, stylistic developments. Material associated with the Neo-Assyrian phase, in the present study, as our from and associated with

(Horden, Purcell 2000). Pottery continues to be one of the major material indicators of such inter

there is growing evidence for local However, of production specific pottery types across a broad area, rather than widespread distribution from single locales. The site of Kinet Hoyuk exemplifies this during the only to a clear stratigraphie sequence with a large ceramic assemblage, but also to the presence of kilns, one dated to the eighth century thanks BC and the other to the end of the seventh century BC These two kilns help show exactly which shapes and styles were being produced at the site in these two sandwiched between them is evidence periods, while that the site was occupied by Neo-Assyrians. Although much is often made of the immediate material impact of Iron Age, not

itself, has not been included focus has been on material the two

kiln themselves; complexes questions the and regarding production prevalence of local wares compared with imported examples in the Neo-Assyrian in the final ceramic report. phase will be addressed For the present study, we have subjected samples from both kilns to scientific Material from the analysis.

61

however. gold. people (Horden. when Greek pottery begins to arrive in the Near East with ismost regularity. Excavations have taken place at the site since 1992 under the direction of M. H?y?k (Gates Perhaps more served as a material The period extreme mixed territory inwhich Iron Age was for Kinet and the importantly. which integrates with the overland trade routes leading to the Anatolian southern highland. with a brief re occupation across the 13th century AD (Gates 1999a: et al. see alsoThuesen 2002). Purcell 2005). The area around Kinet belonged to the lands the of Que. Purcell ences. this fluvial up during began harbour situation served as the site's primary raison d'?tre. which had Iskenderun. 2). They formed and altered political alliances with one another and their regional neighbours in response to pressure from the Neo Assyrians (Bunnens 2000. usually ments Since the Bronze Age. copper and arsenic resources et al. limit of the Neo-Assyrian III (744-727 the time of empire Tiglath-Pileser resources were of The natural the of great region BC). cypress. it is in this region that it concentrated. while a was of later kiln material from the sample analysed Kinet H?y?k Kinet H?y?k during the Iron Age is a large mound site located on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Iskenderun (fig. as well the area also as a cultural Neo-Hittites Luwian-speaking Aramaeans had settled in this region alongside long established north Syrian populations (Hodos 2006: ch. and originally nomadic one. and Kinet functioned as a thriving port of trade history through which goods and ideas passed (Gates 1999b). through which for dispersal were manufactured and products goods Near East and the Mediter the distributed between ranean by a variety of mobile 2000. therefore. Thomason (Alkim 2001). and the north Syrian landscape (Yener in their visual arts. Purple dye was also produced boxwood locally.3ha. from the Mediter river. Following one quickly enters the Amuq plain. as suggested by the remains of quantities of murex shell in various states of processing from Kinet 1999a: 263). (Pamir. which meets on the southeastern side of the Gulf the river valley from the sea. As the only elevated ground in the otherwise level alluvial floodplain that makes up the coast along the of the Amanus foothills the site also mountains. and whose eponymous interest capital lies under modern Adana. Aramaeans Populated by and Luwian-speaking the area also repre Neo-Hittites. 1). 2001).Anatolian Studies 2005 earlier kiln and related examples have been analysed both chemical and microscopic through study. 2000: 167). and cedarwood sented the westernmost 1965. Even once this region was annexed into the Neo-Assyrian administration system. 261. northern Syria. crossroads. Redford Geomorphological evidence indicates that the settlement was situated in an estuary at the mouth of the original course of the Deli?ay river. which extended across the plain between Taurus and Amanus mountains. Neo-Assyrian in Que may have begun during the reign of Tiglath Pileser III (744-727 BC). The result of this study impacts upon a second aim: to inform the final analysis of the Iron Age ceramics by providing a of identification of the and classification local wares. cultural interactions sight-lines one of means various The region The northeastern corner of the Mediterranean was a interaction during region of tremendous cross-cultural the Iron Age. which now flows 2. particularly inspired the Assyrians the representation of shrubs. upper Mesopotamia. Nishiyama Syria and Palestine the Phoeni Mediterranean populations. some cities and alliances would rebel or refuse to pay tribute. with excellent around the entire bay. He was the first to annex territories in north Syria and Phoenician holdings 62 . 2002: 295). Thomason 2001: 67). served as a gateway between land and sea.-H. particularly cians and Greeks. while a small natural harbour formed to the west and north edges of the mound itself. microscopy and the conditions of deposition. fruit trees. forcing the Assyrian to return again and again (Bing 1971: 100 with army refer as required. Passage through north Syria ranean is provided by the Orontes the Mediterranean of Iskenderun. It is 26m in through material in light of associated alone. Thus. of the Middle itwas situated. north Syrians. during the eighth century. The site developed on a rise on the northern bank of the river.5km to the south (Ozaner 1994). not elsewhere along the Levantine coast (Boardman 2002b). 260. maintained a strategic purpose. Over its until the harbour and estuary of occupation. to silt the Hellenistic period. These communities were organised into small city states made up of diffuse kinship-oriented urban settle that replaced the regional powers of the Bronze Age palace towns. were drawn to this frontier for its access to the region's hinterland. the Neo-Assyrians provide us with names of the north Syrian political territories. The region. Gates (Bilkent University). height and covers an area of 3. from mountain lines the coast of the Gulf of range. to these various interest The Amanus peoples. From at least the tenth century. The fertility of the region in antiquity is attested by the preservation of cereals and olives at a number of sites (Bonatz 1993: 131). A near continuous of from the Chalcolithic sequence occupation period to the first century BC has been identified.

(Hawkins III began 1995: 95). 2). Kinet H?y?k in its regional setting directly into the Assyrian encroachment increasing an empire. demonstrating towards Cilicia (although Neo-Assyrian campaigns against Que go back to the of middle the ninth century: Desideri. the Amuq plain. It is to prospect for records of in the region are preserved from the reign of successor. Goetze 1962: 51. as there are references to Assyrian governors over these regions in documents BC) 1979: 154). Hawkins No written 63 . although activity Syrian principality of Sam'al became fully incorporated in the Neo-Assyrian empire during his reign. on the eastern side of theAmanus mountains. By 738 BC. Jasink 1990: ch. Shalmaneser V (726-722 Tiglath-Pileser's it is assumed that Que and the north BC). the state of Unqi. Knappen and Kilikoglou 0 Zindiii Amanus Adana Tarsus Mts Kinet 'Hoy?k ?HJ2?S \iskenderun= Amuq ?atal Tell cTayinat Antakya H?yiik Tell Judaidah ! Mediterranean] Sea 9Ras el iBassit rRas lbn\ >Hani Tell Sukas Hama i i i Fig. dating to the reign of Sargon II (721-705 (Forrer 1921: 70-71.Hodos. had certainly been conquered and annexed that Tiglath-Pileser possible further conquest in Cilicia. 1.

has suggested also be the same person calls himself Azitawatas tions. Idrimi. then the Neo-Assyrian refer to the settlement now known as Kinet. whose capital at Tell Tayinat on the Amuq plain of the lower Orontes valley was the primary destination of imported Greek ceramics Kinet also from the eighth century BC. 2003: 285-86). where (680-669 BC) that Sanduarri. albeit perhaps for different reasons. and fieldwork has demonstrated geographic that itwas Age a sizeable settlement (although see Casabonne If Zisi arguments that Zisi may be located on Cyprus). Kinet functioned as a harbour site and remains the only elevated site on the plain. However. the but without additional of geography region. that places Zisi on the coast somewhere. especially Karatepe. The extensive fortification system of the late fourth century suggests a city prepared 1999. was state that Azitawatas inscriptions promoted by the Adana king Awarikus. but 1978. especially one that functioned as another port (Bing 1993: 104). Hama: Otzen 1990). as one of the Siss? Idrimi destroyed during a campaign against the It is the description of the Hittites (Bing 1993: 102-03). is compatible with the The suggestion difficulties). Hawkins Hawkins. especially the degree of 'aramaici with 64 . Kilamuwa) ones (Bar-rakib. when Alexander at the eponymous battle. as ethnic identity may not have been as significant to the behemoth in opposition cultural unity. As for conflict around it (Gates presence throughout Que is attested from a number of texts from the contemporary inscriptions. Morpurgo Davies n. it is usually identified with modern an inland site on the northern edge of the plain (for references to this argument. That Issos may be rests upon an interpretation of the linguistic Siss? from the Hurro derivation of the Neo-Assyrian was a name coastal port during the Akkadian Zisi. during although the site was certainly known as Issos by the end of the fourth century We the Great met Darius III in 333 BC BC. and there is no reason to assume that an inland seat of power would not have been equally geous. Iron Age period The archaeology of Kinet's Middle reflects this very cultural diversity. 138).Anatolian Studies 2005 do not know precisely what Kinet was called much of the Iron Age. campaign cities perhaps in eastern Cilicia. strict ethnic identifications Furthermore. for although Azitawatas the case that he identified name. who sharply distinguishes cultural differences. supporting possibility. This position contrasts the that of Winter. and that he extended the terri and prospered torial control of Adana (for example. for which Kinet would fit the location. stances of individuals evidence ? ethnicity evidence. and Xenophon refers to the settlement of Issos as a town with a harbour (Anabasis 1. Cilician 1993: Kundi that may as a social that there is little non-epigraphic upon. although Phoenician during the Late Bronze 1997: 40 for linguistic is a Luwian during this time. with homophonically toponymie references to a Siss? in the early seventh it is reported in a text of Esarhaddon century. Even notions of ? are not illuminating 1997: 40 notes that 101. it is not necessarily himself as distinctly ethnically Luwian. Although (Luckenbill not in the described of Siss? is location specific text. which in a statue inscription Late Bronze Age that ismentioned of a local Hurrian ruler of Alalakh. n. Although Kinet is situated within the territory of Que. The cultural origins of this region. formed king of an unsuccessful Sidon alliance with the the Phoenician ruler Neo-Assyrian against the 1927: 206. nos 513-514). this connection must remain only a We know so little of the social circum be called construct Esarhaddon Kozan. As noted above. 1999. ties with Tarsus as well. BRSR).4. which in turn entered Greek as onomastically text of Esarhadden would Issos. on the grounds phonetic rendering 1979: 146. The Iron Age rulers of Sam'al have Anatolian/Neo-Hittite/Luwian as well as Aramaean names (Panamuwa. impossible. especially that was the Neo-Assyrian empire. close material demonstrates Thus it can be argued that the material culture of north Syria extended into Cilicia and certainly cut across the political boundaries of the period.1-2). ?ahk 1995). 17. king of Kundi and Siss?. where they rise very quickly and are surprisingly steep). Casabonne as citadels in steep and Siss? are described cannot be and argues that Kinet therefore mountains Siss?. 113. itsmaterial culture of the Iron Age finds greatest compatability with that from settlements in the territory of Unqi. n. while Aramaic inscriptions and Semitic names have been found at with Aramaean Hama mixed (Sam'al: Bunnens 2000. coupled with of populations by the Neo evidence for the movement renders any Assyrians (and later the Neo-Babylonians). one possibility that it may have been known as Siss?. while Kinet is clearly located on the plain. name its to in and Cilicia be situated is developed into Siss?. associated There are Issos (Bing 1993). An alliance between Sidon and a strategic port town further along the coast would also make much sense for a Phoenician king in need of an ally. 28 for chronological see Casabonne 1997: 40-41. the coast is extremely narrow at this point and the Amanus foothills begin less than 6km away. see Bing The Karatepe identification may be. probable this Winter that Sanduarri advanta of Siss? may as the ruler of Karatepe who in the famous Karatepe inscrip that Sanduarri may be read as a of the name Azitawatas (Winter It is impossible to determine how is for its earlier Iron Age name. Kinet is situated on the plain of Issos (Ozaner.

