Ethics Reader

A compilation of reviews from Hand book on computer ethics, Fortune at the bottom of the pyramid, Cyber Ethics

Author: Cantancio John Paulo

2009
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Philippines License.

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PREFACE
Dear Reader, This is my first book on computer ethics. After days of sleepless nights and gallons of coffee was drunk. I am proud to say that this is the fruit of my labor. While others are spending their summer days in the beach I am at home doing this book. I hope you understand some typo error and some non-sense Thank you

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I would like to dedicate this work to:
My GF My Mother My Father My Classmates My Professor My God Thank you for keeping me awake to finish this before card distribution

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TABLE OF CONTENTS I. II. III. IV. Fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Cyber Ethics Handbook on Computer Ethics Contemporary Moral Problems

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The Market at the Bottom of the Pyramid Chapter 1

“If large firms approach this market with the BOP consumers’ interest at heart, it can also lead to significant growth and profits for them.”

The book discusses strategies that could eradicate poverty by creating opportunities for the poor and at the same time encourages self-esteem. One thing that caught my attention is the common belief that there are a lot of rich people in the urban area and the poor people are abundant in rural areas. This belief or concept is very wrong because as stated in the book, the rich and the poor are equal in population at rural and urban areas. Another issue that is stated in the book is that the government prioritized equal wealth distribution because they thought this was the solution to poverty. For me this method improves equality but is burdensome for poor people because come to think of it, they have low salaries and the government would get a percentage of it by the form of taxation, by doing this the government adds to the burden of the poor if those taxes are invested among projects that are not effective against poverty. Another obstacle in serving the bottom of the pyramid is “best practices” or things that are followed by developing companies from successful multinational companies. If these companies ignore the poor, then its ideology could be repeated in other succeeding companies which are really the greatest harm to be done by these companies to the very poor. The BOP strategy is very effective and has a lot of opportunities to offer if it is applied to developing countries like the Philippines, like the figures shown in the book, the bottom of the pyramid’s GDP in the developing countries is around $12.5 trillion which is larger than the GDP’s of developed countries like Japan, UK, Germany, Italy and France combined.

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Integrative Questions 1. Do you agree that by ignoring the poor, you are already doing the greatest harm to them? 2. If there is a fortune to be made by serving the BOP, why do companies scarcely apply this method? 3. Is taxation an effective way to reduce or eradicate poverty? 4. Do you believe that there are more rich people in the urban areas and more poor people in the rural areas? 5. Is it true that by providing opportunities for the poor, we could help them out of poverty?

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Products and Services for the BOP Chapter 2

“What is available in Shanghai and Mumbai is not an indication of the infrastructure in the hinterlands of China or India”

The most significant part of this chapter for me is the 12 BOP principles because according to the book, it serves as the building blocks for the BOP innovation philosophy. The principles are:             Price Performance Innovation : Hybrid Scale of Operations Sustainable Development : Eco-Friendly Identifying Functionality Process Innovation Deskilling of Work Education of Customers Designing for Hostile Infrastructure Interfaces Distribution : Accessing the Customer Challenge Conventional Wisdom But before reading the BOP principles, I came across the topic of challenge of the BOP strategy to the managers of companies that are serving the BOP community. One specific challenge that I came across is how they could profit from selling small quantity retail items. Another challenge that I’ve seen is that the BOP community are often found in developing countries, so the managers are faced with infrastructure problems, and also illiteracy in which they would have to provide a solution if they are going to serve this market niche.

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Integrative Questions 1. What are the uses of the BOP principles besides being principles? 2. If you use these principles as a checklist, could you give me an example of a company that uses BOP strategy in the Philippines? 3. Why do you think that there is a challenge for managers that are serving the BOP community? 4. Why are BOP market abundant in developing countries? Are there none in developed ones? 5. How would you serve a BOP community that has low literacy rate?

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BOP: A Global Opportunity Chapter 3

“The real economic profit is in the effective use of capital”

By applying the BOP strategy, companies need to grow rapidly to cope up with the demands of the BOP market, as shown in the book, the S curve which is the traditional market growth is replaced by an I curve which is the growth pattern of the BOP. This means that BOP companies should come up with new products or innovations quickly than what the non-BOP companies are doing. But as always, there is an advantage and disadvantage of this strategy, and an example from the book would perfectly explain it. Today, not only a person does multitasking, but also gadgets and a cellphone is a perfect example for it. A cellphone has so many features like calculator, organizer, watch, timer, mp3 player, movie player, TV, etc. Now having those features in one gadget makes the consumer opt for the cellphone rather than the traditional gadgets that does the same thing, now these could destroy other traditional markets that offers the same functionality. An example stated in the book could be related in our course, it is the need of constant surveillance of epidemic outbreaks in rural areas in Peru. They require real-time surveillance because they want to avoid the spread of disease over the country. But there is a big challenge facing them, given that they would have to develop a system that should function in incomplete infrastructures and limited connectivity. In the rural areas of Peru, as stated in the book, computers are rear in this place and telephone lines are considered luxurious, imagine that! Well the answer for the problem is that the system should be simple and remote areas should be connected to a single and central node so that the policymakers and planners are instantly informed and notified. Well being a successful system, it is also finding success in the US. In the system that was developed, they chose the telephone as a way to connect to the central node is through telephone because it is the most widely used for communication.
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Integrative Questions 1. Why is it that the BOP market results in an I curve rather than the traditional S curve? 2. Can you think of any advantage and disadvantage of the BOP strategy other than what is given in the book? 3. Why do you think innovative products could possibly destroy other markets? 4. Given a chance, would you choose to implement an innovative product which would destroy other market, or would you offer a similar product like your competitors? 5. Does the BOP strategy have importance in your life?

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The Ecosystem for Wealth Creation Chapter 4

“A business system is at the heart of the ecosystem for wealth creation”

As discussed in the book, the private sectors are those who are composed of social organizations of different kinds. The author chose the term “ecosystem” to further discuss the topic because it represents the correlativity, interaction, and dependence of the components of the system that without the other component, the other components would fail to exist. As stated in the book, and on my chosen quotation, ‘a business system is at the heart of the ecosystem for wealth creation’. For me, this means that the system is like the framework or the basis in which the business stands on, in which this framework is the what determines if the business would profit or not. In my opinion, this statement makes sense because, what the business follows would be the determinant of its goal or future. This chapter’s aim is to redirect the focus of the debate from the preference of private sector frameworks to a market-oriented ecosystem which allows the private sectors and social actors, despite their differences, to act together and at the same time to create wealth with a symbiotic relationship. Symbiotic relationship, as I’ve learned in science is that the two participants in a relationship should both benefit from each other, not only the other side because otherwise it might be called parasitism or commensalism. In another part of the book, the discussion falls under portfolios, in which if it is totally skewed or directed towards extralegal entities, which means those who are outside the legal system, the economy would not advance and the private sector could not help and contribute in alleviation of poverty. But if it is focused on multinational companies and other large companies, it means that it is a well developed economy with companies that are not focused on just earning profits from the BOP. And also one sign or manifestation of a maturing economy is the development of large firms which are focused on efficiency.
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Integrative Questions 1. What are private sectors? 2. What composes those private sectors? 3. Why is it that a business system is the basis for wealth creation? 4. What is a symbiotic relationship? 5. Why can’t an economy advance if it is directed towards the extralegal entities?

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Reducing Corruption: Transaction Governance Capacity Chapter 5

“Poor countries might be rich if we consider trapped assets”

Developing countries are often the poor countries and they also don’t have a sturdy law structure. Some countries are poor because they don’t have a proper rule of law that is a basis of converting their assets into capital. These assets that could not be converted into capital is called trapped resources. Given these problems, the author concluded that poverty is partially a self-imposed problem in developing countries, if the underlying problem is not solved immediately, there is a big possibility that another problem will grow out of it and a problem also out of the new problem. It could stack up and the root cause couldn’t be easily resolved because of the problems that were from it. Back to corruption, for the large companies, corruption becomes the payment for doing business. Interpreting the regulation determines the timely execution of contracts and the establishments of ownership. The effect of proliferating micro regulations is like having no laws at the first place. The effect of this is that the private sector remains small and local rather than growing to be a big company and someday maybe a multinational company. People doesn’t really realize how corruption could affect our country, there is a lot of problems growing out of another problem because of corrupting the funds of the government that is meant for the development of the country. Corruption is just short term advantage for those who are corrupt because they would just spend it on luxury and other things that they like, but the problem that they have caused could run deep and could last for a very long time. For example, when they corrupt the funds for building roads, the roads are fixed but are low in quality, so after about two months, it is back again in its original state.

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Integrative Questions 1. Why do developing countries poor? 2. How could we alleviate poverty in developing countries? 3. How could assets be converted into capital? 4. Do you think corruption will ever end in developing countries? 5. What are the effects of corruption on normal people and on the future of that country?

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Development as Social Transformation Chapter 6

“BOP can be the engine for the next round of global expansion and trade”

On the previous chapters we have learned that the BOP is a really profitable market if we just provide them with the right products with high qualities for their needs. By serving the BOP market, companies could gain more profit than in the top pyramid, also they could help in poverty alleviation by partnering with the non government organizations and other community groups. The task of reducing poverty could transform from being an aid and subsidies to the poor, to being a way of generating wealth. By treating the BOP as consumers, the companies could not only help them out of poverty, but could also give them the benefits of respect, choice, and also self-esteem. Multinational companies that are serving the BOP could gain access to a large and new market and at the same time could develop innovative practices that could increase their profitability In BOP and on other traditional markets. But to be able to make these principles into reality, the government should provide conditions that could enable the private sector to actively participate in creating the BOP market an opportunity. New technologies concerning the approach to reach the BOP market could create millions of new entrepreneurs in the process and could also the people of the BOP the concept of respect for the rule of law and commercial contracts. The capability of solving poverty is available in most countries, but as usual there is still a challenge, to convert the poor to a market, innovations are needed because the traditional products and services that are provided to the top pyramid consumers are, believe it or not, could not be used by the BOP consumers because not only are they expensive and unaffordable, the durability and quality of the products could not withstand the hostile environment in which the poor people lives in.

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Integrative Questions 1. How could the government help in transforming the BOP consumers into a market for the private sectors? 2. What is needed in converting the poor into a market? 3. Why is it that the top level consumer products are not suitable for the BOP consumers? 4. What are the benefits of treating the poor in the BOP as consumers? 5. What are other benefits of serving the BOP market aside from gaining profit?

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Ethics and the Information Revolution Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:” Because of information technology there are no peripheries” Learning Expectation: I am expecting to learn more about why do people call It information revolution? Revolution is made only if something is wanted to be change and how can information revolt? These are just some of the questions that comes to my mind when I saw the title Review: Information revolution is one of the many competing term for the societal term. Information is then further considered as an economic activity, since firms and institutions are involved in its production, collection, exchange, distribution, circulation, processing, transmission, and control. The computer has become helpful in managing knowledge at a time when the amount of information is expanding exponentially. The information stored in the world's libraries and computers doubles every eight years. In a sense the computer age and the information age seem to go hand in hand. Information for most people is coordinated with computer, because before computers information can’t move and powerless because it is all paper based. When the computer age comes information is slowly coming the most powerful weapon the human being ever have. Without information humans are useless, the more information the more powerful a human is. One key issue is computer crime. In a sense, computer fraud is merely a new field with old problems. Computer crimes are often nothing more than fraud, larceny, and embezzlement carried out by more sophisticated means. The crimes usually involve changing address, records, or files. In short, they are old-fashioned crimes using high technology.
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Computer crime is the eminent specially in this era of computers and information because people doing computer crimes cant be recognize specially those who are master in this field. People think that doing crime using computer can save them from having a criminal case or something like that. This is not to say that such a thing will happen, but it shows the challenges facing each of us due to the information revolution.

Lesson Learned: I’ve learned that information is the best weapon I have. The more information a person have the higher the potential that the person will excel in the field of information technology.

Integrative questions: 1. What Is computer revolution? 2. What do computer crime do with computer revolution? 3. Is information important to daily life? 4. What is the most powerful weapon now adays? 5. What is computer crime?

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Ethics On-Line

Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902

Quote : “Its evolution, however, has not been without problems and the most disturbing of these problems involves human behavior. Disturbing and disruptive behavior ranges from unauthorized access, theft of electronic property, launching of destructive worms an viruses, racism, defamation, harassment, to a recent incident involving a form of rap on-line.”

Learning Expectation: In this chapter I am expecting to learn more on why do we need to know and do online ethics when others ignore it. Is doing what is right is the same as doing what you think is right? I hope to learn more when I begin to read this chapter and understand its concepts.

Review:

What is ethic On-line? For me online ethic is the duty of a person to do the right thing. Now aday online crimes that cause violation to human rights have been iminent. Knowing and doing the right thing is important when ever you have the knowledge to use a computer. Know what is your limitations is important, there are some certain rules that we must follow in order for us to prevent harm to others. For example hacking into a system is bad if your motive is to get some important information to use against them. In the other harm if your motive is to make sure that the safety of that system is your main concern then you are called ethical hacker.

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Working online with your files hanging around and publicly displayed into different sites can cause information leakage which can lead to copyright infringement which is unethical. Online ethic is like laws which everyone should follow.

Lessons Learned: I have learned that even if you don’t know the person that you are talking to on the other side of the world you still have to respect his thoughts and ideas. For me ethics is doing the right thing even if everyone is doing unethical works or doings.

Integrative Questions: 1. What is ethic? 2. What can we do to stop unethical works? 3. Can we be imprisoned when violating other people’s human right using the web? 4. What do you mean by online? 5. What is a hacker?

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Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “What is difficult to comprehend is what impact this will have on human life. Surely some of the effects will be quite positive and others quite negative.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter I expect to learn technicalities when it comes to reasoning, as the title of the chapter is reasonability and having it related to responsibility I have as an end-user of the computer technology, and more things regarding computer and computer ethics Review: What is the impact of technology to our society today? Are we responsible enough to say that we are using this technology and information in a good way? Now people tend to take for granted the information given to them because of some reasons that are not qualified. Relating reasonability and responsibility is sometimes mind bugging because, come to think of it how can you be responsible if all the reason in the world is in your head. We must learn how to relate things accordingly and do things in the right way. According to Moor aspects of the computer revolution will continue to spring up in unpredictable ways- in some cases causing us considerable grief. Therefore, it is extremely important to be alert to what is happening. Because the computer revolution has the potential of having major effects on how we lead our lives, the paramount issue of how we should control computing and the flow of information to serve us to our mutual benefit.

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Lesson learned: In this chapter I have learned that being responsible and reasoning out why you have done that responsibility is a critical role in information technology. Knowing the relativity of things is as important as you knowing your relatives and how things work. It is also important to understand the reasons why things are important while others are not.

Integrative Questions: 1. What is responsibility? 2. What is relativity? 3. What is the connection between reasoning and responsibility? 4. Is being reasonable bad or good? 5. What can you do to be able to related what you are doing to ethics?

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Disclosive Computer Ethics Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:” privacy is often to be taken as an aspect of autonomy” Learning Expectation: In Microsoft word 2007 the word “disclosive” Is underlined in red which means that there is no such word. But for me it is not important. What is important is to know what is the real meaning of this word and what its relation with computer ethic. Review: So what is a disclosive at first place. As I search the web for a shorter meaning of disclosive I passed by this phrase which explains to me the meaning of disclosive. Disclosive computer ethic is concerned with the moral deciphering of embedded values and norms in computer systems, applications, and practices. At first I really can’t understand it because for me deciphering is like hacking in a system. You want to know what is the real hidden under those values or what so ever. As I read along, there is another word that struck me, that word is anonymous and freedom. In my point of view being anonymous in a way is a good thing because you can cry your heart out and do things that you cannot do when you are known. Being anonymous is like having your freedom of speech. You can tell what you think to everyone either good or bad as long as it is your opinion.

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Lessons learned: First of all I learned the real meaning of disclosive computer ethics and know its pros and cons. Integrative questions: 1. What is decipher? 2. What is freedom? 3. Does being anonymous related with freedom? 4. Why do we need to be anonymous? 5. Is it ethical to be anonymous?

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Gender and Computer Ethics Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: ” The challenge is to retain a balance between the utopia/dystopia seesaw, a rhetoric which has tended to attach to studies of ICTs, and especially to the internet. This imbalance seen through the lens of feminist concerns translates into, on the one hand, a view which argues that women have taken over the internet and are subverting to their own ends.” Learning Expectation: I am hoping to learn more about the feminisms point of view on how women view computer ethics. Review: We are lucky now that in our generation we have erased women discrimination. Unlike before women would be allowed to be treated equal as men because of some hierarchy or traditions that we follow. Sad to say even if we have erased it there are still some people who would rather prefer that old tradition of discrimination against women. Women now a days plays a big role in information technology industry. They uses their advantage of able to work harder than men in some instances. Women in my point of view are more creative and industrious when they are working on something. That’s why some companies choose female executives. Gender issue is now is not as exaggerated as before specially both sex understand their strength and weaknesses. They both know what they can and cannot do.

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Lessons learned: In our industry we are all treated as equal and hopefully many women will soon discover to use their advantage to achieve their goals Integrative questions: 1. What is feminism? 2. What are the 2 gender? 3. Is their any way men are better? 4. Are men and women treated as equal before? 5. What is the advantage of women?

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Is the Global Infrastructure a Democratic Technology? Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: ” Because Global information infrastructure (GII), a seamless web of communication networks, computers, databases and consumer electronics that will put vast amounts of information at user's finger tips.” Learning Expectation: I expect to understand what global infrastructure is and what it has to do with democratic technology. Review: Global information infrastructure for me is like having freedom and there for it is democratic in a sense that everyone is free to view information as long as they do something bad about it. This vast amount of information available today cannot be done without the help of other people, because no one owns the internet there for it must be free. Freedom with information comes with the responsibility that we must also contribute to the community. Knowing your limitations is also very important, in a democratic country we have the freedom of speech etch. But we must always put in mind that there are some limitations that we must comply with. People have an instinct of being sarcastic. Even thou they know that some information are sensitive and there for must privatize, they tend to dig in. They have that mind set of craving for more. A good example of this are those bad hackers. They use their brains to do people harm. Another thing is anonymity, we must respect the anonymity of other people because its their decision. Being anonymous places a big role in the web today. If you talk to a person you don’t know may lead to some mistrust but this is just some of the consequence of being anonymous.

