Topics for Learning Objectives

1. The supreme present of militarism, "arms race", in this period of time gave all countries great reason to feel the heavy weight of an oncoming war. Great Britain and Germany were distrustful of one another and attempted to keep their military might as powerful as possible. This led to an arms race, which made the impending war seem inevitable. The greatest problem with this was that there was a fear that "some chief of staff, in order to maintain the schedule on his 'timetable', might force an order of mobilization and thus precipitate war. On June 28, 1914, the Black Hand, a Bosnian revolutionary, assassinated the heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke Francis Ferdinand. As a form of retaliation, Austria decided to end the South Slav separatism, and issued an ultimatum: Austrian officials must be allowed to collaborate in the investigation and punishment of the assassinators. Austria, with the support of Germany, then declared war against the Serbs, since they had refused the ultimatum. Nationalist feelings were strong in both Germany and France. Germans were proud of their new empire’s military power and industrial leadership. France longed to regain its position as Europe’s leading power. The French were especially bitter about their 1871 defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and the German occupation of the border provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. Patriotic French citizens yearned for revenge against Germany and to recover the “lost provinces 2. Battle of Marne- began the use of trenches. The French stopped the German invasion. Prevented fall of Paris Battle of Somme- Over 1 million lives lost. 1,400,000 casualties. Demoralized both sides. 1st use of flamethrower. Battle of Verdun- Allies drew Germans away from Verdun. . 1st use of tanks. Tactics more advanced. Battle of St Mihiel- First battle using exclusively American troops with American commanders. Hindenburg Line- Allies defeat the Central Powers. 3. The growing demand for munitions, men and machinery forced governments to intervene more and more in the management of the economy and the lives of the citizens. Early on, both sides set up systems to recruit, arm, transport, and supply armies that numbered in the millions. All of those nations, except for Britain, set up a

draft to have a system of forced labor in the armed forces. Governments raised taxes and burrowed huge amounts of money to pay the costs of the war. They rationed food and other products, from boots to gasoline. Both sides controlled public opinion, and to do this, they censored the press. Their goal was to keep complete casualty figures and other discouraging new from reaching the people. Both sides waged a propaganda war, where they spread ideas to promote a cause or damage the opposing cause. When stories were made to make the opposing side look bad, often they were highly exaggerated or made up completely. Women played a critical role in total war. As millions of men left to fight, women took over their jobs and kept national economies going. Many women worked in war industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies. Others joined branches of the armed forces. The Great war was named a total war because countries from all over the world were involved in the conflict. A “arms race spread throughout the world.” WWI is considered a modern war since the war brought about modern tactics, the use of more modern weapons and vehicles like tanks and airplanes with bombs and the Maxim gun. The use of flamethrowers and trench warfare also was brought up. 4. The Big Four were the countries that were there to discuss the Treaty of Versailles the countries were the United States, United Kingdom, France and Italy. The countries were represented by Woodrow Wilson(United States), David Lloyd George (United Kingdom), Georges Clemenceau (France), and Vittorio Orlando (Italy). Woodrow Wilson believed in a League of Nations and self-determination. He believed he could achieve peace without war. David Lloyd George was one of the allied leaders at the Paris Peace Conference and the British prime minister. He knew his people demanded harsh treatment for Germany. He promised to build a postwar “fit for heroes.” Geroges Clemenceau was One of the allied leaders at the Paris Peace Conference. He was also the French leader. He was nicknames “the Tiger” for his fierce anti-German policy. His chief goal was to weaken Germany so that it could never again threaten France. The Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando insisted that the allies honor their secret agreement to give Italy lands that were once ruled by Austria-Hungary. Such secret agreements violated Wilson’s principle of self-determination. WWI led to the elimination of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and fall of the Russian Empire and establishment of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia.