similarly substantial walls of comparable construction side of the settlement Neo-Assyrian are usually made of fine clay with evenly ground and dispersed fine grit temper and were thrown on fast wheels. It is therefore. and an phases. 2000b). as a large port town towhich fine table wares and storage vessels were imported from Greece. Parker 2002: 338). Study of the faunal assemblage indicates that fish did not form a significant part of the diet of the occupants of the settlement during this time. between Tarsus and Al Mina. scale. preliminary A. still on a monumental Although site. from the site. Decorated Cypro Cilician wares decrease dramatically during this phase of to only 5% of the assemblage. Rather transitions across the region as a whole. fine white wares. Sometime during the second half of the eighth century. The buildings of this stratum were reconstructed from the previous along a different orientation (and subsequent) period. In terms of the ceramic sequence Que and Sam'al (Winter 1979: 138). 2000b). the ceramic assemblage. lence of fish bones for (compare with Parker 2003: 547-48. that Kinet served the buildings to the Neo-Assyrians ascribed would this. perhaps as early as the reign of Tiglath Pileser III. it is possible that new settlers were brought to the site to oversee its the local rebellion occupation. these are three have received closer post-excavation it is possible scrutiny to date than the rest of the material excavated). a rare Near Eastern 'elbow' type and a unique molded bow in the form of a nude woman clutching her breasts. instance. while a third was found in the eastern side of the settlement (Gates 2000: 197). This structure looked down reading by Lemaire). The second building phase of this period ended in a violent fire.Hodos. Unqi strip Amanus mountains that Kinet inhabits. a sudden change inmuch of the material culture of the settlement occurred which has been attributed to a These alterations period of Neo-Assyrian occupation. encasing large rooms. of to the from attest both Quantities pottery buildings site's own substantial ceramic output of cooking vessels and table wares decorated in the Cypro-Cilician style (Hodos 2000a. Two cylinder seals of contrasts with in a somewhat haphazard manner. from the reign of Tiglath-Pileser for III. Population powerful of control in outlying regions. possibly dedicatory and provisionally on a large storage jar read as 'To Sarmakaddanis'. was erected on the other side of the settlement. which include a rare 'swollen bow' example from Thessaly. that the site was re-populated with possible. these cultural distinctions across to from the coastal the blended. support Equidistant and with good harbours and the protection of theAmanus the site was ideal as a major base in the mountains. and themud-brick sometimes had no stone foundations at all. refer to the forced resettlement of thousands in the Cizre plain and upper Tigris river valley (Tadmor 1994: 62-63). ceramic assemblage of this phase. Chaff-tempered was a common temper in previous not chaff although with Bowls ribbed rims. An eclectic taste in fashion is suggested During functioned the ninth and the site by imported fibulas. this types of pottery appear within identified with Neo-Assyrian output. which the building technique both before and after this phase. quelled Although textual sources refer specifically to Kinet. western extent of theAssyrian empire towards the end of the eighth century. between Knappen and Kilikoglou 2004: 407). The cylinder seals found in association with tions. Cyprus and Phoenicia. At Kinet. creating symmetrical vessels that were ceramic vessels then well-fired. new level that are and a thickly plastered floor. aspects which inland people and faunal remains (arguably. The cosmopolitan nature of Kinet may be further demonstrated by a Phoenician onomastic of a Luwian name. in stark occupation contrast to the 30% painted wares represented in the previous period (Hodos 2000a. Given the sudden architectural changes and ceramic that are associated with Assyrian tradi developments as a regional Assyrian post. Production was highly regulated. overlooking the river. active the Its harbour. abundance of plain wares characterise the overwhelming types. associated walls had jogs and shallow niches. An equally monumental yards with building. upon walls. were built on lm wide foundations of riverstones with a mud-brick superstructure coated in a thick layer of A series of outdoor pebbled and gravelled court plaster. associated with a monumental building on the western (Gates 2004: 408. which always utilised fieldstones and riverstones as foundations. than being divisions of culture and province are enforced by mountains. eighth centuries. was a means relocation example). into cultural sation'. Palace Ware has been identified. which created a limited number of size and shape categories (Rice 1987: 180-91. and this method was Documents certainly utilised by the Neo-Assyrians. after which time there appears to have been a very brief break in occupation (Gates 2001: 208). surrounded the building. one from complex the first building phase and another from the later (Gates Neo-Assyrian 65 . in contrast to the preva in the faunal assemblages from and preceding subsequent phases (Gates 2004: 411). the most telling of Assyrian vessels also appear at this time. unusually for the westernmost from the Neo-Assyrian style have been recovered on the western side of the settlement. with Tarsus then serving as the Assyrians' after Sennacherib outpost no in 696 BC. can be seen most clearly in three particular aspects of the material culture of the site: the architecture.

How long they remained is not known. 5-7). came to stay for an extended period of time. despite numerous that the and refurbishings. under their control. (Lehmann At the same time. of craftsmen development which of unified had facilitated The the units and traders. Their imitation. although they may have been the private belongings of merchants and thus secondary objects of the exchange (Gilboa subsequent ceramic output of coastal sites such as Tarsus and Kinet blossoming during the ninth and eighth into mass with production of styles 1989: 217). Judging by the subsequent occupation stratum. east Greek world. and they are hardly ever found in Greece (Lehmann 1998: 15). Iron Age. 2000b: figs 3. (and Lebanon) ware of vessel and types greater homogeneity shapes found across the region. had As always the Neo expanded their control of Cyprus' nearest and Assyrians most prolific trading destinations along the Levantine coast during the eighth century. This century. The new structures subsequently erected heralded the Late Iron Age phase of the site's occupational history. but see Dalley 1999. assemblage During decorated centuries that find to produce painted This parallels in the output of contemporary Cyprus. preferring to use styles of pottery similar to those they were already acquainted with and eating a familiar land-led diet rather than one that integrated the offerings of the sea.Anatolian Studies 2005 or those These changes indicate that the Assyrians. was much more widespread. a sharp decrease in along this littoral can be black-on-red: Schreiber 2003). the new pottery styles that developed in local output are often attributed to influence from the engage with the is borne out in a trading connection between Cyprus and the Levant during the IronAge began shortly before the last quarter of the 11th century. 66 . The this shift began ceramic in style. however. Kinet vessels that find decorative from Kinet contemporary shapes and Cypriot comparison motifs (Hodos 2000a. in some cases with a thick fill of crushed murex shell. This may be attributed to the in the territorial organisation impact of Neo-Assyrian eastern movement increased have Mediterranean. particularly the so-called east Greek banded wares. Itmay be 696 BC campaign related to Sennacherib's against Cilicia. although Lehmann notes that their distri bution is confined to the eastern Levant. 2001). implying that their contents were the item of trade rather than the container. and ovens During the course occur of the seventh in local ceramic developments instance. such as Tille H?y?k. this will be surrounding in the final publication of the Iron Age discussed it must be noted that ceramics from Kinet). when early decorated Cypro Geometric wares appeared sporadically along the coast from southern Phoenicia to Philistia. However. but after several building phases a number of their structures This was followed by a suffered intense conflagration. manufacture vessels of Cypro-Cilician from the Cypro The III repertoire (including Bichrome). this hiatus is most likely to have occurred at the end of the eighth century. of coastal century. Trade with Greece of the same wares continued well Cypriot observed imports at sites into the seventh the cessation Cyprus. has observed that around 650 BC Syria a with diminish. brief break in occupation. this Neo-Assyrian domination also had a profound impact on the stylistic output of local potters who were used to producing shapes and motifs closely of Cypro-Cilician style. and suggest rebuildings were rather than residents engaged with daily life imperial conquests. Areas were levelled. which paralleled the output of Cyprus. While many of these are closed vessels. speculations socio-political this development (rather. which resulted in the destruction of Tarsus during 1995 argues against any such that year (Forsberg associated destruction. which had little painted pottery during the Middle Iron Age (Blaylock 1999). the fact that a were decorated open vessels suggests that some number were a popular commodity in their own right. This contrasts sharply with contemporary sites further inland. with the into the Middle continued of decorated a large number with motifs exemplifies the Early Iron Age. as suggested by eroded surfaces found across the site (Gates 2001: 208). The pottery The ceramic be attributed Neo-Assyrian activity (this suggestion Cilicia: and Smooth between Rough comparison to This is not the forum in which Fourrier 2003). which came from the mainland change may therefore implies that rather than to Iron tools next adjacent to multi-roomed structures charac terise both sides of the settlement over the course of the seventh century (Gates 1999. or possibly the beginning of the seventh century. this import had a profound the with local production. observable between the assemblages and inland settlements measurement and presumed formed standardisation in goods trafficking may improvements ceramic the background for greater 1998: 30). impact on Nevertheless. by the time of the advent of the Persian period during the sixth century. however. which was on a much more modest scale and seems to have been more domestic and industrial to hearths. in preparation for rebuilding. Lehmann differences striking For assemblages. Geometric a period of occupation saw dramatic drop Neo-Assyrian in the absolute and relative number of painted vessels. in nature cobbled than areas monumental. (for example. Hodos 2006).

The firing chamber of the preserved kiln was in excavation of a more double oval shape. like its predecessor. in herringbone Only partly on sat masonry that top of the firing platform at the back Both kilns remained of the chambers' superstructure. itwas of chamber updraft type constructed of mud-brick and pis?. but. Material associated with this kiln is comparable with Cypro-Geometric III. perhaps as a re-use after the manufacture of purple below the working area adjacent to the kiln. 2b). The earlier kiln underlies structures associated with the Neo-Assyrian occupation and probably dates to the first half of the the later can be dated by eighth century. from the firing presence Neo-Assyrian chambers of which material of the predominant styles of the respective periods was recovered. 67 . kilns were reconstructed at a later date in the same area. The in firing floor was supported by three large mud-bricks the middle of the chamber. which included a number of vessels end of season near-complete (unpublished were Within two this lot found report). mica contaminated was the not found of surface (although a number in local clays the context and assem mica of dust sherds.5m by 5. pieces of a very removed micaceous fabric. and also that the kiln may have been used for firing more than just pottery (for example. The complex as a whole measured 4. (2. 2e).5m by 3m. was preservation. and the outdoor areas surrounding it do not reflect industrial a household or larger scale. 10. figs (Hodos is the identification of kilns from More significant the decorated the periods preceding and subsequent to the phase of at the site. was badly eroded. on activity However. As from the the prevailing winds rise over the mound would have smoke the and heat from kilns southwest. while to material associated the very end of the seventh (ca. A lime pit embedded within the kiln. the Cypro-Cilician the course of the seventh and Kilikoglou To the several metres a smaller kiln century. southwest. as another presumed kiln.5m. of a single large circular firing of yellow clay (figs 2a. Both floors were rather than covered entirely by the platform. A tunnel on the eastern side provided access into the stoking approximately 50-70cm tunnel and chamber of a double Several fired clay bins filled shell in varying degrees of fineness were found adjacent to the kiln and at the same absolute level as the base of the chamber.Hodos. which was flanked by stones. thick-walled storage vessels found inside the chamber and on top of the firing platform showed traces of lime coating on the interior and exterior. surface of the manufacturing The of the kiln was superstructure presumably constructed in the pis? technique. Oriented it sat within a mud-brick faced enclosure. stone walls to the southwest and northwest. was situated on the northeast side of the kiln. excavated. were styles replaced by vessels decorated initially just with bands and then wave lines. presumably as a secondary taphonomic process. away. These kilns and their associated to provide us with an important opportunity of examine any long-standing impact Neo-Assyrian on the technologies of pottery production at the site. and thus suggests its period of use as being the ninth and eighth centuries BC. although embedded less deeply within the as the kilns discussed century material occupation The kilns The earlier kiln consisted chamber made east-west. Indeed. Mica does not occur and is rarely found at the site. it was supported by Orientated northeast-southwest. Itmust be noted that the preserved kiln was not as easily articulated above. a monumental preserved by a lm layer of sterile soil. 11. 3b). 600 BC). chambers was or wall. motifs attributed to east Greece that came to dominate assemblage during the sixth century 2000b: 2000a. 14). although much worse in comparison with the eighth century kiln complex. The contents of the firing chamber floor were as a single lot. were well suggesting over during a single episode in preparation for a new use of this sector of the settlement. giving the kiln overall dimensions The entrance of approximately 2. production. as its state of than better its contemporary. Material from contexts associated with this kiln suggest it should be dated to the end of the seventh century BC.5m by separated at least 2m) with by a central mud-brick two adjoining support. The kiln was chamber updraft type. to the chamber. located at the present edge of the mound. implying that the kiln with crushed murex The may not have been of a true sunken construction. Knappen over Subsequently. the firing platform suggests a diversity of use of for pottery firing and perhaps also for lime Field notes indicate that several sherds of dye. was constructed in this quarter. the exact function of which remains undeter mined at present. in which the chamber and firing chamber were separated by a platform (Killebrew 1996: 137. working surface of the time (sunken only by 20-30cm). The kilns were situated in the most northeastern quarter of the site. that the kilns had been filled in and covered a stone wall building. supported by a stone wall along the north side. bins themselves imply that shell may have been used for lime. figs 2d. The diameter of the firing platform measured 3m. although the central area of the firing chamber beneath remained combustion exposed stoking the kiln interior. although only one can be clearly identified (figs 3a. been carried away from the settlement. Aliara 1992: 111). Even within of the kiln or any other associated deposits blages.