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For me GII is a good just don’t abuse it. Make something out of the ordinary and share it to other. Lesson Learned: Vast information is available today. Let us thank those people who haven’t slept for day just to provide us information. I learned that we must also contribute our knowledge with other and we must also respect if they tend to privatize some information. Integrative questions: 1. What is GII? 2. What do GII do? 3. Is GII democratic? 4. What is democratic technology? 5. What do democratic technology have to do with the GII?

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Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some Key Problems and Challenges Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:” In the wake of the Enlightenment the emphasis in ethical theory has been for a long time on systems and rules. Almost invariably, these rules were derived from some supposed “ethically perfect world.” But ideal rules may workout very differently in (non-ideal) practice.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter I expect to learn how to apply ethics and moral concepts and theories in my everyday work. As an IT student we must have a sturdy foundations with these concepts for us to be able to not interfere with others and know your limitations. Review: As I read through the pages of this chapter it was mind bugging. Many concepts seem to blow mind apart but as I goes along the way I tend to realize the 3 important concepts (1) the demarcation of computer ethics,(2) the role of social context and, (3) role of expert advisers. For Birrer his point of view on this opposite. This is what he said ”I beg to disagree with this. The issues he mentioned are already issues even without a computer. It doesn't make sense that privacy does not have a question in morality and immorality. Also the rights on a property, it is unbelievable to say that it is not inclined in any moral aspect.” According to him those issues are already taking place and there for must not be expounded more.

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Lesson Learned: I learned that when it comes to ethics there are so many theories are competing with each other. There for we must know in what way we are to view things and carefully match what theories match. Integrative Question: 1. What are the 3 concepts being explained? 2. What did Birrer has to do with demarcation of ethics? 3. What are the importance of those 3 concepts? 4. What is the role of experts in computer ethics? 5. Enumerate reasons to distinguish ethics in narrow sense.

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Just Consequentialism and Computing Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:” Computer ethics is a field of professional ethics concerned with issues of responsibilities and conduct for computer professionals.” Learning Expectation: I expect to learn how to be just in using the computer and face the consequences of any actions made. Review: In a company there are some policies regarding the use of computers, storage of data and other things that is connected with information technology. Policies made by a company are based on ethical theories like the just consequencialism of Moor. He agues about policies in computers; how it is followed or not followed and the difference between ethical and non-ethical policies. He also wants the people who uses the this technology to become more aware of the implications and the consequences of neglecting policies set by the IT world. He wants to inspire computer ethics to have more creative in pointing out the real problems in order to provide a more convincing and strong policies. Moors argument is more likely of the law of action and reaction. It is stated that in every action there will be a reaction. it is telling us that every action we make must be thought first, because there will be a consequence whether it is good or bad we must be ready to face it. Specially today that people seem to take for granted making unethical actions when using the computers because maybe there is no one around. But we must always take it into consideration that we are not alone. God will always find a way to let us realize that what we are doing is wrong.
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Lessons learned: When ever you are using the computer, come to think of it. Will be one of those unethical people who doesn’t care about other or are you one of those people who seem to think before they act. Either way we must face whatever consequence either good or bad the most important thing is learn from your mistakes. Integrative questions: 1. Define consequence? 2. Is consequence and justice the same? 3. How can we help a company in policy making? 4. Is it just to put policies in using a computer? 5. What is Moor trying to point out in his argument?

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The Internet as Public Space: Concepts, Issues, and Implications on Public Policy Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:” the internet has long been identified as an information agora. The role of the internet as a public space foe every citizen is being shaped by two seemingly contradictory characteristics: the internet is both ubiquitous and personal” Learning Expectation: As I am reading the title of the chapter I am expecting to be enlightened on some concepts that will be explained and be more aware of the issues that deals with the IT industry. Review: In this chapter the author explain about a goal with consist of , first to help clarify concepts-old and emerging and to bring up important issues involved. Second is to consider how regulating electronic spaces simultaneity, permeability, and exclusivity. The chapter is all about the relevance of the internet to the public. It is said that the internet is the most common place where people meet. So Internet is definitely a public space. Surfing in the internet is like going to mall, walking in the park, sitting in a bench. These activities ask for physical space in public domain.

Lesson learned: I learned about that the internet is not just a public space. And also the connection of all public and private businesses and establishment

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Integrative questions: 1. What is the internet? 2. What are the digital characteristics? 3. How do cyberspace help people? 4. What are the authors goal? 5. What is the identification of the internet?

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Law of cyberspace Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:” Social norms are a second. They are regulate. Social norms – understandings or expectations about how I ought to behave, enforced not through some centralized norm enforcer within a particular community – direct and constrain my behavior in a far wider array of contexts than any law. Norms say what clothes I will wear: a suit, not a dress they tell you to sit quietly, and politely, for at least 40 minuets while I speak; they organize how we will interact after this talk is over. Norms guide behavior; in this sense, they function as s second regulatory constraints ” Learning Expectation: I am expecting to learn more about what are the laws of cyberspace. I haven’t heard this concept before. What is the difference of laws and policies? If we broke the law will anyone know it? Review: Let me start with a brief history. before the revolution in Russia. The Russians have a system of internal passports. People living in Russia hate this kind of system because they feel like they are in jail. This passports marked the estate from which you came, and this marking determined the places you could go, with whom you could be. The passport plays like badges that grant access or barred people in places. But this changed after the revolution. People have the freedom to travel everywhere and have and be with anyone they want. but this didn’t last for long the government brings back the internal passport again to gain control of the people. Today some people want to gain control of the cyberspace or what they called internet. they wanted to have control so that it would not be chaotic. For me this is bullshit. People spend lifetime developing what we are now using then they want us to be controlled? Cyberspace and
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realspace are 2 different realities. The laws in the real space don’t apply with the cyberspace so they really don’t have to put control on it. Lesson learned: I learned that people want to have control over the cyberspace and I strongly oppose it. Internet is internetwork of databases, private networks and users. So it means that everyone contributes to it, there for they don’t have the right to control or restrict users in using it. Integrative questions: 1. What do Russians use to control their people 2. Having like an internal passport over the cyberspace will help us more? 3. Why do they have to put control over cyber space? 4. What are the 2 different networks? 5. Describe the network used by harvard?

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Of Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:” there is, within the (rapidly-growing)community of people who spend their time thinking about law and policy in cyberspace, a rather interesting debate taking place. Though it is not always characterized in these terms, it reflects a conflict between competing visions of “order” and “disorder” in social system. This is by no means a “new” debate, but it takes on a new shape in the rather special condition of cyber space or so, at least , I hope to suggest in what follows” Learning Expectation: I would like to know about the term black hole specially in ethic readings. I would also like to learn about the decentralized law-making in cyberspace. Review: This chapter talks about spam messages. What is its origins and its terminologies. This chapter clearly explains how it works and when it started. At the start of the chapter there is a message sent to professor Tom Fields which in todays term is spam. It all started with an explanation where in all of the email addresses of different persons are store in one data bank. Every time they want to make an advertisement or announcement etch. They just have to access the data storage and send the desired messages. Today we are experiencing spam issue on our email ads. For me “”spam” messages are like viruses, they always comes back and could not prevented. But they could be stopped just for a while, yet surely they will come back. In this chapter you will encounter the term MAPS which means Mail Abuse Prevention System and the RBL which means Realtime Blackhole List which consist of a long list of internet addresses. They place on the RBL any internet address from which, to their knowledge, spam has originated.
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Lesson Learned: After I read this chapter I know understand how Spam works and how It originated. Deception is one key tactic which can fool people easily. Integrative questions: 1. What is RBL? 2. What can it do? 3. What harm can it do to us? 4. Who discover these spam? 5. What is MAPS?

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Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning? Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:”Any content-based regulation of the internet, no matter how benign the purpose could burn the global village to roast the pig” Learning Expectation: I would like to learn about that 451.2 Fahrenheit and its connection with cyber ethics. I would also like to learn about that cyberspace burning as stated in the title. Review: In this chapter it is explained very well why the title of the chapter is Fahrenheit 451.2 and is the cyberspace burning. This chapter explain about the usage of internet and books. Fahrenheit 451, author Ray Bradbury describes a futuristic society where books are outlawed.”Fahrenheit 451” is, of course the temperature at which books burn. People censor the printed word by burning books. But in the virtual world, one can just as easily censor controversial speech by banishing it to the farthest corners of cyberspace using rating and blocking programs. The author Ray Bradbury also explains why his latest book is named 451.2f. He said that this is a virtual censorships where in this is the temperature which cyberspace goes up in smoke. He also enumerated that the first flames of interne censorship appeared two years ago with the introduction of the federal communications decency act(CDA), outlawing “indecent” online speech. Luckily the court declares that the internet is the highest form of free speech so it also deserves protection granted into books and other printed materials.

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Lessons learned: I learned that internet censorship is on its way and maybe time will come that internet will be like a bookstore where in all the articles are censored and nothing indecent will pass through. I hope this will not happen because for me as a student internet in its form today helps me gather information specially during research work. Integrative Questions : 1. What is CDA? 2. Who is the author of Fahrenheit 451? 3. What do he mean by Fahrenheit 451.2? 4. Why does he declare that the internet is now smoking? 5. What is censorship?

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Filtering the Internet in the USA: Free Speech Denied? Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:” Thus, access criteria are preset by the product manufacturer and can be altered by the regular downloading of updates or even altered, for certain of the filters, by the active user. Not surprisingly, most users, especially busy parents, are likely to use the default criteria and therefore have minimal awareness of which sites and newsgroups are not accessible. Since blocking and filtering programs are commonly available, the focus of this paper will be on their use; however, also of importance, and potentially more dangerous, are rating programs, analogous to systems in place for movies and television. Two systems are intended to first encourage and later require websites and newsgroups to rate themselves along a number of dimensions for example includes nudity, sex, violence, and language. Browsers and search engines could then be programmed to return or access sites and newsgroups that satisfy a preset profile. The dangers associated with self-rating schemeswill be discussed later in this paper.” Learning Expectation: I would like to learn more about why is there such word as filtering the internet. How can you filter such a democratic technology. I also want to learn more about the side of the people using the internet in the USA because it seems that it is limited. Review: In the previous chapter it is talk about that the internet is the highest form of free speech and there for the publishers must not be filtered because it is their intellectual right to say what ever they want. There are a lot of problems with blocking and filtering contents because such features restricts access to some content that some people might actually want to gain access too. For example, just the other day, i saw this kid browsing through the internet about
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something that let’s just say, not for his age but then it’s there, it is there wide and open for the innocent kid to see. That is not for him but how come he has access to it? Is it the fault of the parent? Or is the browser the one to blame? Why won’t they activate the filtering feature of the browser? Another thing, is it the parents who must be responsible for their children in the other hand. Lessons learned: I learned about the definitions. I also learned about the current issues regarding blocking and filtering and some example. I also learned about the librarians and filtering programs Integrative Questions: 1. Define filtering? 2. What is the meaning of USA? 3. Who must be responsible in filtering what they can search? 4. What is the difference of filtering and blocking? 5. Give examples of filtering softwares?

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Censorship, the internet, and the child pornography law of 1996: A critique Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:”when the law speaks universally, then, and a case arises on it which is not covered by the universal statement, then it is right, where the legislator fails us and has erred by over simplicity, to correct the imission- to say what the legislator himself would have said had he been present, and would have put into his law if he had known” Learning Expectation: I am expecting to learn more about the law on child pornography. And how do people filter the net to stop child pornography over the internet Review: This chapter talks about conducting what might otherwise be an abstract, esoteric and unwieldy discussion of censorship on the internet. Way back in 1996 there was a law protecting the children against child pornography. This was called child pornography prevention act (CPPA). Child pornography had been an issue every since. This problem could not be solved if people will just sit in their chairs and watch people destroy the welfare of the children. The aim of the CPPA at regulating the use of computers in the production and dissemination of child pornography and is upon close inspection, remarkably restrictive. This act makes it a crime even if knowingly send, receive, distribute etch. For the people to understand what really is going on in our society and reduce the production of child pornography. Instant blocking software were develop to prevent child pornographic materials to spread and finally locate the master mind behind these illegal operations.

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For me this is a good act not only for those who are covered by this act but also all the people of the world. It is good to know that there are still people concern about the welfare of those children who are engaged in this kind of business.

Lessons Learned: Today many children are suffering due to these kind of illegal activities. As a person willing to help them let us not take child pornography for granted. Let us not patronize these kind of materials so that those producers will stop producing anymore. Integrative Questions: 1. What is CPPA? 2. When did CPPA enacted? 3. What can CPPA do to those victims of child pornography? 4. Give example of violation of CPPA? 5. What do CDA means?

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PICS: internet Access Controls Without Censorship Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:”on the internet, we can do still better, with richer labels that reflect diverse viewpoints, and more flexible selection criteria. PICS, the platform for the internet content selection, establishes internet conventions for labeling vocabulary nor who should pay attention to which labels. It is analogous to specify where on a package a label should appear, and in what font it should be printed, without specifying what it should say” Learning Expectation: I expect to learn more about why people needs to have access control. For me this is very intriguing what if that person needs to visit a site where in the information he needs is there and it is not granted access to it. Review: In this chapter there an article titled Flexible blocking. So how is this done. Rather than turning off the internet, there should be some way to block only the inappropriate material. Appropriateness, however is neither an object nor a universal measure. It depends on at least 3 factors 1)the supervisor2)the recipient3)the context. In this chapter the author talks about the PICS which means Platform for the Internet Content Selection. He said that it is the one responsible in blocking what is needed to be block. Given in the example are those people in the offices. They are just allowed to visit sites that would have to do with their line of work. PICS can be a very useful tool in controlling children who can stop thinking green. Parents could set words or phrase that if search cant be viewed by the children. PICS provides a labeling infrastructure for the internet. It is values-neutral: it can accommodate any set of labeling dimensions, and any criteria for assigning labels. Any PICS-compatible
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software can interpret labels from any source, because each source provides a machine readable description of its labeling dimension.

Lessons learned: I learned that access restriction in some way could provide us positive effect. It is shown in the reading that PICS is a very useful tool against unwanted access. It is very effective and hopefully all of the companies will makes their own PICS Integrative Questions: 1. What is the meaning of PICS? 2. What can PICS it do? 3. Where do PICS base its restrictions? 4. Who are affected by PICS? 5. Who made PICS?

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Internet Service Providers and Defamation: New Standards of Liability Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:”in the past few years defamation on the internet has emerged as a controversial topic of internet law. The complexity of this multi-faceted issue precludes a comprehensive treatment of internet defamation in this paper” Learning Expectation: From the title it self I would like to learn more about defamation and in what way can a person commit defamation. Another is how can a person be liable and what are the consequence of this action. Review: In the chapter there is one article where in it is said that the first amendment of the constitution guarantees freedom of speech and freedom of the press. Internet is the highest form of freedom of speech as what is explain in the previous chapters of the book. It is also said that internet or is democratic so there for must be at will with people. Having a state of “there must be some limit on speech in cyberspace” is a defamation itself. So what is defamation by a way? It is a communication that harms the reputation of another and lowers that persons steem in the eyes of the community. In the article Internet service providers and the internet defamation with in the chapter it is explained that big confusion when it comes to liability. There is one question which says. Do internet providers can be liable for defamation made by its users? In this way lets us say that ISP could be liable. But how could they categorize that company is an ISP provider. There are some conflicts in the rules of liability when it comes to defamation.

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We have sought to demonstrate here that policies and laws governing defamation liability on the internet need substantial revision. The prevailing interpretation of the communications decent act, which provides absolute immunity for isp’s is mistakenly dangerous.

Lessons learned: In this chapter I learned how defamation could affect ones selfsteem. I also learned that before there were confusion and conflicts when it comes to the liability of ISP in defamation made by their users. Integrative questions: 1. What is defamation? 2. How could this achieved when using the internet? 3. What are ISP’s? 4. Is internet democratic? 5. Give example on how to defame the cyberspace?

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Digital Millennium Copyright Act Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote:” The technology companies that distribute their content — the legal power to create closed technology platforms and exclude competitors from interoperating with them.” Learning Expectation: To learn more about how the digital millennium copyright act and how it works. I also want to learn how will it help us in our daily life. Review: The arrest of Russian programmer Dmitry Sklyarov in 2001, for alleged infringement of the DMCA, was a highly publicized example of the law's use to prevent or penalize development of anti-DRM measures. While working for Elcomsoft in Russia, he developed The Advanced eBook Processor, a software application allowing users to strip usage restriction information from restricted e-books, an activity legal in both Russia and the United States. Paradoxically, under the DMCA, it is not legal in the United States to provide such a tool. Sklyarov was arrested in the United States after presenting a speech at DEF CON and subsequently spent nearly a month in jail. The DMCA has also been cited as chilling to legitimate users, such as students of cryptanalysis (including, in a well-known instance, Professor Edward Felten and students at Princeton), and security consultants such as Niels Ferguson, who has declined to publish information about vulnerabilities he discovered in an Intel secure-computing scheme because of his concern about being arrested under the DMCA .

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Lessons learned: The DMCA has been criticized for making it too easy for copyright owners to encourage website owners to take down allegedly infringing content and links which may in fact not be infringing. When website owners receive a takedown notice it is in their interest not to challenge it, even if it is not clear if infringement is taking place, because if the potentially infringing content is taken down the website will not be held liable. Integrative Questions: 1. What is the meaning of DMCA? 2. What can it do to us? 3. Who is that Russian programmer that was arrested? 4. Why is he arrested? 5. What did he do wrong?

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Note on the DeCSS trial Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “In the fast-pased world of cyberlaw the first summer of the new millennium will be remembered for two controversial cases. The first is the well publicized dispute involving web sites such as Napster and Gnutella which allow users to swap MP3 music files. The music industry has sought an injunction to prevent Napster, since the subject matter probably seemed more arcane to the general public. Both cases have the potential to shape the precarious landscape of intellectual property law but the effects of the DeCSS case” Learning Expectation: To learn more about DeCSS and how it works. Review: In this chapter you will learn about some technologies that are used to the same but in different operating systems.Jon Johansen wrote DeCSS in order to view DVDs on a Linux machine. The MPAA has since brought suit against him in his native Norway as well. Johansen testified on Thursday that he announced the successful reverse engineering of a DVD on the mailing list of the Linux Video and DVD Project (LiViD), a user resource center for video- and DVD-related work for Linux. The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), an organization based in San Francisco which supports civil liberties in digital arenas, is providing a legal defense that cites, among other issues, fair use. After all, the EFF argues, if you buy a DVD, why can't you play it on any machine you want? this is the question of many of the people who are experiencing the same scenario

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Lessons learned: I learned that copying a technology will be a big liability in your part

Integrative Questions: 1. What is DeCSS trial? 2. What is DVD? 3. What do DMCA do with the trial? 4. What is this chapter all about? 5. What is the meaning of EFF?