1. Pacifism- opposition to war at all 2. Pan-Slavism- the principle or advocacy of the union of all Slavs or all Slavic peoples in one political organization; a Russian sponsored powerful form on nationalism. It held a common nationality for all Slavic peoples. 3. Ultimatum- final set of demands. 4. Archbishop Francis Ferdinand- the Archbishop of Austria-Hungry who was assassinated in Serbia on June 28, 1914. 5. Emperor Joseph Francis - an 18 year old who inherited the Hapsburg throne. He ruled until 1816 over the empire that ended around the times of World War I. Joseph realized that he needed to strengthen his empire after his loss to France and Sardinia in 1859. He granted a new constitution that set up a legislature. The German-speaking Austrians dominated the legislature and therefore the other national groups were still angered. 6. Western Front- the zone of fighting in western Europe in World War I, in which the German army engaged their armies. 7. Zeppelin- large gas-filled balloons; a large German dirigible airship of the early 20th century, long and cylindrical in shape and with a rigid framework. Zeppelins were used during World War I for reconnaissance and bombing, and after the war as passenger transports until the 1930s. 8. Global War/Modern War9. Battle of Verdun- (Verdun is 120 miles east of Paris) Feb 21- Dec 18, 1916. The battle demoralized both sides. It was the first extensive use of the flamethrower. There were over one million casualties. 10. Tannenberg- In August 1914, Russia suffered one of the worst losses of the war causing them to retreat back to Russia. After Tannenberg armies in the east fought on Russian soil and as the least industrialized of the great powers, Russia was poorly equipped to fight a modern war. 11. Conscription- or “the draft,” required all young men to be ready for military or other service; Compulsory enlistment for state service, typically into the armed forces. 12. Armistice- agreement to end fighting; an agreement made by opposing sides in a war to stop fighting for a certain time; a truce.

13. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- the treaty Lenin of Russia signed with Germany that ended Russia participation in WWI 14. Fourteen Points- Wilson hoped to still be a peacemaker although he had failed at staying neutral. In January 1918 he issued the Fourteen Points, which was a list of his terms for resolving this and future wars. He called for freedom of the seas, free trade, large-scale reduction of arms, and an end to secret treaties. 15. Zimmerman Telegram- sent Jan 1917 by the German Foreign secretary. It proposed a German-Mexican alliance against the US. The telegram was intercepted by the British and made public. It added to the American public desire to enter the war. 16. Collective Security- the cooperation of several countries in an alliance to strengthen the security of each; a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve all peace 17. Treaty of Versailles- a treaty signed in 1919 that brought a formal end to World War. The treaty re-divided the territory of the defeated Central Powers, restricted Germany's armed forces, and established the League of Nations. It left Germany smarting under what it considered a vindictive settlement while not sufficiently restricting its ability eventually to rearm and seek forcible redress; the Germans were forced to sign a treaty by the Allies. The treaty forced the Germans to assume full blame for the war. Also the total cost of German reparations was over $30 billion dollars. 18. Georges Clemenceau- French statesman, prime minister 1906–09 and 1917–20. At the Versailles peace talks he pushed hard for a punitive settlement with Germany, but failed to obtain all that he demanded; the French leader and one of The Big Three. His main goal was to weaken Germany so that it would never again threaten France. 19. Battle of St. Mihiel- (French/German border) Sept. 12-13, 1918. 1st battle using exclusively American troops under American commanders. 20. Sykes-Picot Agreement21. Militarism- the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests; the glorification of the military. 22. Central Powers- the alliance of Germany, Austria–Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria. 23. Imperialism- a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force. 24. Mobilization- preparing army forces for war.