therefore. The outlines of these kilns alone are dissimilar from the Kinet Fig. Eighth century kiln complex suggesting at the time of excavation that mica might be more prevalent than previously thought. As the firing chamber itself. and hence with material that may have included imported wares.75m by 1. one had a double firing chamber. 2a. Kilns Anatolia. The logical conclusion part of an imported vessel. As no trace of any permanent superstructure was found. the pottery styles produced at 68 . Eighth century kiln complex examples. not floor lot assemblage. The implications discussed below. consisted of a series of long and narrow firing chambers active underneath clay platforms perforated by short flues.Anatolian Studies 2005 t A "~^^! Fig. although both sites are comparable.25m. subsequent examination of the associated material does not support this). it is presumed that a temporary roof was built for each firing. The chambers themselves varied in size considerably.3m (narrowing to 0. no is that these pieces are they were found within The finally filled in and levelled off for rebuilding. Most were recti linear and varied in dimension from 3. may represent a of locally-manufactured discrete collection products. 2b. Pottery finds from within these suggest that the complex was throughout the Iron Age. The individual chambers were deeply sunken constructions of At least clay-dressed stone or clay-dressed mud-brick.8m) to 6m by 1.85m. and that individual were chambers and altered continually repaired The pottery kiln complex (Hanfmann 1963: 14-17). enclosing an area of 1. One was more elliptical in shape.72m by 0. of this for the present study will be in of the Iron Age are few and far between The best known are those from Tarsus The degree of erosion of this kiln suggests that there may have been a period of time when the kiln was longer in use and allowed to decay before it was (although overlooked by Delcroix and Huot in their 1972 study of kilns from the Near East from 5000 to 500 BC). the implication is that the kiln may have been filled with debris from elsewhere.

PhD dissertation Johnston's unpublished which we have not been able to consult. and thus these recall the processed shell used for lime associated with the Kinet kilns of the seventh century. The material retrieved from the Kilise Tepe kilns is similar in date. Late seventh century kiln complex Recent uncovered excavations at Kilise contemporary kilns. the diversity does not convey a sense of evolutionary 1996: 156). Sarepta. The interior surface of the larger of the two was burnt and contained white concretions have not been have also Tepe These examples were IronAge. each with a sunken combustion chamber (Hansen. Tell Miqne-Ekron. tions that withstand high temperature firing are usually a lime-based substance. A kiln of theMiddle of Iron Age (Fourrier 2003: 80). rectangular in plan (the larger one being 2m by lm) and stone lined. No Cyprus kilns or linear development date have been (Killebrew recorded in deeply these concretions. white While concre analysed. Postgate 1998: 131 32). Ashdod. Iron Age kilns have been identified in the Levant at style (750-650 BC). square the Early IronAge at Miqne-Ekron double chamber types were in use. while square single chamber types were used at Ashdod during the Middle Fig. with refer ences. see Henrickson 1994: 112). Jemmeh. for Tell en-Nasbeh. 3a. Megiddo. see also Zorn 1998). as it formed a discrete I in Cypro-Archaic of local manufacture assemblage Phrygian period (seventh tomid was sixth century BC) excavated in the 1950s at Gordion in but has never been published (it is discussed from 1970. Postgate 1999: 112-13. Circular double chamber types from the Early IronAge were found at Sarepta. and Tell en-Nasbeh (Killebrew 1996: table 1. During and Jemmeh.Hodos. 3b. Late seventh century kiln complex 69 . This variation of shape and type over the IronAge implies thatmore social circumscribed (cultural or familial) or geographically traditions of manufacturing techniques and technologies influenced kiln style. and atMegiddo and Tell en-Nasbeh from the Middle Iron Age. Knappen and Kilikoglou 1 /?m& WB&&1 Fig.

Black-on-Red Others Phoenician and Syro-Palestinian Black-on-Red'). as the for classification. For study output from Kinet. bichrome. Analysis in Fara Palestine and Tell Ajjul similarly demonstrates are they locally produced (Liddy 1996). since du in 1959 these wares have identified and a small area of their nearest [produced at Tarsus] is technically identical with [the Tarsus] red slip ware except that decoration in black paint was added. This is a problem because ware ware with the black-on-red group. a two tone technique. concentric executed in black circles and other geometric motifs paint (as Bikai observed. The situation with black-on-red is even more compli cated. 'The class is far too cluttered already with Cypriote. see also Brodie. 51). Some use the term to refer to the general style of red slipped fine and medium walled open and closed shapes decorated with bands. in fact. With resemble the potters' quarter at Kinet excavated (the earlier kiln complex is known to extend south into an adjacent trench. with vessels themselves. brown. the past. The ceramics are visually recorded.Anatolian Studies 2005 The similarity of plan and construction technique of the two excavated Kinet kilns suggests a continuity of firing tradition. as the hallmark ware of the Phoenicians. and other minor categories based upon surface colour variation including orange. may not necessarily themselves Phoenicians (Winter 1995: 265. which is often buff. painted surface decoration are of greatest interest. The Tarsian local group has been further divided on the basis of One of the difficulties with this classification is that slip and motif styles are used inconsistently as means of at this level (white painted or buff painted. Results of an unpublished NAA (neutron activation analysis) report on red slip dishes from Hama. where (Hanfmann 1963: 61). relative matt-ness of the paint. quantitatively diagnostic examples are saved. demonstrates that the fabric varies considerably from site to site. a decorated version of the red slip produced at the site: 'The Cilician black-on-red design of the kilns and their similarities to other contem area porary examples from across a broad geographical suggest certain shared practices in production technology It should during the Iron Age alongside local variation. operation at each site may account for the different forms of firing complexes. Steel always been mystified Coldstream. form a better basis. or to the social mechanics of discuss beyond generalisations at Kinet Iron the Middle pottery production during Age. Liddy 1996). The Tarsian model its Middle Iron Age local burnished. classification both of which are slipped. slipped). and red red. 98). for instance. initial classification of material is undertaken as part of the annual field season. Scientific from various sites in the Levant are beginning that red slip ware was. in fact. Bikai notes that she has attribution. which banded. The burnished group includes: red slip. therefore not be surprising that the Kinet kilns do not those from Tarsus. 32. white painted (which is also slipped). despite the intervening Neo-Assyrian occupation and the stylistic changes the two phases of attested ceramic in output between The production. as the only regional site whose studied comprehensively Mina's local wares might Plat Taylor's initial assessment remained local pottery has been While Al and published. Yet only by thickness and colour of the slip. have black-on-red contributed was to the Such mis-classifications surrounding red slip and black-on-red wares as scholars have endeavoured to link these with particular is often and in viewed culture groups. This has given rise to some a fabric from understudied woefully The very recent study of the Syrian and perspective. n. n. takes Phoenician pottery by Lehmann. Tell al-Duayda. while red slip examples from Al Mina are also not identical to those 2005: from Samaria (du Plat Taylor 1959: 79. The wares On site. therefore. with ware shape starting point differences as the secondary distinguishing feature (Lehmann 2005). the presence of red slip at a site has been taken as firm evidence of Phoenician activity (see. Hanfmann 1963: 49. cited in Lehmann of red slip wares from Tell 88. (4) imported. for instance. quite widely studies of red slip wares to indicate described red slipped pottery has often its surface treatment (quality. it is impossible to quantify output. 1983: 400. n. true black-on-red is described by Gjerstad 1948: 68-73. for instance. generally has black and red colours on a slipped surface. Tell Rifa'at and the Amuq (Catalh?y?k. in fact. particularly it is. the of scale Furthermore. of the decorated categories identified four primary groups for assemblage: (1) local painted. Mazzoni been 2000: 42). and concludes that they were locally produced and hardly travelled (Hughes. Red slip pottery. prefer to keep it reserved for a specific Cypriot product (for a detailed discussion see Schreiber 2003: xxii-xxix. yellow. which 70 . Bikai 1996. A modest number of fragments [of red slip] were also made' confusions found in the kilns. (2) local (3) plain. the first two Tarsian into: buff painted (which is. where excavation halted such just at this level). 9). and bucchero. since the term is used by different scholars to refer to different wares. by its Phoenician 1988: 37). examples. be indicative of and. Tell Tayinat). produced. black-on in turn was subdivided. the execution of the motifs themselves) and vessel of the paste of the little consideration shapes. The descriptive ware categories were loosely derived from the classification at Tarsus. versus bichrome.