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A politics of intellectual property: Environmentalism for the net? Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “using the controversy over copyright on the net as a case-study and the history of the environmental movement as a comparison, it offers a couple of modest proposals about what such a politics might look like- what theoretical ideas it might draw upon and what constituencies it might unite” Learning Expectation: I would like to learn how environmentalism could help the internet. I would also like to learn more about the meaning of intellectual property. Review : In this chapter the author said that we are now moving to an information age. To have information is to have power. As I said in the previous chapters that the more information you have the more power you gain. These ideas are so true, everybody would agree with it. Sad to say that academics is not the best social theorist in this age but those science fiction writers and in particular the cyberpunks. Cyberpunks are the originators of the word cyberspace. Cyberpunks often offers us legal insights. The more one moves to a world in which the message, rather than the medium. In this age of information, there are some pros and cons. The most common cons are those pornographic material roaming around different users. The author said “I have argued that the idea of an information age is indeed a useful and productive concept, that there is a homologizing tendency for all ”information issues” to collapse into each other as information technology and the idea of “information” move forward

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in reciprocal relationship” yes I agree with his argument that today information is very helpful and productive specially when it comes to economic and political advancement.

Lessons learned: I learned that today we are on the information age and we are lucky that this technological advancement help up to be more productive. I also learned that cyberpunks are the creator of the word cyberspace and they are more liable theorist rather than academics. Integrative questions: 1. Who are those cyber punks? 2. What do you call the era we are now? 3. What are the pros and cons of information age? 4. What do you mean by the word “privatise”? 5. Give example how technology help our environment?

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Intellectual Property, information, and Common Good Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “computer technology has created a new revolution in how intellectual property is created, stored, reproduced and disseminated; with that revolution has come new challenges to our understanding of intellectual property and how to protect it” Learning Expectation: In our subject called ITETHICS we come across this word intellectual property. I as a student feels lucky to know about this kind of term. I am hoping to learn more about this intellectual property and how to use it for the common good. Review : Intellectual property is explain in this chapter as a property which always been tied with technology. Technology arises from the intellectual property in the form of new inventions. Lets dissect the term intellectual property. First the word intellectual means ideas. Original ideas came from a particular person. The next is property, which means ownership of something. So combining the 2 word means “ownership of an idea”. In this chapter also explains cases over intellectual property. Case 1 plagiarism – this is a common problem today. Increase in the technology dramatically increase the possibilities. Case2 Software piracy - Many of the copyrights had been already infringe many got pirated. Just for example here in the Philippines DVD pirated are almost everywhere. This is one issue that could not put on a halt. Case 3 repacking data and databases – one good example of this is a quote in Pilipino “ikaw ang nag tanim, iba ang aani” which means you spend time and money in order for you to earn from it but others just rename it and call it their own.

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These are just example of cases where in intellectual property rights had been infringe. Taking into consideration that a persons intellectual property even if he didn’t copyright it or put it into creative common doesn’t mean that you can get it already. Let us respect the ideas of others, we could always learn from them but we must not declare ownership on it.

Lessons learned: I learned more about intellectual property. How it can be broken and how it can be protected. The definition of IP is some how general. But the moment that persons new ideas came out that is already considered as his intellectual property. Integrative questions: 1. What is intellectual property? 2. Give examples on how to infringe it. 3. How could we protect our own intellectual property? 4. Is piracy the same as repacking? 5. How can you say that you own that intellectual property?

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Is Copyright Ethical? An Examination of the Theories, Laws, and Practices Regarding the Private Ownership of Intellectual Work in the United States Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “A property right is the relationship between individuals in reference to things. Cohen (1935)” Learning expectation: I expect to learn more about copyrights and why is it ethical. I would like to see some argument on copyright ethical theories and laws. Review: The ethics of copyright can be approached in two ways: (1) If, as Hettinger suggests, every creator stands on the shoulders of giants what is the essential morality in allowing the last contributor to reap the full reward or to have the right to prevent others from building on her contribution; and (2) If, as postulated by Locke, an individual is entitled to what he or she creates, what are the ethics of limiting a creators rights in regards to his or her creation? Theoretically copyright law in the United States takes the first view, stating that authors have no natural right in their creation but only the rights that the state has conferred by reason of policy to encourage the creation of new works. In my point of view I disagree with that argument of, government owning the rights on that property and the owner it self has no rights on it but what is given to him by the government. For me this is very unethical. How In the world could someone tells you what to do if that thing is yours.

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Learning expectation: I learned the 2 ways on how to view on ethics of copyright. I also learned the American copyright is very unjust because of what they are doing with the works of others Integrative questions: 1. What is copyright? 2. Explain the ethics on copyrights? 3. What are the 2 ways on how to view copyright ethics? 4. Do the creator of the copyright have the rights on his work? 5. What country are we talking about?

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On the Web; Plagiarism matters more than copyright piracy Library Reference: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “the observation that copyright shows concern for the owner rather than the user, however, is only a starting point for a study of the issue regarding copyrights in web publication. Our copyright policies are legal conventions that establish the relevant notion of property” Learning expectation: I would like to learn the difference between plagiarism and piracy because I think these are the same. I also would like to learn why is plagiarism matters more than piracy. Review: In this chapter it is very well explain he difference between piracy and plagiarism. Although commonly confused, the value inherent in copyright policy are different from those inherent in scholarly standards for the proper accreditation of ideas. Piracy is the infringement of a copyright and plagiarism is the failure to give credit. So why is plagiarism has more weight than piracy? Plagiarism is when you get something and declare it as your own. For me this is more than stealing. Plagiarism for me is a crime because you not only stole something but you also declare that you own it. In the other hand piracy is like forgetting to ask permission from the owner that you will use his/her work. To stop piracy you just can simply put in the source and acknowledge the author.

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Lesson learned: The difference of the two make no difference in the eye of ordinary people, but we as IT student must always keep in we will be the next generation of IT practitioners and we carry the responsibility to know the definition of the 2 words.

Integrative questions: 1. What is plagiarism? 2. What is piracy? 3. How can you tell if the crime is plagiarism or piracy? 4. What can do to stop piracy? 5. Give example of plagiarism.

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An Ethical Evaluation of Web Site Linking Library Reference: None Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239346529&sr=8-3 Quote: “while web site author may indeed have a property right in their creative work. They have correlative obligation to promote the sharing and free flow of information when their specific ownership rights are not put in jeopardy by deep linking” Learning Expectations: I would like to learn more about web site linking and what are the ethical ways of linking it and how can it be unethical to link sites. Book Review: World wide web has grown in popularity since its birth decades ago. In this chapter the author talks about the power of linking websites. The propriety of linking to other web sites has achieved some prominence as an important moral and legal issue. Hyperlinks represent the essence of web-based activity. While most sites welcome and support incoming links, other block them or seek to license them in some way. Bypassing the home page in a website is what they call deep linking. Deep linking is forbidden in the cyber space. In some circumstances deep linking is unfair and constitutes misappropriatetion of intellectual property. In this paper we will explore issues of deep linking First lets discuss about links. Links is simply a connection within the same website or between 2 different websites. When you out a URL of a site into your site and label it this is called hyperlink. So what is really deep linking? The definition of deep linking given by the author is bringing the user to subordinate pages within that website. One good example of this is what happened to Microsoft and ticketmaster. What Microsoft did is, it develop a website called seattle sidewalk where in it is like a guide to seattle where in many establishments are
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connected to it. However the connection with ticketmaster bypass the home page of the site and went directly to ticket selling. This is one big mistake by Microsoft. Bypassing the home page of a particular website and directly accessing its functions is clearly a deep linking. Lessons learned: I learned about deep linking, how it is done and why is it forbidden. I also learned about some issues surrounding linking sites. i also realize that we must respect other peoples work, specially in websites. Websites are publication and there for we must respect the home page before getting deeper into the site. Integrative questions: 1. What is a hyperlink? 2. What are the 2 different kinds of hyperlink? 3. What is deep linking? 4. Why is it not allowed? 5. Give example of deeplinking?

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The cathedral and the Bazaar Library Reference: None Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239346529&sr=8-3 Quote: “once again the existence of the open-source community sharpens this question considerably – because we have fun doing what we do. Our creative play has been racking up technical, market-share, and mind-share successes at an astounding rate. We’ve proving not only that we can do better software, but the joy is as asset.” Learning Expectations: I am expecting to learn more about why do they say the cathedral and the bazaar? There must be something in this chapter that oppose each other. Because if you come to think of it. A cathedral is a big but quite place while a bazaar has many people and many ideas. Review: In this chapter the author talks about open source programming. He also explains the power of open source programming. Who would have thought even five years ago(1991) that a worldclass operating system could coalesce as if by magic out of part-time hacking by several thousand developers scattered all over the planet, connected only by the tenuous strands of the internet? I guess this is one statement that open source community is a powerful tool. Linux realized the power of open source and began to embrace open source programming. It is nice to know that people are connected only by a strand. Like the internet people seem to create a community which shares ideas and techniques with each other. This is the advantage of using open source programming. Many ideas pours into your system and will help you develop it.

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Lessons learned: I learned that open source is good. You will be able to download programs and softwares for free. I also learned how open source community help each other, shares idea and collaborate their work. Integrative questions: 1. What is linux? 2. Why does it merge with the open source community? 3. What is an open source community? 4. What is the advantage of open source community? 5. What is UNIX?

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Towards a Theory of Privacy in the Information Age Library Reference: None Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239346529&sr=8-3 Quote: “our revolution will not be in gathering data—don’t look for tv cameras in your bedroom—but in analyzing the information that is already willingly shared.” Learning Expectations: I expect to learn more about the theories that have to do with the privacy of everyone in this age of information Review: The justification of privacy would be more secure if we could show that it has intrinsic value. Good definition of privacy in Western societies, but it is important to remember that this value is neither universal nor absolute. China and Singapore are examples of many societies where it is not considered correct that individuals have the right to be shielded as described by Moor. RFID can perhaps be seen as arguments for and against information and communications technology (ICT) in general as the enemy of privacy. As the eminent computer ethicist Herman Tavani explains, ICT poses a unique threat to personal privacy because of the type and quantity of personal information that can be collected. Even where this is held to be correct, in societies such as Australia, it is seen as acceptable for individual privacy to be overridden for the sake of something more valuable, such as the general welfare, and indeed people frequently sacrifice their own privacy for some other benefit, such as the convenience of transacting over the Internet privacy techniques.

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Lessons learned: I learned about the different theories on privacy for the information age. Integrative questions: 1. What is privacy in your own words? 2. Who is the enemy of privacy? 3. What is ICT? 4. What can it do for us? 5. How can it help in our daily life?

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The Structure of Rights in Directive 95/46/EC on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and the Free Movement of Such Data Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “According to one theory, privacy should be identified with the individual’s control concerning the flow of personal information” Learning Expectation: My learning expectation includes understanding the directives that is being discussed in this chapter and how is it relevant in our course. Review: The chapter has three parts for the purpose of effectively discussing the 95/46/EC protection of individuals directive. In the first part talks about how the structure of rights in the said directive is described, second, is the author discusses the widely discussed philosophical accounts of privacy, and third is the own ideas of the author regarding the philosophical theories of individual rights concerning the personal data processing. On a broader perspective the chapter talks about what is the purpose of the directive, its contents, and problems that it addresses. The Directive addresses the problem of processing data, the aim of the directive is to “protect the fundamental rights and freedom of natural persons, and in particular the right to privacy with respect to the processing of personal data”. Another aim of the directive, which is relevant to the first is the protection that is being talked about is making the flow of sensitive information promoted within the community. Referring to the directive, its central concept is about the processing of personal data, while the earlier pieces of legislation are about the recording of data which in my opinion is the foundation of the directive. In the book, the processing of personal data is defined as “any operation or set of operations which is performed upon personal data, whether or not by automatic means, such as collection,
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recording, organisation, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, blocking, erasure or destruction”. The definition is quite lengthy but I believe it was a sufficient explanation for what data processing is. Lesson learned: In this chapter I have learned that computers are just robot. Whatever you told them to do, they will do it. They really don’t have emotions. Having the knowledge puts you in a position where in you can be anyone or do anything but always remember that life is too short so make the best of it.

Integrative Questions: 1. What is the main purpose of the directive? 2. What did the author discussed in the second and third part of the chapter? 3. What is the issue about privacy in this chapter? 4. What does the philosophical theory say about privacy? 5. What is the problem with processing data?

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Privacy Protection, Control of Information, and Privacy-Enhancing Techniques Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “Privacy is the claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how and to what extent information about them as communicated to others” Learning Expectation: My learning expectation includes understanding the directives that is being discussed in this chapter and how is it relevant in our course. Review: This chapter has two parts: the first part is about the argument of separating privacy from control is necessary which is necessary to preserve the identity of both notions. It could be further in three different ways which are according to the book, choice, consent, and correction. These play an important role in privacy management. The first part also talks about why individual controls alone are not sufficient in guaranteeing personal privacy protection and why certain external controls which are provided by privacy policies are needed. Another argument in the first part is that even the privacy-enhancing technologies provide people with a way of controlling their sensitive information; they do not necessarily ensure the protection of privacy because they do not provide internet users with a privacy protection zone that includes external controls. Lesson learned: This chapter provided my knowledge with what privacy enhancing technologies are all about and how can they affect users like us and on how they provide protection to internet users, and also on how it was insufficient for protection.

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Integrative Questions: 1. What is the main argument in the first part of the chapter? 2. Why did the author argue the PET’s are not enough to protect the privacy of the users? 3. Why does he also argue that privacy should be separated from control? 4. What are some tools that are provided by PETs? 5. Why did the author said that PET only blue the need for privacy protection?

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Toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of Information Technology Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “The important thing is that there be some information which is protected” Learning Expectation: My learning expectation in this chapter is on what are the challenges of information technology when it comes to privacy in public. Review: The main thought of this chapter is about the contemporary moral privacy that is not included with the dominant theoretical approaches. Even if these approaches have emphasis on the relation of privacy and the so-called protected personal sphere, there is still a perceived threat in privacy because of the massive collection of information even if it is in public. This chapter describes and identifies the problem in privacy in public, it is considered as “preliminary work in a larger effort to map out future theoretical directions”. There are many approaches that are influential when it comes to the issue of privacy, and they all commonly emphasize the role of privacy with regards to securing a “personal realm” which is about the privacy of people. In this book, there are two realms that are considered by the author, the “private realm” and the public realm, as discussed in the chapter, these two realms are contrasting and could be defined ambiguously. The argument on the approaches is the worthiness of safeguarding privacy because as stated in the book, “intimacy is important; privacy is worth protecting because we value the sanctity of a personal realm”. As the author said, his article does not argue or challenge the connection between the privacy norm and the ability to protect those realms and also the importance of securing intimate and personal realms. But rather it argues that “the account of privacy is not complete that stops with the intimate and personal realms.”
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Lesson learned: I learned the approaches in privacy and the realms used by the author to explain the topic, also the problems that are encountered regarding the privacy in public.

Integrative Questions: 1. What is the article’s main point of discussion? 2. What are some examples of approaches in privacy? 3. What is the problem with privacy in public? 4. What is the commonality with the approaches in privacy? 5. Do you agree with the argument that the author made?

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KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “Infringements of categorical privacy cannot be dealt with in ways similar to those in which individuals are protected against possible infringements of individual informational privacy” Learning Expectation: My learning expectation is that I will learn what is KDD, and why is it related to privacy and the other topics like individuality and fairness. Review: The author of the chapter aims to draw attention on the problems regarding KDD or the knowledge discovery in databases, which are using personal data. The KDD has three processes: the data warehousing phase, where data are gathered and stored, the data mining phase, where the data is analyzed, and the interpretation phase, is where the results of the analysis are interpreted. The KDD is mainly used for tracking unforeseen patterns in large database which offers great opportunities in predicting behaviours of groups. There are also other applications of KDD; this includes the tracking of marketing and credit scoring, checking patterns in criminal behaviour, and also medical data and medical drug consumption. The main focus of this chapter is the negative social impact of group profiling with the use of KDD. The applications of KDD have many implications that could benefit a lot of people but as usual there are disadvantages with concern to moral and a social point of view. The KDD is discussed as far as the personal data and the combination of other data is concerned. And the author did not discuss anything about KDD without any connection with personal data because I also think it is not relevant.

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To summarize the chapter, the author first pointed out that the “current privacy law and nonlegal privacy norms are based on a narrow definition of personal data”. The focus is on the serious social problems that could arise from group profiling. Lesson learned: I learned the concept and the process of KDD and how could it be a problem in moral and social perspective

Integrative Questions: 1. What is the aim of this chapter? 2. What are the three processes of KDD? 3. What is the purpose of KDD? 4. What are the benefits of KDD? 5. What is the disadvantage of KDD?

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Data Mining and Privacy Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “Is it possible for data that do not in themselves deserve legal protection to contain implicit knowledge that does deserve legal protection, and, if so, what balance must be struck between the freedom to use whatever knowledge one has at one’s disposal to further one’s own ends and – to put it in Kantian terms – the freedom not to have one’s personal data mined into knowledge that will be used as a means to someone else’s ends?” Learning Expectation: My learning expectation is that my knowledge will be furthered with regards to data mining. Review: The main focus of this chapter is the protection of private data from being connected or associated to the source, which is in this case the user. But there are certain methodologies which are based on cryptographic protocols which would provide protection from exploitation. These techniques are devised by the computer scientist, David Chaum, these said techniques are used to prevent the “dossier society” which is defined as the use of computer to infer information about a certain individual which causes the “chilling effect” which cause people to change their routine observable activities. But there are no formal and real incentives for organizations equipped with this user protection feature despite the worries of the consumers in data collection. But as long as the law does not give concern with this subject, this matter would only be just an advance course in computer science as said in the book. Data mining is knowledge discovery in databases or is known as KDD, these differ from traditional retrieval of information from databases because the traditional method returns records which are responses from queries or searches. While in data mining, the data that is retrieved is not explicit when in the database. Another way to explain data mining which I’ve

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read in the book is “the process of discovering such patterns when considered apart from the necessary concomitant parts of the knowledge discovery process”. Lesson learned: I learned the meaning of data mining and additional knowledge about privacy. Integrative Questions: 1. What is the main topic that is being discussed in the chapter? 2. What does data mining mean? 3. And what is the issue with data mining? 4. Do you think you are affected by the issue? 5. What do you think would be a good solution to this problem?