25. Tsar Nicholas II26. Schlieffen Plan- plan developed by German General Alfred von Schlieffen. The plan was to quickly defeat France then go and defeat Russia. The plan required a march through Belgium and when they stormed in, angry European powers that had signed a treaty to keep Belgium neutral were outraged and Britain and Belgium declared war on Germany. 27. Stalemate- deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other 28. U-boat- a German submarine used in World War I. 29. Battle of Marne- (river east of Paris) Sept. 5-9, 1914. Stopped the German’s rapid advance and prevented the fall of Paris and set the stage for trench warfare. (the French had no camo because they were wearing the tri-color. 30. Gallipoli- Turkish troops tied down Allies on the beaches. After 10 months and more than 200,000 casualties, the Allies withdrew from Dardanelles; a major campaign of World War I that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula, on the European side of the Dardanelles in 1915–16. The Allies (with heavy involvement of troops from Australia and New Zealand) hoped to gain control of the strait, but the campaign reached stalemate after each side suffered heavy casualties. 31. Caporetto- a major offensive launched by Austria and Germany against Italy. The Italians were forced to retreat but later Britain and France helped stop the Central Powers advance into Italy. Still Caporetto proved disastrous for Italy. 32. Propaganda- the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or demote an opposing cause. 33. Atrocities- an extremely wicked or cruel act, typically one involving physical violence or injury; horrible acts against innocent people. 34. Role of Women- as men left for war, women took ever their jobs and kept the national economies going. Nurses, like soldiers, had the dangerous job of working at aid stations close to the front line. The war gave women a new sense of pride and confidence. Although most women had to give up their jobs once men returned, they still challenged the idea that women couldn't do a lot work. 35. League of Nations- an association of countries established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles to promote international cooperation and achieve international peace and security. It was powerless to stop Italian, German, and Japanese expansionism leading to World War II and was replaced by the United Nations in 1945; one of Wilson’s dreams was to create the League of Nations, which would be base off of collective security. With the league in place Wilson felt sure any mistakes made in Paris could be corrected.

36. Pandemic- (of a disease) prevalent over a whole country or the world; spread of disease across an entire country. 37. Mandate- territories administered by western powers 38. Big Three/Big Four- leaders of the Paris Peace Conference. The three leaders were Woodrow Wilson, David Lloyd George, and Georges Clemenceau. 39. Hindenburg Line- a German fortified line of defense on the Western Front to which Paul von Hindenburg directed retreat and which was not breached until near the end of the war. 40. Balfour Declaration41. Entente- a nonbinding agreement to follow common policies 42. Allies- Russia and France singed an entente that led to close military and diplomatic ties. Later Britain signed a similar treaty with Russia. These powers became known as the Allies. 43. Neutrality- policy of supporting neither side in a war. 44. Kaiser William II- leader of Germany who stepped down following advice from German commanders because of uprisings in 1918. 45. Gravilo Princip- assassinator of the Archbishop and his wife on June 28, 1914. 46. “No man’s Land”- disputed ground, as between the front lines or trenches of two opposing armies 47. Trench Warfare- a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other. 48. Battle of Somme- an Allies’ offensive at the Somme River. In one day 60,000 British were killed or wounded. Over one million soldiers were killed and neither side gained an advantage. 49. T.E. Lawrence- later known as Lawrence of Arabia supported the Arab revolt. 50. Total War- a war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, esp. one in which the laws of war are disregarded; the channeling of a nation’s entire resources into war efforts. 51. Self-Determination- the process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government; the right of people to choose their own form of government. 52. Russian Revolution- the revolution in the Russian empire in 1917, in which the tsarist regime was overthrown and replaced by Bolshevik rule under Lenin.

53. Woodrow Wilson- 28th president of the U.S. 1913–21. A Democrat, he eventually took the U.S. into World War I in 1917 and later played a leading role in the peace negotiations and the formation of the League of Nations. 54. Luistania- British ship attacked by a German submarine in May 1915. The attack killed almost 1,200 passengers, 128 of which were American. The Germans tried to justify their attack by saying the ship was carrying weapons. The stack started some negotiations that ended with Germans announcing they were going to continue unrestricted submarine attacks. Wilson denounced Germany. 55. Reparations- the making of amends for a wrong one has done, by paying money to or otherwise helping those who have been wronged; payments for war damage 56. Paris Peace Conference- The three leaders of the Paris Peace Conference were President Woodrow Wilson of America, David Lloyd George, the British prime minister, and the French Georges Clemenceau. The issues that faced the conference were; the Allies honor their secret agreement to Italy lands that were once ruled by Austria-Hungry, people ruled by Russia, Austria-Hungry, or the Ottomans demanded national states of their own. On many points Wilson had to compromise with his Fourteen Points but he stood firm on the fact that he wanted to create an international League of Nations. 57. David Lloyd George- British prime minister and one of The Big Three. He knew that his people wanted harsh treatment for Germany and promised to build a Britain “fit for heroes.” 58. Shell Shock- psychological disturbance caused by prolonged exposure to active warfare, esp. being under bombardment.

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