Itwas therefore decided to proceed in the present study with an analysis of the remaining from the kiln chamber. examples with different decorative burnish and black-on-red imitations. but supports that the name black-on-red be reserved for a very specific product manufactured on Cyprus. unlike Tarsus.Hodos. That the chamber contents may have included material swept in and. coarseness in different for medium walled are clearly and there are variations inclusions examples. conclusion which resulted and possibly 1996: 271). Were the pronounced reserved for or if differences paste-cream separate variation. and even possibly as far south as Israel. relationship common wares was also queried. Steel Schreiber's 2003 study of black-on-red concludes that the black-on-red style was widely imitated in local production in north Syria and Cilicia. generalisations black-on-red described itself and misinterpretations. therefore. while only two that Kinet potters appeared to be different. red or purple (although predominantly a decayed to its be black may purple reacting as context. all between. Ashton. Less common are (3) pink paste with a decidedly buff slip. were samples in fact local. (4) buff paste with a buff slip. At Kinet. and. Therefore. Within many examples that conform to the decorated descrip groups. Never theless. and (2) pink paste with a cream slip. deposition suggested by co-joining pieces category. of wave line wasters in the later kiln this conclusion. two colours of paste occur with regularity at Kinet. were two distinct wares. but to limit this material of the study. and cream ? tions of the Tarsian the painted wares have been sub-divided according to at first and this stage of paste slip second. (7) red paste with red slip has also been found. The vessels. irrespective as any additional decorative schemes. perhaps is painted decoration in black. which has long been suspected of being an over-fired version of one of the more prominent fabrics. This was first concluded in a 1997 study of the Late IronAge wave line table wares from the site. in clear imitation of Cypriot and east Greek styles over the course of the IronAge. suggesting were the ware (in contrast. in two fabric groups going unrecognised obscuring other variations. this is by no means a objective. unfortunately. cation work that will be necessary for the final publi cation. the have been upon Matthers et al. (6) pink paste is sometimes slipped in white. implies are Kinet products. excavated. this particular study has been discredited for using unprove nanced samples and analysing only certain elements. visually the earlier kiln. possibly even from Kition 1999b: 149. contemporary straightforward Kilise Tepe). pink paste with a cream slip and cream paste with a cream slip. which ? has a homogeneous pink clay. Finally. for which the majority of our black-on-red has been considered so far a sub In anticipation of the classifi contemporary output. in reflects differences diversity clay preparation and/or to the less Their firing conditions. from different as monochrome areas of excavation). as opposed to cream. visible with the in the degree of The wares were used two most common types have association discovery confirmed when During the 1997 season. The results ofthat study are not yet available. and analysed in the present study. most were of the same fabric as the majority of pottery from all periods at the site. it difficult colours have made regarding ease as for the wave range of in the surface and to arrive or at wider conclusions similar local manufacture line wares import and In addition. Knappen and Kilikoglou It has long been suspected that the vast majority of the pottery found at Kinet was locally produced. in anticipation analysis to microscopic NAA results of the previous for eventual study comparison. red complementing black or brown in bichrome Variations within these wares. a number of sherds from the firing chamber lot were removed from their context collection bag for neutron activation analysis as part of the kiln was a separate study (Gates 1999: 263). and plain. Al Mina manufacturing seems to have imported a greater proportion of its wave The subsequent line wares. also analysed. brown. such burnishing or black-on-red been with style. who also based his (Boardman Mina For instance. for which of the 100 or so examples looked at. including such as schemes. see Brodie. from Al examples as Cypriot imports. Hughes 2005). questions were also raised as towhether the two primary groups. sherds were initially grouped into painted there are the painted categories. Seven distinctive some in direct identified. bichrome. Yet. None of these are particularly fine fabrics. use to due the of slip down Were to firing all the or with motifs. and variations vessels. 71 . 1983. recovered appearing Within these groups. as small and sized naked eye. occasionally. (5) green paste with a green slip. decoration on various with wares. slip and red paste-red it simply clays. or could some wares be identified as imports? Given the stylistic similarities in Cypro Phoenician wares across a wide area (for example. their specific shapes. that the contents found within may not be purely local was not recognised during the field season. or was or otherwise? deliberate in colour cream for example. the presence of wave line wasters strongly wave the that line wares at the site majority of medium The Middle decorated biscuit with Iron Age has a much categories are (1) cream paste with a cream slip.

72 . 1993. Furthermore. and Hughes This work data. and sherds from kiln contexts from both the of successfully Only p?tro graphie analysis. and not NAA. This clays are is further exacerbated by the fact that in this analysis for included assessment to elemental Ceramic Ceramic batches. this information does not mean a ? great deal in and of itself on comparison between it is a technique of samples. without an intermediary stage of p?trographie examination. chemical a tight chemical group might Conversely. first group of 38 samples was selected by Carl Knappett (CK) on site together with Tamar Hodos (TH). The p?tro of ceramic thin sections is well examination graphie suited to the study not only of the aplastic inclusions in pottery fabrics. while carried out by Vassilis analysis using NAA was be (VK) at the 'Demokritos' National Centre for a procedure in Athens. however. The analyses have allowed for the separation of ten fabric groups. because of the clay matrix. This is where a chemical comes composition earlier and later kilns. such that the macroscopic scopic observations can be readily connected. Hein et al. focussing particularly on imported pottery material from the later occupation levels (539-301 BC). telling. but also of the textural features in the paste. the of results. actually include quite a range of aplastics as identified petro Such patterns can tell us more about the graphically. group A and group B. and chemistry petrography were in two selected for analysis samples the first in 2001 and the second in 2003. as and when the research questions demand (Knappett 2005). This batch included two local clay samples. groups up nearly two thirds of the total A is clearly local. with a the kinds of fabric variation that view to understanding might in visual differences underlying perceived was The and pastes slips.Anatolian Studies 2005 to supplement macro with of the both pottery scopic study p?trographie exami nation and neutron activation analysis (NAA). not to mention the frequent association of this thus make the links between its common are no clay samples to group B and the local area. some of these. This methodology developed to particular pottery effect in work on (for example. analysis p?trographie a programme of chemical conducted by CK. Jones 1986. fabric with kiln contexts.e. without technique can assess the is of limited utility when the fabric is very any aplastics. Indeed. thus losing any textural information. The variation within and only building up with caution to more 'hi-tech' methods (i. was used in examining this second batch of samples. compositional study of Al Mina material by is a case in point (Ashton. on on the statis and the sample size. The second group of samples (34) was selected by TH on site in 2003. Hughes and local from seeks to distinguish at Al Mina. the technique fine. the chances such as NAA elemental into its own. both fabrics are consistent what we know of the local geology (see fig. Often the petrography and the NAA can tell exactly the same story. 2002). macroscopic examination) the decision was made Crucially. NAA). that relies and the making represented only it difficult a number majority by samples. but in some cases they might point to some interesting patterns. it. Without this kind of approach to achieve an effective it is difficult integration of technological typological. of chemical fabrics. given methodology going straight from analysis (using macroscopic NAA and ICP-AES). The key to this approach is that itmust be 'bottom up'. This means that the chemical variation features Al Mina no local The cannot be properly related either to textural in the pottery or the background geology of the area. thereby strengthening characterising local fabrics. establish although has been Bronze Age Aegean Day et al. it is difficult to have full confidence in the However. it It can regardless of the presence or not of inclusions. 4). Kilikoglou Scientific described a visual link and micro However. are very minor. but in combi nation with an inconsistent process of clay selection. a combination of the two techniques allows for a process of cross-checking. Research following in detail elsewhere Grimanis (Kilikoglou. the recent elemental Ashton 2005). occurrence is in kiln contexts There with principal components analysis). much more so than does Another difference between p?trographie examination.e. NAA for NAA and petrography is that the preparation of samples requires the sample to be ground into a powder. For a fabric group that seems coherent and tight in p?trographie terms might actually be revealed to have example. However. this could arise from the consistent use of a certain kind of temper. in the present different techniques employed own their have study particular strengths. of the samples to the two clay similarity archaeological samples. decisions status of particular ceramic categories and the production them than if a single analytical underlying technique had been used. beginning Thus with 'low-tech' methods (i. with 15 (including the two These two clay samples) and 31 samples respectively. thus relies heavily tical methods used to determine groupings (for example. given the close Group sample. measurements of around 20 million provide parts per elements. to know how significant they are. The of samples actually fall into one of two main one or two therefore formation It groups among those samples. 1999). comparison. It has the advantage of maintaining with the sherd.

Simplified geological map of the area (after 1:500. 4.000 geological map of Turkey.-:] Basalt Limestone Oph?olit?c complex Limestone 0 I ZU 25 km Fig. Adana and Hatay sheets) 73 . Knappett and Kilikoglou Ceyhan Quaternary Miocene alluvial deposits marls and clays with serpent?n?te />.Hodos. 1962.

linked to the serpentinite. the fabric is very red closed vessel distinctive. distinct from other fabrics (samples 13.14.25mm range.25mm.5mm. are also there micritic sandstones.Anatolian Studies 2005 We providing evidence. phyllite. B and C suggest Fig. features 20:75:5. 2. with an average value of 88ppm. Thirdly. and more micritic carbonate inclu are 10957f. feldspar. from silt size up to 2mm.1-0. 7403k. 25:70:5. sa-r. Group B. One further feature that sets group A apart is cobalt. 10957g. Mediterranean Group A : serpentinite fabric Some of the samples in this group come from amphorae found in kiln contexts (notably 37 and 38). it is difficult to distinguish a fine from a coarse fraction. all of which are described as 'red paste. 7). Micritic carbonate inclusions are frequent. it corresponds closely to two clay samples taken in the vicinity (samples Kl and K2). chert and textural fragments. large quartzite.16. on averages around 275ppm of chromium. The results from NAA 18.75mm. 31. but silt size to 0. many of the samples come from amphorae found inmore than one kiln at the the site (and from more than one period). 37 10957f. in a range of Micritic up to 1. much more than the average of 29ppm for group B. mostly in the 0. Secondly.5mm. common. firing. KHY03/35 KHY03/36 KHY03/08 KHY03/11 KHY03/01 KHY03/04 KHY03/02 KHY03/07 KHY03/24 ih KHY03/03 KHY03/20 KHY03/12 KHY03/17 KHY03/21 KHY03/22 KHY03/19 KHY03/28 KHY03/29 ' KHY03/23 ' KHY03/25 P KHY03/05 KHY03/10 KHY03/34 KHY03/15 ? KHY03/06 ? KHY03/09 Quartz. 5. and a bichrome plate is semi-fine orange (18). A discussion will fabric group in turn. is almost always >10% calcium. In thin section (figs 6. some affected by inclusions are common. chert and and very textural rare concentration C:f:v = amphibole. however. Examples are 11069b and 7403g. 6). In sample 13. Other shapes represented are craters. 5). 38). Other inclusions are quartz. are all few. KHY03/31 KHY03/38 Sample 14 has dominant shape. for example. K2 (both clay samples). 38. (fig. red slip' (samples 13. high values for which can be the other hand. Some of the samples differ in containing less serpen tinite than the above. rare volcanic rock and plutonic calcite. the geological maps for the area indicate the presence of significant ophiolitic outcrops in the area around Kinet (see fig. shall now present the typological.11069d. a-sa.16). Note that there do not appear to be many microfossils (foraminifera). Nevertheless. the seven examples of this fabric thatwere analysed all group together. 37.18 (fig.14. Textural quartz. concentration features. 16. Moreover. size and angularity. sufficiently they close to fall within the same overall fabric group. There is good reason to believe that this fabric group is local to the site. clinozoisite. KHY03/26 KHY03/27 KHY03/13 KHY03/14 KHY03/16 KHY03/18 KHY03/37 ? and angularity. 14. numerous features that connect that fabrics A-C this fabric to both fabrics are all local. concentration and there are very fragments. carbonate serpentinite. although a black-on (31) has a gritty red fabric. First. Dendrogram of NAA results 74 . Samples Kl. 7403g. They all have extremely chromium. Group A is not production and exchange at Kinet H?y?k IronAge more generally. 13. mostly <0. and a range between approximately 4% and 8%. averaging close to 1150ppm. rare amphiboles C:f:v = and plutonic rock 0. quartzite and features chert are are all very few. and there is little optical activity.5mm overall. as nearly all the inclusions are serpentinite. 7403h. 11069b. and chemical p?trographie each follow the concerning to patterns of regard and in the east conclusions that can be drawn with also tell a clear story for this fabric: as can be seen in the dendrogram (fig. 10841a. 31. sions in the coarse fraction. In a similar size range very calcareous. with an average of just over 6%. Serpentinite is frequent to dominant. 7). 4). Group B. 11069a.