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Workplace Surveillance, Privacy, and Distributive Justice Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “As surveillance increases, more and more questions are being raised about its legitimacy” Learning Expectation: I expect to learn more about workplace surveillance and its connection to privacy, and distributive justice. Review: This chapter is all about the issue of workplace surveillance and the individual right to privacy. Surveillance has become a big issue in our society today, there are hidden cameras, CCTV’s, consumer surveys, and workplace surveillance. As surveillance increases, the question about its legitimacy also increases. In this chapter, the author wants to focus on the problems of surveillance, specifically workplace surveillance, which with the extensive use of information technology, the potential for cheap, implicit, and diffused surveillance are to be made possible. And the said surveillance even surpasses a human supervisor and could get close and continuous as it can be. As the book says, surveillance often functions as a resource for execution of power, and the effectiveness of power is maximized when it is concealed. The main purpose of the paper, as the author implied, is not to discourage or go against surveillance, rather its aim is to understand the logic and reason of surveying the workplace. The author argues in this chapter the real issue in workplace surveillance in the context of justice as fairness. The chapter also includes a discussion which involves Rawl’s theory of justice which is used to establish a framework in distributing the rights of privacy and transparency between the individual, which in this case is the employee, and the institution, which is the employer. This situation was assumed to be under the veil of ignorance as Rawl’s theory put it.

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Lesson learned: I learned the issues about workplace surveillance and its connection to privacy and distributive justice. Integrative Questions: 1. What is the main topic that is being discussed in the chapter? 2. How does workplace surveillance function? 3. What are the issues concerning surveillance? 4. Why is the purpose of surveillance? 5. How does Rawl’s theory apply in this topic?

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Privacy and the Varieties of Informational Wrongdoing Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “The person always sees itself as becoming, as something that has to be overcome, not as a fixed reality, but as something in the making, something that has to be improved upon” Learning Expectation: My learning expectation includes the privacy and the varieties of informational wrongdoing and the issues and problems that are discussed in the chapter. Review: The issue with this chapter is about the debate between the liberalists and communitarians over the issue of balancing individual rights and collective goods. It is more concerned with the question of balancing the claims of those who wanted to limit their personal information to protect individuals and others who wants to share their information to benefit the community. The communitarians argue that the community benefits from the information about its people. Another thing that is being pointed out by the communitarians is that the in our modern world, we show mobility, complexity, and anonymity. As the political philosopher, Michael Walzer, said as cited in the book, “Liberalism is plagued by free-rider problems, by people who continue to enjoy the benefits of membership and identify while no longer participating in the activities that produce these benefits. Communitarianism, by contrast, is the dream of a perfect free-riderlessness”. I did like what Michael Walzer said about this topic, it is very true that there are a lot of free-riders may it be in our school, at work, or even at home. For me, these people are either too lazy to work, or just don’t care about what other people thinks about him and how he burdens other people by having that kind of attitude. Another view that I’m taking into consideration is that our country has widespread poverty, so there are many people that have no jobs because in the first place they didn’t
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graduate from school so they cannot apply into any jobs. If and they found a job, it is of minimal wage or lower than the minimum wage. Lesson learned: I learned more issues about privacy and the varieties of informational wrongdoings. Integrative Questions: 1. What is the main topic that is being discussed in the chapter? 2. How does communitarianism mean? 3. What is the debate between liberalists and communitarians all about? 4. How does the community benefit from available information about its members? 5. What did Michael Walzer observed about liberalism and communitarianism?

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Defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “Even though cases of theft can involve computer technology in some sense, a computer is not the principal tool used to carry out the criminal act” Learning Expectation: I expect to learn what is a computer crime and what are the things that we should consider in categorizing crimes as computer crimes. Review: The main point of this chapter is to determine if the definition of computer crime could be framed. This chapter explains and categorized crimes whether if they fall under computer crime or cybercrime. Also to analyze crime that seems to fall under computer crime, but is really a cybercrime. This sorting is useful because we are able to distinguish which crimes should fall under computer crimes and which do not. The author attempted to establish a clear and coherent criteria in determining the criminal activities which involves the use of computers if they are genuine computer crime. The discussion of this topic is done in a logical manner, in the first part, the author considers the necessity of having a distinct category of crime which is called the “computer crime”. By doing this, the legal, moral, and descriptive categories of computer crime are differentiated. Next is the defence of the approach of having a descriptive category does make sense, and other definitions of computer crime are reviewed. Hence, a new definition of computer crime is proposed and also defended. And it is finally argued that the definition of computer crime could help to extinguish at least some of the confusions associated with criminal activities with the use of computer.

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Lesson learned: I learned what the meaning of computer crime is and what crimes are associated with it and what are not. Integrative Questions: 1. What is the main topic that is being discussed in the chapter? 2. What is a computer crime? 3. How would you differentiate computer crime from cybercrime? 4. What are the categories of computer crime? 5. What is the new definition of computer crime from the chapter?

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Terrorism or Civil Disobedience: Toward a Hacktivist Ethic Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “One thing is sure, however. Incidents of cyberactivism are on the rise and will continue to be on the rise in the near future” Learning Expectation: I expect to learn what is a hacktivist and its connections to terrorism, civil disobedience, and ethics Review: Hacking is easy when you know how to hack because you cannot be traced immediately if you are using programs that could block trackers or could redirect them to other places so your identity and your location could not be revealed. The reason of hackers in attacking websites are unknown, there are possibilities that they are just nuisance attacks of teenagers, or is it cyberterrorism, or an outrage over the commodified internet. The chapter gives a theory about the hackers’ motivation, according to the author, these attacks could be an evidence of a new form of civil disobedience, which is composed of talented computer hackers with the consciousness of a political activist. Electronic civil disobedience, or more commonly known as hacktivism could attack any website of a certain company, group or individual that is deemed responsible in oppressing the ethical, social, or political rights of others. The main purpose of the chapter is to clarify the arising tensions between the cooperative and liberal ideology of the original creators of the “electronic frontier”. Hacktivism could play a role in overcoming political injustice, to educate, to inform, and to be an agent of change in politics and society. But there are uncertainties pertaining to cyber-activism, that it is possible that it would become a cyber-terrorism.

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Lesson learned: I learned the meaning of hacktivism and its advantages and disadvantages. Integrative Questions: 1. What is the main topic that is being discussed in the chapter? 2. What is a hacktivist? 3. What is cyber-activism? 4. What is cyber-terrorism? 5. What sort of people are hactivists?

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Web Security and Privacy: An American Perspective Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “The confusion between privacy and security remains with many in the computer security community. Privacy requires security, because without the ability to control access and distribution of information, privacy cannot be protected. BUT SECURITY IS NOT PRIVACY” Learning Expectation: My learning expectation includes the web security and privacy and how is it in the American perspective Review: In this chapter, the problems with privacy are still discussed, there are countless issues and problems concerning it, but there are still several ways in which it could be resolved. These are by the use of pseudonyms, and access control lists. These methods show that information access could be in fact, protected at a higher level. The main topic of the chapter is the delineation of differences between privacy, security, and anonymity. The arguments of the author are the legal protection of the US concerning web privacy, the author says that there is no legal protection for it, but it is recognized by the American legal tradition. Another issue in this chapter is the information that is being acquired and transferred by just browsing the web. There are technologies available that would protect the user’s privacy against unauthorized data gathering, these includes cryptography and web proxies. But using cryptography, changes could still be detected and tracked. Availability of data and privacy can be resolved in some cases by using anonymous updates. But still the market has failed in protecting privacy because of the limited legal protection and the available technological protections are unused. To sum it all, the author argued that the American legal tradition shows that the Americans are concerned about privacy, but privacy threats are invisible or could not easily be seen.
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Lesson learned: One of the thins that I learned is the concepts about web security and privacy in the American perspective. Integrative Questions: 1. Where did the American common law originated? 2. What is the main topic of the chapter? 3. What are the issues that are again discussed in this chapter with regards to privacy? 4. What are some methods to protect ones privacy? 5. Do you think that those methods are enough to protect the user’s privacy effectively?

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The meaning of anonymity in an information age Library Reference: None Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239346529&sr=8-3 Quote: “even where fragments of information do not lead to information that is uniquely identifying, people may be identified with a high degree of probability when various properties are compounded to include a smaller and smaller set of individuals who satisfy them all” Learning Expectations: I expect to learn more about what good can anonymity do to us specially in this era that information is everywhere. I also want to learn about the consequence of being anonymous. Review: In this chapter the author talks about should anonymity be protected in electronic interactions and communications? So what is the real meaning of anonymity? The natural meaning of anonymity as reflected in ordinaty usage or a dictionary definition is remaining nameless, that is to say, conducting oneself without revealing one’s name. Being anonymous gives advantage to those people to evade consequences and responsibility. Also being anonymous gives us protection, in a way that our real identity will not be shown to them. My purpose here is not suggest that anonymity in an information age is impossible. I am mainly arguing that achieving it is a more demanding business than merely allowing people to withhold their names.

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Lessons learned: I learned that being anonymous for me is like being coward. I also learned the advantages of being anonymous and some disadvantage. I also learned that people who wants to be anonymous only seeks protection. Integrative questions: 1. What is anonymity? 2. Is being anonymous bad or good? 3. What are the advantages of being anonymous? 4. What are the disadvantages of being anonymous? 5. Why do people want to be anonymous?

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Ethical Considerations for the Information Professions Library Reference: None Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239346529&sr=8-3 Quote: “what is clearly happening … is a growing division of labor between the low-paid insecure and often unsafe jobs in the service sector, assembly and manufacturing, and a minority of highly privileged managerial, technical and professional positions” Learning Expectations: I am expecting to learn about what ethical considerations would a Information professions have to consider. Review: In this chapter it is said that information ethics, much like the technologies that continue to contribute to its complexity, wills thrive and present new challenges to all of us. It is also sited in this chapter that there is still a major divide between the theory surrounding information ethics and its application in the field of information work. We could not blame philosophers about why is there still a gap between the application and the ethics itself. Also in this chapter there is a brief introduction to the philosophical foundations of ethics and morality and an overview of basic principles of information ethics, describes particular issues and areas of particular concern to information professionals, and discusses code of ethics for the information professions. Many of IT professionals today doesn’t even know that there is IT-Ethics. Most of them don’t even find time what is it. This is the problem that we must consider.

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Lessons learned: I have learned that Internet's rapid expansion has enabled an equally rapid expansion of web based professional services, it has not been matched by the consideration and understanding of the related ethical implications involved. Integrative questions: 1. What can IT professionals do to us? 2. Do all IT professionals know about IT-Ethics? 3. Is there a gap between ethic application and the theoretical? 4. Who are the information workers? 5. Give example of major issues over information ethics?

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Subsumption Ethics Library Reference: None Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239346529&sr=8-3 Quote: “what is clearly happening … is a growing division of labor between the low-paid insecure and often unsafe jobs in the service sector, assembly and manufacturing, and a minority of highly privileged managerial, technical and professional positions” Learning Expectations: I am expecting to learn about what ethical considerations would a Information professions have to consider. Review: In this chapter the author started to explain the meaning of subsumption ethics. He said the it is the process by which decisions became incorporated into the operation of information technology system, and subsequently forgotten. He also sited the IT systems by nature repeats operations over and over. Another meaning of subsumption in general is the process of building larger components from smaller ones. This is very applicable in computer systems, small components are tested, and once they are working reliably they subsumed into larger systems.

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Lessons Learned: I learned that subsumption ethics is very good for the IT industry. In a way that it helps in the production of new technologies and develop better hardware and software to provide people quality products. Integrative Questions: 1. What is the meaning of subsumption? 2. Is it good for our economy? 3. Give example of subsumption ethics. 4. How can we help in developing subsumption ethics? 5. What will be the impact to us?

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Ethical Issues in business computing Library Reference: None Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239346529&sr=8-3 Quote: “all companies, of whatever size, should consider their use of computer systems. If a policy on the computer use has not already been developed, it is not just sensible but essential that urgent consideration is given to the ways in which systems are currently being used. Clear guidelines need to be in force, to both support staff and ensure appropriate use is made of computer systems for which the company is responsible” Learning Expectations: I would like to learn how computers affect the business community, how much help it do to us. I also want to learn about the ethical issues revolving the business computing. Review: in this chapter the author talks about the impact of computer systems into their businesses. In the developing world, virtually all modern business relies heavily upon the use of computers. This is a fact that we must all accept. We are now into computer age, where in information is what runs the world. What is business computing? The task of defining what is meant by business computing is by no means straight forward. One complication is that there is no one type of computer or computer system that must be used by business people. There are 4 possible levels of business computing Level one – small scale businesses Level two – large business organization Level three – large businesses enough to employ a designated computer specialist
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Level four – at least one team of computer specialist Lessons learned: I learned that computer is everywhere. Businesses with the help of computers boost their sales and marketing and minimize delays and have more accurate generation of reports. I also learned about the 4 levels in business computing. Integrative questions: 1. What is business computing? 2. How can computer systems affect businesses? 3. What are the 4 levels of business computing? 4. How could we know what level of business computing we are going to implement? 5. What is the difference between computer and computer systems?

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The practitioner from within: revisiting the virtues Library Reference: None Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239346529&sr=8-3 Quote: “It is unrealistic to discuss computer ethics without emerging languages of technology, philosophy, psychology and sociology.” Learning Expectations: I would like to learn more about the connection of ethics and morality. Review: In this chapter the author points outs the information technology offers many opportunities for breaches of morality. As users of computer technology, we are faced with a myriad of ethical problems generated by computer-mediated action. Invasions of privacy, using the internet for pornography and illegal access to information systems have become as newsworthy as the sex scandals and more far-searching It is very important for student to know all about ethics and morality specially before they graduate and become IT practitioners. In one part of this chapter the author argues about character-forming vs. action-guiding theories. He said that virtue ethics offers character forming theory that has been more successful with my students than the action-guiding theories.

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Lessons learned: I learned about ethics and morality and how technology and cyberspace contribute to the spread of immorality. It is also important to know about ethics specially during our college days in order for us to develop core values and respect others. Integrative questions: 1. Enumerate the core values and explain each. 2. What do you mean by revisiting the virtues? 3. What ethics offers character-forming theory? 4. What does ICT means? 5. What does Louden states about ethics?

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Double Encryption of Anonymized Electronic Data Interchange Library Reference: None Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239346529&sr=8-3 Quote: “150 participating primary care doctors deliver regularly an update of all their patient records to a central database.” Learning Expectations: I would like to learn about the meaning of double encryption and what it have to do with anonymized electronic data interchange. Review: In this chapter the author talks about a system called IPCI(integrated primary care information) which help in the national drug-safety system. The aim IPCI is to evaluate the safety of prescribed drugs. It is the one responsible in regulating drugs before they are send to the market. Double encryption is like before passing the message to the main receiver it will be decoded and encrypted again by a system to ensure security and anonymity.

Lessons Learned: I learned about the importance of double encryption in sending important data. And as a receiver I would like double encryption in order for it to be more secure.

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Integrative questions: 1. What is double encryption? 2. Why do people use double encryption? 3. Why is anonymity important? 4. Why do people want their data to be encrypted? 5. What is IPCI?

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No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Code of Ethics is Better Than None At All Library Reference: None Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239346529&sr=8-3 Quote: “Those who write moral codes (or things that could be mistaken for them) need to be aware of the possibility that they may be abused. Codes that address some issues but not the others are very common, and particularly open to such abuse on issues at the edge of their competence. Codes should make it clear what their area of competence is. More importantly, thought, authors of codes should always make it clear that their code is no substitute for careful moral consideration and especially in areas or on questions where there is no clear guidance in the code..” Learning Expectations: Some career counselors suggest a student also focus on "people skills" and business skills rather than purely technical skills because such "soft skills" are allegedly more difficult to offshore.It is the quasi-management aspects of software engineering that appear to be what has kept it from being impacted by globalization. Review: In this chapter the author talks about “computer ethics” and it has been used to refer to applications by professional philosophers of traditional Western theories like utilitarianism, Kantianism, or virtue ethics, to ethical cases that significantly involve computers and computer networks. “Computer ethics” also has been used to refer to a kind of professional ethics in which computer professionals apply codes of ethics and standards of good practice within their profession. The same considerations are highly likely to apply to any moral code that is developed (whether in computing or elsewhere). Authors of incomplete moral codes risk encouraging others to act in immoral ways with the author's apparent sanction.

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Lessons learned: I learned in this chapter that in most countries of the world, the “information revolution” has altered many aspects of life significantly: commerce, employment, medicine, security, transportation, entertainment, and so on. Consequently, information and communication technology (ICT) has affected in good ways and bad ways community life, family life, human relationships, education, careers, freedom, and democracy. Integrative questions: 1. What is PAPA? 2. What dos ACM means? 3. What are the ethical issues with PAPA? 4. What is ICT? 5. What are the 4 areas of issue?

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. Foundations of Information Ethics

Quote: “IE is a patient-oriented, ontocentric, ecological macroethics (Floridi and Sanders, 1999)

Learning Expectations: I particularly expect to know the fundamentals of information ethics within the so-called information society, including how IE should be able to address ethical challenges arising in the infosphere.

Review: The chapter illustrates the differences between IE and other disciplines such as computer ethics, business ethics, medical ethics, among others. Luciano Floridi has introduced the use of the RPT Model to understand the moral issues of information as a resource, as a target and as a product within the informational system or environment called the infosphere. The need to formulate an information ethics that can treat the world of data, information, and knowledge, vis-a-vis other important cycles such as creation, elaboration, distribution, communication, storage, protection usage, and possible destruction of information is laudable. While it is helpful for students to understand IE through the use of the Resource-Product-Target (RPT) Model, it was also noted that microethical approaches to information ethics is inadequate, in that it is too simplistic and inadequately inclusive. Information ethics, as explained by Floridi, is a patient-oriented, ontocentric, ecological macroethics. Explanations of IE as macroethics is equated with the intrinsic worthiness of life and the intrinsically negative value of suffering. It furthers notes that, information, like any form of life is deemed to enjoy some essential properties or moral interests that deserve n demand to be respected. Towards the end of the chapter are discussions on the two recurrent objections against such as, if it really makes sense to be talking of information entities and the Agents, and if IE is indeed inapplicable. It is concluded that while there may be some limitations of micro-ethical approach to IE, it is finally noted that without IE’s contributions, people can not fully understand the moral facts of ICT-related problems.

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Lessons Learned I learned that in this information society, human being is indeed part of a whole, a part limited in time and space. And that, a unified approach can help explain and relate the main senses in which IE has been discussed. With the three approaches to understanding IE, it is also learned that the RPT Model is useful to explain, among other things, why any technology that radically modifies the “life of information” is bound to have produced moral implications for any moral agent. It was also understood that ethical issues on information would include hacking, security which refers to those related to digital warfare and terrorism, vandalism (from burning of repositories of information to the spread of viruses in computers, piracy, intellectual property, open source, freedom of expression, censorship, filtering and content control.

Integrative Questions 1. What may be some good frames along information ethics that should be incorporated in the RPT Model to make this a better paradigm? 2. How do we minimize the occurrence information ethical challenges such as hacking, security which refers to those related to digital warfare and terrorism, vandalism (from burning of repositories of information to the spread of viruses in computers, piracy, intellectual property, open source, freedom of expression, censorship, filtering and content control? 3. What is a so-called ”morally qualifiable action in relation to freedom of expression?” 4. How would availability, accessibility and accuracy of informational resource be maximized in order to address ethical issues on these areas of concern? 5. With the rising technologies contributory to the information society, what are the seemingly missing elements that should have expanded the scope of IE?

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Milestones in the History of Information and Computer Ethics “

Quote: “Cybernetics takes the view that the structure of the machine or of the organism is an index of a performance that may be expected from it. The fact that the mechanical rigidity of the insect is such as to limit its intelligence while the mechanical fluidity of the human being provides for his almost indefinite intellectual expansion is highly relevant … The human species is strong only insofar as it takes advantage of the innate, adaptive, learning faculties that its physiological structures make possible. (Weiner, 1954, pp.57-58)

Learning Expectations: I expect to know how information and computer ethics emerge as a concept and reality, and how these concepts play a key role in the information society. Further, it would be exciting to find out the key people who have great contributions to the growth of information and computer ethics, and how thoughts and concepts evolved into more significant applications in the society. Knowing how the evolution of information and computer ethics was carried out or challenged by the society is very critical in understanding the historical background of these two very related concepts.

Review: It was noted in the literature of Terrel Ward Bynum that the birth of information ethics as an academic field was unintentional and quite accidental. It was Norbert Weiner that accidentally introduced to the world such concept as information ethics. He laid the foundation of information and computer ethics. What was very magnanimous was Weiner’s unintentional undertakings that would lead the world to the Information and Computer Ethics, and of which the concept of computer ethics was coined by Walter Manor which he referred to as new branch of applied ethics. In fact Weiner’s achievement in the 1950s and early 1960s was more comprehensive as it encompasses other field of computer ethics such. The evolution becomes more significant with the birth of a clearer understanding of certain ethical problems that are aggravated, transformed or created by computer technology. Deborah Johnson did not believe that computer technology generates new ethical problems, and in this period, a debates ensued. The year 1985 was a “watershed” in the evolution of computer ethics, due to the effect
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of Johnson’s agenda-setting principles. Towards 1990s, anew twist in understanding IE occurred with Gotterbarn’s articles and researches. It says further that although “human values approach” to computer ethics is helpful, Floridi’s theory on Information Ethics was regarded as a foundation to the development of computer ethics.

Lessons learned: Reading through the milestones of information and computer ethics gave me deeper appreciation of the contributions of certain people whose insights and ideas brought to birth varied ethical challenges in this information age.

Integrative Questions: 1. What might have been the socio-political and economic factors that nurtured the development of ideas on information and computer ethics? 2. How was the evolution of computer and information ethics in the Philippines? 3. How will the fast growth of computers worldwide negatively affect the whole humanity? 4. Behind the success and positive contributions of computers and computer technology over time, how extensive were the discussions of the imminent danger and moral obligations of this technology and ideas to the security, safety and peace of people worldwide? 5. Can the positive effects of computers outweigh the negative effects this technology can affect humankind, if not today, in the future?

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Moral Methodology and Information Technology

Quote: “The best procedure for ethics . . . is the going back and forth between intuitions about fairly specific situations on the one side, and the fairly general principles that we formulate to make sense of the moral practice on the other, adjusting either, until finally we bring them all into coherence.” (James Griffin, 1993)

Learning Expectations: In reading this literature of Jereon Van Den Hoven, I expect to get deeper into the meaning of methods on ethics and information technology that is different from applied ethics. I would want to know more about certain methodological ideas of applied ethics as they relate to methods of ethics technology.

Review: The literature of Hoven has clarified and challenged the moral fiber of computer technology. It noted how the way we should be thinking about IT, and that it should not very different from the way we ought to proceed in other discipline of computer technology and infrastructure ethics. The chapter explains how ethics and the meaning of ethical terms change in the past 100 year. Indeed, there has been a longstanding and central debate in practical ethics about methodology. Hoven expressed his conformity with the thoughts of Dancy (2004) on the fact that the effects of generalism or the concept that moral thought and judgment are dependent on the suitable supply of moral principles. Hoven clarified as well the particularist view that the desideratum of situational adequacy or the regulative ideal of doing justice to situations and persons in a particular historical context, is very important. He also presented in a fair fashion the principle of reflective equilibrium as an alternative to both generalism and particularism. This is going back and forth between intuitions about fairly specific situations on the one side and the fairly general principles that we formulate to make senses of our moral practice on the other, adjusting either until eventually we all bring them into coherence. A good twist in the Hoven’s literature would be seen on the way he explains the parallel development of IT with other engineering disciplines which is a shift from attention to technology to attention to the technology’s human and values context. It was worthwhile to
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trace the development on how Value Sensitive Design (VSD) came into being and affected the technology in the long run.

Lessons learned: I learned that while there various ways or approaches to computer ethics, all these seem to capture an aspect of our moral thinking about our current problems in moral lives. All these contribute significantly to the methodology of computer ethics. I learned as well that we should be wary of the danger in thinking that they are uniquely correct and exclude all others. Thus, it was a worthwhile learning that we should be cautious of not committing the mistake of thinking that one theory can address all our problems.

Integrative Questions: 1. On top of the presented methodological approaches on the way we morally frame information and computer technology, are there any more theories and methodological paradigms that can sufficiently clarify moral issues on information technology? 2. What is the evolving meaning of converging technologies, in relation to those thought out by Bill Joy, Larry Lesig and Peter Singer? 3. Are we convinced that hybrid deontic logics can effectively be used to explain some moral considerations in software? 4. How are computers fascinating technology? 5. What is the role of the social and behavioral sciences in substantiating and taking into account the needs and interests of computer technology users?

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Value Sensitive Design (VSD) and Information Systems (IS)

Quote: ”What is wrong, I think, is that we have permitted technological metaphors . . . and technique itself to so thoroughly pervade our thought processes that we have finally abdicated to technology the very duty to formulate questions . . . Where a simple man might ask: “Do we need these things? “, what electronic wizardly will make them safe?” Where a simple man will ask “is it good?”, technology asks “will it work?” (Weizenbaum, 1972, pp 611-612)

Learning Expectations: It is interesting to know in this literature of Friedman, Kahn and Borning how to design information and computational systems that can support enduring human values. I would also expect to be clarified on the whole information cycle and all entities involved (including the moral agent A) in this cycle, including their changes, actions, and interactions as part of the informational environment, or infosphere. I expect to know more the details of the revised RPT model. It would be also nice to understand the nature of IE ontologically, rather than epistemologically, and how this modifies the interpretation of the scope and goals of IE. In this literature, I expect to know more about the term value to which it was referred to as simply economic worth of an object, or a broader sense of what a person or group of people consider important in their lives.

Review: The authors of this literature sum up the growing interests and challenge to address values in design. It has sufficiently and successfully provided enough detail about VSD so that other researchers and designers can critically examine, use and extend this approach. It was aimed by the authors that this approach can contribute to a principled and comprehensive consideration of values in the design of information and computational systems. In the revised RPT Model, the agent is embodied and embedded, as an informational agent, in an equally informational environment. A simple analogy may help to introduce this new perspective. It asked readers to imagine looking at the whole universe from a chemical perspective. Every entity and process will satisfy a certain chemical description. To simplify, a human being, for example, will be 90% water and 10% something else. Then it went further to consider an
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informational perspective. The same entities will be described as clusters of data, that is, as informational objects. More precisely, an agent will be a discrete, self-contained, encapsulated package containing the appropriate data structures, which constitute the nature of the entity, and the state of the object, its unique identity and its attributes. The literature clarifies the nature of IE ontologically, rather than epistemologically. It noted that not only can an ecological IE gain a global view of the whole life cycle of information, thus overcoming the limits of other microethical approaches, but it can also claim a role as macroethics, that is, as an ethics that concerns the whole realm of reality. The explanations that VSD is a theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process was very helpful in the whole context of the information system.

Lessons Learned: I learned that VSD is a theoretically-grounded approach in designing technology that considers human values in a better, principled and wide-ranging manner throughout the design process. I learned, as well, the meanings and details of the tripartite methodology that includes the conceptual, empirical and technical investigations. Te eight features of VSD mentioned in this chapter are very laudable, in that it gave me a broader perspective on looking at the information system and its value-laden contents, meanings and purposes.

Integrative Questions 1. How is the essence of value learned w2in this information system context relate to the making of information system more pragmatic at this period of times? 2. With the fast twist or evolution of technology, what would VSD play its role in the future? 3. Is computer ethics capable of sufficiently advancing our understanding of key values that lie at the intersection of computer technology and human lives? 4. How does VSD become proactive in influencing the design of technology throughout the design process?
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5. Are there substantial or significant benefits that direct stakeholders (those who interact directly with the computer system or its inputs) and indirect stakeholders (those who are affected by the use of the system) get from VSD?

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Personality-Based, Rule-Utilitarian, and Lockean Justification of Intellectual Property

Quote: “Intellectual property is an extension of individual personality. Rule-utilitarians ground intellectual property rights in social progress and incentives to innovate. Lockeans argue that rights are justified in relation to labor and merit. While each of these stand of justification has weaknesses, there are also strengths. Intellectual property is generally characterized as nonphysical property that is the product of cognitive processes, and whose value is based upon some idea or collection of ideas. Typically, rights do not surround the abstract nonphysical entity, or of intellectual property, rather, intellectual property rights surround the control of physical manifestations or expressions. System of intellectual property protects rights to ideas by protecting rights to produce and control physical embodiments of those ideas.” (Moore, 1997)

Learning Expectations I expect to learn after going though this article certain strategies to understand and justify intellectual property rights.

Review: The literature of Adam Moore presented a very descriptive and helpful view on understanding intellectual property, including justifications attached to this notion. I commend Moore in presenting that arguments that intellectual property rights have generally taken three forms. Personality theorists maintain that intellectual property is an extension of individual personality. Rule-utilitarians ground intellectual property rights in social progress and

incentives to innovate. Lockeans argue that rights are justified in relation to labor and merit. While each of these strands of justification has weaknesses, there are also strengths. Intellectual property is generally characterized as nonphysical property that is the product of cognitive processes and whose value is based upon some idea or collection. The domain of patent production is the invention and discovery of new and useful processes, machines, articles of manufacture, or composition of matter. Patents yield the strongest form of

protection, in that a 20-years exclusive monopoly is granted over any expression or
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implementation of the protected work. In IE, the ethical discourse concerns any entity, understood informationally, that is, not only all persons, their cultivation, well-being, and social interactions, not only animals, plants, and their proper natural life, but also anything that exists, from paintings and books to stars and stones; anything that may or will exist, like future generations; and anything that was but is no more, like our ancestors or old civilizations.

Lessons Learned: I learned the critical significance of knowing about intellectual property. Indeed, I am convinced that in the increasingly knowledge-driven economy, intellectual property (IP) is a key consideration in day-to-day business decisions. New products, brands and creative designs appear almost daily on the market and are the result of continuous human innovation and creativity. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are often the driving force behind such innovations. Their innovative and creative capacity, however, is not always fully exploited as many SMEs are not aware of the intellectual property system or the protection it can provide for their inventions, brands, and designs. If left unprotected, a good invention or creation may be lost to larger competitors that are in a better position to commercialize the product or service at a more affordable price, leaving the original inventor or creator without any financial benefit or reward. Adequate protection of a company's intellectual property is a crucial step in deterring potential infringement and in turning ideas into business assets with a real market value. Taking full advantage of the IP system enables companies to profit from their innovative capacity and creativity, which encourages and helps fund further innovation.

Integrative Questions: 1. How will intellectual property protection helps in preventing competitors from copying or closely imitating a company's products or services, in research and development (R&D) and marketing, in creating a corporate identity through a trademark and branding strategy, in negotiating licensing, franchising or other IP-based contractual agreements,
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in increasing the market value of the company, in acquiring venture capital and enhancing access to finance, and in obtaining access to new markets? 2. How would governments help strengthen their capacity to develop strategies, policies and programs to meet the intellectual property needs of SMEs? 3. How will intellectual property protection helps in preventing competitors from avoiding wasteful investments? 4. How do we properly address issues such as the insufficient information on the relevance of IP in day-to-day business, the high costs associated with obtaining and enforcing IP rights, and the perceptions that the IP system is esoteric, too cumbersome and timeconsuming? 5. What do the Personality Theorists mean by their concept that intellectual property is an extension of individual personality.

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Informational Privacy: Concepts, Theories and Controversies Quote: "Privacy is the claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about themselves is communicated to others." Alan Westin (1967)

Learning Expectations: After reading the literature, I hope to know the various theories, concepts, paradigms and issues of informational privacy.

Review: Herman Tavani is very effective in explaining in his literature the various concepts, theories, and controversies about informational privacy. In same manner as Arthur R. Miller defines the basic attribute of an effective right to privacy as the individual's ability to control the flow of information concerning or describing him -- a capability that often is essential to the establishment of social relationships and the maintenance of personal freedom. The chapter explains some unitary, derivative and cluster definitions of privacy. It even touched on the issue of its close relation to the question on whether privacy should be viewed as a full-fledged right, or simply in terms of one or more interests that individuals have. The excerpt made discussion of the four distinct kinds of privacy which are physical, decisional, psychological, and informational. It took the case of the United States where privacy has evolved considerably since the eighteenth century. I indeed believe that we call our society “the information society” because of the pivotal role played by intellectual, intangible assets (knowledge-based economy), information-intensive services (business and property services, communications, finance, and insurance), and public sectors (education, public administration, health care). Lessons Learned: It was worthwhile to know the different views presented by theorists over time. I learned that informational privacy defined in terms of restricted access stresses the importance of setting up zones that enable individuals to limit or restrict others from accessing their personal information. I learned that one has privacy in a situation with regard to others if in that situation, one is protected from intrusion, interference and information access by other.

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Integrative Questions: 1. What is the difference between “’mental privacy”’ and “’psychological privacy?”’ 2. How far are the discrepancies of the old and new theories and concepts of informational privacy? 3. How is the economic and political conditions of countries affect the institutions of policies on informational privacy? 4. How is the evolution of informational privacy in the Philippines? 5. Is there a significant differences of the policies on informational privacy by various countries worldwide?

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Online Anonymity

Quote: “To be fully anonymous means that a person cannot be identified according to any of . . . seven dimensions of identity knowledge. The seven dimensions are: locatability, linkable pseudonyms, nonlinkable pseudonyms, pattern knowledge, social categorization, symbols of eligibility-noneligibility.” (Marx, 1999)

Learning Expectations: This literature of Wallace must give me a better understanding of the essence of anonymity and privacy, and what are the goals and ethics governing this concept.

Review: Wallace has been very eloquent in describing the nature and features of anonymity within the context of social structures. Indeed, anonymity may be considered an expression of a widespread feature of contemporary social organization and of the extent to which technological features of that organization affect whom we interact, how we interact with one another, and how we think of ourselves related, socially and ethically, to others. It istru that anonymity may be deliberately sought or something that occurs spontaneously from the sheer complexity of modern life. The idea of a kind of naturally occurring, spontaneous anonymity is imbodied in characterizations of someone as a member of an anonymous mass or in expressions such as the logic of anonymity in modern life.

Lessons Learned: After reading this chapter, I was able to get a clearer view of the concept of anonymity, and that I learned its importance within the context of social structures and informational system. I learned that anonymity can be used to shield someone from accountability for action, to ensure privacy, to prevent discrimination or stigmatization, to facilitate communication, and to avoid reprisals, among others. I also learned such a thing as anonymity and identity theft, whereby identity theft involves stealing identifying information and, in effect, using it as a pseudonym to misdirect identification.

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Integrative Questions: 1. How vast are the contributions of online anonymity to the rising cases of child pornography? 2. How do governments and private entities set effective policies or rules to minimize the alarming rates of child pornography? 3. How would online anonymity affect the act of expression of self? 4. Is the concept of anonymity relative? 5. What negative effects to self and privacy that online communication is capable of doing?

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Ethical Issues Involving Computer Security: Hacking, Hacktivism, and Counterhacking

Quote: “I am unable to think of any other item that someone may buy and maintain, only to have others claim a right to use it when it is idle. For instance, the thought of someone walking up to my expensive car and driving off in it simply because it is not currently being used is ludicrous. Likewise, because I am away of work, it is not proper to hold a party at my house because it is otherwise not being used. The related positions that unused computing capacity is shared resource, and that my privately developed software belongs to everyone, are equally silly (and unethical) positions.”’ (Spafford, 2001)

Learning Expectations: I expect to learn the intricacies of critical or major issues in computer or information security such as hacking, hacktivism, and counterhacking, and how these problems are accomplished or executed, and for what purposes. I expect as well to know more about the various types of unauthorized computer intrusions by private persons and groups. I would want to find out intrusions that are motivated by malicious intentions and by certain benign intentions, such as the intent to expose security vulnerabilities.

Review: There are many debatable issues raised in this chapter that certainly makes my reading very exciting. Himma in his book notes that “hacking” refers to the acts in which a person gains unauthorized entry to the computers of another person, and that hacking can be good or bad. The ‘”hacker” is used to refer to someone who has committed such acts. It called for argument that depending on purposes, Himma argues that hacking is not absolutely wrong or a misdoing or an infringement into the personal privacy of a person. However, I believe that any unauthorized acts like hacking is definitely not permissible because of the unauthorized access into a person’s life. However, we can also view it the other way, depending on the purpose for which the acts are made. Himma cited a principle allowing otherwise wrongful acts to secure greater moral good. This is what Himma called the Necessity Principle. This view to me seems justifying a morally wrong act on some perspective.
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Lessons Learned: I learned that computer hacking is not absolutely wrong, for as long as the purpose for which it is made is for the greater good, to save life or to improve something. I also learned to critically assess the value of hacking and its effect to intrusion to privacy rights. Now I can readily discuss all these very interesting issues on privacy rights and intrusion of privacy through hacking and hacktivism.