and white In thin section calcareous presence However. the results are more ambiguous when it comes to certain members included in group D. 3. on the dendrogram (flg. in pastes described as fine orange. = 15:80:5.5mm. finer versions have c:f:v of 5:90:5. epidote group minerals. 10493a. epidote. Hence the some of the ware groups that have group cross-cuts been formed through visual examination. 35.2mm size poorly preserved due to firing. In the a-sa. 8). illustrated by sample 7. for example. 5) group B is quite evidently separate from group A. coarse to coarse (in thin section. chert and quartz. There Sample 2 (fig. one is that make that positive might 'pink paste-cream slip' would appear to be largely associated with fabric B. down in surface treatments ? bichrome attribution One painted wares. also rare microfossils. although it also contains optical activity. 10957c. 34. namely serpentinite. foraminifera. very few to few serpentinite. for example. it is clear that this is a (figs 8-10) fabric. 6. has common micro in the fine fraction. 22. for example.5mm. a fragment from a barrel jug. such as pink It is also and red paste-cream slip. although consistently higher than in group A. 8. consisting of 31 The fabric ranges from fine through semi samples. to common carbonates. such as chromium and scandium. but also some foraminifera. 21. group B ismore calcareous. 0. Samples 15. particularly the serpentinite. quartz.25mm. but they are In the 0. 33. zoisite and clinozoisite). Knappett and Kilikoglou Fig. ophiolites amphibole. Samples 2. 75 . common is micrite. and smaller of epidote group minerals quantities (i. The NAA results reflect the variability in this fabric. sample 2 Group B: foraminifera fabric This is the most common fabric group. Whereas fabric group A would appear to be formed from a reddish clay containing much serpentinite. = <0. While the NAA effectively separates groups A and B. paste-red slip. both of which are common. Also common serpentinite. 4mm. Thin section photomicrograph of fabric group A. 19. While quite high standard deviations in the average elemental ppm: calcium. common quartz. 9). 30. fraction: few few micritic ca. same for all subse quent photomicrographs) Fig. can have varying quantities which of serpentinite. the fabric is partly inclusions which biogenic link it to the in bivalves. Some 5:90:5. etc. and rare amphibole. especially planktonic such as globigerina. has c:f:v are foraminifera and micritic carbonates. There is in firing colour. 7. These features. Semi-coarse in the surrounding area. plagioclase and epidote. the inner half of which has fired orange and the outer half pale buff. perhaps from a Neogene clay bed. which variation also considerable makes visual groupings This is perfectly difficult. 17. C:f:v sa-sr. sample 18 (width of field ca. This variation is seen throughout the carbonates. the coarser examples 30:65:5). quite frequent.e. This will be discussed below Fine Sample fossils 15 (fig. and rare igneous rock fragments. quartz. (tcfs) and plagioclase.Hodos. few to few textural concentration features rare epidote group minerals. Another diffi this fabric group is the variation it is used tomanufacture black in the section on group D. Thin section photomicrograph of fabric group A. semi-fine and semi-fine pink-orange. character. the former does not There are display a great deal of internal consistency. Thin section photomicrograph of fabric group B. common pink-buff culty in pinning on-red. sample 37 Fig. fabric group. and its most striking feature is the of often foraminifera. range there are frequent carbonate inclusions.1-0. A similar scenario occurs for other elements. creating a high percentage standard deviation (18%). nevertheless ranges from 9-16%. 20. suggest a general connection with fabric group A. coarse <0. 10493d. albeit not quite as starkly.

buff orange. However. 8. and possibly 23. There do not appear to be any consistent differences between samples one hand and 5 and 6 on the other. few a fine fraction with (planktonic textural frequent to foraminifera). serpentinite. . 0. 25. In terms of ware groups. some cases 76 . The possibility of a Cypriot origin for 26 and 27 seem quite strong. chert. As can be seen on the dendrogram (fig. carbonates tends to differ slightly in having mica laths and feldspar laths. 150ppm). mostly rock fragments sa. samples 1 and 4 do indeed group well within the range of group B. 13) are non-local. furthermore. 12). 7403n. The micromass One feature that may turn out to be in these from local fabrics is the key differentiating of presence epidotisation in some of the rock fragments. 14). 10957d (fig. 5). 10957e. phyllite. 7. integrating these data with details of shape. 6. as well as a higher proportion of igneous rock also appears to fragments (figs 12-14). If samples 26 (fig. Thus it is difficult to isolate this microscop ically as a coherent group. The fabric is a pale greenish buff that appears to ? there are signs in thin section have been high-fired that the clay did contain foraminifera and other calcitic material. The p?trographie analysis is not entirely conclusive in terms of establishing whether this group is local or not. clinozoisite. C:f:v Samples and very group minerals) (amphibole and feldspar). We would note. such as volcanic and plutonic epidote group features. 27 (fig. 14). 10493b. 74031. 10493f. 10957a. 10. Another aspect that might be worth noting is that the samples in this fabric group are mostly from black-on-red open vessels. Many of the not be indicative of a non-local this group can contain (including foraminifera) etc. decoration and technology might be the key.5mm. types present. samples 26 and 27 form a distinct sub-group very far removed from any of the local fabrics. a be less calcareous. suggested by the other inclusion quartz. 1 and 4 on the that shapes in the Troodos mountain range not ophiolite complexes dissimilar to those from the Kinet area. However. 4 (fig. Politis 2000). semi-fine orange with yellow core. the 1 foraminifera is with mm. 32. further indication group B is a very large and fluid chemical grouping. of all the samples). the situation is far less clear for 25.1-0. however. in the analysis of late Roman amphorae imports in Jordan (Peacock.Even in the future itmay remain difficult in to differentiate Samples 26 (fig. Williams would 1986: fabric class 44. up to 0. 12. rock fragments. these need source. few to features and cream slip. towards the bottom of the dendrogram (fig 5). (composed partly of epidote rare volcanic rock fragments = 25:65:10. which though looking quite similar to 26 and 27 in thin section. then where candidate should we look for the source? The obvious is Cyprus. 7403J. However. 10). While there are some identifiable differences. 3%. higher than any local samples) and calcium (with the lowest percentages. largest planktonic sparite very well few preserved. plutonic As with the fabrics 0. for at least some of the group. This effect is also seen in fabric group B. leaving only voids. particularly sample 7? the orange part of the sherd still contains many foraminifera.5mm. dominant micritic carbonates and microfossils. 11. show any clear-cut co-variation: within with this fabric does not seem to it occurs as semi-fine red with semi-fine grey core. 35ppm. This has not been noted in any of the samples in groups A to C. but all 'cream paste-cream with slip'. kind of over-print effect linked to greenschist faci?s. 7403e. differences significant chromium lanthanum including (ca.5mm. which was lost during firing (fig. 11). a-sr. 11). rare Also few serpentinite. that in some samples a pale grey or dark grey core does seem to be a feature. 29 (fig. samples 5 and 6 fall further away. and actually fall more further work the local range (see dendrogram. fig. amphibole.1-0.Anatolian Studies 2005 Coarse 10957e has Sample dominant microfossils common quartz. a further clue to the degree of overlap between groups B and C. 9. Group D: igneous fabric 29 (fig. few and sr-r. sa. the possibility of a non-local inclusions source. 5). do not group with them at all chemically. 32 and 33. There are relatively few samples are described macroscopically as in this group. is raised by the results from NAA. Joyner. minerals and textural concentration represented are indeed broadly compatible the local petrology. which was producing these kinds of it has and wares at this period. but above. 1mm. The difficulties of distinguishing between the two areas petrologically have already been noted in another context. quartz. (ca. gritty orange and pink paste securely between local and wares on the basis of petrography and imported Cypriot more work chemistry alone. Thus group C may be associated with group B but This is further for its higher firing temperature. amphibole. whereas in the more highly fired (external) buff part these same inclusions are missing. 5. ware. 7403o. Group C: overfired green buff Samples 1. notably the ophiolite complexes in the region. ca. 12) and 27 (fig. concentration In the coarse fraction one finds very few serpentinite. There are across a range of elements. 24. feldspar. In terms of the chemistry. 13). serpentinite.

17. Thin section photomicro of fabric group J. sample Fig. Thin section photomicrograph of fabric group B. sample Fig. sample 29 Fig. Fig. sample 27 13. sample 36 15. photomicro graph of fabric group D.Hodos. section photomicro C. sample 4 group graph of fabric 11. 14. Thin of fabric section group photomicro B. Thin of fabric section photomicro group Hy sample Fig. graph 7403a 20. sample 15 Fig. 9. graph 10. Thin of fabric section photomicro group F. graph 18. sample 7403? 11 . section photomicro graph of fabric group D. graph 7403c 16. Knappett and Kilikoglou Fig. Thin section photomicro graph of fabric group D. Thin section photomicro graph of fabric group E. Thin Fig. sample Fig. Thin section group graph of fabric 10493c photomicro G. Thin section Fig. Thin 10957d Fig. sample 26 12.

judging by its lack of correspondence with either the main constituents As this is so different to all the other fabrics to be local.3mm. rare quartzite. is very inclusions. very rare features.25mm. concentration sr-r.5mm. fraction up composed Some almost quartz solely and quartz of micritic sandstone r. Few dark brown textural mica. with quartz and mica dominant in the fine fraction. 18) and m (two samples be from one vessel). 17) and 10493e.2mm. and c:f:v = 25:70:5. but taking up full size range. sample 36.5mm. Fine fraction has some micas. and rare Also rare to very sr.75mm. Very serpentinite is also present. 0. quartz. voids carbonates). silt and sub-silt size. of course. although this is.1-0. Coarse fraction has frequent phyllites. 15). None of these was selected for chemical that can be analysis so. with few to common carbonate inclusions. It is difficult to say whether this is a local or non-local fabric.1-0. to 1mm. 1mm. Coarse entirely of red-orange textural fraction composed concentration almost sr features. 15). chert. No chemical analysis was conducted on this sample. Coarse fraction has very few inclusions at all. there seems any of the samples in groups A-D. There are frequent to dominant muscovite laths. This is a fine fabric (c:f:v = 5:90:5 to 10:85:5). In thin section. itmay be an imported fabric. common to frequent chert. no optical activity. 10841b. every chance that it is an import. plagioclase some both samples themicromass exhibits optical activity. but no small microfossils (fig. This is a minor fabric that could well be an import to the site. elongate and up to 2. and voids. but is quite fine. sa-sr. some containing No rock sr. <2mm few quartz. 20). Coarse carbonates. (some seem a little micritic). 7403f. A one-off fabric that is very micaceous. Group H: micaceous fabric so similar they must fine with numerous small indistinct micrite Samples 7403i (fig. just micrite. 7403a This selected. as chert is not particularly diagnostic. with ? in thin section.25mm. with many In and epidote group minerals. this is a one-off fabric. are Its main rocks ? containing little discernable serpentinite and few if any The coarse fraction is characterised by microfossils. Few chert. and rare phyllites micromass moderate ? low-grade metamorphic notably is optically absent in most active. and there are common It is a coarse fabric (c:f:v = 35:55:10). = 30:60:10. 10957b. <2mm. Group G: silty phyllite fabric Samples 10493c (fig. It is worth noting that this sample comes from a black-on-red bowl. quite unlike as such. mostly large monomin siltstones and sandstones. Very concentration 0. few textural concentration features. muscovite. is another minor It differs fabric from the main among the samples fabrics A and B in fabric groups or the local petrology. and formed inmicritic some quartz. (fig.5mm.2mm (and almost all single grain). In the fine fraction there is micrite zones and voids. plagioclase. quartz and rare serpen Sample 11069c the coarse fraction have been affected (for example. The lack of diagnostic p?trographie features will make identi considered fying the source of this fabric nigh on impossible. eralic. makes 78 . too. but rarely >0. also belong to such vessels.Anatolian Studies 2005 Group E: very fine calcareous Samples 36 (fig. is optically active. fragments present. quartzite. a-r. tinite. Dark brown to dark grey inXP. textural plagioclase and features. 0. with occasional larger ones.1-0. some as long as 0. that this may indeed be a local fabric. up to 0. 19). 0. This group could be related to the other fine fabric ? ? but there is little sign of any of the group E group small serpentinite inclusions seen in some samples of that group. It is orange brown in XP.5mm but mostly 0. but relatively little quartz. 0. planar seems non-calcareous. also NAA places sample 36 (the only one of group E to be the range of fabric chemically analysed) well within not but group B. 16). Group I: Tcfs fabric (fig. a very diffuse group. for example. signs of having been a little overfired no some of the inclusions in there is optical activity. suggesting. Group J: chert fabric Samples 28. As with group H. other samples. frequent to dominant quartz. r. and the only other samples identified as imports. This is a fine calcareous fabric thatmight be related to group B. as are some mica laths. also largest sr. c:f:v Group F: overfired fine calcareous Samples 7403c (fig. 26 and 27. The a low to suggesting firing temperature.5mm. ca. Sample 28 has been analysed chemically and falls within the range of group B. 0. and few micas. and rare quartz. frequent 0. 7403d. it is hard to say whether or not this group is local.25-0. without further evidence from typology or decoration. given the limited conclusions drawn from the petrography.3mm. A continuous distribution of inclusions it hard to distinguish between fine and coarse fractions. certainly proving.