Integrative Questions: 1. How would the Necessity Principle promoted by Himma affect the humanity if no proper control system or policy is instituted? 2. Would intrusion to privacy if made with a greater good purpose be prone to abuse? 3. How will a Defense Principle be used to justify the use of force only against the direct sources of attack? 4. What measures must be instituted in order to lessen abuses to the justifications on hacking? 5. With the exercise of the Necessity Principle, the Defense principle, and the Evidentiary Restrictions as justification for intrusions, would that mean that protection to privacy is secondary to protection of a common or greater good?

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Information Ethics and the Library Profession

Quote: At the center of the librarian’s commitment to humanity’s search for truth and understanding is the goal of remaining always neutral in the battle of competing ideas. No matter how precious to us any faith or philosophy or social movement might be, we have to keep our distance and maintain our impartiality as we help to insure that all the people can hear all the arguments and establish for themselves what is right or true. (Fink, 1989, p. 353)

Learning Expectations: I expect to learn a lot about ethical considerations within the repositories of information like libraries. I also am excited to know the values of the profession that manages the repositories of information, and such related concepts as intellectual freedom and information accessibility. There are issues on information accessibility that are worth learning in this literature of Mathiesen and Fallis.

Review: The book of Mathiesnand Fallis gave a very comprehensive understanding of the library profession and the ethical standards and values attached to their profession and the performance of their profession. The evolution of the role of the repositories of information, commonly known as the library, and the role of the care-takers of these libraries, normally known as librarians, has made today’s librarians as protectors and promoters of information, information accessibility and information provision. Certain authors consider them teachers because they play an key role in instructing people on how and where to avail and access the needed information, and to some extend sometimes, which information are related to what information. In other words, it notes the relevance of the responsibility or functions of librarians as information supplier or sources. The core values of these professionals must therefore be strictly observed and executed in order to minimize incidence of information selection biases, among other issues governing the practice of this profession and the management of information that they directly handled and managed.

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Integrative Questions

1. How do librarians minimize selection biases in providing information, or in providing a value added service that would fairly select materials without biasing the selection process toward a certain viewpoint? 2. How do governments and private institutions that manage libraries update their policies in the face of the fast emerging influence of information technology like internet? 3. How do we institute measures to protect children from any hazard in the use of library? 4. Why are librarians considered teachers? 5. How effective and substantial are libraries as repositories of information?

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Ethical Interest in Free Software (FS) and Open Source Software (OSS)

Quote: “The fact that this bazaar style seemed to work, and work well, came as a distinct shock. As I learned my way around, I worked hard not just individual projects, but also at trying to understand why the Linux world not only didn’t fly apart in confusion but seemed to go from strength to strength at a speed barely imaginable to cathedral-builders.” (Raymond, 2001)

Learning Expectation: I expect to know the distinction and meanings of both the FS and OSS, including the philosophies and evolution o these movements. Who are the key people that were instrumental in the growth and evolution of FS and OSS, and what are the principles behind the growth of these two concepts are information that I expect to learn from this chapter.

Review: The literature of Grodzinsky and Wolf made remarkable explanations of FS and OSS, as it attempted to compare and explore their histories, their philosophies, and development, including certain critical issues challenging these two concepts. The authors argue that the FS and OSS has a philosophical and social perspective of analyzing. It was Richard Stallman in 1985 who first articulated the ideals of the FS movement, however, his concepts seems ambiguous. The FSS grew significantly right after the introduction of the internet. These two concepts were lambasted by Meyer when he contrasted Stallman’s concepts, saying that software is the legitimate property of someone and that free software is defined in terms of being no-cost, unrestricted I nits use, and freely available in terms of the source code. He further noted that much free software is a ”copycat” of some propriety piece of software. But I don’t seem also to agree to Watson that the world would be a better place if there are no copyright restriction. This idea is highly debatable. The book discussed about the attraction for OSS developers was due to the autonomy of the programmer. Although developers who embrace OSS do gain a certain degree of autonomy not readily available to those working on commercial software, the claim for complete autonomy, to me, does not seem to be valid. The literature further notes of

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certain ethical responsibilities of software developers. Yes, I agree that there should a strengthened professional accountability of software developers.

Lessons Learned: I came to know the evolution of FS and OSS, and the implications of their growth. I also learned the many issues and challenges faced by both concepts, including their value and contributions to the growth and development of societies and of the online information community. Most of all, I learned that the FS movement can be credited with the providing an impetus for establishing notions of freedom for other types of digital media.

Integrative Questions:

1. How much accountability to the public must software developers internalize and exercise? 2. Are there sufficient campaign by the governments of the world and the private sector on the need to inculcate and practice ethical responsibilities of software developers? 3. How is copyright be affected with the call for information access freedom? 4. Is there a code of ethics governing a global network of software developers? 5. Are there imminent negative effects to the psychological frames of mind of people of the development of FS and OSS?

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Internet Research Ethics (IRE): The Field and its Critical Issues

Quote: “The global reach of the Internet means that research participants may be drawn from a wide range of nations and cultures. Coupled with the often international collaborations behind online research, this fact of a global range of participants forces a still more demanding questions for ethicists: Given precisely the often significant national differences in the Western world between more deontological and more consequentialist approaches to IRE, how are we to develop a research ethics that is legitimate for researchers and participants from more than one nation, culture, and traditional of ethics and thereby research ethics?” (Walther, 2002)

Learning Expectations: I expect to learn the meaning, essence and issues of IRE. It is also worthwhile to trace the history of this concept. I hope to learn certain methodological concerns in internet research undertakings.

Review: Although a relatively young discipline, the IRE has been fast catching interests of all sectors worldwide. In spite of its new emergence in the global community, I believe that here is a wide ranging literature on internet research. With this trend, it is believable that a global IRE may emerge and that a conjoin shared norms will be established across cultures and sectors. The interests are still zooming high, meaning young and professional researchers, including educational institutions now have a considerable range of information, guidelines to consider, technology, opportunities and facilities for discussion and development. It is noted in the literature that the research ethics implicated by a given ethical problem or difficulty is deeply entwined with and defined by the specific methodology that shape a specific research project.

Lessons Learned: I learned the wide-ranging reach of online research, and the globalization fo IRE. I came to know more about the evolution of IRE, as well as its ethical concerns. I came to better understand some basic IRE issues such as anonymity and confidentiality, the issue of copyright, of revealing identities, of the concept of public and private spaces, and the respect for persons in the course of the research undertaking.
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Integrative Questions 1. Are there imminent dangers to virtual research? 2. How are inter-cultural research attracts research professional and research students? 3. Are there limits to online research? If so, what might have caused restrictions and limits to the globalizing of IRE? 4. What are the code of ethics and professional conduct of IRE? 5. What are the methodological approaches and ethical dilemmas in computer-mediated research?

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Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science and Uncertainty Quote: “As a practical matter, it is often essential for individual to disclose sensitives, even potentially embarrassing, information to health care provider to obtain appropriate care. Trust in professional ethics and established health privacy and confidentiality rules encourages individuals to share information they would not want publicly known. In addition, limits on disclosure are designed to protect individuals from tangible and intangible harms due to widespread availability of personal health information. Individual trust in the privacy and confidentially of their personal health information also promotes public health because individuals with potentially contagious or communicable disease are not inhibited from seeking treatment…. In an age in which electronic transaction are increasingly common and security lapses are widely reported, public support for the National Health Information Network depends on public on confidence and trust that personal health information is proceed. Any system of personal health information collection, storage, retrieval, use and dissemination requires the utmost trust of the public. The health care industry must commit to incorporation privacy and confidentiality protections so that they permeate the entire health records system (National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, 2006).” Learning Expectations: I expect to learn on how information technology help doctors and scientist in their medical and scientific works. I also expect to know about what uncertainties await them in their professions. Review: In this chapter it is said that many professionals regard ethics as a source of code for the edification of the not-yet-virtuous. Rather, ethics, as a branch of philosophy and has the task of studying morality, or public accounts of the rightness or wrongness of actions. Also in this chapter Bertand Russell made it clear that there are no experiments we can do to determine the answers to questions about morality and ethics. Instead, human reason provides the tool for such interrogations and conclusions.

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The use of computers or more generally information technology in the health profession is indeed a rich source of ethical issues and challenges.

Lessons learned: I learned that information technology help a lot in the development of science and health. I also understand the way scientist and medical people view Information technology. Integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How do scientist view information technology? In what way did Information technology help in their work? What is privacy? Why do they need confidentiality? What is CDSS?

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Ethical issues of information and business Quote:” However, there are also good economic and philosophical arguments against it. One of this is that the stakeholder view takes away the advantage of the shareholder model, which is simplicity of purpose and reduction of complexity. By concentrating on the profit motive, managers are free to focus their energy and creativity on an achievable goal. A realization of the stakeholder model would politicize the role of managers and thereby lead to slower change and less innovation (Weizsacker, 1999).” Learning Expectation: I am expecting to learn more about ethical issues regarding information and business. Review: Without information a business will surely close down, because information is the most important key in a business. The more liable the information the more accurate generation of report will be and they will predict it accurately. The outcome will be a big success. That’s how vital information is into a business. Businesses and the economic system they work in have an important influence on ethical issues arising information and information and communication technology. This chapter aims at establishing a link between several sets of ethical discourses that concern similar topics. The chapter points out areas where these two sets of discourses overlap and where they have the potential to inform each other. Some ethical issues are as follows examples of issues that arise in business and computer ethics, including privacy and employee surveillance and intellectual property, as well as some macro level issues including globalization and digital divides.

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Lessons Learned: I learned more about the issues surrounding the businesses when it comes to information being send to them. Information gathering is one critical part of a business. Accurate information will provide accurate predictions of what’s to come. Integrative questions: 1. What is ICT? 2. How can it help in running businesses? 3. How can information help in business? 4. How important is information for a business? 5. How can business affect our daily lives?

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Responsibilities for Information on the Internet Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “Special attention is given to the principle that personal data shall not be further processed” Learning Expectation: I want to learn about the responsibilities entailed with the information on the internet Review: What the author points out in this chapter is what could be said about the responsibilities of internet service providers or ISP’s which are involved in the dissemination of data in the internet. The focus of this chapter is on the information that don’t have a clear illegal or immoral character. After discussing these topics in the previous part of the chapter, the author would focus on other types of actors other than the ISP’s which are : “those who put forward information on the Internet, the so-called content providers, the organizations that provide the infrastructure for the dissemination of that information, the so-called internet service and access providers, the receivers or users of the information, third parties, such as those that deliver quality certificates for websites, and others”. The author started the discussion with mapping out the normally considered conditions of responsibility in the moral theory. After the discussion about responsibility, the author continued with explanations on of the different ways where information in the internet may have unintended or indirect bad consequences for the users. And the author concludes the

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chapter with explaining the different responsibilities involved in using the internet and in portraying information using it. Lesson learned: What I’ve learned in this chapter is the kinds of responsibilities for information and other issues regarding the use of internet. Integrative Questions: 1. What are ISP’s? 2. What are CP’s? 3. What are the three parties focused upon the author? 4. What is the main point of discussion of this chapter? 5. What are the issues presented by the author?

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Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation Quote: “Decency standard vary widely across different individuals and cultures, however, and what is shocking or immoral to some will not be so to others. Some will find any depiction of nudity, violence or physical deformities indecent, whereas others will find any such depiction acceptable. The depiction of particular acts, persons or objects may be considered blasphemous in certain religions but not outside these religions. (Brey, 1999) Learning Expectations: I expect to learn about the evolution of virtual technology and computer simulation. While I wish to know more about the distinction between the virtual and real, I also would like to learn about their applications and the emerging ethical issues on the subject area. I expect also to learn about the ills and goods of computer games in relation to values and gender.

Review:

The literature provided by Brey initially discussed virtual reality and computer

simulation not receiving much attention from ethicists, and this relative neglect is unjustified, leading to a rise of ethical questions in relation to computer technologies. I find it valid to for the technologies to raise important ethical questions about the way in which they represent reality and the misrepresentations, biased representations, and offensive representations that they may contain. Although immersive virtual reality systems are not yet used on a large scale non-immersive virtual reality is regularly experienced by hundreds of millions of users, in the form of computer games and virtual environments for exploration and social networking. These forms of virtual reality also raised ethical question regarding their benefits and harms to society, and the values and biases contained in them. What makes the subject more interesting is that the VR and computer simulation are representational media in that they represent real or fictional objects and events through various kinds of representations. I believe that when simulations aim to be realistic, they must be subjected to certain standard of accuracy so that the degree of freedom is assessed. Virtual child pornography has also been touched, whereby it was argued that virtual child pornography is absolutely wrong as this incidence harms the children.

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Lesson Learned: I learned that there are varied issues confronting virtual reality and computer simulation. I also learned that there must be a campaign to practice professional responsibility and accountability among designers, by way of incorporating appropriate values systems into their products/works. Also, I came to know better that on computer games, players do not just develop values on the basis of the structure of the game itself, as they also develop them by interacting with other players. Indeed, computer games, according to research, are a medium for boys and men.

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Integrative Questions: 1. Why are virtual games not significantly attractive to women and girls? 2. How do governments effectively curb child pornography amidst the rising market of computer games and virtual reality? 3. What is the evolution of virtual reality and simulation in the Philippines? 4. Has virtual reality and computer simulation beneficial to special sectors like those of children and women? 5. Are reality and virtuality absolute concepts?

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Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-ContemporaryPrometheus/dp/1573927902 Quote: “Special attention is given to the principle that personal data shall not be further processed” Learning Expectation: My expectations include, the meaning of genetic information in this context Review: In this chapter, the author emphasizes the understanding of the way the information-related concepts of molecular biology are interpreted to figure out the reason of the possible incorrect application. In this chapter, the author analyzed the basic information that is related in molecular biology and discusses the potential effects if they are misused; these are included in the first part of the chapter. While science in this aspect is treated as a sort of package of ideas, so the open-source model gets the same treatment as old and originary way, as the book puts it, of scientific research . The social aspects of works of science in a similar way, activities like publishing papers, giving talks, and sharing results helps scientists to obtain status among their peers. The conclusion of the author is that as the industry progresses, there is an increasing demand among researchers to redraw the boundaries of intellectual property. Instead of just learning and living with the current system, they want to improve it, and they are armed with moral arguments, evidence of economic efficiency, etc. which renews the traditional cooperation that was only found in the sciences and academies. I agree with the statement that

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we should strive to improve ourselves in everything we do and be not contented with just adapting to changes.

Lesson learned: I’ve learned about genetic information and the issues that comes with it Integrative Questions: 1. What is the issue concerning genetic information? 2. What is the main topic of the chapter? 3. What activities works as science in the social aspect? 4. What is the conclusion of the author? 5. What is open-source information technology?

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The Ethics of Cyber Conflict Quote: “the necessity condition requires that there be a good faith subjective, and objectively reasonable, belief that there were no alternative to the counterstrike. The reasonableness condition requires that the harm produced by the counterattack be proportional to the harm avoided” Learning Expectations: I wanted to learn more about what kind of conflicts exist in the cyberspace. I also wanted to know what cause these conflict and what are their effects to us. Review: In this chapter the author talks about some issues regarding cyberspace. Issues that are unethical and must find solutions about it. He also explained what cause these issues like for bragging rights or launching a virus just for fun. These are just some of the example of unethical doings. He also point out the 3 areas of cyber conflict where the ethical issues are more problematic. The first one is at the state level and have something to do with the national security the second one talks about the dilemma that involves non-state actors. He also points out about the cyber terrorism which is the integration of terrorism with cyberspace. And lastly the third one is about cyber defense particularly on a program that is called “hack back” or “strike back” concepts where in once attack automatically triggers an attack to the attacker.

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Lessons learned: In this chapter I learned what are the issues that produces conflict in cyberspace. I also understand the concept of counterstrike where in once attack triggers a counter attack. This is very intriguing concept specially when it comes to cyber ethics. Integrative questions: 1. Is it ethical to have revenge? 2. What are the 3 common issues regarding cyber conflict? 3. What is the definition of cyber conflict? 4. What is hack back? 5. What is cyber terrorism?

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A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment – A SoDIS Inspection Quote: “Amatrix can be set up for each ethical rule such as “Don’t cause harm.” The column headers of the “Don’t cause harm” matrix are the stakeholders, such as the “developer” and the “customer,” and there is a row for each major requirement or task. The SoDIS analyst then visits each cell in the matrix, asking for each requirement whether meeting this requirement violates that obligation to the stakeholder” Learning Expectations: In this chapter I would expect to learn more about how to manage risk when dealing with software. I also want to learn on what is the practical mechanism in creating ethical risk assessment. I also want to learn about SoDIS its meaning and its uses. Review: In this chapter the author always talks about the Risk that you need to assess, manage and even diversify. Just for example: A simple eating of your favorite pie might end you up in a room in one of the most expensive hospital in our country. You can never ever do something without risking something, that’s why you have to weigh up the possible consequences of decisions. A little decision might cause a million disasters. Disasters that is possibly reduced or diminished when properly assessed. Analysis of risk in any field is really important, in science, risk can cause the extinction of human race, in finance, financial crisis, just like what we are experiencing now, and as to advance technology like internet, invasion of privacy and security

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Lessons learned: I learned that risk assessment is important in software development. As they always say nothing is perfect. Making software is not an easy job that’s why it is important to asses the risks first Integrative questions: 1. How can risk assessment help in developing softwares? 2. What is SoDIS? 3. Explain the concept of risk identification? 4. What is risk assessment? 5. Is risk assessment necessary? Explain.

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The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future

Quote: Similar gaps exist between the affluent developed world and the impoverished developing world. Although internet access is increasing across the world, it is still the case that a comparatively small percentage of the developing world’s poor has internet access. A 2005 UNESCO report indicated that only 11% of the world’s population has access to the internet, but 90% of these persons live on the affluent industrialized developed world.” (Ponce, 2005)

Learning Expectations: I expect to learn about the essence of digital divide and its implications to people and society. I also expect to review some empirical studies illustrating perceived failures of computer technologies.

Review: This chapter presented the meaning of digital divides and its implications to the future. It was noted that the distribution of resources is vital. Bottis and Himma defined digital divide as not any particular gap between the rich and the poor or between and among nations, but rather it is about perceived gaps in the distribution of resources. In this context, resources are the communication and information technologies, and the skills required to appropriately make use of the technologies. It was noted that there are existing gaps in access to information and ICTs within and among nations. I agree wit the contention that this digital divides must be drastically eliminated, and that affluent nations must help impoverished nations in this context of access to information and ICTs.

Lesson Learned: I learned that so-called digital divide is not about the disparity between the rich and the poor, the local and global. This is about a variety of gaps that relates to inequitable distribution of resources. This includes the lack of meaningful access to information communication technologies (ICT), and in having the skills required to make proper use of resources. I learned, based on a US study, that the more that people become more and more wired, they alienate themselves from traditional societal functions and activities. Meaning, the more they use internet, the more they lose contact with their social environment.
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Integrative Questions: 1. What is the real situation of the world today with regard to access to ICT and to information? 2. What is the relationship between the inequality produced by the digital divide and the inequalities we have known for centuries, like the male-female inequality, among others? 3. Is digital divide a crisis or a myth? 4. What is information gap? 5. How is educated related to digital divides?

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Intercultural Information Ethics (IIE)

Quote: “Basic moods, through which the uniqueness of the world and the finitude of our existence become manifests, are a trans-cultural experience common to all human beings. They concern our awareness of the common world.” (Baier, 2006)

Learning Expectations: I expect to learn a comprehensive background of an IIE, and such notions as morality concerns and issues affecting in intercultural information phenomenon. I expect to get a full grasp of information on experiences and trends of other countries with regard to IIE, and the complexity of its related concepts.

Review: Indeed, IIE is an emerging field. The literature of Capurro provided various fundamental insights on the effect of IIE on Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Because of the newness of the IIE as a discipline, it is but expected that there still so many countries that are yet to embrace IIE in the conduct of their ICTs. As noted in the Capurro’s book, there are still many cultures whereby their IIEs have not been analyzed , such as the Eastern Europe and the Arabic World. It is understood in the explanations that IIE not only deals with the question of the impact of ICT on local cultures but explores also how specific ICT and media issues can be evaluated to a full extent. The question of privacy has always been discussed. I believe that there is a need indeed to strengthen the foundational debates on the sources of morality from a IIE perspective. The universality of values as against the locality of cultures will continue to interplay in the process of growth of information system across cultures worldwide.

Lessons Learned: I learned that the emergence of new forms of informational empowerment do not function independently from the informational practices that make them possible, and thus, need to be understood less as an absolute gain of freedom and more as the way freedom and power are continually produced and reproduced and processes of governmentality. I also

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learned that there is great impact of IIE in various culture, and how this affect lifestyle of people in intercultural settings was a very exciting subject of scrutiny.

Integrative Questions 1. Are views of human existence dependent on moods and understanding? 2. Are cultural frameworks considered closed world? 3. How sensible is the contention that the information society is(and has always been) culturally fragmented into different information societies? 4. Has computer revolution threatened to marginalize non-western cultural traditions? 5. Would it make sense to say that the cultural-social framework of a society is formed mainly by the political-social system, and particularly by the predominating ethic and religious values?

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Contemporary Moral Problem Book Review
ITETHIC
John Paulo Cantancio 3/2/2009 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Philippines License.

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Egoism and moral skepticism
James Rachel Quote: “No one, it is commonly believed, would have such iron strength of mind as to stand fast in doing right or keep his hands off other men’s goods, when he could go to the market-place and fearlessly help himself to anything he wanted, enter houses and sleep with any woman he chose, set prisoners free and kill men at his pleasure, and in a word go about among men with the power of a god. He would behave no better than the other; both would take the same course.” Review: James Rachele is a university professor of philosophy at the university of Alabama at Birmingham. Rachele examines psychological egoism and ethical egoism, two popular views used to attack conventional morality. Psychological egoism holds that all human actions are self-interest, whereas ethical egoism says that all actions ought to be self-interest. The legend of Gyges is one good example of egoism. In the real world, I would do the same if ever I have the same powers as Gyges. But maybe I would not last that long, because I was raised well by my parents and still have conscience in me.I have learned the difference between ethical and psychological egoism. I also learn about the different points of view of the author on how he viewed the situation. I also learned the basic human nature of selfishness and greed. But it is not always about selfishness. There are just times that people seem to think that way, maybe for some reasons we really can’t understand. I also learned that egoist are rare in our society not all of us are like them. We as human being, often think about others 1st before our self, or in some instance we think first of our self but think about others next. But it is normal because we are given the freedom to choose what we want to do. But still there are limit on what we must argue. If the egoist really doesn’t care about others, then he just reach the limit. We as humans must also act accordingly to the actions of an individual.
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Integrative Question: 1. What are the 2 kinds of egoism? 2. Who is the author of this chapter? 3. What did the Gyges do? 4. If you were the Gyges, will you do the same? 5. Are you an egoist?

Review Questions:

1. Explain the legend of Gyges. What question about morality are raised by the story? In the legend of Gyges a man is given the power to cloak. So the question is if you that man will you do the same? Or if not what will you do? For me I believe in a saying that “great power comes great responsibility” even if you have this kind of power this doesn’t make you God. You still have the moral responsibility of helping others. You should not only think about your self. Remember that in the end all of us will be judged the same(in a Christian perspective) 2. Distinguish between psychological and ethical egoism. Psychological egoism is being selfish and only thinks of himself. He basically doesn’t think before he acts and often thinks of himself as a unstoppable person. While the ethical is some how for me is more less brutal because in some way he thinks why will he do this or that? he somehow reasons out before he acts

3. Rachels Discusses two arguments for psychological egoism. What are these arguments, and how does he reply to them?

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a. 1st argument : One is selfish and the other is unselfish. how can you differentiate the 2? if for example helping his friend rather than going to the country? he chooses to stay because that’s what he wanted to do. will you call him unselfish if he did what he wanted to do? there are so many points of view in this statement. one thing is what do he really wants to do? is he oblige by the fact that he must help his friend despite the want to go out of the country? in this case it is precisely called unselfishness. Because he thinks of his friend 1st rather than what he really wants to do. b. 2nd argument : Since so called unselfish actions always produce a sense of self-satisfaction in the agent and since this sense of satisfaction is a pleasant state of consciousness, it follows that the point of the action is really to achieve a pleasant state of consciousness rather than to bring about any good for others. there for the action "unselfish" is only at a superficial level of analysis. this only shows that all of us are selfish in ways that we want to achieve that state of satisfaction. Like what mr.Lincon did. He help the pig in order to get that state where in he don’t need to think of that pig for the whole day and he did it for himself.

4. What three commonplace confusions does Rachels detect in the thesis of psychological egoism? a. 1st confusion is selfishness with self interest - in this confusion it is stated that doing something in your own interest. example is going to the doctor when you feel bad or brushing your teeth. both are showing self interest and involves behavior that ignores others. b. 2nd confusion is the assumption that every action is done either from self-interest or from other-regarding motives. - in this confusion one good example is if the person knows the connection of smoking and cancer why don’t he stop smoking? if he is selfish he must think of himself there for he must stop smoking. But why don’t he stop?
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c. 3rd confusion is the common but false assumption that a concern for one’s own welfare is incompatible with any genuine concern for the welfare of others. – in this confusion we often made assumption that being selfish is different from being unselfish because they are 2 different things. This is for me is wrong because even the most selfish human will never know when he will show unselfishness. It is inevitable. 5. State the argument for saying that ethical egoism is inconsistent. Why doesn’t rachels accepts this arguments? a. Being ethical is some how different because there are so many factors affecting your decision and after you did it there will be some question about it for example why? Or for whom? And other things. These arguments will be more complicated if Rachels accepts it. 6. According to Rachels, why shouldn’t we hurt others, and why should we help others? How can the egoist reply? a. It is our moral obligation to not hurt other also we should help others. For us it is an obligation given to us by God and there for must be done. While in the egoistic point of view it seems that there is no limitation on their obligation. Discussion Questions 1. Has Rachels answer the question raised by Glaucon, namely “why be moral?” if so what exactly is his answer? a. For me he already answered the question when he said that “why should I set fire to this department store?”.” because if you do many people will die and get hurt” that is one answer. 2. Are genuine egoists rare, as Rachels claims? Is it a fact that most people care about others, even people they don’t know?

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a. I think it is rare. Most of the people now a days even those what so called selfish people don’t think of them self most of the time. There will come a time that, that person will not just think of himself anymore. 3. Suppose we define ethical altruism as the view that one should always act for the benefits of the others and never in ones own self-interest. Is such a view immoral or not? a. I think its immoral because how can you help others if you cant help your self. That’s one saying that tells us to start with our selves.

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Religion, Morality and Conscience By: John Arthur Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1 Quote: “Whatever implies contradiction does not come within the scope of divine omnipotence, because it cannot have the aspect of possibility. Hence it is more appropriate to say that such things cannot be done than that God cannot do them”Thomas Aquinas
Review: This chapter was written by John Arthur He talks about the Religion, Morality and Conscience. What do we know about morality? Does morality needs religion? Or it is just a social? In this chapter John Arthur discusses, and rejects, three ways morality has been thought to depend on religion: that without the motivation or religion people could not be expected to do the right thing; that religion is necessary to provide us guidance and teaches us what really is the right and wrong. Do we really need religion in order for us to learn what is right? I have read about the different points of view and arguments that commence in this essay and for me I think it is not. I come to think of it, why do people need religion any way? People needs to have some motivation I agree which they find in religion. These are just some of my comments that I formulated while I was reading thing essay. I have learned a lot about that’s the difference of religion, morality and conscience. That morality is everywhere. There are also some arguments that talks about morality as a social. It also teaches us that morality plays a big role in our society, that without it there would be chaos all around us. Morality is what binds us all, it is also the reason why we help others, putting our self in their position and thinking first before we act. Religion, morality and conscience are 3 words that makes us human beings.

Integrative Question: 1. Do people need religion? 2. Why do people think morality as social? 3. What Is morality? 4. What is conscience? 5. Why do we need to be moral?
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Review Questions: 1. According to Arthur, how are morality and religion different? a. Morality is built unto us since then yet some time we don’t show it most of the time. So we need religion in order for us to get motivated and improve our selves. 2. Why isn’t religion necessary for moral motivation?

a. It really depends on that person if he needs motivation or not. For example if he know that if kills it will be taken against him. If he can motivate himself to do good why need religion? 3. Why isn’t religion necessary as a source of moral knowledge?

a. Different religion had different belief yet they the common thing is they believe that there is a higher being in which they believe in, that’s why they do things or act according on what they believe. If you believe that there is someone that is more superior than you, and believe in that concept you can teach yourself what to do.

4. What is the divine command theory? Why does Arthur reject this theory?

a. In the divine command theory it is stated that God is the foundation of morality that with out him there will be no morality. Arthur doesn’t believe in this because he believes that morality is somehow human nature.

5. According to Arthur, how are morality and religion connected?

a. He believes that morality and religion somehow are connected because they teach people what is right and wrong and it enables the person to enhance those morality with the teaching of religion.

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6. Dewey says that morality is social. What does this mean, according to Arthur?

a. Arthur said that being moral needs conscience because we need to put ourselves into the shoes of others. Before we act think first what that person will feel and decide if you must do it or not. Discussion Questions: 1. Divine command theory had been there ever since. People need someone to believe in for them to do good. They also believe in the concept of when you give or do good it would be given back ten folds. Having these commandment makes us a better persons. 2. As human we have our duties to non-human because without them there will be no humans. Even if they are not like us we still need to think of them as human. 3. Ethics is about doing the right thing. Education pupils with moral ethics is a must in order for us to be more human and become less barbaric.

Utilitarianism By: John Stuart Mill Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1

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Quote: “The ingredient of happiness are very various, and each of them is desirable in itself” – John Stuart Mill
Review: John Stuart Mill is one of the most respected British philosopher. In this chapter he explains to us the what is the meaning of utilitarianism and the principle of utility. Where in he said that life has no higher end than pleasure. He also explains that Utility or happiness, considered as the directive rule of human conduct. Which means we do things because that’s what make us happy. As what Jesus of Nazareth told us “Love your neighbor as you love your self” in Mills point of view this is a good example of perfection of utilitarian morality. This points out that the happiness of an individual must be in harmony with the interest of others. He also points out that if a person wants something there are 2 ways that he could end up, he could be happy by mere possession of it, or unhappy by failure to achieve it. These philosophies can help us along as we grow up on what ever decisions we make in our daily lives. Remember that we have our own decision to make and these are just guide philosophies.

Integrative Question: 1. What is happiness? 2. Why be unhappy if you could be happy? 3. What are the 2 kinds of pleasure? 4. What is the pleasure? 5. Who is the writer of utilitarianism? Review Questions: 1. State and explain the principle of Utility? Show how it could be used to justify actions that are conventionally viewed as wrong, such as lying and stealing.

a. The principle of utility is based on the happiness of the majority. For example what will the majority thinks about stealing or lying? If the majority thinks that these two are wrong then it would be wrong.

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2. How does Mill reply to the objection that Epicureanism is a doctrine worthy only of swine?

a. He said that the highest point in a human perspective is pleasure. Then they must have done anything that would only pleasure them. That all of the things that pleasure them is right.

3. How does Mill distinguish between higher and lower pleasures?

a. Higher pleasure means that if ever you play a game that is more complex than the other then you will have a higher quality of pleasure. While in the other hand lower pleasure is like playing checkered than chess because chess is more demanding than checkers but they both have pleasure in playing it.

4. According to Mill, whose happiness must be considered?

a. Mill believed that for some persons "the need of excitement is a disease." Rather, true human happiness consists in a give and take involving both excitement and tranquility, both pleasure and pain.

5. Carefully reconstruct Mill’s proof of the principle of Utility.

a. Mill states that people love virtue only because it constitutes a part of happiness. Mill argues that happiness is not an abstract idea, but a whole with component parts. Because virtue is a part of happiness, and promotes the general happiness, utilitarianism encourages the

development of virtue. Discussion:
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1. For me happiness is both pain and pleasure. Because for me how can you know that you are happy if you haven’t felt the pain. Absence of pain is inevitable because there will come a time that one will suffer pain in his life time.

2. For me I think Mill is right about the higher pleasure. In some ways people have the nature of excitement that they feel more pleasure if there is more complexity in it.

3. For me its not. People got their own perspective and its not right to say what they must do. Lets just let them decide what they really want.

4. For me I think its effective. Come to think of it, why do we work hard all day? Why do we need to work anyway? For me we need to work hard in order for us to buy those things that we need, to eat foods that we want and other things that pleasures us. People move because they want pleasure and happiness in their lives, so this is why I think it is effective.

Trying Our Ones New Sword By: Mary Midgley Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1 Quote: “ideals like discipline and devotion will not move anybody unless he himself accepts them” – Mary Midgley
Review: In this chapter we will see how Mary Midgley explains the theory of “moral isolationism”. This explains the different morals of different cultures. She said the “we cannot criticize cultures that we do not understand”. How can

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you really explain what is immoral? If what is immoral to you is moral to them? These are just some of the questions that you will develop along the reading of this chapter. Another argument is that how can we judge them if we can’t understand their culture. That is why we need to know them first before we make opinions or judgments to their culture or heritage. It is better if we just have to make good opinions so that they can be motivated and be proud of their culture and heritage. She also points out the ancient Japanese culture of trying out one’s new sword. As what the title of this chapter is, she explains that a new katana must first be used in a human to try if it will work well, so that if used in battle they won’t fail their ancestor and the emperor. This is just one good example that Midgley explains that we cannot judge other cultures morality.

Integrative Question: 1. What is a katana? 2. What culture uses tsujigiri? 3. Why cant we judge other culture? 4. Do different culture have different morality? 5. What do we call that barrier or cultures?

Review Questions: 6. What is “moral isolationism”? a. It is forbidding us to interfere with other culture rather than where you came from because you don’t know them and how can u criticize them if your not one of them. He also said that it also forbids us to take critical position to any other culture.

7. Explain the Japanese custom of tsujigiri. What question does Midgley ask about the custom?

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a. Tsujigiri is a Japanese custom where in before using a new samurai one must 1st try it, because you must make sure that it is working properly well because if not it may injure your reputation. For us we really don’t understand these kind of things so we better not criticize it because we are not Japanese.

8. What is wrong with moral isolationism, according to Midgley? a. There are some questions about isolationism one is, if we live with them for a short period of time? Are we credible to judge them? Criticize them? Or it will take more than that to be able to do such thing?.

9. What does Midgley think is the basis for criticizing other culture? a. As Midgley said there is no close box. This only means that through out history different culture criticize each other and learn from them. Comparing their culture and others and try to adapt other things. Discussion Question: 1. For me Midgley have no right to judge one persons work because she doesn’t know the culture for which that person grew. Each has its own opinions, but if ever you will make opinion on others work its better if it would be positive so that there will be no conflicts.

2. For me it is unreal. This may be applicable before during the time of ancient Japan. But now a days there has been what we so called globalization. Other culture mixed with other culture and there for have the right to make an opinion on both sides. Other is there has been some standards that had been set for us to follow, that’s why it would be unreal not to criticize other culture.

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The Need For More Than Justice By: Annette Baier Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1 Quote: “The best moral theory is the one that best harmonizes justice and care”
Review: In this chapter Baier criticize the works of Rawls, Kant and Gilligan. She stated that justice alone is not morally correct. She also stated that care alone is not evident specially when it is just an option. She thinks that justice and care must be together in order to formulate the right theory. She said that care being an option is not enough. She also explains the importance of relationships specially child-parent relationship where in justice is set aside and emotions arise.

Integrative Question: 1. Distinguish between the justice and care perspectives. According to Gilligan, how do these perspectives develop? a. Baier thinks that care and justice must be united. She thinks that justice is inadequate as a moral theory as what is stated by Kant and Rawls. Also the care perspective of Gilligan. She thinks that they overlooked the inequalities between peoples relationship and set aside some emotions such as love. Baier thinks that the best moral theory is the one that harmonize justice and care.

2. Explain Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. What criticism do Giligan and Baier make of this theory? a. There are 3 stages according to Kohlberg. The first one is the preconventional, which you try to please others. The second one is the
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conventional where in you are already knowing the rules and standards and try to follow them. The last one is the post-conventional where in they tend to challenge or test the rules and standards they follow. Baier criticize the Gilligan for putting the care as an option and not set as the minimum. 3. Baier says there are three important differences between Kantian liberals and their critics. What are these differences? a. The difference are the relative weight put on relationships between equals, the relative weight put on freedom of choice, and on the authority of intellect over emotions. 4. Why does Baier attack the Kantian view that the reason should control unruly passions? a. There are some instances that love overcomes reason like in parenthood. Can a parent be just? If for example his son did something wrong and must be punished. As a father it will be just fine because he is your son and you love him. Discussion: 1. It simply means to use the concept of patriarchals to defend the marginalized people. New values replace the old ones but it does not necessarily mean that we are to abandon the old values of justice, freedom, and rights

2. The thing that is wrong with the Kantian view is that it considers women and minorities as ineligible to draft legislations and to vote.