16 and the more coarse and gritty looking 31) to orange (10957g. and includes our examples of black-on-red. Macroscopically. Hanfmann a contrast from Kinet with in white very examples slip. Two differences. visible 10841a. distin from Cypriot white painted and bichrome examples partly on the basis of the quality of the slip (as well as the precision of the artist's hand. alogical to the normal cream colour of Kinet wares. Gjerstad has argued that the better quality Cypriot style wares at Al Mina (white painted and recalling white bichrome) were manufactured by Cypriots at the site. Boardman Indeed. 14. rather than challenging them. 30 and 35 are group B. 31 is group A). How these might relate fall comfortably to other red slip outputs from the region remains unclear. with the same inclusions. suggesting that the differences may be accounted for by firing conditions or other steps in the after clay preparation. that they all belong to 'local red slip'. This suggests that basic clay processing Age. cream paste: 2. i. At Tarsus. 10493a. Cyprus (Liddy 1996: 486. well correlated with the macroscopic distinction between pink and cream pastes. were analysed in the present study in an effort to distinguish them from the cream slipped examples. Minor variations. and in some cases miner 1963: 49-50). 16) belong to group A. 24. all in 79 . manufactured wares techniques continued throughout the Iron the importation that were of vessels despite The sufficiently to our understanding of regional reasons. only 10957f belongs to group A. There is a number of examples found at Kinet in which the slip appears to be particularly white. 26. although of local supplemented by imports elsewhere (23. Both samples were of a fine red clay with a very white slip (33 and 34) and belong to group B. 4-6). for the paste of this vessel was partly fired pink-orange and partly fired to cream-pale buff. elements in a range from 73ppm also show considerable to 553ppm. 10957c. The chemistry and microscopic analysis indicate that they are separate (but related) groups. 10957d. has wildly varying levels of chromium from sample to sample. 11069a. only imagine that the samples are considered to form a group on the basis of ware. and Kilikoglou a Cilician white guished painted category was identified.Hodos. 27. The other is not only not burnished. relates to the Tarsus group of red slip and burnish. with firing pastes ranging in colour from red (13. a variety of open and closed shapes. such as buff ware-buff paste (10957e. 11069d). It process manufacturing remains to be seen whether these deliberate differences can be correlated vessel shapes. strongly painted ware. decorative motifs and vessel shape. 14. for example. Knappett Discussion Cilician painted wares (ninth-eighth centuries) It is unsurprising that the majority of wares can be inter and chemical studies as preted from the microscopic as those selected for study being of local manufacture. were either from the kiln or of similar types that were not clearly imported fabrics. the samples selected for the present study were slipless. Of the Kinet included black-on-red which examples. Most importantly for one aspect of the study is that group A also includes the wave line pieces from the later kiln. examples in group A are most likely to be local. 11069b) to pink (18. Almost all of the examples of pink paste with a cream slip. The red slip production for methodological NAA results presented in their table 2 reveal an aston ishing level of variation within what are meant to be coherent groups. One Other can differently (for example. 10957a. Sample 7 provided an interesting test for the difference between pink and cream pastes. Yet a far greater variability occurs within this group. while two red slipped and burnished (not black-on-red) examples (19 and 20) into group B. 22. dual pink and cream paste: 7) and its close relative group C (cream paste: 1. Neo-Assyrian and Greek vessels). 38. variation. and one falls into the spectrum of group B (15). as the clay seems more local than Cypriot and the decorative motifs overall atypical of Cypriot products. 17. Red slip wares (ninth-eighth centuries) The results of our study on the red slip wares support the broad conclusion that red slip was widely produced in two the eastern Mediterranean. but also often does not have a slip.e. 8-12. Group 2. paste (10493d. the results of our analyses support the notion that the style was locally produced (21. 10493f) 10493b) and pink ware-buff also fall into group B. different One types of red slip have been identified. 37. recent NAA later red slip contribute study by Ashton and Hughes of the from Al Mina unfortunately does not in the typological study with particular As noted above. and cream paste with a cream slip fall within group B (pink paste: 3. This is hardly a satis as itmerely ends up situation factory methodologically. All of the examples analysed belong to categories A and B and are therefore probably local: three of four plain ware pieces (13. a product associated with 1999b: 149). 'local red slip'. yet the is of higher quality than other appearance from the site 1974: examples (Gjerstad 115). given the similarity between examples from kiln contexts and the local clay samples. rather than on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the clay paste. the affirming categories provided by the archaeologists. This raises the question of the difference between group B and group C. 32 and possibly production black-on-red was from 25 and 29.

80 . 7403k. at 6 (Furtw?ngler 1980) skyphos Schalengruppe Although they are called black glaze because the of the lustrous nature of the east Greek prototypes. the presence of wasters material to the shape. suggested despite of dark grey cores. surface treatment and decorative motifs Both black-on-red fine walled examples. Wave line ware As mentioned indicates One type without example slip the other two (although not particularly fine). 74031. specifically. One such cup. source as most these of is likely imports Cyprus. in group J). therefore. where homogeneous much more often the rule (Hanfmann 1963: 27-28). that it is related red sample. 7403f. Five samples of wave line ware fall comfortably within groups A and B (A: 7403g. that group B is a rather loose group. suggest that the Kinet examples may very well be two cases of incompletely oxidised Cypriot ware. samples from the kiln chamber were analysed. The presence of imported cooking ware has been used as a strong argument to equate pottery with people in the Near East. Assyrian-style slipped in Middle Greek-style further. This suggests that the pastes are no longer as exclusive to wares as they initially appear to be during the Middle Iron Age. (but Iron Age contexts are rare. and little from the kiln contexts implies that they were manufactured here. (for example. 7403o. the Greek world and identified throughout Rhodian black glazed cup at Tocra in Cyrenaica as the (Hayes at in Bl the type Sicily skyphos Megara Hyblaea 1966). Samos. Yet another below). were centuries) be cooking analysed ware. a sign of on two of the imported oxidation. and 7403e within group C. to group F. At Tarsus. import of cooking wares has modern In Turkey today cooking pots are produced in parallels. see Hodos 2006: exclusively The chapter 2). microscopically. this may be an example common ware. a few areas but are widely distributed. belongs the black slip piece from the inconclusive provenance. also belongs to group F. of group F. which is unrelated to the groups of local origin and. Indeed. incomplete 26 and which it be 27. 10841b. one of our firm local groups. The considered secure. E the Vallet and type (Isler 1978) or 1955) (Villard. contrasted Geology. workshop it particularly with contemporary Cypriot oxidation of the biscuit was wares. This may suggest that a specific clay was used for the occasional production of black slipped wares over the course of the Iron Age. Three examples were analysed. These also compare with a black glaze cup from the later kiln assessment of sample 36 suggests Chemical (7403d). of a less fire. 11069c. Although this group is of 7403c. 7403d. they may be imports. surface finish is only slipped. This was recovered from the western firing chamber of juglet is Given that the kiln context the smaller kiln. samples earlier kiln. thin walled sherds may Several indicate more localised trade. Given to group B. belongs to group F. in above. This the of is discussion group D. presence of Greek mercenaries Tel Kabri and Al Mina the presence (although have been put forward based on of Greek cooking ware at these sites view and Hanfmann habit. petrography and chemistry. our cream paste-cream slip of the Middle IronAge. as a deliberate for this reason. the chemical analysis of another member of group E suggests that the group may be related to group B. while examples are beige in colour but otherwise similar in is of the red ware strongly at that this style of pottery was manufactured Kinet at the end of the seventh century.Anatolian Studies 2005 the group D. Black glaze ware (late seventh century) So-called black glaze wares of the Late Iron Age find their stylistic prototype in the east Greek cup of the late imitated seventh the shape was widely century. B: 7403j. Geologically. There is little evidence at Kinet itself to suggest that fine wares were frequently manufactured. possibly 28. examples. 7403h. arguments for the at Me?ad Hashavyahu. is unique in group I. which was found in association with a large vessel recovered from the firing platform of the larger is kiln chamber. beige examples fall within the category of local products and group together within group E (36 and 10957b). to group E. this was viewed Both pieces belong to group G. is incon clusive). one of our local groups. Despite the that fill retrieved from the kiln may include possibility not associated with what the kiln was used to (late seventh century) above. example from the same context. Fine wares are not particularly common at the site. however. this sample's to contemporary and subsequent black relationship wares Grey Ware. might tempting to the presence as a regional custom. belongs black glaze wares) needs to be explored Cooking ware (ninth-eighth Two pieces of what may 10493c and 10493e. it could that is broadly local without easily contain material necessarily having been made at Kinet. whose provenance wares see Black also inconclusive slipped below). a body sherd of a black slipped cup black glaze: see black slip is often miscalled (10841b. as noted above. Further study of this group is required before any more substantial conclu sions may be drawn about the significance of this identi fication. although one that may not necessarily be non-local.

these connections do not seem to be expressed ? pottery not fine through considerable movements tablewares anyway. Even though there are clear connections between Kinet and other areas. while shedding on avenues for further study. came as far west as Kilise Tepe (Postgate Neo-Assyrians 1998: 132). 2005). (7403i and 7403m) most Knappett and Kilikoglou influence cannot be Long-standing Neo-Assyrian detected in the ceramic industry at Kinet. its presence in the firing chamber of the suggests that the kiln may have been filled with material swept in from the surrounding quarter or filled discussed kiln with material Other wares from elsewhere on the site. 7403n. such as the specifically styles koine during the ninth and eighth Cypro-Cilician imitation of east centuries. The similarity of the kiln structures of the eighth century and late seventh century BC further supports an interpretation favouring technological continuity at Kinet. Kinet late Bronze Age serves as another such In sum. falls within group B represents another style of pottery that was locally produced at the time. such as local light distribution and regional consumption patterns. Sherratt 1993: 370). This strongly As suggests that they represent an imported vessel. This includes the ninth and eighth centuries. previ new based 81 . has been argued that Kinet's function was in 're-directing goods between places of manufacture consumption' (Hodos 2000b: 36) and destinations or an of industry in traded rather than producing the items for shipping goods trade itself (Gates 1999b: 309). to east Greek styles such as wave line ware. occupation This situation can be loosely compared with the site of Kilise also has substantial local Tepe. Kinet served not so much as a destination for trade in itself. and so this occupational break cannot be directly connected to the Neo-Assyrians. and the more widespread connections across Greek wares It during the seventh and sixth centuries. above. Tarsus. a closed vessel with thinner walls in comparison with the wave line ware examples. (late seventh century) Two other samples were analysed microscopically. In other words. which production of Cypro-Phoenician wares (in late eighth and possibly early seventh centuries. Conclusions The majority of the sampled material appears to be local for both the periods considered in the present study. this includes a brief period of Neo-Assyrian at the end of the eighth century. see also Sherratt. example for the IronAge. to create Cypro are and subsequently likely from the same vessel. equiv alent to the period of east Greek influence at Kinet (Postgate 1998: 130 notes only a few sherds that seem related to Ionian bowls and belong to around the sixth there is no evidence that the However. notwithstanding and the fact that the occupation. Despite differences in Neo-Assyrian demonstrable potting technology. specifically. Its presence at the end of the seventh century reflects the longevity of this ware and the continuity of potting traditions at Kinet. and at the end of the seventh century. This stylistic change has been attributed to Neo-Assyrian activity in north Syria and parts of Cilicia between the end of the eighth century and the middle of the seventh century (after which time the Neo-Assyrian At Kinet. when Cypriot styles were particularly in vogue. the results of this study reinforce previous interpretations regarding imitation versus exchange as upon macroscopic observation.) The small number of possible imports. by which time there is an evident shift of stylistic inspi ration to the east Aegean (Hodos 2000b: 36. Al Mina). it seems to have had no impact on Kinet's local technological tradi tions. Rather. century BC). (Local and imported pottery of the Neo-Assyrian phase will be examined in the final publication. This adapted some of continuity in craft production form suggests at site the technologies (Hodos 2000b: 36). nodal point in a much land larger matrix between networks and sea networks has been argued for the Mycenaean palaces (Sherratt 2001) and for the island of Kythera towards the end of the (Broodbank et al. vening Neo-Assyrian fabrics are used in the first instance Cilician One. cultural of are expressed through local production of a broad 'koine'. of density Purcell 2000: in the matrix of connectivity of a phenomenon or a node The (Horden. from Cyprus Iron Age and less conclusively from during the Middle east Greece Late the Iron during early Age (many potential samples are too fine for petrography and too few for chemistry). other than perhaps acting as a catalyst for a shift in stylistic inspi ration. This pattern occurs not only at Kinet but elsewhere across Cilicia and north Syria (for example. although during the late seventh and early sixth centuries. belong in a unique group (H) that is utterly different macroscopically and microscopically from any of the other groups identified. traditionally dated 750-650 style of Cypro-Archaic it appears to have a gap in occupation BC). with Phoenician types to a lesser extent. Micaceous ware (late seventh century) Two micaceous pieces. and Phoenician styles. Sample 7403a is a red paste-red slip bowl. they are largely in the I. 393). but rather more of a stopping-off point in cabotage networks. This is particularly clear in the continuity of fabrics A and B between end of the seventh the ninth/eighth centuries and the the inter century. empire disintegrated).Hodos. have implications for Kinet's role as a transit point. identical in group (group J) to one of and probably theMiddle IronAge black-on-red examples.

34.89. 3.31.13.66. 14.29] 0._4.18j.57J 15.57! 3.4o} 1.80.. 1..6^ 4.21] 11.00J 35.70. 9. 4. 8.67..99! 1. 5. 179.78 1. 11.42j___2:05J__>3^ I KW03/27 18.. 79.00. 2.69 .30! 2.49 15.58.90. KHY03/07 .31.61 . 5.72.. 3. 79.. 0.80! 34. for this study was generously provided by the of and the University Institute at Ankara 82 . early indications as the wider industries within culture and its associated socio-economic setting of the eastern Mediterranean. 41.23^ O 10.45. 0.00] 0. 309.20.66.001_ _ 2._. 0.69.-. 0.60! 104. .03] 0.38] 10.45. 146.33.59.25? 12.64.70.53.14..79.46.73] 3.04...48. 60.10.27. 7. 24.26! ! 4.. KKY03/04 ! 3. 0.47.00! 0. 12. 16.00! 1.46. 4.66? 17.81 i 0.. 4.60! 29.^ 1.50j 46.P.90]53.46] 0.07.02^^^ 2.66. 1.02! . 13..58. 25. 0.57. 5.54! 0.29.1.53{ 91. 4.07 15..25] 0.90. 32. 7.65! . 0..6l| 1772! 16. 1.90.60.16! 12. KHY03/03 ! 3. 8. 4. 9.12. 44. ! 4.40! 0. 10.38! 5...45.35! 0.63]12.25^ 2.89.90.48. ! 4.08! 13.L.20 1.2. Ce.28! 24.13.50^5^^ .03! 2. 0.90} ! 0.00. KHY03/02: ] 4.07.26.00.85! 4.22. 14.2i_. 0.78? 0. 57.66.21 i 0.30? 25. 0.80] 126! 13.10. 93._ _ 2.03. 1.26.56! 17.00] 53.:46:.63.90.35. 948. 3.87.20! 0. KHY03/14 ave st dey %stdey KHY03/35> .11 i.92? 38.51 ..88.50] 6.20] 0. 0.32! KHY03/30 ! 4.00. 4.98. 0.80.50? 5.47]! 169.05. 0.50.00[ 0. 7.28.39. 5.04.21! 0.23..80. 2.76. 2. 11. 11.43. 16..31.13?.7-41_ !. 0. 3.00! 71.27! ave stdev %stdev 1. 100.75.36J Crj Se..88. 66. 3.41 ! 3.28.75.70] 34^ 5..80.30.63! 0.45.61 ! 0. 17.90! 4. 15.80. 2.66J 2.20.02. 57.76 5.64.70! 4.14! 13. KHY03/01 .08.401 26.0.98.18. 0.30! 4.6.34! 2.00\ 074 5.50! 41.16. 0. 73.28j 2. 3.2.._0.45! 5.27]: 1.50.99! 16.42! 29.02: 0..10.95. 27. 5.14! 20.06! 2.10..00! 2.16? 0.80J 1. 2.99! 0.64 j__ 0.26.10.30! 0. 1. 0..98J. 1.30.85].83! 94.94! KHY03/20 2. 157. . : 3. 1.93.32. 4.01! 2. 10. which will incorporate the Neo these period of occupation.. 0.12.96. 241.?:.88.11.29.89.54.71 ! 2. 0.19.90M3.00.31}__.00.94 55.11! 1. 16.70. 0. 3.86.'0.54.36! 0.18J 1. 23. 0.47. 0. 5.45! i 4.58 1. 4.10 j__ _ _ _ _ _ _0.72.56!.29! 2.86. 2..79} 136.60] 3. 0.00.08J 1. 3.60}39.19! i 5.00. 3. 26.00.36. 7.9.07.00> 2. 11. 0. 0.97! 1.00.LMrlL. 2.49: 43.20.^Z..00.70! 0. 6.07.80]42.152.35.06.04.27! i 5.95.?5jJ279[^ 2.30: 0.40. 2.25! 0. 2.! 2. 373.L.21 ! 10. 0.00..45.^.19? 1. 11. NAA results The final publi considered.18! 9.38J 21.60.59! 5. 3.15.58 0^61 5^51 i 96.34.61 Table 1.75. 2.29! 2. 2.68. 2.78.20! 0..40! 27.i.77] 0.87.29! 2.12.18.15! 11.21? 6.90.38] 1.16.10? 8.31 0.20} 73.42] 0.16.30! 10.1. 3.30.70.! 283.90.15! 20.0. ! 2.09.^ 5.1.52. 0.. Tai V20.12.2. 11. 6.50.00.65.! 313.75 84. 0. 16.60?28.56? 75.00? 0. 4.70! 5. 1. 3.^76]12.52! 14.91. 66.29. 14.71! 3.71 ! 0. 43. 1.82.22! 51... 0.1.2. 78?o?0.03.! 4.92} 219.15:10.49 Yb]Cal Na]KJ Th] 1.81 .. 0.05! 5..91 j 17.01 6.95. 2. will build upon Assyrian its material we seek to place Kinet. 22.. 7.90. 0.28.08.29! 21..19.61.09 _ ^ . 1. KHY03/06 .75! 0.99.73.78] 13.17h 1.40! 10.01.. 0.82. 1.79J 6.IOJ 0.88.84.85] 1.06. Acknowledgements We are grateful to Marie-Henriette to analyse the Iron Age permission Funding British Bristol.07.62! i 3.32.04! 0.52? 1.44.00.19.25}. 8. 2.24. 28. 11.19.00! 0. 0.71. 2. 2.45: 3. 1.50] 1.78| _ .00! 5.82! 0.57J 246. 0. 17.97! 0. 0.108.20! 5. 5.90.44! 59.10-1.00J 2.. 5..401 49.00 29.23.21 ]! 276.361_ 1053. 2. 0.91M?:0q.45J 19.03 0.23:! 40.7^ IMP^S .0. 12.3. 311^ .20? 5.13^ ^90[ 0. 3.70] 2. 1.11.23.01.62.. 9. !.1-55j. 1. 2. 8.23.30.2.12. ! 3. 0. 2.43.54. 0.0. KHY03/12i 3.5.}^ 0.28! 2.54].56.58]39.13.25! 0.33! 1.07j__. 0.77[ [stdev fcstdev KHY03/19 KHY03/28 KHY03/32 KHY03/29 KHY03/23 KHY03/25 ave stdev.20]38. 2.77! 16.29|_.40] 2. .04.50! 1. 127.90.40.60.01.35] 16. 50. 0.01.20? 27.53.40.37! 0.98! 0. ! 3.44.42.25! !^^93/1J. 2.91.65.21.61 ! 1^ 0.09.43! 68.34.66! Z^ I<liyp3/36. 2.00? 0.. 0.00J 3. 5.70.01. 14.00J 0.70! 4.20.00J 2.51.4. 16.23] 25. 0..58! 14. 126. 5.93! 25.02.41.29j.53! ! 3.50.80J62. 1. 14.30! 53.90.21 68. 0. 2. 14.69.3/13.82.:J0^M2.14. 2.50. 5.19M7.26? 0.36J 6.77.60! 43. 1. 8.25.68. 10. 265.. 0.50.24! 84. 0. 21. 2. 0.32! KHY03/09 T 3J39. 0. 0. Fe.11 ! 10. 20.14. 3.08.57.64.49. 0.0.23! 1. 0.! %stdev KHY03/05 KHY03/10 KHY03/34 KHY03/15 .92] 341. 38. 8.1:68J 1640. 1. 28. 110. 1.60..42! 0.. 6.68 5. l9^9?<?6__j__7:(M[__0. 2.80.25. 38.40] 43. j Cs! Tb. 2.4.08] 0^ .86! 1.29? 2.00. ! 2.11?3. 1.64. 2.50? 1..08]40.21! 2.27j.28! 2.25.03! 17.29! 0.28? 2.00 0.95! 100! 1. ? 14.81. 6. 9.33.73 88.23! 114._6^791.75. 2.22] 0. 0. 0.40.. 0.47.13. -ously only speculatively cation of this period.80.! 2.02.49. 4..71] 16.0^51j_.59] 1.59.00. 0.92? 5.05 1..60! 0.59.2.85 33.25] 0.5^ KHY03/31 .0^ 1. 14. .10. 6._..46. 2.30? 20.70. 2.04.^ 93.85.8^ 268. 5..00.63.58..29? 238.62..40.80.33. KHY03/21 KHY03/22 lave ! 4.29.16! 4.56:.60? 67. 47. 0. .12.18! 3.02! "o.07.34.70. 8830 i 0.66:.54.0p|. 4. M?.80.00. 0. 1120.44.16.70. Gates for her kind pottery from Kinet. 0. 3.02! 6. 5. 2.51 !25.63? 0.1 02 16 j 2. Zni Rb.4 12.50.70! 8. 0. 7. 13.L 1. 2. 145! 13.64? 11.22..92. 0.03 5.9^ 3^59: K^03/38 j ^Y.04! 74.50. 18.56.77.20.00^ 2.05..07? 10.10.34.911 2. .11.74[l5. 8.80! 2. 1.67. 4. 5.72! ! 4.09 i. 79.47. 1. 5. 0.10]_.30 1..86! 1.29.90.40.20.05! 13.42 :.67. Lai 3.60! 0. 69.. 0. 6.76 3^ 3.78. 9. 16.46. 4. Studies 2005 Hf .90.30? Eu 1. 3.40.30.56|^ 1.30[ ^?^7.15[ 0.80! 1.29.82.52. 23.63? 4J6. 21.69! 20JO.64! 21. 0. 0.70! Z^^ 2.401 _ _ j__ 1.:. 37.61.00.33.95.59. 54. 0.37. 6._.00! 75.43: 4.71 6.20. 18.46.61]: 3.16. 21. 5. 13._. 6:69[. 5. 0.28.17! 1.29.00! 0. 2. 0.38? 18. 18. 18.61! 25.48. 15.50} 0.! 5. 74.83] 87. 1.00.52.98.01 . 3.01] 18.20! 30.24.. 0.22. 5. 2.37.30! L.00! 0.03i 4.70] 56^ 7.92.Ill ! 3.0. 46.74.42.60! 57.Anatolian Row Kares : SrrvLu! U.32. KHY03/18 i 3. 2.30] 14^ 0..02.24. 0.15! 3.36! KHY03/24 ! 3.__a05 I 6. 41.44? 7330. 11..83.20! .80.65j 13.^! 6.31 . 12.79! 6. 15.. 75.37.14 1.14.25.. 2..74] 1.70!^ 2.33? 0. 65. 6. 1.27! 2. 6.63! 2. 42. 22. 1.0. KHY03/08 0._ O.37. 6. Coi 29. 0.80. 6.00! 5.8:53j WyOZ/Z] 0. 1.. 0.78.01.03 0. 0.