3. Freedom of choice is very important because it is the essence of being a human, having free will and to be able to decide for our own being.

The Debate Over Utilitarianism

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By: James Rachelle Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1 Quote: “the woman who worked harder has a superior claim to the promotion, not because it promotes the general welfare for her to get it but because she has earned it” – James Rachelle
Review: In this chapter James Rachelle shows us the debate of the anti utilitarianism and the utilitarianism. We will also see how each side defend its own believes and how they explain their points of views. Rachelle believes in utilitarianism but he thinks that it needs modifications. So many philosophers argue with this kind of philosophy some even want this philosophy to be erased. Also in this chapter we will know the difference between hedonism and utilitarianism. How can we apply it in present situation and how your action is affected by it. There are also some arguments that makes utilitarianism very vulnerable in some situation testing if there philosophy is really the right thing to do. Rachels also explains the addition of merits to utilitarian. That hard work should have corresponding merits. There are so much in this chapter that you will know about the pros and cons of each arguments. Every arguments have special corresponding answers and conclusion.

Integrative Question: 1. What is justice? 2. What is rights? 3. Are promises an obligation? 4. How can you weight in a situation? 5. What is merits? Review Questions:

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1. Rachels says that classical utilitarianism can be summed up in three propositions. What are they? a. 1st, actions are to be judged right or wrong solely in virtue of their consequences. b. 2nd, in assessing consequences, the only thing that matters is the amount of happiness or unhappiness that is caused c. 3rd, in calculating the happiness or unhappiness that will be caused, no one’s happiness is to be counted as more important than anyone else’s.

2. Explain the problem with hedonism. How do defenders of utilitarianism respond to this problem?

a. Hedonism misunderstands the nature of happiness. Happiness is not something that is recognized as good and sought for its own sake .Right actions, it says are the ones that produce the most good. But what is good? The classical utilitarian reply is; one thing, and one thing only, namely happiness.

3. What are the objection about justice, rights and promises? a. Justice – what if lying is the right thing to do?(in a utilitarian point of view)will you do it? b. Rights – What if you violate ones rights?(in a utilitarian point of view the majority is right and in this case their had been only one unhappy person and 2 happy person. So is this the right thing to do?) c. Promises – what if you promised your friend to meet in a particular place at a particular time, but you still have work to do. What will you do? In a

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utilitarian point of view what if doing the work will make him more happy? Will you still meet him or not?

4. Distinguish between rule and act utilitarianism. How does rule-utilitarianism reply to the objections?

a. For rule utilitarianism, the correctness of a rule is determined by the amount of good it brings about when followed. In contrast, act utilitarianism judge actions in terms of the goodness of their

consequences without reference to rules of action.

5. What is the third line of defense?

a. A small group of contemporary utilitarian has had a very different response to the anti-utilitarian arguments point out that the classical theory is at odds with ordinary notions of justice, individual rights, and so on; to this, their response is essentially “so what”

Discussion Questions: 1. For me it in no because moral beliefs as an individual had a root, and there are many reasons why we believe such thing. Every individual has its own view point of utilitarianism and he also got his own point. We should respect what ever moral belief every have. 2. 1st of all we must consider non-human animals. We have been given this gift to think and to care about others not only us human but also those non-human. We have duties that we must consider in order to live.

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3. Yes I do. I believe that merits must be given consideration because it tend to sum up the hard work that an individual has done and it must be given consideration.

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The categorical imperative By: Immanuel Kant Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1 Quote: “Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law”
Review: Immanuel Kant is a German philosophers and one of the most important philosopher of all time. Kant believes that our moral duty can be formulated in one supreme rule, which is the categorical imperative, from which all our duties can be derived. In this chapter Kant talks about “The good will” and “Duty”. The good will is doing something even if there is nothing in return. While the duty is doing something that must be done because it is a must. You will also learn different points of view and different versions of categorical imperative. What are its advantage and disadvantages and why must we follow that kind of setting. You also learn the meaning of self love which leads to some arguments about it. Different scenarios will also show you how people seem to look at that perspective and see what is the law of nature is all about.

Integrative Question: 1. What is categorical imperative? 2. What is Duty? 3. Is good will the same as duty? 4. What is the difference of Duty and Good Will? 5. What is Self Love? Review Questions: 1. Explain Kant’s account of the good will

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a. Good will is to conceive anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be taken as good without qualification. It is also considered to be the only rule but many versions. They also constitute to the inner worth of the person.

2. Distinguish between hypothetical and categorical imperatives.

a. A hypothetical imperative compels action in a given circumstance: if I wish to quench my thirst, I must drink something. A categorical imperative, on the other hand, denotes an absolute, unconditional requirement that asserts its authority in all circumstances, both required and justified as an end in itself

3. State the first formulation of the categorical imperative and explain how Kant uses this rule to derive some specific duties toward self and others.

a. Kant concludes that a moral proposition that is true must be one that is not tied to any particular conditions, including the identity of the person making the moral deliberation. A moral maxim must have universality, which is to say that it must be disconnected from the particular physical details surrounding the proposition, and could be applied to any rational being. This leads to the first formulation of the categorical imperative

4. State the second version of the categorical imperative, explain it.

a. Kant derives the second version from the first one. He concluded that every rational action must set before itself not only a principle, but also an end. The free will is the source of all rational action. But to treat it as a subjective end is to deny the possibility of freedom in general. Discussion Questions:

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1. For me they are both different because the 1st imperative talks only about self love. While the second imperative, talks about self love but with additional questions like “is it right?”. For me the second is better because it adds conscience in it, where you do it or not the most important thing is you come to think what is really the right thing. 2. I really don’t agree because what if your self interest is for others and you don’t have duties for them then it is not moral. Duties are like laws we must do because it is our obligation. It is not right to say that when you do something that have nothing to do with the motive of duty then it will have no moral worth.

3. For me I think it is a good criticism, because Kant did not explain well the limitations of self love. Every person believes in different thing, what if you found out that you are sick and have no possibility that you will survive so for the sake of self-love then you will commit suicide. This is something that is not right. So I think it is a good criticism.

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Taking Rights Seriously By: Ronald Dworkin Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1 Quote: “if a person have the rights to do something and it is wrong to interfere with them”
Review: In this chapter Ronald Dworkin talks about the rights of a person but in a strong sense, which means it is “ a must”. We will also learn about the rights of a person and laws of the government. On how to exercise these rights and how can there be harmony between the rights of a person and the law of the government. Dworkin also talks about the two kinds of rights. One is the moral rights where in it is about the conscience and religious beliefs. The other one is about the legal rights that are made by the law makers the a person must follow. Dworkin also talks about the two forms of government and what are their advantage and disadvantages. There are also some good examples of rights like the rights of freedom of speech, where in there are some arguments whether the government have the right to stop it or not.

Integrative Question: 1. What is Freedom of speech? 2. What is a government? 3. What is moral rights? 4. What is legal rights? 5. Who make the law? Review Questions: 1. What does Dworkin mean by right in the strong sense? What rights in the sense are protected by the U.S Constitution?
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a. The government don’t have the right to interfere against the right of the other. For example the government don’t have the right to interfere against someone who is talking because there is what is so called freedom of speech except if it is against another rights.

2. Distinguish between legal and moral rights. Give examples of legal rights that are not moral and moral that are not legal.

a. Legal rights are those rights that are written in the constitution and there for we must follow it. While the moral rights are our rights that are not written. For example honor your mother and your father. This is for us Christians is a moral rights but there is no law regarding that you must honor your mother and you father Another example is trespassing. There is a law which tells us that trespassing is a crime. But in morality there is no such thing as trespassing.

3. What are the two models of how a government might define the rights of its citizens? Which does Dworkin find more attractive?

a. The model talks about the balance between public interest and personal interest. Which for Dworkin opinion is false. While the second model talks about the political equality. Which talks about every person even if he is weak must have the same respect and concern like those powerful members.

4. According to Dworkin, what two important ideas are behind the institution of rights?

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a. The first one is about the individual rights on the person. Where in it tells us that each of us is as important as the other person because each of us have the same rights. Another one is the majority rights, where in we must look at a bigger picture of the situation where in the majority must be followed. Discussion Questions: 1. Yes, a person can break the law if it is against his rights. One good example is during the time of EDSA people power. People are violating the law because they think that the law is violating their rights. 2. In some ways it is compatible because of the majority aspect of both utilitarianism and the rights. Both are based on the majority of the people. 3. For me it is yes because according to Kant you must do the right thing and invoke some conscience in doing it. it like the rights of a person, if that particular person thinks that what he is doing is the right thing then he must do it.

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Master and Slave Morality By: Friedrich Nietzsche Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1 Quote: “He who has not a hard heart when young, will never have one” – Friedrich Nietzsche

Review:
This chapter was written by Friedrich Nietzsche(1844-1900). He was a German philosopher and poet who is often viewed as a source of modern existentialism and deconstructionism. In this chapter the author is trying to defend about the Master and Slave morality where in the “Master” or the superior individual must exercise its “will to power”. This kind of mentality is present during the ancient days of kings and queens. During those times there are just 2 kinds of people, the master and those who are slaves. This kind of mentality is still present now a day but not as brutal as before. Now the masters that he talks about are those company owners or people that have the power. While I was reading this chapter I come to think of it. Why do we really need to be fair with one another if we got power or money? But why do people let themselves to be slaves? There are arguments distracting my mind while reading this essay. There had been so many conflicts. As I go along the paragraphs in the essay I learned the different views and opinions of the author and those arguments or why and why not? I also discover that being the master does not mean that you have to be arrogant to your slaves. Being a master comes the responsibilities and duties of morality. As what they always say, in every part of our society there must be morality.

Integrative Question: 1. What is will to power? 2. Where do Friedrich Nietzsche live? 3. What are the 2 kinds of people according to Friedrich? 4. What part of the society are the master? 5. What part of the society are the slaves? Review Questions:
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1. How does Nietzsche characterize a good and healthy society?

a. He said that a good and healthy society must exercise the master morality for the rich and powerful and the slave morality for those who are weak and poor. 2. What is Nietzsche’s view of injury, violence and exploitation?

a. Nietzsche said that injury, violence and exploitation are the fundamental principle of society. He also said that these are standard of life and every one must learn how to deal with it.

3. Distinguish between master morality and slave morality. a. He said that there are certain standard when dealing with “master morality” and also in “slave morality”. When you are a superior person you have to act as master there for learn to be more charismatic and learn how to handle those people under you. When you are a inferior person learn how to follow commands and be more down to earth.

4. Explain the will to power?

a. The will to power is that every specific body strives to become master of all but you will encounter other people with the same philosophy and unites to gain more power.

Discussion Questions :

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1. For me his philosophy is justified as Nazism. He thinks of will of power all of the time and for him he there are 2 kinds of people those who are superior and inferior. As Christians all of us must have the same rights provided by law so that all of the people can have a life 2. A creator of a "master morality" that reflects the strength and independence of one who is liberated from all values, except those that he deems valid.

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Happiness and Virtue By: Aristotle Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1 Quote: “”
Review:

Integrative Question:

1. What is happiness, according to Aristotle? How is it related to virtue? How is it related to pleasure? a. Happiness for Aristotle is somehow not for honor, pleasure or anything else but for the sake of itself. We are doing such things for the sake of our own happiness. Happiness and virtue makes no big difference. We make such things even if we know that it will make no good. Just for the “its sake”. Pleasure is somehow connected to happiness in the sense of satisfying our self. Conflicts occurs because sometimes it is just not by nature pleasant but as an adventure charm,

2. How does Aristotle explain moral virtue? Give some examples. a. The moral virtue is a mean and in what sense it is so, and that it is a mean between two vices, the one involving excess, and the other as a deficiency, and that is such because its characteristic is to aim at what is intermediate in passions and in actions, has been sufficiently stated. A person with the virtue of obedience. People seem to be obedience because they know that there will some consequence in a way of failure if

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they did not do it. It is up to them how will they accept the fact that they failed.

3. Is it possible for everyone in our society to be happy, as Aristotle explains it? If not, who cannot be happy? a. As my understanding, it is possible that all people is happy but if we will include the creatures or creation by God then I do not think so it is possible that all creatures will be happy. In the reading, it states that “by the fact that the other animals have no share in happiness, being completely deprived of such activity. I think those creatures by God that incapable of the virtuous activities are those who cannot be happy.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1 . A life of pleasure is irresistible yet many consequences. For example if you haven’t felt the pain and failure. how can you be able to get thru those kind of obstacles. We as human must feel not just pleasure but also failure. that’s why we are called human being because we have the power to think and to act accordingly to what is needed. 2. I don’t agree, they can’t say that they have more knowledge that they are happier than anyone else. Many people have different opinions about happiness and different ways how to become happy. Most philosophers view it that the more you know the happier you will be. For me it is not like, because for me happiness have different criteria and to be happy you must have those different criteria and there for you will be happy.

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A Theory of Justice By: John Rawls Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1 Quote: “injustice, then, is simply inequalities that are not to the benefit of all”
Review: In this chapter John Rawls talks about justice and its 2 basic principle. Rawls bring up some arguments that need intellectual thinking and justification. The 1 one is about the equal liberties of all. This means that we must have the same rights and is just if we don’t interfere with the rights of others. Rawls made an example of freedom of speech, this right must be practice by all of us but there are some instances that before we practice we must 1 ask permission because we may be interfering with others. The 2
nd st st

principle is the inequality when it comes to politics and

business. For me this is eminent in our society today. For example in the military there is what you call chain of command. Come to think of it how can we be equal if there are people above us? For me we need this in order to lead us in the right way, and it is also stated that this is valid if it is for our advantage.

Integrative Question: 1. What for you is the meaning of justice? 2. What is the meaning of equal liberties? 3. Is freedom of speech part of our liberties? 4. If we are equal then why is there such thing as chain of command? 5. What will be our limitation in what you so called equal liberties? Review Questions: 1. Carefully explain Rawls’ conception of the origin position? a. The origin of position as Rawl explains is the hypothetical condition wherein the citizens of in that world is under the veil of ignorance, they

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have no idea of their skills, intellect, and social status. He used this origin of position to explain how justice as fairness could be achieved. 2. State and explain Rawls’ first principle of justice. a. The 1st principle explains about the equal basic liberties. Which means equal in rights for example right to vote, freedom of speech and other things that ever person must have. The first principle also explains that fairness is a must in our society. 3. State and explain the second principle. Which principle has priority such that it cannot be sacrificed? a. The 2nd principle explains about the arrangement of social and economical inequalities. Which means there are some instances that inequality is evident for example is the chain of command, authority etch. But Rawls’ explain that inequality is just if it is for the benefit of all. For example is the authority, if there are no authorities who will prevent you from doing wrong then I think it will be chaotic. Discussion: 1. On the first principle there are limitations and some of this are the rules imposed by our government and our religion. One good example is engaging in homosexual activities, in other countries that religion is not that important to them homosexual activities are just fine. There are even places where same sex marriage are not a violation. While for those using drugs, maybe you are using it in your very homes in some private places but if you will view it in a bigger picture it can affect the community in a big way. Such examples are those pregnant women that are addictive to drugs, they don’t think anymore the most important thing for them is to take some dosage. What if all of us are like that then there will be chaos.

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The Nature and Value of Rights By: Joel Fienberg Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1 Quote: “all duties are correlated with the rights of those to whom the duty is owed”
Review: In this chapter Feinberg wants us to imagine a placed named Nowheresville where non of us has a right. There is no rights to violate because there is non. So Feinberg wants us to imagine a place where in there is no limit on what you can do to a particular person because there is nothing to stop you. Just imagine how inconvenience and violence that world can be. Feinberg wants us to learn the importance of rights to out daily lives and what are their limitations. He also wants us to reflect on the morality of some particular situations because along the way. Feinberg will add piece by piece some duties, rights and the presence of God. This is a good experiment because you can really reflect on the situation and ask your self. What if?

Integrative Question: 1. What is Nowheresville? 2. What is rights? 3. Who is the author of The nature and value of rights? 4. What are duties? 5. What is the difference of Duties and rights?

Review Questions: 1. Describe Nowheresville. How is this world different from our world?

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a. It is a place where in there are no rights. It is a world where in every one can’t justify themselves because they’ve got no right to lean on. It is an ugly place to live in. this is the complete opposite of our world. Without rights people seem to abuse their power and go over the moral obligation.

2. Explain the doctrine of the logical correlativity of rights and duties. What is Feinberg’s position on this doctrine?

a. This is the doctrine that all duties entail other peoples rights and all rights entail other peoples duties. Only the first part of the doctrine, the alleged entailment from duties to rights, need concern us here. Feinberg tend to believe that in some sense yes and some no. He further explain that duty comes from the word due which means. That it simply tells us that we must do it. He told us that all duties are correlated with the rights of those to whom the duty is owed.

3. How does Feinberg explain the concept of personal desert? How would personal desert work in Nowheresville? a. To deserve something good is for there to be “a certain propriety” in your receiving it, a propriety based either on the kind of person you are or on some specific thing that you’ve done. This sort of “propriety” is “a kind of fittingness between one party’s character or action and another party’s favorable response, much like that between humor and laughter, or good performance and applause.

4. Explain the sovereign right-monopoly. How would this work in nowheresville?

a. In order to escape the state of nature, men make a covenant among themselves to transfer their right of nature to a single entity who will thereby have the legitimate authority to enforce covenants. This will be
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like dictatorship where in all the powers will be put upon one person only. The outcome will depends on how that person will lead them.

5. What are claim-rights? Why does Feinberg think they are morally important?

a. To have a right is to have a claim against someone whose recognition as valid is called for by some set of governing rules or moral principles. To have a claim in turn, is to have a case meriting consideration, that is, to have reasons or grounds that put one in a position to engage in formative and propositional claiming. Discussion questions: 1. Yes because he made a realistic approach by making an imaginary world where in at first there are no rights and there for no justice. After he added different duties and different rights and see how the community will be. This is one good way of experimenting how people will act depending on what rights are there.

2. The activity of claiming, finally, as much as any other thing, makes for selfrespect and respect for others, and gives a sense to the notion of personal dignity

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Source
White, J. E. CONTEMPORARY MORAL PROBLEMS (SEVENTH EDITION).

Amazon.com:http://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Moral-Problems-JamesWhite/dp/0534584306/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1233793391&sr=8-1

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