black-on-red bowl with semi-fine ring base red. plain. bichrome. closed jug. 10841 was found on the firing platform of the larger kiln. 11069 represents the fill from the west firing chamber of the smaller kiln. wave amphora body sherd. yellow (concentric circles). crater rim. sample 2. black painted amphora handle cream paste-cream closed vessel slip. band interior. wave line type line type line type line type line type line slip. black-on-red. Deli?ay. Deli?ay. a possible N 36? E 036? GPS: 50. sample 1. metope slip. metope red paste-red X in Late seventh century samples 7403 represents the fill of the late seventh century kiln. (older). from surface associated with kilns (external to the kilns) fine orange. wave amphora body sherd. pink paste-cream pink paste-cream overlying kilns shallow bowl 2003 samples Kl clay sample.710min slip. 2km further up river from source of red clay sample below. triglyph pink paste-cream slip.397min. bands. from fill overlying s-f orange. concentric exterior. neck of dual cream-pink paste. white slip. taken from 10cm above the current channel in clay banks. from surface associated 15 B 16 A 17 B 18 A 19 B with kilns (external to the kilns) red paste-red slip. from fill overlying kilns pink pink paste-cream paste-cream (amphora). from kiln platform concentric exterior. bowl rim 25 D 26 D 27 D 28 J brown-pink. wave amphora body sherd. bands interior and exterior. bichrome plate plate. GPS: N 36? 50. crater rim. small jug amphora. 10493a B closed vessel (jug?).05 min. circles. bichrome amphora 31 A 32 D 33 B 34 B 35 B 36 E 37 A 38 A gritty red. bowl 7403c 7403d 7403e 7403f 7403g 7403h 7403j 7403k 74031 7403 F E C F A A B A B black glaze cup black glaze cup. band interior red paste-red slip. black-on-red bowl. wave amphora body sherd. Hodos 11. E 036? 10. from kiln platform amphora. bichrome(?) amphora slip. chamber s-f buff orange. GPS taken along the road. wave type line pink-orange. pink paste cream slip thick band exterior. bichrome amphora(?) cream paste-cream slip. bichrome. plate rim i/m H B 7403n 7403o B 23 D 24 B s-f pink-orange. large decoration closed vessel vessel 10 B 11 B 12 B 13 A 14 A slip. gritty orange fabric ring base fragment of amphora. red slip (burnished) exterior and interior. closed vessel bands exterior. bowl with grey core. black-on-red bands. black-on-red. clay sample. from kiln pink paste-cream slip. semi-coarse black-on-red rounded bowl rounded line type sherd amphora body closed vessel (Jug?)> plain. wave amphora body sherd. from burnt surface between kilns fine orange. from fill circles circles red paste-red slip. core. black-on-red closed vessel fine red. concentric circles s-f red with grey core. rounded rounded century samples Ninth-eighth 10493 represents the top layer of fill from the firing chamber of the larger kiln. ring base of bowl semi-fine pink buff semi-fine pink-orange. bichrome kilns 20 B 21 B 22 B gritty orange. black-on-red 29 D 30 B open bowl s-f orange. crater rim. gritty orange. bichrome amphora cream paste-cream slip. large closed decoration (amphora). open bowl semi-fine orange red 83 . bichrome fine red.Hodos. black-on-red. probably of wave type amphora body sherd. Knappett and Kilikoglou Sample list (72 samples) 2001 samples (ninth-eighth cream paste-cream 1 C 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 B B C C C B B B cream paste-cream centuries BC) slip. barrel jug with bulls eye. rim fragment amphora body sherd. 7403a J orange-red fabric. crater rim. 10957 represents the remainder of the fill for the firing chamber of the larger kiln. flaring bowl. purple decoration (faded black?). well polished. wishbone handle s-f red with fine black-on-red. very fine burnished body of concentric circles jug very fine buff.545min (to 5m). concentric exterior. Hodos K2 (to 5m). white slip. red slip. shoulder of closed jug slip.

body sherd plain storage jar. 5: 35-43 Asitwandawa' Anadolu Arastirmalari J. J. Autochthon. P. N. A.M. 1972: 'Les fours dits "de potier" dans l'Orient ancien' Syria 49: 35-95 Desideri. alla conquista 1990: Cilicia. body sherd amphora sherd vessel (amphora?). S. 1959: 'The Cypriot and Syrian pottery from Al Mina. Huot. Bikai.2: 315-31 in G.R.A. Kilikoglou. a 16: 123-57 L.2: 97-123 Blaylock. gritty brown 1999b: The Leiden: red ? ? ? Tsetskhladze in G.. buff paste body sherd cooking pot(?). core grey small jug (closed body sherd). 135-61 excavated thin-walled closed vessel (jug?) cooking pot(?). Louvain: 3 1997: 'Notes Ciliciennes' Anatolia Bibliography Aliara A.T.M.). E. Iron Age Cemetery in Cyprus.P. in A. Bunnens on Syria in the Iron Age. body sherd black glaze cup. J.K.M. P. Retirement. flat. A.. 'Greeks in Syria. Papers O. O. Ancient West Greeks (ed. macedone. Other Dalley. 1999: 'IronAge pottery from Tille H?y?k. G. London: 93-103 Bikai. Snodgrass (eds).N. Konstanz: 396-406 Bing. S. S. coarse fabric closed vessel (amphora?). en in La Colonisation contribution' Grecque 39-49 Rome: M?diterran?e Occidentale. Palaepaphos-Skales. de la c?ramique de Gr?ce de l'Est' in Les en c?ramiques de Gr?ce de l'Est et leur diffusion Occident. Report of the Department 1988: 35-44 and Tarsus' Anatolian Ashton. P. Dakouri-Hild. 1996: 'Cypriot black-on-red: Archaeometry 38. 2001: Cyprus between East and West. C. Dickinson Oxford: on 70-96 the Occasion of his Bunnens.D. burnished quite coarse concentric Bonatz. 1978: 'Une approche en laboratoire des Dupont. 2000: (ed. J. E.2: 10957f A 10957g A A 10841a 10841b F 11069a A 11069b A 11069c I closed vessel (amphora?). P.).. The Greeks in the East. body sherd. 2005: of Pylos? The Pharaoh's feet to the slave-women history and cultural dynamics of Kythera in the in A. Jasink. exterior (compare 36) body sherd. 1992: Europos' U. M. trace of pink paste cream slip fine juglet. American Journal of Ancient History 10. V. D. a in Crete: 1999: comparison 'Group therapy between analyses by NAA and thin-section petrog raphy of early Minoan pottery' Journal of Archaeo logical Science 26: 1025-36 Delcroix. A.). Nicosia 2002a: 'AlMina: the study of a site' Ancient West and East 2002b 1. late and local? Scientific analysis of pottery types from Al Mina' in A.. Hughes.. G. A. Reiche southeastern Turkey' (eds).E. Iron Age Pottery inNorthern Mesopotamia. dark band. Villing (ed. Karageorghis (ed.. pink paste-cream slip bowl/crater? Mid-body sherd.. 1999a: 'Greek colonization: Boardman. DalVet? Torino di Kizzuwatna du Plat Taylor. Syria' Iraq 21: 62-92 P. Greek Settle and the Black ments in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. E. dark band storage jar. history of Al Mina' and East. as Forsberg. 'L'?lot des potiers Syria 59: 101-20 1965: 'The road et les fours ? Doura from Sam'al 2: 1-46 to Antiqua Coldstream. Rutter. gritty orange. 1995: Near Eastern Destruction Datings Iron Age Sources for Greek and Near Eastern 84 .. orange-red fabric closed pink paste body sherd 263-78 'From Broodbank.Anatolian Studies 2005 ? 10493b B 10493c G 10493d B 10493e G 10493f B B 10957a 10957b E 10957c buff ware.). 11069d A 'Syria in the IronAge' in G. Tsolakidou. dark band. Essays 19 Casabonne. Pots and people' Tsetskhladze. Oxford: 1-16 10957d 10957e circles. 1971: 'Tarsus: a forgotten colony of Lindos' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 30: 99-109 ? in Cilicia' and Phoenicians 1993: 'Sissu/Issus. orange fabric amphora. Alkim. J. Kiriatzi.J. S.-L. Paris: 290-97 probl?mes Forrer. 1993: 'Some considerations on the material culture of coastal Syria in the Iron Age' Egitto e Vicino Oriente Brodie.B. 2005: 'Large. Steel. 1999: 'Sennacherib Studies 49: 73-80 Day. S. Hausleiter. Anatolia: and South-Eastern Northern Syria at theMeetings of the Interna Papers Presented tional Niebor?w M?nster: 'Table Ronde' (1997) 263-86 and at Heidelberg (1995) and Contributions. pink paste towards characterisation' cream slip amphora. 1983: 'The imports from the East appendix II' An in V. third palace period' to Presented Sherratt (eds). Leipzig des assyrischen the eastern J. 1921: Die Provinzeinteilung Reiches. Kiriatzi.. 1988: 'Early Greek pottery in and Tyre Cyprus: some preliminary comparisons' Cyprus of Antiquities.

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